Sonoma County




The early history of the city of Sonoma is the history of the county. It is inseparably connected with the stirring events which led to the occupation of this State by the Americans. For a long time it was a place of the first importance. Here General Percifer Smith made his headquarters. Captain, afterwards General, Lyon, Lieutenant, afterwards General Stoneman, General Leonard, General Hooker, and the inimitable Lieutenant Derby, were all former residents of Sonoma. Its society was polished and intellectual, and could the unwritten records of the old town be brought to light, it would in itself make up a volume of extraordinary interest.

Though surrounded by an intelligent and wealthy population, the town has not flourished, as has been elsewhere stated in this sketch. It has, however, good schools, a bank, several large wine manufactories, four large stores--two of which are kept respectively by the pioneers, Pauli Brothers and J. Poppe. The old mission church still stands, and there are besides several other churches. It has good hotels, an I.O.O.F. and Masonic lodge. General M.G. Vallejo, the distinguished ex-commandant general of California under the preceding regime, resides at his elegant home, Lachryma Montis, on the edge of the town. All honor to the gallant general, who was at the cradling of Sonoma in 1835. All honor to the pioneers who raised the Bear flag on the plaza of Sonoma, and all honor to the ever-memorable old town which was the scene of the first in the series of events which led to the acquisition by the United States of the fairest of the sisterhood of States, with its rich dower of valley land yielding one hundred fold, and uplands eager for the tap of the ab- sorbing vine, and mountains rich in gold as the hills of Ophir.




The Sonoma Bulletin,--Sonoma county made a clever start in its newspaper history. The Sonoma Bulletin was established in the town of Sonoma in 1850 by A.J. Cox. It was a very lively sheet for several years, and would have done credit to a much later period in the history of the State. Contributions from the inimitable Derby and other army officers stationed at Sonoma, were not infrequent in its columns.

The paper was continued at intervals up to 1855, when the editor, in a characteristic notice in the Petaluma Journal of September 15, 1855, announces its final demise as follows: "Hon. Q. Smikes wishes to return his thanks to the editorial fraternity for the kind notices of his debut, and to the public generally (the rest of mankind included) for their liberal patronage, and to announce that the Blunderbuss has dried up." Of Mr. Cox's newspaper experience still more will be said hereafter.




This, as its name implies, is the landing-place or embarcadero on Sonoma creek, at the head of navigation. Here supplies for the town and valley are received. In former times, when it was thought that Sonoma might become a town of importance, it was christened St. Louis, but it never reached the importance anticipated by its sponsors, and is, to-day, only the landing and shipping point for the town and valley of Sonoma, by a steamer which plies regularly between the landing and San Francisco.




This is a post-office midway between Santa Rosa and the town of Sonoma; Captain Justi is postmaster. It is only a mail station, but is surrounded by some of the most experienced vine-growers in the county,--among them Colonel C.V. Stuart, whose handsome residence is the seat of a liberal hospitality. His vineyard cannot be surpassed for careful culture and its varieties of foreign and domestic vines. Here there is also the residence of the Hon. J. B. Warfield, one of the most successful vineculturalists of Sonoma. There are many other large vineyard proprietors in this neighborhood, who names we have not the space to mention. A radius of six miles, with Glen Ellen for a center, would, in the opinion of many, include the finest grape-growing section in the State of California.




This place is situated in Knight's valley, at the foot of St. Helena mountain. The Knight's Valley House is kept by E. Ewing, as a place of summer resort. It is not surpassed for beauty of scenery, salubrity of climate, and solid comforts, by any place of the kind in this State.

The Steele Brothers are the owners of the Knight's Valley ranch, which includes about seven thousand acres, upon which the Knight's Valley House stands. Next, adjoining them, is the fine estate of Calvin Holmes, a portion of the original Rancho de Mallacomes, which formerly included the whole of Knight's valley. The fine farm of George Hood, Esq., of Santa Rosa, lies near Kellogg, and was also formerly a portion of the Knight's Valley tract.




This is a station between Kellogg and Calistoga, named after, and owned by Clark Foss, the driver of the stage to the geysers. It is a hostelrie, and is furnished with every convenience and elegance which the most fastidious could ask. There is a post-office here, and it is near the line dividing Napa and Sonoma counties, in what is known, and marked on the map, as Knight's valley.




This place is located on Petaluma creek, about eight miles below the town of Petaluma. It is the present terminus of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad; the cars at this point connect with the swift and elegant steamer James M. Donahue for San Francisco. From Donahue to San Francisco, across the bay, the distance is twenty-five miles,--the steamer makes it in an hour and a-half. The town is called after Colonel James M. Donahue, the enterprising builder and principal owner of the railroad. Here the machine-shops of the company are located. The place has no importance other than is derived from the fact that the transfer of passengers and freight from cars to steamer, or visa versa, is here made.

Within this year the railroad will be extended to a point on the west side of the bay, within half an hour's ferriage of San Francisco. In that event it is more than probably the cars will cross Petaluma creek over a draw-bridge, at or near the town of Donahue. There is a hotel, post-office, &c, at this place, and it is surrounded by rich farming and dairy country. The fine farm of J. R. Rose,--for many years president of the Sonoma and Marin Agricultural Society and a pioneer breeder of thorough-bred Devonshire cattle is situated a few miles below Donahue.




This place is situated on Petaluma creek, a short distance above Donahue. Prior to the railroad era this was a landing-place, where the passengers for the valley of Sonoma were transferred to a regular stage-line for that point. The stage still runs to Lakeville, connecting with the regular morning and evening trains. From Petaluma creek at Lakeville to Sonoma valley, the distance is about seven miles over rolling hills. The town of Lakeville has no importance except such as is given it as a point of transfer for freight and passengers from the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad trains for Sonoma. The road from Lakeville over the mountain, between Petaluma and Sonoma creeks, passes the former Lake Tolay,--of which Padre Altimira, in his mission-founding expedition in 1823, said: "We found on said hillock, a little further on, the large lake of Tolay,--so-called after the chief of the Indians, who in former times settled there. Its width at some parts is, with little difference, one hundred and fifty varas,*--at others two hundred varas, and at one point one-fourth of a league, which is also its length." This lake, from which Lakeville was named, was drained by its present owner (a utilitarian), and is now a potato patch.



*A vara is thirty-three inches and one-third of an inch.




We have heard it asserted that the name Petaluma came from the Indian vernacular, meaning "duck ponds," and also that it was a compound word,

signifying "little hills." There would have been a local fitness in the last name, and by a change of one or two letters only in Petaluma, we have words meaning little hills. The close observer cannot have failed to notice the low mounds in many parts of the valley, of uniform shape and size. These hillocks were much more noticeable before the occupation and cultivation of the soil than they are now, and when the first adventurers found their way into the beautiful valley the mounds must have formed a peculiar and marked feature in the landscape--hence the name, valley of the �little hills.� By a change of letters the words lost their identity, but not the sound of the original. These peculiar mounds may be seen in their natural shape and position in great numbers on the Cotate plain, the surface not having been disturbed by cultivation. We do not assert that they are of artificial origin, or that the name of the valley was derived from them, but only that it is a plausible theory for the derivation of the name. The solution of the question we leave to the research of the philologist or the curiosity of the antiquarian.

The city of Petaluma is situated on Petaluma creek, at the head of navigation. It is thirty-seven miles northwest of San Francisco, with which it is connected by sailing vessels, by steamer, and by the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad. Trains pass through the town every day, going south, connecting at Donahue with the steamer for San Francisco. Two trains also pass the city every day, going north to the terminus of the road, at Cloverdale. The time between Petaluma and San Francisco is about two hours, which will be reduced to one hour and a half during this year, by extending the railroad and shortening the trip across the bay.

Petaluma creek is an estuary or arm of the bay, with water sufficient at high tide to float vessels of considerable size at the wharf of the city. A mile and a half above the town the plain rises to the level of high water, and both marsh and creek terminate. The great Central valley of Sonoma, and the Bodega and coast country, lies within easy reach of Petaluma, where its produce finds a home market, or may, at the option of the owner, be shipped by steamer direct, by sailing vessel or by railroad--thus all danger of a monopoly of transportation is barred.

The town is built on undulating ground; all the important streets are well graded, graveled and curbed, having gutters, sewers and open drains. Many of the business houses are imposing structures, with iron fronts in the latest style of modern city architecture. There are in and around the town handsome residences, with spacious and highly-cultivated grounds, but even more attractive are the many homes of well-to-do mechanics and laboring men, half hidden in flowers, indicating that the people are thrifty and prosperous through all gradations of society. The hills upon which the town is partly built afford a view of the opposite plain and range of mountains, including within its far-reaching scope the distant crest of St. Helena, and still further beyond the conical and shapely summit of Geyser peak--to the southward the creek may be traced winding through the green marsh, sometimes doubling back upon its course, making in a distance of a eight miles a direct progress of but two. This tortuous water-course gives a picturesque beauty to the scene in that direction--especially, as is often the case, if half a dozen sailing craft, with white wings spread, appear in view-�in the undulating air they seem to float above the level of the marsh; following their crooked course, they pass each other, to and fro, or circle around like sea-birds on the wing.

Petaluma is one of the most healthful towns in the State; it lies within the influence of the daily sea-breeze, and bilious or malarious fevers are unknown.

We have glanced hurridly at the city and its surroundings, and propose now to give a sketch of its early history and present status, more in detail.

We have mentioned the trip of Padre Altimira, in June, 1823, from San Rafael to Sonoma, on a mission-founding expedition. He came upon the west side of the creek, passing over or near the site of the present city of Petaluma, turned the "point of creeks," as he called it, probably at the two ponds on the westerly corner of the farm of F. W. Lougee, and crossed the plain opposite the town to the site of the "old Adobe House." This was the first land expedition of the California padres to the country north of San Rafael. The mission of Sonoma was founded in July, 1823, but no settlement was made in Petaluma valley.

After the secularization of the mission property, General Vallejo received a grant of all the land lying between Sonoma creek on the east, the waters of the bay on the south, and Petaluma creek on the west. That portion of the city known as East Petaluma standing on this tract. General Vallejo occupied the Petaluma ranch from 1836, and built the first house in the valley.

The land on the west side of the creek was claimed under a Mexican grant by Juan Miranda, who settled there in 1838, and built a small house about two miles from the present city of Petaluma. This was the first house or settlement on the west side of the creek. Over these rich plains, through wild oats that might be tied over the back of a horse, roamed herds of fat, sleek Spanish cattle and manadas of Mustang mares�-their right disputed only by bands of elk and antelope, which equaled, if they did not surpass them, in numbers.

The first settler, other than those mentioned or their retainers, was Dr. A. F. Heyerman, who, early in 1850, had a log-cabin on what was afterwards called the Rogers place, near Petaluma. Dr. Heyerman, under some pretext or other, set up a claim to the tract of land which he then occupied.

In October, 1850, John Lockwood came up the creek with one or two others in a whale-boat, attracted by reports of the abundance of game. They camped under the oaks on the bank of the creek just above the town, on what is now known as the Bell place. Lockwood and party hunted for the San Francisco market, making regular trips to the city in the Spark, an they called their whale-boat. The next to come were Linus and Wiatt; Lockwood and Wiatt are still residents of Petaluma. Baylis and Flogdell, well known pioneers, came a week after Linus and Wiatt, and all camped near the same place, and hunted or purchased game, which they took to the San Francisco market. They gave Petaluma its first start as a shipping point. A good sized deer or antelope brought twenty dollars, the hind-quarter of a fat elk forty dollars, quail nine dollars a dozen, and ducks from ten to twelve dollars a dozen. Major Singley, the present agent of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad at Petaluma, was the next arrival. Two small trading posts were started near Lockwood camp; one by Baylis & Flogdell, the other by Linus & Wiatt.  

The first house in the city limits proper was a warehouse built by James McReynolds, of Analy township, and his partner James Hudspeth, for storing potatoes. It stood on the bank of the creek, just below the bridge, at the foot of Washington street. The warehouse was filled that fall with potatoes, and Mr. Hudspeth cut and baled on the flat above town, one hundred tons of hay, which he shipped to Sacramento. These were the first large shipments of produce from Sonoma county to San Francisco via Petaluma. Soon after this, a man named Keller took up a claim which included the town site, and built a house on the creek, above the bridge, where the stone warehouse now stands.

On the 3d day January, 1852, the town was first surveyed by J. A. Brewster for Mr. Keller. The survey commenced at a point on Petaluma creek, between Prospect and Oak streets, running thence west to the westerly line of Liberty street, near Kent, then southerly along Liberty street to A, then on the north- erly line of A and a continuaton of that line northeasterly to Petaluma creek, including about forty acres. Tom Lockwood and Major Singley carried the chain for this survey. The first merchants of Petaluma were Kent & Smith; they opened a first-rate country store, in 1852. It stood on the east side of Main street, opposite the American Hotel lot, where Ross' photograph gallery now stands. The late F. H. Coe bought in the business, and the firm changed to Kent, Smith & Coe. The first families who came to the town were old man Douglas and the Hathaways. The first hotel was started by Robert Douglas and a man named Adams. It was a board shanty, and stood on the lot now occupied by the American hotel. The first school was kept by A. B. Bowers, and the school-house stood on the site of the present brick one. A. A. Guerny was probably the first Protestant preacher in this valley. He seems to have officiated at most of the weddings of that day, to have preached, lectured or delivered a Fourth of July oration, as the time served--a sort of clerical Bohemian, if we may use the expression without disrespect to the cloth. We know not where Rev. Mr. Guerny now is, but we wish him well wherever he may be, for he has left his foot-print on the pioneer history of Sonoma county.

The first postmaster in Petaluma county, was a W. D. Kent. He was succeeded by Dr. Brown, and Dr. Brown by S. N. Terrell. The mail was carried once a week, on horse-back, from Benicia via Sonoma, Santa Rosa, Miller & Walker's store, near Sebastapol, to Petaluma, and from there to San Rafael, --a round-about way of receiving late news from a city but thirty-five miles distant.

The first justice of the peace was M. G. Lewis. J. Chandler, Judge Jackson Temple and Judge J. B. Southard were the first lawyers in the town. The pioneers Zartman & Fritch started business in January, 1852, with James F. Reed, as blacksmith. They were told they would not make enough to get nails for shoes, but from the start they did a good business.

The first general excitement in the infant city was caused by an enterprise which had for its object the starting of a rival town at a point on the east side of the creek, a mile and a-half below in an air line, but a much greater distance by water, owing to the many crooks and bends in the creek. Major H. P. Hentzleman and Major Lewis got up this scheme. They purchased a tract on the east side of the creek of General Vallejo, where there was a good landing, and laid off a town which they called Petaluma City. It was known in vulgar vernacular as "New Town." Lewis went to San Francisco and sold out his interest to Colonel J. B. Huie, on condition that a steamer of certain size could get up to the proposed site of the New Town. The steamer Red Jacket, afterwards Kate Hayes, came up in November, 1852, under command of Captain Van Pelt. The same boat made trips at intervals that fall, and it was given out that the New Town was the head of steamboat navigation. The Petaluma boys were not scared at trifles; they went down to New Town one night when the boat lay there, and using all their powers of persuasion, induced the captain to steam up and see if he could not get up to the original town. The venture was a success; this stroke of policy killed New Town; it languished for a year or more but finally gave up the ghost, and, as the cars speed by, it is hard for the old resident to locate the site of the once rival of the city of Petaluma.

The first regular steamer was the Sioc, put on by Colonel J. B. Huie to run to New Town. Ex-Sheriff Latapie was captain, and once part-owner of this boat. The name was changed to the Reindeer. The E. Corning was the first boat that ran regularly to Petaluma. Fare was six dollars to San Francisco, and the trip occupied nearly all day--quite a contrast to the present time, when the trip to Petaluma is made in two hours, and that will soon be reduced to one hour and a-half. The late Capt. Charles M. Baxter took command of the Corning in 1856, and, for many years after, ran the elegant steamer Petaluma, built by Charles Minturn, expressly for this route.

From the beginning of 1853 up to 1855 the town of Petaluma grew rapidly; the great valleys north and south of it settled up with an industrious population, and every acre of land brought under cultivation was a benefit to the town, which had now become the general shipping point for the produce of all Sonoma and Mendocino counties as far north as the country was occupied. With so rich a district to support it, Petaluma soon took rank as one of the most flourishing agricultural towns in the State. Its capital increased as rapidly as its commerce extended. It was, at a very early day, and still continues to be, the largest shipping point for dairy products of all the towns in California.

The first newspaper, the Petaluma Journal, was issued on the 18th of August, 1855. The names of several merchants still residing in the town appeared in its advertising columns.

In 1855 and 1856 the growth of the city was very rapid; in the former year the vote was 481, and in the latter it had increased to 801.

In July, 1857, an accurate census was taken by John S. Van Doren, and we are enabled to give the population of the town then, included within an area of a mile square, commencing at the junction of Keller and D streets. White males 802; white females, 502; colored males, 23; colored females, 8; Chinamen, 3. Total, 1,338.

The town of Petaluma was incorporated at the session of the legislature of 1857-8, and the first municipal election was held on the 19th of April, 1858.

The taxable property of the city for the years named was as follows:





The municipal tax this year is eighty cents on each one hundred dollars valuation of property. The money raised by the city tax has been in the main well and judiciously expended. The excellent condition of the streets and the perfect sewerage may be cited in proof of this assertion. More than this, the city and township have expended $60,000 in improving the roads and highways leading to the surrounding country. No more judicious investment could have been made. The approaches to the town from every direction are in perfect order winter and summer, and along these main arteries trade flows into the city and through all its business channels. The result of this healthy circulation is visible in the growth and improvement of the city. Another attractive feature of the place is the highly improved small farms by which it is surrounded. There are a number of these places on the low foot-hills just west of the plain, which may be seen from the cars. The well-tilled orchards and vineyards, comfortable barns and neat homesteads afford the best possible evidence that not only the city, but the country that surrounds it, is prosperous. Much of the hill-land in the neighborhood of Petaluma, once considered valuable only for the wood which grew upon it, has proven, now that the wood is cut, extremely fertile, and commands the highest price when put upon the market. There are also many very handsomely improved farms on the plain opposite the town, extending back from the creek to the foot-hills on the east, and, in fact, to the top of the range, which is rather an elevated plateau than a ridge, as it appears in the distance.




The settlement of the town of Petaluma led to protracted complication and costly litigation in the matter of land titles. There are some curious features in this legal controversy, and we give herewith a condensed statement of the conflicting claims and the final issue of all the suits.

That portion of Petaluma township bounded by the Petaluma creek, the San Antonio creek, the Rancho Laguna de San Antonio, and the Rancho Roblar de la Miseria, was formerly known as the Rancho Arroyo de San Antonio.

Juan Miranda first settled there about the year 1838, with his family, horses, and cattle, and built a small house, about two miles distant from the present city of Petaluma.

 In 1844 he applied for a grant of this land. Jacob P. Leese, then alcalde of the district of Sonoma, certified that he was the only occupant, and an order was made October 8, 1844, by Governor Micheltorena, that the usual title be issued to him. A formal grant of the land to Miranda was drawn up pursuant to this order, and was subsequently found in the archives, but was never executed by the governor in consequence of the political disturbances which ended in Micheltorena�s overthrow.

Miranda was the father of many children, and one of his daughters, Francisca, married a Mexican named Antonio Ortega, who had no settled habitation, but lived sometimes with his wife�s family, at this rancho, sometimes with the priests at the different missions, and for several years in Oregon. On the ground of his occasional visits to his father-in-law he set up a claim to being the real occupant of the rancho, and succeeded in obtaining from Governor Alvarado a decree for the land, purporting to have been made August 10, 1840. Thus there were two conflicting claims to the same tract of land. After the death of Miranda, at San Rafael, in 1850, his title was sold by order of the probate court of Marin county, and was purchased by T. B. Valentine of San Francisco. Whether the proceedings at this sale were regular, so as to vest in the purchaser a perfect title, is at least doubtful. The title of Ortega was conveyed to Charles White of San Jose.

 After the establishment of the land commission, both of these claims were presented to that tribunal for adjudication. Valentine put in some testimony which was thought to be rather damaging to the success of the Ortega claim, whereupon an agreement was made between the holders of these rival titles, providing that the testimony should be suppressed, the Miranda claim with- drawn, the Ortega claim pressed for confirmation and the proceeds of the sales of the lands covered by it divided between the contracting parties.

The Miranda title was thus summarily disposed of by the act of its holder. To clear away the Ortega title by the slow machinery of the law, took several years. It was confirmed by the land commission, was twice before the United States District Court,--first confirmed, and afterwards rejected; and twice before the United States Supreme Court, where it was finally rejected in 1863. The land embraced within the limits of the rancho thus became public domain of the United States, and the government surveys were extended over it. That portion within the boundaries of the incorporated city of Petaluma was ceded to that city by Act of Congress of March 1, 1867, and the occupants of all the remainder obtained patents under the pre-emption law.

Valentine besieged the doors of Congress for many years to get an act passed allowing him to present his title to the courts for confirmation. Such a measure would have been a great injustice to the occupants of the land, for although the original title was undoubtedly genuine, and would have been confirmed, he prevented a confirmation by his voluntary withdrawal of it. He was finally satisfied by receiving from the government an issue of very valuable land-scrip for the same number of acres embraced within his grant.




That part of the city of Petaluma which lies on the east side of the creek was held under the Vallejo title to the Petaluma grant. The cloud on the west side did not affect it. The tract was originally purchased from General Vallejo by Tom Hopper. On the 27th day of August, 1857, Hopper conveyed to W. D. Bliss, John Kalkman, and Stephen C. Haydon, each, one-fourth interest in his tract of two hundred and seventy acres. Up to this time there was no connection between the east and west side of the creek except over a rickety bridge, which crossed above the city. The new owners of the Hopper tract at once built a draw-bridge across the creek, at the foot of Washington street, and surveyed and sub-divided the land into town and villa-lots. Building commenced on that side, and it is now an important part of the city. The depot of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad is in East Petaluma, and it grows quite as fast as other portions of the city. The land has been raised by the overflow of the creeks which cross the Petaluma valley. These streams formerly spread out over the plain beyond the town, but were gradually confined to a narrow channel, through which this rich tribute from the hills was brought across the plain and spread over the lands of East Petaluma, thereby greatly enhancing their value. East Petaluma was included within the limits of the city as already incorporated by an act of the legislature of 1858. The streets are well graded and graveled, and at least two principle highways lead into the city from that direction.




Petaluma has always nurtured its system of public schools. Its corps of teachers have been the best that could be procured, and its school-buildings are a credit as well as an ornament to the place. The high school was first opened in July, 1873, Professor C. E. Hutton in charge. Dr. F. H. Rose succeeded him. Dr. Rose resigned in 1874, and J. W. McClymonds, the present incumbent, was elected. Miss Anna Holbrook is his assistant. The number of pupils in this department is about sixty. The high-school building is situated on D street; it was built as a private academy for Professor Lippitt, who used it for that purpose until it was purchased by the board of education for a high school. The style of architecture is gothic; it is two stories in height, contains four study-rooms, a library-room, an ante-room, and halls. The grounds are ornamented with evergreens, flowers, and grass plots.

M. E. C. Munday is principal of the grammar and primary departments. Mrs. J. E. Woodworth had charge of the second grade; Miss Eliza Robinson has charge of the third grade; Miss Marilla Camm had charge of the fourth grade; Miss Rosa Haskins of the fifth grade; Miss Emma S. Elder of the sixth grade; Miss Sallie E. Hall of the seventh grade; Miss Hattie Fuller of the eighth grade. Miss I. E. Anderson has charge of the class taught in the high-school building, belonging to the fifth grade of the primary department. On the hill, in the northeast part of the city, there is a school of the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of the primary department in charge of Miss Clara Eddy. In East Petaluma there is a school for the same grades, in charge of Miss Helen A. Singley. Miss Annie Camm has charge of the school on D street, for colored children. The total number of teachers in grammar and primary department, thirteen. The grammar school is a large two-story brick building, located on the corner of B and Fifth streets. It was built in 1859, and since then has undergone several changes in its interior arrangements, to accomodate the increasing number of pupils. The building contains eight rooms, of which four are on the upper, and four on the ground floor. It has a seating capacity for about four hundred pupils. The grounds are enclosed by a high board fence, inside of which is a row of silver-leaf maple tree, which add much to the appearance of the building and its surroundings. The salaries of the teachers vary from sixty to one hundred and fifty dollars per month.

The value of school property is as follows:

High school-building.....................            $15,000

Grammar school-building and lot...........    30,000

Outside school-houses and lots, about......  8,000


Total value..............................                          $53,000


The number of pupils is from six hundred and eighty to seven hundred and twenty, and the cost of maintaining the schools is thirteen thousand dollars per annum.

 The school department has been governed by a board of education since 1870, composed of five members. The present board is Messrs. James Singley, G. W. Edelman, W. H. Dalton, N. M. Hedges and F. T. Maynard.

The people of Petaluma respond always to the needs of the public schools, and no complaining is heard in regard to any tax to support them.




Of the religious denominations in Petaluma, the Methodist is the oldest, and had the first church-building; the Rev. S. B. Clifford is the minister in charge. The Baptist Church is in charge of Rev. A. Hitchcock. Rev. Geo. A. Allen is rector of St. John�s Episcopal Church. The Rev. Father Cleary of St. Vincent�s Church. Rev. C. J. Hutchins has the Congregational Church, and the Rev. T. B. Page the Methodist Church South. Some of these congregations have handsome church-buildings, which are well filled every Sunday. For each church there is a Sunday-school, which is patronized by bright-faced boys and girls, and here we will say that there is no sweeter melody than that of the mingled voices of many children singing praises to Him who, in the words of the Psalmist, �covereth the heavens with a cloud, and prepareth rain for the earth; and maketh the grass to grow upon the mountains, and herbs for the use of man; who giveth fodder to the cattle, and feedeth the young ravens when they call on him.�




The benevolent societies are well represented in Petaluma. There are two Masonic lodges, one of which (Petaluma Lodge, No. 57) was chartered May 3, 1854. There is also a chapter of Royal Arch Masons, organized in 1858, known as Petaluma Chapter, No. 22. Petaluma Lodge, I. O.O.F., No. 30, was instituted September 30, 1854. There is also an encampment, of which we have not the date of organization. The Turn Verein have a very prosperous organization. There is also a Hibernian Society, and a Society of Caledonians, and several temperance organizations. The Mutual Relief Association of Petaluma have been very successful and well managed. The oldest is the �Mutual Relief Association;� has a membership of 1,096. It is a life-insurance society simplified: upon the death of any member an assessment of three dollars is levied on each member of the association, and the aggregate sum is paid to the heirs of the deceased member. It has distributed many thousands of dollars in claims upon it, and is well managed. Its business as extended through Marin, Sonoma and Mendocino counties. L. F. Carpenter is president, and G. R. Codding is secretary. The Sonoma and Marin Benevolent Association is of like character and organization. Dr. G. L. Shephard is pres- ident, and H. M. Faulkner, secretary.




The Petaluma Weekly Journal was issued on the 18th day of August 1855, by Thomas L. Thompson. At this time Sonoma county embraced the whole of Mendocino, but the population was sparse, and the mail facilities were imperfect and irregular. The Journal, however, was a wide-a-wake paper, and even in the early day was instrumental in bringing this portion of the State prominently into notice. Mr. Thompson disposed of his interest in the Journal in March 1856, to H. L. Weston. Mr. Weston made it a valuable local journal, ever alive to the interests if Petaluma and Sonoma county. We are indebted to files of the Journal, from 1855 to 1860, for much that is valuable, culled from its columns.

In November, 1862, Mr. Weston disposed of a part interest in the Journal to T. W. Abraham. That firm continued the publication until February, 1864, when they sold the paper to McNabb & Co., and it was merged into the Argus, and took the name of the Journal and Argus. Mr. Weston was interested in a Nevada paper from March to August, 1864; in the last named month he returned to Petaluma, and shortly after repurchased an interest in the Journal and Argus, which he still retains. The name of the paper was changed to Petaluma Weekly Argus.

In November, 1859, J. J. Pennebacker issued the first number of the Petaluma Argus. In December 1860, he disposed of his interest in the paper to A. Drouilliard. In July, 1861, J. H. McNabb & Co. brought out the interest of A. Drouilliard, and in August 1864, the Journal and Argus were consolidated as above stated. The paper is now published by H. L. Weston, N. W. Scudder and James H. McNabb, under the firm-name of Weston, Scudder & Co. It is an elegantly printed quarto, made up in best style of newspaper typographical art. Its managers are thoroughly up in the mechanical, editorial and local departments of the paper. The Argus has always been a staunch advocate of the principles of the Republican party. Though decided, it is fair in its treatment of political subjects, and commands the respect of those who hold opposing views. Mr. D. S. Lane, of the editorial staff, is a careful and accurate writer, a close observer, and a natural statistician. He rarely trips in his facts, figures, logic or language.

To Messrs. Woods, McGuire & Edwards is due the credit of starting the first daily newspaper in Sonoma county. The Petaluma Daily Crescent was commenced in the summer of 1870; Mr. C. B. Woods was editor; it was published most of the time by A. McGuire, in the spring of 1872 the Crescent passed into the hands of H. M. Woods, who discontinued in the fall of that year. The Crescent was Democratic in politics, and, in addition to its daily, issued a weekly edition.

In July, 1872, the Petaluma Argus commenced the publication of a daily journal, which continued for one year and suspended publication. It was a well made-up daily paper, and its suspension was a surprise to its patrons.

The Petaluma Courier was started in the fall of 1876 by W. F. Shattuck. It is Democratic in politics; the proprietor is a practical printer, who grew from boyhood and learned his trade in Sonoma county. He makes an excellent paper, in all its departments. The editor of the paper, E. S. Lippitt, is a leading lawyer of Sonoma county, in large practice. He is a man of fine education, and is a pointed and forcible writer. Mr. Lippitt has a thorough knowledge of the politics of the country. He is an old resident of the county, and knows its local needs. Under its present management the Courier cannot fail to become an influential as it is an able journal.




To I. G. Wickersham is due the credit of establishing the first bank in the county of Sonoma. Mr. Wickersham came to Petaluma in 1853. In 1855 he was elected district attorney, and served in that position to the satisfaction of his constituents. He foresaw that the growing city, Petaluma, needed and would support a commercial bank, and in February, 1865, put this idea into practical operation,--opening, on the corner of Main and Washington streets, the banking-house of I. G. Wickersham & Co. The result of this experiment proved that Mr. Wickersham was correct in his judgement,--the business increased every year, and in October, 1874, it was changed to the First National Bank of Petaluma, with a full paid-up capital of two hundred thousand dollars. The business of the new bank was commenced January 1, 1875,--I. G. Wickersham, president; H. H. Atwater, cashier. The trustees are the president and cashier above named, Jesse C. Wickersham, P. B. Hewlitt and H. L. Davis. The bank owns the building in which the business is carried on; it is conveniently located on the leading business street of the city. It is elegantly furnished, and well arranged for the prompt dispatch of business.

THE BANK OF SONOMA COUNTY was organized in July, 1866. William Hill was the first president, and has held that position to this date. E. Sprague was the first cashier; he was succeeded by John S. Van Doren, who has served as cashier continuously since. The bank was organized with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, which was increased in January, 1877, to three thousand dollars. The bank building is on the northwest corner of Main and Washington streets. It was built in 1873 at a cost of almost twenty-two thousand dollars. The directors are E. Newburg, E. Denman, James Fowler, Warren Dutton and William Hill.

PETALUMA SAVINGS BANK.--The capital stock of this bank is one hundred thousand dollars; it was organized in 1872. The first president was J. M. Bowles; he was succeeded by H. T. Fairbanks in 1873. Mr. Fairbanks has held the position continuously up to this time. The first cashier was O. V. Walker; the present is William B. Haskell. The directors are J. M. Bowles, B. Haskell, H. T. Fairbanks, F. T. Maynard, B. F. Tuttle, S. D. Towne, J. H. Crane, A. P. Whitney and John Moffet. The bank building is on Main street, opposite the American Hotel. It cost, with vaults and furniture complete, about ten thousand dollars.




There is an excellent public library in Petaluma, containing about four thousand volumes, well selected, with all leading foreign and home magazines, pictorials and newspapers. It was organized under the auspices of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of Petaluma. It is supported by the dues of members. The rooms of the association are well managed and furnished, and are conveniently located on the corner of English and Main streets. The first officers were: President, T. F.Baylis; Vice-President, Lee Ellsworth; Recording Secretary, H. H. Atwater, and Treasurer, William Zartman.




The Petaluma Fire Department has always been well organized and efficient. Its members have proven their prowess in many hard-fought battles. Thousands of dollars have been saved on more than one occasion by their good judgment, promptness, and courage. The citizens recognize the obligation due to them, and have always encouraged and aided the firemen.

The companies are all handsomely uniformed and equipped for a showy turnout or for service when the bell taps and the time for action has arrived. All honor to the brave fireman who is ever ready to risk his life for the welfare of others, with no hope of reward, other than the consciousness of having done his duty to his neighbor, thus filling one of the two greatest commandments.




was organized June 10, 1857. William Van Houten was the first foreman, Van Houten resigned and was succeeded by Edward Buckley; in 1858 George Walker was elected; in 1859 and 1860 Charles A. Plummer; in 1861 George Walker; in 1862 William W. Main; in 1863 Frank Bray; in 1864 B. Palmer; in 1865 Charles Tann; in 1866 John E. Gwinn; in 1867 A. A. Prescott; in 1868 Frank Bray; in 1869 H. Pimm; in 1870 H. B. Hasbrouck; in 1871 George Walker; in 1872 H. Pimm; in 1873 John E. Gwinn; in 1874 H. Pimm; in 1875 H. Pimm; in 1876 W. H. Zartman.




was organized November 27, 1857. James N. McCune was the first foreman, and served in 1857, 1858 and 1859; in 1860 and 1861 T. F. Baylis; in 1862 J. D. Cross; in 1863, 1864 and 1865 J. T. Huie; in 1866 J. S. Cutler, in 1867 J. A. Wiswell; in 1868, 1869 and 1870 William Zartman; in 1871 and 1872 G. W. Edelman; in 1873, 1874 and 1875 H. Schierhold; in 1876 M. M. Keating.




was organized January 1, 1864; Fred. Frazier was the first foreman; in 1865 and 1866 D. W. Sroufe; in 1867 and 1868 J. J. Ellis; in 1869 and 1870 N. E. Manning; in 1871 James Tann; in 1872 G. E. Millett; in 1873 J. E. Elmore; in 1874 S. E. Cooper; in 1875 William M. Brown.




was organized April 3, 1867, William M. Brown was the first foreman; in 1869 Julius Blume; in 1870 G. B. Palmer; in 1871 James Latimer; in 1872 Thomas Edwards; in 1873 Julius Blume; in 1874 B. Harter; in 1875 Frank Spalding; in 1876 A. Cerigheu.




Petaluma is favorably situated for the successful prosecution of many branches of manufacturing. There is a constantly increasing local demand for manufactures. The town has already made a creditable start in this line, and its mechanics have an enviable reputation at home and abroad for skill and fair dealing.

CARRIAGE FACTORIES.--The most important industry in Petaluma is the manufacture of wagons and carriages. The first establishment in the place was started in 1852 by its present proprietor, William Zartman. The factory is complete in all its departments. This machinery is propelled by steam.

The next oldest factory is that of J. Loranger, established in 1864; then follow, in the order named, B. Harter, Weir & Spottswood, Hopes & Cameron, R. Spottswood & Co., D. W. C. Putnam & Co., D. Jay, and Rutherford & Roberts. Petaluma wagons and carriages are sent to various portions of the State, especially to the southern counties; and several vehicles have been sent to Nevada. At each of the above named establishments, plows, harrows, cultivators and other agricultural implements are made. The business may be summarized as follows: Number of men employed, including carriage painters, fifty-four; number of carriages and wagons made annually, two hundred and forty-five,--value of same, fifty three thousand nine hundred dollars; value of agricultural implements manufactured, seven thousand dollars; other work, fifteen thousand dollars; total value, of all, seventy-nine thousand five hundred dollars.

HARNESS AND SADDLERY.--Next in importance to the above is the manufacture of harness and saddlery. Gwinn & Brainard commenced business in 1867, and employ eight men; W. Davis employs four men, and C. Burgtorf, four men. Number of sets of harness made annually, five hundred; value, sixteen thousand dollars. Saddles, five hundred; ten thousand dollars. Carriage trimming to the amount of four thousand dollars is done at the several establishments. Total, thirty thousand dollars. Petaluma harness and saddles have a wide reputation, and shipments of goods have been made to all parts of the State; also to Nevada, Utah, and Peru, South America.

BOOTS AND SHOES.--There are nine places as which boots and shoes are made. The most extensive manufacturer is M. Walsh, who makes nine hundred pairs per year. Total number pairs made annually, two thousand; value, fifteen thousand dollars. A considerable portion of the leather used is Petaluma manufacture.

FOUNDRY.--C. P. Hatch, proprietor. Established in 1859, and first in Sonoma or adjoining counties. Annual value of manufactures, ten thousand dollars.

CLOTHING.--Nine men are employed in making clothing for men and boys. Clothing made annually is valued at fifteen thousand dollars.

FURNITURE AND CABINET WORK manufactured annually equals in value six thousand dollars. In the same department churns, fruit-dryers and butter-tubs, etc., are made to the value of six thousand dollars.

TANNERY.--Jacob Wick is proprietor of the business. Three hundred cords of tan-bark, all of Sonoma growth, are used every year; eight thousand hides are tanned annuallly; sole, harness and shoe leather of all kinds is made; value of manufacture, fifty-six thousand dollars.

POTTERY.--Petaluma pottery was established in 1866; all kinds of stone-ware manufactured; twenty thousand gallons of stone-ware made in the past year.

FLOURING MILLS.--Central Mills, McCune Bros., proprietors, was established in 1864; it has four runs of stone; capacity, seventy-five barrels in twelve hours; nineteen thousand seven hundred and twenty-five barrels of flour made annually; seven men are employed. The flour is sold in Sonoma and Marin counties, and in San Francisco. Oriental Mills, established in 1863; George P. McNear, proprietor; it has two runs of stone; thirty barrels made daily, and seven thousand eight hundred and ninety annually; five men employed. Both mills do a general milling and jobbing business; value of flour, etc. made, one hundred and sixty-five thousand six hundred and ninety dollars. Two-thirds or more of the annual product is sold in Sonoma, Marin and Mendocino counties, and balance is shipped to San Francisco. Petaluma flour enjoys a good reputation.

PLANING-MILLS.--Petaluma planing-mill was established in 1867, and was the first in the county, also most extensive and complete in Sonoma or adjoining counties; Nay & Broocke, proprietors; work sent to various parts of Sonoma and Marin counties; six men are employed, manufacturing doors, blinds, sash, mouldings, brackets, boxes, tanks and all kinds of mill-work. The Centennial planing-mill was established in September, 1876, Sloper & Fuller, proprietors; three men are employed; articles manufactured same as above, steam-power. The material used comes mostly from Sonoma county; value of manufactures, twenty thousand dollars.

TIN SHOPS.--There are four tin-shops in Petaluma, the first of which was established in 1867. The proprietors are Thomas Schlosser, J. J. Buckins, Harris Bros. and A. W. Barnes. All kinds of tin, sheet-iron and copper ware are manufactured. Dairy-work constitutes a considerable portion of the business. About one thousand sacks of charcoal, which is manufactured in the county, is used annually. The other material is purchased in San Francisco or imported from the east; value of manufactures, twenty thousand dollars.

COOPERAGE was established in 1868, Isaac Fuller, proprietor. Fifteen thousand kegs and firkins, two hundred barrels and twenty tanks are made; material mostly imported from the east, and some procured in Lake County; value of manufactures, three thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars.

BRICK-YARD, established by Jordan Peter in 1867, and now owned by him. The material abundant and of first-class quality; capacity of kilns 1,200,000 bricks; number made annually 3,500,000; value $4,200.

GLOVE FACTORY--M. Berger, proprietor. It was established in 1870; 500 dozen buck-skin gloves made; 12 persons employed, mostly females; value of manufacture, $9,000.

BREWERIES.--Petaluma Brewery, established in 1855 by Christlich & Erbe, was the first in Sonoma county; Baltz & Schierhold are the present proprietors. Sonoma Brewery, established in 1872, Mechele & Griess, proprietors; they ship fifty tons annually to San Francisco. The capacity of the two breweries is 5,000 gallons per week, and the quantity made about 81,000 gallons per annum. They use 200 cords of wood, 850 tons of barley, 12-3/4 tons hops, mostly California grown. Their beer is sold in Sonoma and Marin counties; value of same, $20,000.

GAS WORKS.--Established in 1863, Peter Donohue, proprietor; 400 tons of English and Australian coal used annually; 2,800,000 feet of gas made; value of same, $15,800.

SADDLE-TREE FACTORY, M. Haar, proprietor, was established by him in 1861, and probably is the most extensive in the State outside of San Francisco; all materials, except a small quantity of Oregon pine; procured in Sonoma county; trees sent to all parts of California, also to Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Texas; number of trees made 2,500; value of same, $10,000.

MARBLE WORKS, Thompson & Meek, proprietors, established March 1875, Italian and Vermont marble used; work sent to various parts of Sonoma, Marin and Mendocino counties, and to other parts of the State; four men employed; value of manufacture, $10,000.

SOAP WORKS.--Established July, 1875, G. W. Manville, proprietor; 3,000 boxes of 18 pounds each made annually; value of same, $4,500.

SODA WORKS--B. F. Connolly, proprietor, established in 1860; makes 12,000 dozen bottles of soda and sarsaparilla, and 700 dozen champaigne cider, which are distributed in Sonoma and Marin counties; amount of sales $10,000.

CIGAR FACTORY.--A. Horstman, proprietor, established in 1871, 50,000 cigars made annually; value $3,000.

BAKERIES.--Three; W. B. Matzenbach, J. T. Rugg, and George Stroebel, proprietors; amount of flour consumed 840 barrels; value of bread, cakes, etc., made $12,768.

SUMMARY.--Number of persons employed in manufacturing 201; value of manufactures $535,150.




STREETS.-�The principal business streets of Petaluma are Main, Washington, English, Kentucky and B streets. Most of the streets and sidewalks are paved, and the main roads leading out of the town have been graded and macadamized at a heavy outlay of money, raised by special tax, which fell mostly on the people of the city. There are two plazas or public squares, each of which covers a block three hundred by three hundred feet in size. Both are well improved.

PARKS.-�Agriculture Park, in the western part of the town, covers about twenty acres, and contains the race track and pavilion of the Sonoma and Marin District Agricultural Society.

CITY GARDENS.�-A plot of ground has been laid off in the northern part of this city for a public garden. The plot, containing eight acres, has been properly prepared and laid out with a view to its future beauty and comfort as a pleasure garden. Over twelve hundred shade and ornamental trees of different varieties have been planted.

SEWERAGE.-�The system of sewerage is almost perfect. Mains run the entire length of Washington, English, C and F streets, and empty into Petaluma creek. Thus all matter deposited in the creek, twice in every twenty-four hours is carried by the tide into San Pablo bay. The small sewers connect with the mains from nearly every street and alley in the city.




Dr. J. Walker, of I. X. L. Bitters notoriety, introduced the first water brought in pipes to the city of Petaluma. He sold his interest to John Cavanagh and George L. Bradley, and they subsequently sold to S. D. Towne and Major James Armstrong. The water was take from a large spring back of the town.

On the 2d of April, 1868, Towne & Armstrong, in connection with the Hon. B. B. Munday, organized the Petaluma Water Company, and on the 16th of the same month it was incorporated. This company, after prolonged and serious difficulty, sold out to the Sonoma Water Company, which was incorporated in 1871. The Sonoma Water Company now owns the works, and supply the town with water. There is an ample supply for domestic purposes. There are hydrants all at convenient fronts, which, with the supply of hose kept on hand, affords a great degree of safety in case of fire. The water is brought from Sonoma mountain.




The first cemetery in Petaluma was called Oak Hill Cemetery, and was the property of the city, and contained about eight acres. It is still used.

The Cypress Hill Cemetery was laid off in 1872 by John A. McNear. It contains about forty acres, and is situated a quarter of a mile from the Petaluma and Santa Rosa road, and about a mile from the business part of the city. It is a beautiful location for a cemetery. The drives and walks are macadamized and ornamental trees have been planted over most of the grounds. It is on a hill overlooking all the surrounding country.




In addition to the industries elsewhere described there are three nurseries where fruit and ornamented trees and rare plants of all kinds can be obtained. There are seven hotels in the town; six livery stables; four stove and hardware stores; eight dry-goods stores; fourteen grocery and provision stores; three drug stores; three furniture stores; two crockery, glassware and stationery stores; two variety stores; three boot and shoe stores; five fruit and vegetable stores, four cigar stores; five butcher shops; two bakeries, four laundries; one stock-yard; seven lawyers, and nine doctors. All the business houses of the town are of a good class, and traffic is well systematized.




The Sonoma and Marin Agricultural and Mechanical Society was organized and held its first fair in Healdsburg, in September, 1859. The second fair was held in Petaluma, in 1860; the third in Santa Rosa, September 24, 1861; the fourth in Sonoma, October 7, 1862. The name was changed to the San Pablo District Agricultural Society, and the fifth fair was held at Sonoma, September 15, 1863. The sixth fair was held at Napa, October 11, 1864. After that the society seems to have entirely collapsed.

On the 6th of June, 1867, the Sonoma and Marin District Agricultural Society was organized, and was from the start a success. The society is out of debt. It has expended $35,000 in the purchase of land, erection of buildings, fences and repairs thereon. The large sum of $45,017 has been paid as premium purses on speed, programmes, running expenses of the fair, interest on loans, etc. The stock accommodations and grounds have been greatly improved during the past year, and the society may be said to be upon a solid financial basis. This success is largely due to the earnest efforts of some of the leading citizens of Petaluma and the enterprising farmers residing in the valley, among whom we may mention J. R. Rose, the first president; Lee Ellsworth, Prof. E. S. Lippitt, E. Denman, H. Meacham, and others. Following will be found a tabulated list of the presidents and secretaries of all the societies from the first organization to date:

DATE.             PRESIDENT.              SECRETARY.

1859..........      W. P. Ewing..........       A. B. Boggs

1860..........      J. Q. Shirley........         I. G. Wickersham

1861..........      Dr. John Hendley.....     W. H. Crowell

1862..........      Wm. McP. Hill........     Col. J. Walton

1863..........      Nathan Coombs........   T. L. Schell

1864..........      A. T. Grigsby........       Jos. Howland

1865..........      Disorganized.........        Disorganized

1866..........                  " .........                         "

1867..........      J. R. Rose...........         P. Cowen

1868..........                  " " ...........         " "

1869..........                  " " ...........         " "

1870..........      E. Denman............       J. Grover

1871..........      Lee Ellsworth........       " "

1872..........      E. Denman ..........        E. S. Lippitt

1873..........      J. R. Rose ..........         " "

1874..........                  " " ..........          " "

1875..........      H. Meacham ..........     " "

1876..........                  " " ..........          " "

Since the reorganization of the society the fairs have been held every fall in Petaluma. The citizens have come liberally to its relief whenever it was necessary to do so. The society now is upon as good a footing as any in the State, and does much for Sonoma, Marin and Mendocino counties, by affording the opportunity to exhibit to hundreds who come from abroad, not only the fine horses, cattle, sheep, and other live stock of the district, but also the surprising products of our generous soil.

Following are the receipts of the society, and the donations by the citizens, the city, and the State, for each year since its reorganization:

DATE.                                                 RECEIPTS.

1867. Receipts from fair..................     $7,328

1868. " " " ...................                        5,763

1869. " " "....................                        5,984

" Donations by citizens...............           4,217

1870. Receipts from Fair..................    6,341

1871. " " " ...................                        5,800

1872. " " " ...................                        5,841

" Donations from State................          2,000

1873. Receipts from fair..................     6,201

" Donations from State................          2,000

1874. Receipts from fair..................     5,293

" Donation by citizens................            6,000

" City bonds..........................               5,000

1875. Receipts from fair..................     6,200

1876." " " ...................                         6,049


Total receipts...........................             $80,017




The Mutual Relief Association, of Petaluma, to which we have elsewhere referred, deserves more extended notice as one of the most successful and useful organizations in this county. To the efforts of G. R. Codding, the secretary, the success of the society is mainly due. It accomplishes the object of life insurance at the least possible cost, and with the greatest possible benefits. Its members are distributed through Oregon, Idaho, Nevada and British Columbia. The funds are loaned on real estate, and the management is honest, economical and safe. A full list of officers and directors appears in an advertisement in another part of this book.




Following is a carefully prepared estimate of the exports of Petaluma for a year, which will give the reader an idea of the commercial importance of the city:

Wool shipped, pounds .......................................          125,000

Butter " " .........................................                            3,500,000

Cheese " " ...........................................                        750,000

Hay " tons ...........................................                        9,000

Grain " " .............................................                         3,000

Potatoes " sacks ........................................                  200,000

Eggs " dozen..........................................                       75,000

Poultry " " .............................................                       6,000

Quail " " ............................................                           12,000

Flour " barrels ........................................                      7,000

Cattle " head............................................                     1,500

Hogs " " ............................................                           28,000

Sheep " " .............................................                        7,000

Calves " " ............................................                        12,000

Fruit " boxes .........................................                       40,000

Paving stones......................................                          2,000,000