The Awareness Center is The Jewish Coalition Against Sexual Abuse/Assault (JCASA)

Case of Samuel Juravel

(AKA: Sam Juravel, Shmuel Zev Juravel, Samuel Zev Juravel)

Insurance Salesman

Savannah, GA

Baltimore, MD

Samuel (Shmuel) Juravel grew up in Baltimore, MD. In 1990 - 1991 the first allegations were made against Shmuel of child sexual molestation. According to statements made on the various threads of the Jewish Survivors of Sexual Violence blog, survivors and their parents sought help from Rabbi Moshe Heinemann who said he would take care of things. Needless to say, nothing happened.

Shmuel is the son of Rabbi Moshe and Shulamis Juravel of Baltimore, MD. Rabbi Juravel is employeed as a teacher at the Torah Institute of Baltimore. Shmuel Juravel is also the nephew of Rabbi Dovid Juravel and Rebbitzen Chana Juravel.

Shmuel Juravel was indicted on March 29, 2006, on the offenses of using a computer to persuade, induce and entice a minor to engage in prostitution or other sexual activity, in violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 2422(b) (Count One); traveling in interstate commerce for the purpose of attempting to engage in illicit sexual conduct with a minor, in violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 2423(b) & (e) (Count Two); and, knowingly possessing material containing images of child pornography, in violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 2252A(a)(5)(B) (Count Three).

On August 10, 2006 he plead guilty to three counts of traveling to have sex with a child and use of the Internet to entice a child to engage in illegal sex acts.

Samuel Zev Juravel will spend 262 months in jail and a lifetime of supervised release. He also faces a fine to be determined by the court upon sentencing. There is no probation, no parole and no appeal. That was the plea agreement.


Your Financial Support is Needed!   Make a Donation

Email Groups for the Awareness Center   This link will bring you to a list of different mailing lists offered by The Awareness Center.  We offers several different email groups,which include our general mailing list, press-releases, Jewish survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Parents of children who were molested, Family members of sex offenders, etc.


Disclaimer: Inclusion in this website does not constitute a recommendation or endorsement. Individuals must decide for themselves if the resources meet their own personal needs.

Table of Contents:  

2006

  1. Jefferson County Alabama - Sheriff's Office   (02/21/2006)

  2. United States of America vs. Shmuel Zev Juravel (AKA: Samuel Juravel) (03/01/2006)

  3. Savannah man arrested on federal sex charges (03/06/2006)

  4. FBI wanting to talk to Survivors of Shmuel Juravel (in Baltimore, MD and Savannah, GA)

  5. Department of Justice Seal Department of Justice  (03/29/2006)

  6. U.S. District Court - Criminal Docket for Case  (03/29/2006)

  7. Excerpt From Court Document - Magistrate Judge's Report and Recommendations  (06/07/2006)

  8. UPDATE: Case of Samuel Juravel  (06/14/2006)

  9. Update on the Court Case  (07/14/2006)

  10. Press Release - United States Department of Justice  (08/11/2006)

  11. Georgia man pleads guilty in FBI child sex sweep in Alabama  (08/11/2006)

  12. Georgia man pleads guilty in FBI child sex sweep in Alabama  (08/12/2006)

  13. Georgia man handed lengthy sentence in child sex case (08/14/2006)

2007

  1. Today Steve is 25  (02/23/2007)

  2. Testimony Provided at Maryland Senate Hearing on SB575 (03/01/2007)

Also see:  

  1. The Awareness Center's Brochure  

  2. Case of Rabbi Eliezer Eisgrau

  3. Case of Aron Goldberger

  4. Case of Rabbi Matis Weinberg

  5. Case of Yosef Meystel

  6. When A Family member Molests: Reality, conflict, and The Need For Support

  7. Rabbis, Cantors and Other Trusted Officials

  8. Offenders: Problems Our Parents Wouldn't Speak Of

  9. Recidivism of Sex Offenders  (U.S. Department of Justice: Center for Sex Offender Management)

(Top)


Jefferson County Alabama - Sheriff's Office

Feb. 21, 2006

http://sheriff.jccal.org/PopUp3.asp?Location=BHAM&ID=20602472&JCID=307600

SHUMUEL, JURAVEL

Jail Location: Bham

Jail Number: 20602472

Offense Code       Offense Description     Bond Amount     Warrant Number

72999900              FEDERAL TRANSIENT     NO-BOND

(Top)


Savannah man arrested on federal sex charges

Samuel Juravel is in federal custody in Birmingham, Ala.

By Megan Matteucci

912.652.0448

Savannah Morning News - March 1, 2006

http://www.savannahnow.com/stories/030106/3683793.shtml

Federal officers arrested a Savannah insurance salesman in Birmingham last week on charges he solicited sex from children.

Samuel Juravel, 29, is being held in Alabama on charges of using the U.S. mail and Internet to coerce and entice children for sexual purposes.

Agents from the U.S. Postal Inspection Service and the FBI arrested Juravel Feb. 21 at a Birmingham hotel after he arranged to have sex with a minor, according to the Postal Inspection Service.

Juravel is being held without bond by U.S. Marshals in Birmingham, according to William Kirkconnell, the FBI's supervisory senior resident agent in Savannah. The suspect will remain in federal custody until his trial in Alabama.

Federal officers began investigating Juravel on Jan. 31 after he responded to a Craigslist.org posting online for "rare and hard to find escort services," according to an affidavit filed in U.S. District Court in Savannah. Postal inspectors filed the affidavit for a search warrant.

An undercover officer had posted the ad.

In his response, Juravel requested 11-14-year-old boys for sex, along with child pornography DVDs, according to the affidavit.

Juravel and the officer e-mailed back and forth during the first week of February, and talked about different children, payment information and travel arrangements to Birmingham to meet the child, the affidavit said.

The e-mails were sent from Juravel's home computer, the affidavit says. The FBI filed a subpoena with Comcast for the e-mails and identity of the sender.

On Feb. 8, Juravel mailed the halves of three $100 bills from Savannah to a post office box in Birmingham and specified the child he'd selected, the affidavit says.

He asked for another boy to be placed "on standby," the affidavit says.

He arrived in Birmingham Feb. 21 to find officers waiting to arrest him, said Tony Robinson, a U.S. Postal Inspector in Alabama. On the same day, FBI agents, postal inspectors, Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan Police and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents raided Juravel's 203 Groveland Circle home in Savannah's Oakdale neighborhood, Kirkconnell said. They were searching for computers, software and other items.

Juravel works for A J & C Garfunkel property and casualty insurance on Mall Boulevard. Samuel Juravel Insurance is also listed at the same address.

A phone message left for a manager at A J & C was not returned Wednesday.

(Top)


United States of America vs. Shmuel Zev Juravel (AKA: Samuel Juravel)

United States District Court, Northern District of Alabama - March 1, 2006

http://www.theawarenesscenter.org/juravel.pdf

Page 1 of 5

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ALABAMA

SOUTHERN DIVISION

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

Plaintiff,

vs.

CR-06-MJ-0026-S

SHMUEL ZEV JURAVEL,

a/k/a Samuel Juravel, Defendant.

ORDER OF DETENTION

On Friday, February 24, 2006, Magistrate Judge T. Michael Putnam held a Detention Hearing in this matter in which testimony was received and at the conclusion of the hearing found that there was a condition or a combination of conditions that would enable Defendant to be released on bond. Judge Putnam set Bond at $100,000, secured by good and sufficient sureties, with numerous special conditions of release imposed. Judge Putnam stayed Defendant's release on Government's motion until 12:00 Noon, Monday, February 27, 2006. Defendant was remanded to the custody of the U. S. Marshal.

FILED

2006 Mar-01 AM 10:53

U.S. DISTRICT COURT

N.D. OF ALABAMA

___________________________

Page 2 of 5

On Monday, February 27, 2006, Assistant U. S. Attorney John England moved for reconsideration of the detention hearing findings held before Judge Putnam. (Doc. 4.) This Court granted the motion for reconsideration and continued the stay until 12:00 Noon, Wednesday, March 1, 2006, and a subsequent detention hearing was set before the undersigned on Tuesday, February 28, 2006, at 2:45 p.m.

In accordance with the Bail Reform Act, this Court held a detention hearing on Tuesday, February 28, 2006. Evidence in the form of testimony and exhibits was received. Considering all such evidence, this Court concludes the following:

Findings of Fact

The defendant has demonstrated through his use of the internet and e-mail that he actively solicits contact with children of a young age. The defendant, in addition to the conduct involved in this case, has apparently solicited contact with unsuspecting male children ranging in age from 8 to 13 offering an opportunity to appear in a catalogue for children's clothes. In addition, based on his extensive collection of child pornography, the defendant has been involved with the active solicitation and/or collection

___________________________

Page 3 of 5

of child pornography for some time - all without his family suspecting any of it. These activities are in addition to him seeking out, negotiating for, and paying the purchase price for sexual contact with children that Defendant thought were 11 and 12 years of age.

Defendant has remarkable intellectual ability as demonstrated by his success in dramatically increasing the insurance business of his family's firm. The defendant also has demonstrated his ability to hide his activities from his family. It is obvious that he is a member of a very close and loving family, but it is clear from the evidence that Defendant has the ability to continue to hide his conduct from those who care for him the most.

The defendant's planning and forethought involved in the conduct associated with flying to Atlanta, renting a vehicle to drive to Birmingham, renting a room at a separate hotel, bringing with him condoms, pornography (child and otherwise), and a digital camera clearly evidences that Defendant has the ability to, and in all likelihood will, circumvent most any restriction this Court may impose upon him.

Finally, the defendant, if convicted, is facing a potential long-term prison sentence. Defendant's cavalier attitude in seeking out and carrying

___________________________

Page 4 of 5

on his activities in the apparent view of his family demonstrates that he will in all likelihood not be concerned about the amount of money his flight from prosecution would cost him or his family. Therefore, no amount of security would reasonably assure his appearance.

The Court finds that there is no condition or combination of conditions that will reasonably assure the appearance of the defendant as required by the Court or that will assure the safety of any other person and the community.

Conclusion

The Court finds, therefore, that the Government's motion to detain the defendant is due to be and hereby is GRANTED. It is ORDERED the defendant be committed to the custody of the Attorney General and confined to a corrections facility separate, to the extent practicable, from persons awaiting or serving sentences; that he be afforded reasonable opportunity for private consultation of counsel, and that, upon order of this Court or upon a request by an attorney for the Government, the person in charge of the corrections facility in which the defendant is confined shall

___________________________

Page 5 of 5

deliver the defendant to the United States Marshal for the purpose of appearances in this case.

Done this 1st day of March 2006.

____________

L. SCOTT COOGLER

UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE

124153

(Top)


Department of Justice Seal Department of Justice

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

March 29, 2006

http://birmingham.fbi.gov/dojpressrel/pressrel06/bh032906b.htm

FOUR MEN CHARGED IN CHILD PORNOGRAPHY CASES

BIRMINGHAM, AL - A federal grand jury has returned indictments today against four men charging them in separate cases of child pornography.

SHADE ARTHUR BALLENGER, 44 of Fort Payne, Alabama is charged in a one count indictment with possession of child pornography. If convicted he will face a federal prison sentence of up to ten years, and a fine of up to $250,000.

DARREN VINCENT GESE, 34, of Pinson, Alabama is charged in a two-count indictment with using the internet to entice a minor to engage in illegal sexual activity, and with traveling in interstate commerce for the purpose of engaging in illicit sexual conduct with another person. If convicted he will face a maximum federal prison sentence of up to thirty years, and a fine of up to $250,000.

JOHN BRADLEY POWERS, 58 of Hoover, Alabama is charged in a two-count indictment with possession of pornographic images depicting young children. POWERS' conduct was discovered after a separate investigation began in Germany revealed that POWERS received child pornography via the internet. If convicted he will face a federal prison sentence of up to ten years, and a fine of up to $250,000.

SAMUEL ZEV JURAVEL, 29, of Savannah, Georgia is charged in a four count indictment for interstate travel to have sex with a child, use of the internet to attempt to entice a child to engage in illegal sex acts, and possession of child pornography. It is alleged that on February 21, 2006, JURAVEL traveled to a location in Jefferson County to meet what he believed to be a 12-year-old and an 11-year-old for illegal sex acts. After his arrival at the location, JURAVEL was also found to be in possession of pornographic images depicting young boys. It is also alleged that from January 31 until February 21, 2006, JURAVEL used the internet to attempt to persuade, induce, and entice the boys to meet him for sex. JURAVEL now faces up to 70 years in prison if convicted on all counts, and a fine of up to $750,000.

Each also faces criminal forfeiture of computer equipment.

"Child pornography steals the innocence of childhood," stated U.S. Attorney Alice H. Martin. "These children will be protected through zealous prosecution. The message is very clear to internet users Child Pornography is prosecuted," added U.S. Attorney Martin.

Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation were instrumental in each of these cases. Special Agents of the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement investigated case involving POWERS. The Birmingham Police Department, and the DeKalb County Sheriff's Office assisted in the respective investigations.

(Top)


FBI wanting to talk to Survivors of Shmuel Juravel (in Baltimore, MD and Savannah, GA)

If you or anyone you know have been victimized by Shmuel Juravel please contact the FBI immediately. They are looking for survivors in Savannah, GA.

If you or someone you know was victimized by Shmuel Juravel while he was living in Baltimore, contact me at The Awareness Center. The FBI has been given some information regarding what you can do to help. The Awareness Center's phone number is 443-857-5560.

FBI Agents

Scott Sledd

205-279-1284

US Postal Inspector:

(Call if you have information on this case regarding child pornography, or Juravel traveling across state lines to commit a crime)

Jeff Arney

205-326-2909

The prosecuting attorneys are:

John H England, III or

Alice H Martin, US Attorney

US ATTORNEY'S OFFICE

205-244-2001

(Top)


Excerpt from Shmuel's court documents:

June 7, 2006

He was in Alabama to meet (Name Removed). The name on the email headings was (Name Removed), but he thought his true name was (Name Removed). (Name Removed) was introducing Juravel to two boys, ages 11, 12, or 13. Juravel said it was not sex, "it was an exploration." His plan was for the boys to masturbate while he watched. One of the boys was supposed to have brown hair with hazel eyes and 95 pounds. The other had brown hair and brown eyes. When asked about the "j/o and porn" mentioned in the emails, Juravel advised "j/o" meant jacking off.

...

Juravel said he had two computers at his residence, one located in the den and the other in the master bedroom. His internet service provider was Comcast with a screen name of szjj@comcast. He advised there were some gay porn movies in his home, but no movies of children. He claimed he is not gay, but has been curious for about a year. He had a male massage in Atlanta once which "came with release," although he had to perform the release himself. When asked "why young boys," Juravel responded "I don't know." He had some sexual experiences when he was 12 - 13 years old with some male friends of the same age which consisted of mutual masturbation or "masturbation both ways." Juravel advised he had never met (Name Removed), and said "we had an arrangement." (Name Removed) made Juravel cut the bills, three $100 bills, in half and mail them. He gave (Name Removed) the other half at the time of the meeting. Juravel advised he brought a suitcase containing adult porn videos, magazines, and condoms. He stopped on the way and bought the condoms because he thought (Name Removed) would ask if he had them.

for full document see: http://www.theawarenesscenter.org/Juravel-MagistrateJudgesReportandRecommendation.pdf

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ALABAMA SOUTHERN DIVISION

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

v.

SAMUEL ZEV JURAVEL,

a/k/a "Shmuel Zev Juravel"

MAGISTRATE JUDGE'S REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

(Top)


UPDATE: Case of Samuel Juravel

The Awareness Center - June 14, 2006

On May 25, 2006, there was a Pre-trail hearing on the case of Samuel Juravel. The case has been continued to July 10, 2006. There was NO plea hearing entered. Shmuel Juravel is still in custody. No bond posted  The Pre-trial hearing will be held on July 10 at 9:00 am. Judge Coogler presiding, at the US Circuit Court - Alabama Northern District, Hugo L. Black U. S. Courthouse, Birmingham, AL

Shmuel faces 70 years in Federal prison without parole plus a $750,000.00 fine.

(Top)


Update on the Court Case

Jewish Survivors of Sexual Violence Speaks Out - July 15, 2006

http://jewishsurvivors.blogspot.com/2006/07/thread-10-baltimore-jewish-times-not.html

A jury trial will continue on August 15, 2006 on the case of Samuel Juravel. Shmuel Juravel has been held in custody since his arrest back on Feb 21, 2006.

Jury Trial Continued

August 14 at 9:00 am.

Judge Coogler.

United States Circuit Court - Alabama Northern District

Hugo L. Black U. S. Courthouse

Birmingham, AL

Shmuel faces 70 years in Federal prison without parole plus a $750,000.00 fine.

Agents from the U.S. Postal Inspection Service and the FBI arrested Shmuel Juravel (Feb. 21, 2005) at a Birmingham hotel after he arranged to have sex with a minor.

Juravel grew up in Baltimore, MD. Around fifteen years ago the first allegations were made against Shmuel of child sexual molestation. According to statements made on the various threads, survivors and their parents sought help from Rabbi Moshe Heinemann who said he would take care of things. Needless to say, nothing happened.

Shmuel is the son of Rabbi Moshe and Shulamis Juravel of Baltimore, MD. Rabbi Juravel is employeed as a teacher at the Torah Institute of Baltimore. Shmuel Juravel is also the nephew of Rabbi Dovid Juravel and Rebbitzen Chana Juravel.

Samuel Juravel has 3 attorneys, 2 from the Law firm of Sirote and Permutt.

The prosecuting attorneys are:

(Top)


Press Release - United States Department of Justice

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

United States Department of Justice - August 11, 2006

Alice H. Martin

United States Attorney

Northern District of Alabama

www.usdoj.gov/usao/aln

SAVANNAH, GEORGIA MAN PLEADS GUILTY TO TRAVELING TO HAVE SEX WITH A CHILD AND USE OF THE INTERNET TO ENTICE A CHILD

BIRMINGHAM, AL - SAMUEL ZEV JURAVEL pled guilty late yesterday in United States District Court to three counts of traveling to have sex with a child and use of the internet to entice a child to engage in illegal sexual acts. JURAVEL, 30, of Savannah, Georgia, was arrested in Birmingham in March 2006 and remains in federal custody.

"Be warned - out of state child predators who travel to Alabama to harm our children will be prosecuted," states U.S. Attorney Alice H. Martin. "We will protect our children through zealous prosecution of those who take advantage of and steal the innocence of childhood."

In the Plea Agreement filed August 10, 2006, JURAVEL pled guilty to traveling from Georgia to a location in Jefferson County, Alabama, to meet with what he believed to be a 12 year old boy and an 11 year old boy for illegal sex acts. JURVAL also admitted use of the internet to attempt to persuade induce, and entice the boys to meet him for sex. Through criminal forfeiture proceedings, a lap top computer which was seized at the time of arrest will be forfeited by JURAVEL.

According to the plea agreement JURAVEL now faces 262 months imprisonment and a life time of supervised release. Additionally, JURAVEL also faces a fine which will be determined by the Court at the time of sentencing. A sentencing hearing date has not been set by the Court at this time.

This case is significant in that it brings attention to a new Federal initiative: Project Safe Childhood which was launched earlier last month. Project Safe Childhood is a major Department endeavor where U.S. Attorneys will work together with local Department-funded Internet Crimes Against Children task forces, and all their other federal, state, and local partners, in unprecedented cooperative efforts to attack online pedophiles and pornographers.

This case was investigated by Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Birmingham Police Department, and the United States Postal Inspection Service. Assistant United States Attorney John H. England, III is prosecuting this matter on behalf of the U.S. Government.

United States Attorney's Office Press Releases are also on the Internet visit www.usdoj.gov/usao/aln

Jill Ellis, Public Information Contact, 205-244-2015.

(Top)


Georgia man pleads guilty in FBI child sex sweep in Alabama

WTVM, GA - August 11, 2006

http://www.wtvm.com/Global/story.asp?S=5270704&nav=8fap

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. A Georgia man has pleaded guilty Thursday to three counts of traveling to have sex with a child and use of the Internet to entice a child to engage in illegal sex acts.

30-year-old Samuel Zev Juravel of Savannah faces 262 months in jail and a lifetime of supervised release.

He also faces a fine that will be determined by the court.

U-S- Attorney Alice H- Martin said -- quote -- "Be warned _ out of state child predators who travel to Alabama to harm our children will be prosecuted."

In the plea agreement, Juravel pleaded guilty of traveling from Georgia to Jefferson County, Alabama to meet who he thought was an 11-year-old boy and a 12-year-old boy for illegal sex acts.

He also admitted to using the Internet to try to persuade, induce and entice the boys to meet him for sex.

(Top)


Georgia man pleads guilty in FBI child sex sweep in Alabama

Associated Press - August 12, 2006

http://www.ledger-enquirer.com/mld/ledgerenquirer/news/politics/15254014.htm

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - A Georgia man has pleaded guilty Thursday to three counts of traveling to have sex with a child and use of the Internet to entice a child to engage in illegal sex acts.

Samuel Zev Juravel, 30, of Savannah, filed a plea bargain in United States District Court. He now faces 262 months in jail and a lifetime of supervised release. He also faces a fine to be determined by the court upon sentencing.

"Be warned - out of state child predators who travel to Alabama to harm our children will be prosecuted," said U.S. Attorney Alice H. Martin. "We will protect our children through zealous prosecution of those who take advantage of and steal the innocence of childhood."

In the plea agreement, Juravel pleaded guilty of traveling from Georgia to Jefferson County, Ala. to meet with what he thought was an 11-year-old boy and a 12-year-old boy for illegal sex acts.

He also admitted to using the Internet to try to persuade, induce and entice the boys to meet him for sex.

In line with criminal forfeiture proceedings, Juravel will forfeit a laptop computer seized at the time of arrest.

The case highlights a new federal initiative, Project Safe Childhood, launched earlier this month. The project involves U.S. attorneys working together with local Internet Crimes Against Children task forces, as well as other federal, state and local officials, to fight online pedophiles and pornographers.

This case involved the cooperation of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Birmingham Police Department and the U.S. Postal Inspection Service.

(Top)


Georgia man handed lengthy sentence in child sex case

The Associated Press - September 14, 2006

http://www.al.com/newsflash/regional/index.ssf?/base/news-24/1158242347159010.xml&storylist=alabamanews

Note From Jewish Whistleblower:

This is a huge victory for the efforts of those who put Juravel's survivors in touch with the FBI (The Awareness Center and the Jewish Survivors blog). Those efforts forced a very unfavorable plea agreement in a case where in the past people like Juravel got a slap on the wrist and no jail time. This is a very strong message to those in Baltimore who have protected Juravel and other sexual predators.

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. (AP) — A Georgia man will serve a lengthy prison sentence following his conviction for traveling to have sex with a child and using the Internet to entice a child to engage in illegal sex acts.

At a hearing yesterday, U.S. District Judge Scott Coogler ordered 30-year-old Samuel Zev Juravel of Savannah to serve 262 months (22 years) in prison. He must also remain under supervised probation for the rest of his life.

Federal court records show Juravel admitted in a plea deal, that in March he drove from Savannah to Birmingham to meet what he believed to be were two boys, ages 12 and 11, for illegal sex acts. The youngsters turned out to be law enforcement officers.

Juravel's arrest and prosecution is part of the F-B-I's Project Safe Childhood. The program targets Internet crimes against children.

(Top)


Today, Steve Is 25.

By Phil Jacobs

Baltimore Jewish Times - February 23, 2007

The teacher's son. Steve was 11. (Case of Shmuel Juravel)

The yeshiva administrator. Steve was 13.(Case of Yosef Meystel

The attorney (Brad Hames). Steve was 15.(Case of Brad Hames)

(Top)


FAIR USE NOTICE

Some of the information on The Awareness Center's web pages may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc.

We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml . If you wish to use copyrighted material from this update for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

(Top)


        

Last Updated:  02/22/2007


"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has."

--Margaret Mead

(Top)