UNDP Home Human Development Home HDR 2006

Venezuela, RB
HDI Rank - 72

1. Human development index

Human development index (HDI) value, 20040.784
Life expectancy at birth (years) (HDI), 200473.0
Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older) (HDI), 200493.0
Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools (%), 20047412
GDP per capita (PPP US$) (HDI), 20046,043
Life expectancy index0.80
Education index0.87
GDP index0.68
GDP per capita (PPP US$) rank minus HDI rank17

1a. Basic indicators for other UN member countries

Life expectancy at birth (years) (HDI), 2000-0572.8
Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older) (HDI), 200493.0
Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools (%) (HDI), 200474.2
GDP per capita (PPP US$) (HDI), 20046,043
Total population (thousands), 200426,282
Total fertility rate (births per woman), 2000-052.7
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 200419
Net primary enrolment ratio (%), 200492
HIV prevalence (% ages 15-49), 20050.7 [0.3 – 8.9]
People undernourished (% of total population), 2001-0318
Population with sustainable access to an improved water source (%), 200483

2. Human development index trends

Human development index, 19750.719
Human development index, 19800.734
Human development index, 19850.742
Human development index, 19900.760
Human development index, 19950.768
Human development index, 20000.774
Human development index, 20040.784

3. Human and income poverty: developing countries

Human poverty index (HPI-1) Rank16
Human Poverty Index (HPI-1) Value (%)8.8
Probability at birth of not surviving to age 40 (% of cohort), 2000-058.2
Adult illiteracy rate (% ages 15 and older), 20047.0
Population without sustainable access to an improved water source (%), 200417
Children underweight for age (% under age 5) (HPI..1), 1996-20044
Population living below $1 a day (%), 1990-20048.3
Population living below $2 a day (%), 1990-200427.6
Population living below the national poverty line (%), 1990-200331.33
HPI-1 rank minus income poverty rank- 11

4. Human and income poverty: OECD countries, Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS

Human poverty index (HPI-2) Rank..
Human poverty index (HPI-2) Value (%)..
Probability at birth of not surviving to age 60 (% of cohort), 2000-0517.6
People lacking functional literacy skills (% ages 16-65), 1994-2003..
Long-term unemployment (as % of labour force), 2005..
Population living below 50% of median income (%), 1999-2002..
Population living below $11 a day (1994 PPP US$), 1994-95..
Population living below $4 a day (1990 PPP US$), 1996-99..
HPI-2 rank minus income poverty rank..

5. Demographic trends

Total population (millions), 197512.7
Total population (millions), 200426.3
Total population (millions), 201531.3
Annual population growth rate (%), 1975-20042.5
Annual population growth rate (%), 2004-151.6
Urban population (% of total), 197575.8
Urban population (% of total), 200493.0
Urban population (% of total), 201595.9
Population under age 15 (% of total), 200431.7
Population under age 15 (% of total), 201527.8
Population ages 65 and older (% of total), 20044.9
Population ages 65 and older (% of total), 20156.8
Total fertility rate (births per woman), 1970-754.9
Total fertility rate (births per woman), 2000-052.7

6. Commitment to health: resources, access and services

Public health expenditure (% of GDP), 20032.0
Private health expenditure (% of GDP), 20032.5
Health expenditure per capita (PPP US$), 2003231
One-year-olds fully immunized against tuberculosis (%), 200497
One-year-olds fully immunized against measles (%), 200480
Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration and continued feeding (% under age 5), 1996-200451
Contraceptive prevalence rate (% of married women ages 15-49), 1996-2004..
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%), 1996-200494
Physicians (per 100,000 people), 1990-2004194

7. Water, sanitation and nutritional status

Population with sustainable access to improved sanitation (%), 1990..
Population with sustainable access to improved sanitation (%), 200468
Population with sustainable access to an improved water source (%), 1990..
Population with sustainable access to an improved water source (%), 200483
Population undernourished (% total), 1990-9211
Population undernourished (% total), 2001-0318
Children underweight for age (% under age 5), 1996-20044
Children under height for age (% under age 5), 1996-200413
Infants with low birthweight (%), 1996-20047

8. Inequalities in maternal and child health

Survey year for inequality data in table 8..
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%). Poorest 20%..
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%). Richest 20%..
One-year-olds fully immunized (%). Poorest 20%..
One-year-olds fully immunized (%). Richest 20%..
Children under height for age (% under age 5). Poorest 20%..
Children under height for age (% under age 5). Richest 20%..
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births). Poorest 20%..
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births). Richest 20%..
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births). Poorest 20%..
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births). Richest 20%..

9. Leading global health crises and risks

HIV prevalence (% ages 15-49), 20050.7 [0.3 – 8.9]
Condom use at last high-risk sex (% ages 15-24), women, 1998-2004..
Condom use at last high-risk sex (% ages 15-24), men, 1998-2004..
Children under age 5 using insecticide-treated bednets (%), 1999-2004..
Children under age 5 with fever treated with antimalarial drugs (%), 1999-2004..
Tuberculosis cases - prevalence (per 100,000 people), 200452
Tuberculosis cases detected under DOTS (%), 200477
Tuberculosis cases cured under DOTS (%), 200382
Prevalence of smoking (% of adults), women, 2002-04..
Prevalence of smoking (% of adults), men, 2002-04..

10. Survival: progress and setbacks

Life expectancy at birth (years), 1970-7565.7
Life expectancy at birth (years), 2000-0572.8
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 197047
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 200416
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 197061
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 200419
Probability at birth of surviving to age 65, female (% of cohort), 2000-0582.8
Probability at birth of surviving to age 65, male (% of cohort), 2000-0571.7
Maternal mortality ratio reported (per 100,000 live births), 1990-200468
Maternal mortality ratio adjusted (per 100,000 live births), 200096

11. Commitment to education: public spending

Public expenditure on education (as % of GDP), 19914.5
Public expenditure on education (as % of GDP), 2002-04..
Public expenditure on education (as % of total government expenditure), 199117.0
Public expenditure on education (as % of total government expenditure), 2002-04..
Current public expenditure on education, pre-primary and primary (as % of all levels), 1991..
Current public expenditure on education, pre-primary and primary (as % of all levels), 2002-04..
Current public expenditure on education, secondary (% of all levels), 1991..
Current public expenditure on education, secondary (% of all levels), 2002-04..
Current public expenditure on education, tertiary (% of all levels), 1991..
Current public expenditure on education, tertiary (% of all levels), 2002-04..

12. Literacy and enrolment

Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older), 199088.9
Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older), 200493.0
Youth literacy rate (% ages 15-24), 199096.0
Youth literacy rate (% ages 15-24), 200497.2
Net primary enrolment ratio (%), 199187
Net primary enrolment ratio (%), 200492
Net secondary enrolment ratio (%), 199118
Net secondary enrolment ratio (%), 200461
Children reaching grade 5 (% of grade 1 students), 199186
Children reaching grade 5 (% of grade 1 students), 200391
Tertiary students in science, engineering, manufacturing and construction (% of tertiary students), 1999-2004..

13. Technology: diffusion and creation

Telephone mainlines (per 1,000 people), 199075
Telephone mainlines (per 1,000 people), 2004128
Cellular subscribers (per 1,000 people), 1990(.)
Cellular subscribers (per 1,000 people), 2003322
Internet users (per 1,000 people), 19900
Internet users (per 1,000 people), 200389
Patents granted to residents (per million people), 2004..
Receipts of royalties and license fees (US$ per person), 20040
Research and development (R&D) expenditures (% of GDP), 2000-030.3
Researchers in R&D (per million people), 1990-2003236

14. Economic performance

GDP (US$ billions), 2004110.1
GDP (PPP US$ billions), 2004157.9
GDP per capita (US$), 20044,214
GDP per capita (PPP US$), 20046,043
GDP per capita annual growth rate (%), 1975-2004- 0.9
GDP per capita annual growth rate (%), 1990-2004- 1.2
GDP per capita, highest value (PPP US$), 1975-20048,255
GDP per capita, year of highest value1977
Average annual change in consumer price index (%), 1990-200439.3
Average annual change in consumer price index (%), 2003-0421.8

15. Inequality in income or expenditure

Survey Year20004
Share of income or consumption (%) - Poorest 10%1.6
Share of income or consumption (%) - Poorest 20%4.7
Share of income or consumption (%) - Richest 20%49.3
Share of income or consumption (%) - Richest 10%32.8
Inequality measures - Ratio of richest 10% to poorest 10%20.4
Inequality measures - Ratio of richest 20% to poorest 20%10.6
Inequality measures - Gini index44.1

16. The structure of trade

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP), 199020
Imports of goods and services (% of GDP), 200420
Exports of goods and services (% of GDP), 199039
Exports of goods and services (% of GDP), 200436
Primary exports (% of merchandise exports), 199090
Primary exports (% of merchandise exports), 200488
Manufactured exports (% of merchandise exports), 199010
Manufactured exports (% of merchandise exports), 200412
High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports), 19904
High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports), 20043
Terms of trade (1980=100), 200470

17. Rich country responsibilities: aid

Net official development assistance (ODA) disbursed, Total (US$ millions), 2004..
Net official development assistance (ODA) disbursed, As % of GNI, 1990..
Net official development assistance (ODA) disbursed, As % of GNI, 2004..
ODA per capita of donor country (2004 US$), 1990..
ODA per capita of donor country (2004 US$), 20040
ODA to least developed countries (% of total), 19900
ODA to least developed countries (% of total), 2004..
ODA to basic social services (% of total), 1995-1996..
ODA to basic social services (% of total), 2003-2004..
Untied bilateral ODA (% of total), 1990..
Untied bilateral ODA (% of total), 2004..

18. Flows of aid, private capital and debt

Official development assistance (ODA) received (net disbursements) Total (US$ millions), 200448.6
Official development assistance (ODA) received (net disbursements) Per capita (US$), 20041.8
Official development assistance (ODA) received (net disbursements) (as % of GDP), 19900.2
Official development assistance (ODA) received (net disbursements) (as % of GDP), 2004(.)
Net foreign direct investment inflows (% of GDP), 19901.0
Net foreign direct investment inflows (% of GDP), 20041.4
Other private flows (% of GDP), 1990- 1.2
Other private flows (% of GDP), 20040.6
Total debt service (As % of GDP), 199010.6
Total debt service (As % of GDP), 20046.0
Total debt service (As % exports of goods, services and net income from abroad), 199019.6
Total debt service (As % exports of goods, services and net income from abroad), 200410.5

19. Priorities in public spending

Public expenditure on health (% of GDP), 2003-042.0
Public expenditure on education (% of GDP), 19914.5
Public expenditure on education (% of GDP), 2002-04..
Military expenditure (% of GDP), 1990..
Military expenditure (% of GDP), 20041.2
Total debt service (% of GDP), 199010.6
Total debt service (% of GDP), 20046.0

20. Unemployment in OECD countries

Unemployed people (thousands), 2005..
Unemployment rate Total (% of labour force), 2005..
Unemployment rate Average annual (% of labour force), 1995-2005..
Unemployment rate Female (% of male rate), 2005..
Youth unemployment rate Total (% of labour force ages 15-24), 2005..
Youth unemployment rate Female (% of male rate), 2005..
Long-term unemployment (% of total unemployment): Women, 2005..
Long-term unemployment (% of total unemployment): Men, 2005..

21. Energy and the environment

Traditional fuel consumption (% of total energy requirements), 20032.5
Electricity consumption per capita (kilowatt-hours), 19802,379
Electricity consumption per capita (kilowatt-hours), 20033,510
GDP per unit of energy use (2000 PPP US$ per kg of oil equivalent), 19802.9
GDP per unit of energy use (2000 PPP US$ per kg of oil equivalent), 20032.3
Carbon dioxide emissions - Per capita (metric tons), 19805.8
Carbon dioxide emissions - Per capita (metric tons), 20035.6
Carbon dioxide emissions - Share of world total (%), 20030.6
Ratification of environmental treaties - Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
Ratification of environmental treaties - Framework Convention on Climate Change
Ratification of environmental treaties - Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change
Ratification of environmental treaties - Convention on Biological Diversity

22. Refugees and armaments

Internally displaced people (thousands), 2005..
Refugees by country of asylum (thousands), 20050
Refugees by country of origin (thousands), 20053
Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions), 19950
Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions), 20057
Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Exports (US$ millions), 20050
Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Exports (share %), 2001-05(.)
Total armed forces (Thousands), 200682
Total armed forces Index (1985=100), 2006167

24. Gender-related development index

Gender-related development index (GDI) rank, 200460
Gender-related development index (GDI) value, 20040.780
Life expectancy at birth, female (years), 200476.1
Life expectancy at birth, male (years), 200470.2
Adult literacy rate, female (% ages 15 and older), 200492.7
Adult literacy rate, male (% ages 15 and older), 200493.3
Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools, female (%) , 20047656
Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools, male (%) , 20047356
Estimated earned income, female (PPP US$), 20044,0837
Estimated earned income, male (PPP US$), 20047,9827
HDI rank minus GDI rank, 2004- 2

25. Gender empowerment measure

Gender empowerment measure (GEM) rank46
Gender empowerment measure (GEM) value0.532
Seats in parliament held by women (% of total)18.0
Female legislators, senior officials and managers (% of total)27
Female professional and technical workers (% of total)61
Ratio of estimated female to male earned income0.51

26. Gender inequality in education

Adult literacy rate (female rate % ages 15 and older), 200492.7
Adult literacy rate (female rate as % of male rate), 200499
Youth literacy rate (female rate % ages 15-24), 200498.1
Youth literacy rate (female rate as % of male rate), 2004102
Net primary enrolment - female ratio (%), 200492
Net primary enrolment - ratio of female to male , 20041.01
Net secondary enrolment - female ratio (%), 200466
Net secondary enrolment - ratio of female to male , 20041.15
Gross tertiary enrolment - female ratio (%), 20044189
Gross tertiary enrolment - ratio of female to male , 20041.0789

27. Gender inequality in economic activity

Female economic activity rate (% ages 15 and older), 200455.9
Female economic activity (index, 1990=100, ages 15 and older), 2004148
Female economic activity (as % of male rate, ages 15 and older), 200467
Female employment in agriculture (%), 1995-20032
Male employment in agriculture (%), 1995-200315
Female employment in industry (%), 1995-200312
Male employment in industry (%), 1995-200328
Female employment in services (%), 1995-200386
Male employment in services (%), 1995-200357
Women contributing family workers (%), 1995-2004..
Men contributing family workers (%l), 1995-2004..

29. Women's political participation

Year women received right to vote1946
Year women received right to stand for election1946
Year first woman elected (E) or appointed (A) to parliament1948 E
Women in government at ministerial level (as % of total), 200513.6
Seats in lower house or single house held by women (as % of total), 199010
Seats in lower house or single house held by women (as % of total), 200618.0
Seats in upper house or senate held by women (as % of total), 2006..

30. Status of major international human rights instruments

International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 1979
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 1984
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989

31. Status of fundamental labour rights conventions

Freedom of association and collective bargaining - Convention 87
Freedom of association and collective bargaining - Convention 98
Elimination of forced and compulsory labour - Convention 29
Elimination of forced and compulsory labour - Convention 105
Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation - Convention 100
Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation - Convention 111
Abolition of child labour - Convention 138
Abolition of child labour - Convention 182

Notes:
1 - Data refer to year other than that specified
2 - Preliminary national or UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimate, subject to further revision.
3 - Data refer to a period other than that specified.
4 - Data refer to income shares by percentiles of population, ranked by per capita income.
5 - Preliminary UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimate, subject to further revision.
6 - Data refer to a year other than that specified.
7 - No wage data are available. For the purposes of calculating the estimated female and male earned income, a value of 0.75 was used for the ratio of the female nonagricultural wage to the male nonagricultural wage.
8 - Data refer to the 2003 school year.
9 - Preliminary UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimate, subject to further revision.