1882 - 2007

125th Anniversary of RSC

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2006 - Brett B. Finlay, FRSC

Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, University of British Columbia

Dr. Finlay is an international leader in the field of microbial pathogenesis and one of the world's foremost biomedical scientists. His research productivity and impact have been truly exceptional and he has played a pioneering role in establishing the field of cellular microbiology. Seminal discoveries and application of this information have helped develop creative and novel approaches to control the microbial menaces that threaten humans worldwide.

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2004 - Brian D. Sykes, FRSC

Over the course of his 35-year career, Brian D. Sykes, FRSC, Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, has made distinguished contributions in nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems and has pioneered several NMR techniques that are widely used for investigations of proteins. Brian has been a leader in analyzing protein structure and dynamics. notably in the regulation of muscular contraction mediated by calcium ions, and more recently in cytokine and antifreeze protein structural and mechanistic studies. His work has provided a molecular basis for mechanisms through which the binding of ligands to proteins and conformational changes are coupled. Brian's lab has published over 400 papers of consistently excellent quality, some of which have appeared in Science and Nature. Despite the depth and intensity of his research career, Brian has served on many professional and university committees and has functioned in many roles to advance science and education at the local, national and international levels. He has, for example, served a three-year term on the Executive of the Canadian Society of Biochemistry and Cellular & Molecular Biology as Vice-President, President and Past-President. He has been a guiding light in the inception and direction of the Protein Engineering Network of Centres of Excellence. Very recently, he has helped set up the High Field NMR facility (NANUC) in Edmonton as a truly national resource for sophisticated NMR experimentation. He has also served as Chair of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Alberta at a critical time for rebuilding and rejuvenating the Department through new recruitment.

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2002 - Lewis E. Kay

Lewis E. Kay, Professor, Departments of Medical Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry, University of Toronto, has made ground-breaking advances in the development and application of biological Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, including pioneering novel NMR experiments for the study of biomolecular structure and dynamics, the introduction of new isotope labelling schemes facilitating structural studies of large proteins in the solution state and the development of the theoretical framework for relating protein dynamics to thermodynamics. His work has provided important insights into protein structure and dynamics and their relation to biological function.

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2000 - David R. Jones, FRSC

Dr. David R. Jones, Professor of Zoology, The University of British Columbia, is internationally recognized as one of the world's premier comparative physiologists. The main theme in his work is regulatory and integrative physiology, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular control. He is best known for his work on control of the respiratory defence syndrome in vertebrates, using the diving reflexes in aquatic birds and mammals as his model systems. These studies quantified the roles of chemo- and baroreceptors, of nasal receptors, of the endocrine system, and of key nuclei in the central nervous system in regulation of the diving response in birds and mammals. In later, completely unique studies, he examined details of the diving response during voluntary diving at sea in the northern elephant seal and the giant leatherback turtle. His current interests in this field include Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and real-time micro-computer assisted monitoring of the electrocardiogram during voluntary diving in large seals, the latter a revolutionary first in the field. Actually his applications of late twentieth century technologies to field studies are not surpassed by anyone else, anywhere else, worldwide. His comparative work fits the paradigm of the world as his natural laboratory and has included cardiovascular studies in tuna and other fishes, in crocodilians, and even in the giant Gippsland earthworm of Australia.

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1998 - Anthony Pawson, FRSC

Anthony Pawson, FRSC, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, has revolutionized our understanding of signal transduction, and the molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to external cues. His pioneering work on protein modules that control intracellular signalling downstream of tyrosine kinases has been instrumental in elucidating the language through which cells communicate in multi-cellular organisms. Starting with the discovery of SH2 domains in 1986, Dr. Pawson was the first to recognize the importance of protein domains and their role in mediating protein-protein interactions. These interactions are central to the biochemical mechanisms that govern cell-cell communication in all mammals and other organisms. Dr. Pawson's contributions have had a profound and broad impact on our understanding of health and disease, as evidenced most recently by his inclusion as the only Canadian scientist amongst the world's most cited biomedical researchers in the 1990s.

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1996 - Ian C.P. Smith, FRSC

Ian Smith, FRSC is probably the best known Canadian biophysicist in the history of the discipline and is amongst the 1000 most cited scientists in the world, 1965-1985. His contribution to biological science has been to take a rigorous approach to explaining biological processes in molecular terms. He has generated new concepts which form the basis for much of the contemporary view of biological membranes. Dr. Smith's most recent crusade has been to apply the rigorous logical and experimental approach of the physical scientist to medical problems, resulting in the formation of the new National Research Council Institute for Biodiagnostics in Winnipeg. His over 380 publications tell it all.

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1994 - Robert J. Cedergren, MSRC

Citation available in French only.

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1992 - Michael Smith, FRSC

The contribution of Michael Smith to biology results from his systematic studies on the properties of chemically synthesized DNA fragments known as oligonucleotides and their use in molecular genetics. He was the first to demonstrate that a synthetic oligonucleotide could be used as a probe to monitor the cloning and isolation of specific genes and used it as a primer in DNA sequence determination by systematically “walking” along each strand of double-stranded DNA. The method of oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis which he pioneered is generally recognized as a powerful and widely used tool for the study of gene function and particularly protein engineering. (Michael Smith received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993).

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1990 - Peter W. Hochachka, FRSC

Dr. Hochachka is described as the most innovative and creative biological scientist of his generation. His imagination and determination has led to the development of new lines of research concerned with the way animals survive extreme environmental conditions. Recognized nationally and internationally as a pathfinder in adaptational biochemistry, he is continually sought after at scientific congresses. As one of the first investigators to apply modern biochemical approaches to questions of environmental adaptation, Dr. Hochachka's early work. revealed many of the important types of adaptation associated with variations in temperature hydrostatic pressure and oxygen availability. Lately, he has made his primary mark doing whole organism physiology. Dr. Hochachka's scientific reputation is founded on his strengths in experimental work and in developing new and novel theories about a wide range of biological phenomena. His knowledge of adaptation to hypoxia, for example, has had an impact on attitudes to human fetal and neonatal medicine.

Dr. Hochachka was born in Therien, Alberta in 1937. He studied at the University of Alberta (B.Sc. [Hons.], 1959), Dalhousie University (M.Sc., 1961) and Duke University (Ph.D., 1964). In 1966, he joined the University of British Columbia where he is currently professor of Zoology. His lengthy professional service record as visiting investigator and visiting professor includes symposia and universities in Australia, England, Peru, Czechoslovakia, Italy, the USA and Canada. Among his prolific scholarly output (including five books and more than 150 papers) he has written Metabolic Arrest and the Control of Biological Time in which he proposes interesting and provocative hypotheses to explain how some animals can “turn off” their metabolisms in response to environmental demands.

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1988 - Robert H. Haynes, FRSC

Dr. Haynes has made outstanding contributions to our understanding of genetic stability and change. Understanding of how damage to DNA is repaired is important in understanding mechanisms of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, aging, and the effects of radiation, and Dr. Haynes has contributed pioneering, seminal work in helping understand the mechanisms of DNA repair. He continues to contribute to this area of research, and to the mathematical analysis of the relationship between dose-rate and mutagenesis. His most recent work deals with genes that influence mutation by means of effects on deoxynucleotide pools.(He was president of the Society, 1995-97)

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1986 - G.H.N. Towers, FRSC

Professor Towers has made valuable discoveries in phytochemistry, photobiology, chemical ecology, medical botany, and ethnopharmacology. He has described new antiviral, antifungal, and molluscicidal chemicals produced by plants, as well as phototoxins of potential use in agriculture and medicine. He has discovered chemical principles involved in the development of allergic contact dermatitis caused by several plant species and, in collaboration with immunologists, has introduced the concept of photoimmunotherapy for cancers. He has also uncovered major chemical changes in plant cell walls following exposure to light. He has published 250 research papers and has been invited to lecture in more than thirty different countries.

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1984 - Robert G.E. Murray, FRSC

Robert G. E. Murray, FRSC, Department of Microbiology, The University of Western Ontario, is one of the world's leading authorities on bacterial cell surfaces. His role was pivotal in the first demonstration of the existence of the outer membrane of the gram-negative bacterial cell; his more recent work has demonstrated the precise molecular lattice formed by the protein components of the membrane. Dr. Murray has, throughout his career, continued to make incremental advances as the resolution of electron microscopes has developed. In the process he applied computerized optical diffraction and complex protein biochemical techniques to the basic problem of the structure of bacterial cell surfaces. His sustained brilliant insights have made significant conceptual advances and he is a true intellectual leader in his field. Dr. Murray's father, E. G. D. Murray, was awarded the Flavelle Medal in 1953.

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1982 - Clayton O. Person, FRSC

Clayton O. Person, FRSC, Department of Botany, The University of British Columbia, is generally acknowledged as one of the world's leading authorities on the genetics of plant parasites. Following pioneer work on wheat rust, he turned to the theoretical implications of the gene-for-gene relationship between host and parasite. Dr. Person showed how the inherent mathematical properties of this relationship could be used to understand the complexities of resistance genes and physiologic races in many parasite systems. His ideas are widely used for analysing systems in which genetical studies of host or parasite either cannot be conducted or are difficult. His mathematical approach to the problem of microevolutionary change in host-parasite co-evolution played a major part in the development of the population genetics of host-parasite interaction. Clayton Person's sustained research has had great practical benefit in the understanding and control of parasites in cereal crops, coffee, and forest trees.

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1980 - Gordon H. Dixon, FRSC

Gordon Dixon has made notable contributions to the knowledge of the structure of the haptoglobulins of blood serum as they affect the combining properties of the A and B chains of insulin, and on the structure-function relations of pancreatic enzymes. His major work has been on the regulation of gene expression during differentiation processes using the sexual organs of salminoid fishes as his model system. This work was initiated at the University of British Columbia by studies on the modifications in protamine structure which precede the massive growth of the trout testis prior to spawning. He extended these investigations at the universities of Sussex and Calgary by work on the sequence of changes in nucleic acid and protein components of the developing testis. Dixon's stature as a teacher, preceptor, and scholar and his fundamental contribution to endocrinology, developmental biology, and to medical research as a discipline are internationally acclaimed.

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1978 - Louis Siminovitch, FRSC

Louis Siminovitch, professor and chairman of the department of Medical Genetics of the University of Toronto, is one of Canada’s best known biological scientists. Author or coauthor, at last count, of 147 scientific papers, reviews, and articles in journals books, and at home in the whole spectrum of disciplines which characterizes the science of molecular biology, he has done much to maintain Canada in the forefront of modern biological research.

A graduate of McGill University in physical chemistry, where he studied under the late Dr. Wikler, and shortly thereafter a member of the NRC team which, under the late Dr. Steacie, pioneered the use of radioisotopes in Canada, Professor Siminovitch was won over to biology when he travelled to the Pasteur Institute in France on a Royal Society of Canada fellowship. There he shared in the exciting developments in microbiology, which were to lay the foundation for the new science of molecular genetics and to transform the science of biology for the next two decades. There he also acquired the skills and insight which were to prepare him for a similar assault later on the formidable problem of the genetics of the mammalian cell. First, however, he returned to the University of Toronto and the Ontario Cancer Institute, where he and his colleagues and students made significant contributions of their own to microbiology through their studies on the conservation of DNA and mutations in bacteriophage lambda. But the work of his team really came to fruition in the last decade: in a series of brilliant and incisive studies on the processes underlying proliferation and differentiation of the mutants of somatic cells, he and his colleagues were able to show that the techniques which had proved so rewarding in the resolution of the molecular basis of genetics in microorganisms but which had hitherto been limited in their applicability to prokaryotes, could now be used just as effectively in the study of eukaryotes, and particularly the mammalian cell. Their progress since has been rapid, and their studies promise to yield important new information on gene regulation in mammalian cells with results of profound significance to biology, medicine, and probably the cancer problem. More recently, Professor Siminovitch and his team have further exploited the technique of transfer and incorporation of chromosome material into the mammalian cell, and an entirely new and dramatic phase of genetic experimentation on mammalian cells has been entered upon. These studies should have even greater impact on efforts to resolve genetic processes in mammalian cells.

Not content with these studies, which fulfil his long-standing ambition to contribute more directly to the health and welfare of mankind, Professor Siminovitch has, as chairman of his department, been one of the prime movers in the application of genetic knowledge and research methods to the early diagnosis of genetic disease. The large number of amniocenteses which have been performed in Toronto has led to the detection of a significant number of genetic defects. Eventually, Professor Siminovitch's efforts on radio and television and in the newspapers in the campaign to gain more support for scientific research in Canada are widely known.

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1976 - Michael Shaw, FRSC

The Flavelle Medal is awarded to Dr. Michael Shaw for his outstanding research on rust fungi, which cause severe economic losses in wheat and flax. By detailed analysis of these host plants during infection, Dr. Shaw and his collaborators have elucidated the complex interactions which occur between the parasite and its host. Of major importance is their finding that the fungus alters the expression of host genes by causing synthesis of specific nucleic acids. More recently, Dr. Shaw's group has successfully cultured these rust fungi in isolation from their hosts. This is an exciting development and will allow more detailed work on the biochemistry of these important pathogens.

Michael Shaw is a graduate of McGill University. After completing his Ph.D. at Macdonald College, he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Botany School of Cambridge University. On returning to Canada he joined the Department of Biology at the University of Saskatchewan, a department he subsequently headed in 1961. At Saskatoon, he pioneered a modern approach to plant host-parasite relations and investigated the nature of resistance to parasite attack in this area of Canada where rust infections of wheat are of major economic significance. In 1967 he moved to the University of British Columbia as dean of agricultural sciences, and last year he was appointed vice-president, university development (academic). Dr. Shaw has been editor of the Canadian Journal of Botany since 1967 and has served on many advisory committees related to agricultural research and development. Despite these many commitments he remains a highly productive research scientist.

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1974 - Juda Hirsh Quastel, FRSC

Juda Hirsch Quastel received his early education in his native city of Sheffield and served with the British Army from 1917 to 1919. He obtained the baccalaureate from the Imperial College, London, in 1921 and the doctorate of philosophy in biochemistry in 1924 from Cambridge, where he had carried on his graduate study under (Sir) Frederick Gowland Hopkins and was a Fellow of Trinity College. From 1923 to 1929 he continued in Hopkins’ department as demonstrator and lecturer and pioneered in the investigation of microbial enzymology. During this period he obtained the doctorate of science from Cambridge in 1926 and was awarded a Beit Memorial Fellowship in 1928. In 1930 he accepted the position of director of research at the Cardiff City Mental Hospital. This meant changing his course of research, but not the essential principles, and for twelve years he carried on pioneer and notable work on the metabolism and enzymology of the brain. A Rockefeller Traveling Fellowship in 1937 enabled him to personalize the many acquaintances he had made over the years with scientists of like interests through correspondence.

In the second year of the Second World War, when Britain's food supply became a paramount concern, the Agricultural Research Council persuaded him to head a new research group at the Rothamsted Experimental Station. The object of this ARC Unit was to improve crop yield. The abrupt shift of interest from brain metabolism to soil fertility is a fact of which few would be capable. However, he accepted the call and with characteristic energy and resourcefulness soon had the unit launched upon a practical programme of research. To him soil is not an inert material but a dynamic system. Accordingly, he applied techniques, such as perfusion, which he had used in studies with animal organs, to a variety of soils. In this way he ascertained the influence of plant hormones, inhibitors and other chemicals on the behaviour of the mixed populations of microorganisms in the soil and their effects on plant growth. The work of the unit was kept secret but after the war some of the findings were released for commercial application. Among them, the chemical commonly known as 2,4-D came into world-wide use as a weed-killer. Another chemical, now produced in large quantities, is used as a soil conditioner and marketed under the trade name Krilium. Dr. Quastel was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1940.

After the war he was invited to become assistant director of the newly created McGill-Montreal General Hospital Research Institute and professor of biochemistry at McGill. The opportunity for teaching, research, and the training of graduate students appealed to him and in 1947 he accepted the invitation. The following year he was appointed director of the Institute. He attracted many graduate students and postdoctoral workers and before long the spacious old home in which the Institute was housed was a hive of industry from basement to attic. Among his early discoveries at the Institute was the realization that he was obliged to raise most of the money to keep the place running. He proved very successful in this. In his nineteen years at McGill he himself supervised seventy Ph.D. candidates. The work of his Institute resulted in publication of more than three hundred scientific papers on a variety of researches—metabolism of micro-organisms, soil biochemistry, neurobiochemistry, neurotropic drugs, anaesthesia, cancer biochemistry, enzyme inhibition, and transport of nutrients and ions across membranes. Having reached the retirement age at McGill, in 1966 he accepted an invitation to the professorship of neurochemistry in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of British Columbia. The research of his group there is oriented towards problems pertaining to brain, and the integration of neurochemical and neurophysiological phenomena.

Dr. Quastel has received many honours. Most highly placed among them is Canada's highest recogni-tion, Companion of the Order of Canada, awarded in 1970. In the same year he received a honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, of which he has been a governor since 1950. He received the honorary D.Sc. from McGill in 1969. Among his other distinctions may be counted the numerous and prestigious memorial lectures he has been invited to deliver in many countries. He has effectively served on national committees in the United Kingdom. A tireless worker, with broad scientific interests, a wide-ranging curiosity, a keen faculty for correlation, and a varied background of experience, Professor J. H. Quastel has never lacked for the principal tool of the investigator—ideas; not simply ideas, but good ideas. These, combined with his masterly experimental style, have allowed him to contribute much to new knowledge of biochemistry. On this his fiftieth anniversary as a scientific investigator, the Royal Society of Canada is honoured to honour him with one of its highest awards.

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1972 - D. Harold Copp, FRSC

Douglas Harold Copp is a native of Toronto, where in 1939 he completed a medical degree with high distinction. Thereafter he continued his studies at the University of California at Berkeley, where he first became involved with the use of radioactive tracers in biological research; from this experience stemmed one of his abiding interests, namely the use of isotopes for research, and for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This interest is attested by his membership on a number of advisory panels on the clinical use of isotopes, on the biological effects of radiation, on the National Cancer Institute, and by his intimate involvement some years ago with the United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.

Harold Copp's other continuous interest has been the study of calcium homeostasis. We honour him particularly now for his discovery of the hormone calcitonin which, with the parathyroid hormone, regulates the concentration of calcium circulating in the blood; and for his identification of its genesis in the cells of the ultimobranchial gland. This work has received wide publicity and just recognition in the last year or two; it is, however, based on studies of many years' duration pursued with imagination and skill, and which have been crowned by a discovery potentially of considerable significance in a clinical setting. For his earlier work in this area Dr. Copp was honoured by the Gairdner Foundation; more recently he has been elected to Fellowship in the Royal Society of London.

In addition to his purely scientific concerns, Dr. Copp has been the head of the Physiology Department in the Medical Faculty of the University of British Columbia since its foundation in 1950, and has been largely responsible for its growth and development from a very modest beginning. He has served the Faculty Association of his university as its president and has filled the same office also with the Canadian Physiological Society and the National Cancer Institute; and for ten years he has lent his wisdom to the deliberations of the grants committees of the Medical Research Council.

In recognition of his many contributions to the Biomedical Sciences and, more particularly, for the discovery of the hormone capcitonin and his persistence in localizing its source in the enigmatic ultimobranchial glands, it is my privilege and honour to present D. Harold Copp with the Flavelle Medal.

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1970 - William Edwin Ricker, FRSC

Dr. Ricker, chief scientist of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, is undoubtedly one of the foremost fisheries scientists of Canada and of North America. The American Fisheries Society created last year a new Award of Excellence and named Dr. Ricker as its first recipient, recognizing his original and excellent contribution to the fisheries sciences. Dr. Ricker, who has published more than 100 papers, is considered all over the world as an expert in the study of population dynamics and has made original contributions to many other fisheries aspects. He was a professor at the University of Indiana for eleven years and editor of the Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada for twelve years.

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1968 - Jacques Genest, MSRC

The academic dossier of Dr. Jacques Genest, one of Canada's most distinguished investigators in the field of internal medicine, is indeed impressive. He enrolled in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Montreal in 1937, obtained his M.D. degree in 1942, and was, at the same time, decorated with the University's Order of Merit. He began his postgraduate training at Hôtel-Dieu Hospital in Montreal where he was Resident in Medicine from 1942 to 1944, Resident in Pathology from 1944 to 1945, and Chief Intern from 1943 to 1945. There then followed a six-year period of study in the United States, beginning as Assistant Resident in Medicine for six months at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, followed by two and a half years’ research on the haemodynamics and metabolism of cardio-renal physiology. In 1948, after a short time at the Harvard School of Chemistry, he went to the Rockefeller Hospital for Medical Research in New York where, as Assistant in Medicine and Research Associate, he investigated the metabolism and role of steroids in endocrinology.

In 1952, following an official inquiry, which he conducted for the government of the Province of Quebec to obtain information on Western European centres of medical and diagnostic research, Dr. Genest returned to Montreal to head the Clinical Research Unit of Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, where he has in addition directed the Department of Medicine since 1964. Also in 1964, Dr. Genest was appointed Full Professor and Chairman of the Department of Medicine at the University of Montreal. He was instrumental in the creation of the new Institute of Diagnostic and Clinical Research, a centre affiliated with Hôtel-Dieu Hospital and the Université de Montréal and of which he is Scientific Director. This Institute has been hailed as a milestone in the promotion of clinical research in the Montreal area. Dr. Genest has been honoured with many awards, is a member of twenty-six medical associations, and in December of 1967 was named a Companion of the Order of Canada.

Among his many scientific achievements, Dr. Genest has particularly distinguished himself in the study of the physiology of hypertension, on which he is widely regarded as one of the world's most eminent experts. His studies on the metabolism of aldosterone have led to the development of new biological and chemical methods for extracting and purifying this and other corticoids. His investigations on the role of the kidney in the pathology of hypertension have clarified the relationship between disturbances in aldosterone excretion and the renal pressure mechanism; he has observed a marked and specific stimulatory effect of angiotensin on the urinary levels of aldosterone, which are known to fluctuate excessively both in cases of renal hypertension and in patients with benign essential and malignant hypertension. Eventually, Dr. Genest has made outstanding contributions to our understanding of the role of the renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone, and the state of sodium balance in arterial hypertension, and to the methods for its therapeutic control.

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1966 - Erich Baer, FRSC

Dr. Erich Baer, Professor in the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research in the University of Toronto, received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Berlin, where he worked on carbohydrates with Professor H. O. L. Fischer, son of Emil Fischer, one of the world's most famous organic chemists. After a five-year period in Switzerland, at the University of Basel, Dr. Baer came to Toronto with Professor Fischer in 1937, and eventually succeeded him as head of the sub-department of Synthetic Chemistry. His elegant studies of the structure of the phospholipids have earned the admiration of organic chemists and biochemists. Dr. Baer’s synthetic skill has made available, for the first time, pure phospholipid compounds of known structure and spatial configuration. That these rare substances are much sought after by biologists studying a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from blood-clotting to an improved serological test for syphilis, is attested by over 600 requests from many countries for his pure synthetic products. One of his early achievements, synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphoric ester, now known as the Fischer-Baer ester, necessitated a revision of the then widely accepted Neuberg scheme of carbohydrate metabolism and helped to establish the now accepted Embden-Meyerhof scheme. Dr. Baer's early studies on carbohydrates led to the ingenious oxidative cleavage of carbohydrate derivatives to give optically active 3-carbon compounds, the phosphoric esters of which served as stepping stones to the synthesis of the complex glycerophosphoric esters, the phospholipids. Recently Dr. Baer has prepared a series of analogous compounds, the phosphonolipids, in which the base moiety is attached directly by a carbon-to-phosphorus bond, without the usual oxygen bridge. The outstanding nature of Dr. Baer's contributions have earned him many awards.

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1965 - William Stewart Hoar, FRSC

Dr. William Stewart Hoar, Professor of Zoology and Fisheries and Head of the Department of Zoology, The University of British Columbia, was born at Moncton, New Brunswick. He received his Bachelor's degree in Honours Biology and Geology from the University of New Brunswick, his Master's degree in Histology and Embryology from the University of Western Ontario, and his Ph.D. degree from Boston University. Dr. Hoar has had a distinguished academic career at the universities of New Brunswick and British Columbia. He is a gifted teacher and administrator. He has been responsible for the development of studies in experimental zoology and animal behaviour at the University of British Columbia, and has contributed considerably to the advancement of the Institute of Fisheries, and the development of graduate studies in these fields. His skill as a research director is evidenced by the quality of students attracted to his laboratory at the master's, doctorate, and postdoctorate levels, many of whom now hold important posts in Canadian universities and research laboratories. Dr. Hoar is author or co-author with his students and colleagues of over seventy scientific papers in the field of comparative physiology with particular reference to fishes. One of his most scholarly accomplishments is the recent completion of an 800-page book manuscript on comparative physiology, which has been received enthusiastically by the publisher's referees. Dr. Hoar won in 1958-59 a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship Award to Oxford University, has always taken an active part in the affairs of the Vancouver Public Aquarium Association, and as member of the International Society for Comparative Endocrinology has attended conferences in Liverpool, New York, and Tokyo.

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1964 - Gleb Krotkov, FRSC

Effectively, yet unobtrusively, Gleb Krotkov has contributed regularly to scientific knowledge and to the disclosure of new principles in the biological process for a quarter of a century. His first work establishing him as a plant physiologist augmented existing understanding of the respiratory processes in green plants. By 1940 he had impressed his colleagues and those in the fruit-growing industry by presenting them with healthy McIntosh apples months after the normal marketing season. This was a side application of his analysis to the subsequent control of the respiratory phenomena in starving apples in storage. His more recent work has extended beyond physiology into biochemistry and emphasizes biosynthetic analysis with both fundamental and applied implications. His investigations into biosynthesis were greatly stimulated through his experiences at Professor O. Hoagland's laboratory, University of California, where, in 1946, he held a Special Scholarship from the National Research Council of Canada. Facetiously, Professor Krotkov regards this year as marking the bisection of his scientific life into B.C. (Before California) and A.C. (After California). It is the second period which established his reputation in biosynthesis through his work on starch, asparagine, and glutamine.

In the period “Before California”, there were two primary elements of contribution in his work other than that leading to the studies with McIntosh apples. The first was reflected in a well-integrated and exhaustive examination of the existing knowledge of the ontogeny of the Russian dandelion. His interest in this had arisen during the late years of the war when his co-operation was sought by the National Research Council, which was concerned with the development of rubber in plants. The other contribution concerned the advent of stable and radio-isotope physiology, which Professor Krotkov pioneered in Canada beginning about 1946.

It was in the period “After California” that his application of isotope chemistry to physiology produced the greatest significance. By 1948 he had published his “Preparation of radioactive carbon-labelled sugars by photosynthesis.” By 1953 the planning and implementation for his isotope laboratory—the first in Canada—was well in hand without embarrassment to his programme of publication. In the next two years he and his students published about a dozen contributions, and the most modern school of plant physiology in Canada was well established.

Professor Krotkov, while at Harvard, where he became a Guggenheim Scholar in 1953, detected transient pulses of carbon dioxide arising in certain plants at the onset of incident light. For the time being this discovery went unexplained, but it augmented the questions of the interrelations between photosynthesis and respiration, which he had hoped to solve at Harvard using the special facilities existing there in controlled-environment chambers. He and his students have since shown that the magnitude of these pulses is a function of the pretreatment of the plant tissue, and that the carbon dioxide arises through breakdown of glycollic acid.

During the five years that he was head of the Department of Biology at Queen's University he steadily encouraged the growth of departmental staff and potential, and his example stimulated contributions in disciplines related to his own in both the plant and animal sciences. It is a delight to hear his many students bear testimony to his inspiration, originality, and meticulous attention to his research work, to which he is now giving full attention as R. Samuel McLaughlin Professor of Biology at Queen's University, since his return from the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, England. There, as a holder of a Senior Research Fellowship Grant from the National Research Council (1963) he made further contributions to knowledge and gained further esteem from his European colleagues.

Professor Krotkov brought distinction to Canada through his work for the Ninth International Botanical Congress in 1959. He organized one of the largest sections as Programme President and then acted as section secretary. His students, many of whom came to him from other lands over the years, and his colleagues from abroad were especially appreciative of his enlightened and advanced views.

Professor Krotkov is widely known and appreciated among the Fellows of the Society for his delightfully uninhibited, unsophisticated, and disarming personality. He has long been known as a student of philosophy and comparative religion. His sagacity and brilliance come naturally, but he has acquired much and continues to do so as the most highly productive botanist in the country at sixty, even as he did as a soldier in the White Russian Army at sixteen.

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1963 - Robert James Rossiter, FRSC

Roger James Rossiter was graduated from the University of Western Australia with first class honours in Mathematics and Chemistry. As a Rhodes Scholar he proceeded to Oxford, where he was awarded five degrees including doctorates in Philosophy and Medicine, and where he began his research career in medical science. Following war service in the Royal Army Medical Corps, he came to Canada as Head of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Western Ontario. Dr. Rossiter's numerous papers have notably advanced knowledge of the biochemical processes in nerve tissue. He has defined the chemical changes which occur during experimental nerve degeneration and has studied particularly the fat constituents of nervous tissue in relation to its activity. These enquiries have enabled him to define the mechanisms and pathways by which vital, complex compounds are synthesized within nerves. These reactions and their response to tranquillizing drugs provide a new insight into the workings of the nervous system. Dr. Rossiter has contributed to numerous books and monographs dealing with the chemistry of brain and nerve. He has also served as President of the Canadian Biochemical Society and the Canadian Physiological Society and as Board Chairman of the Canadian Federation of Biological Societies. In addition he has been editor of the Journal of Neurochemistry and of Experimental Neurology.

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1962 - Frederick Ernest Joseph Fry, FRSC

Dr. Frederick Ernest Joseph Fry, the Flavelle Medallist for 1962, loves fishes and loves Biology. That is probably the main reason for his remarkable career in the field of Comparative Physiology, a career which has been interrupted only by the last war, when he served in the R.C.A.F.; during those years, he worked on humans—it must have been with some reluctance—more specifically on their respiration at high altitude; for his splendid contribution in this field, he was awarded, at the end of the war, the M.B.E., and the right to go back to his favourite animal, the fish. His achievements as a comparative Physiologist have won for him many honours, such as being invited as a Visiting Professor of the University of Hawaii in 1955-56 and as a Visiting Scientist at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography, California, in 1958-59. His work on fish may be described briefly as follows.

Dr. Fry has pioneered the quantitative consideration of lethal temperatures and has related the characteristics of the animals in this connection to the distribution of the animals, to their tolerance of specific ecological situations, and to the systematic relations between them. This viewpoint has been widely accepted and is being adopted by others to a number of other organisms. More recently he has inspired a series of researches in his own and other laboratories dealing with the swimming rates of fish and the relation of these to the respiratory physiology of the animals. This work, too, relates directly to the observed distribution of a number of forms and seems likely to provide a more reasonable basis for understanding some distributions than has been available heretofore. This line of experiment is throwing new light on interspecific relations among fish.

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1961 - Charles Philippe Leblond, FRSC

Charles Philippe Leblond was born in the bustling city of Lille in northeastern France, where he received his first degree in science at the University of Nancy. He received his degree in Medicine at Paris, his Ph.D. at Montreal, and a later doctorate in science from the Sorbonne. A Rockefeller Fellowship brought him to North America—to Yale—and he must have found it to his liking since, though he returned to Paris in 1938, we soon find him in Rochester, in 1941 he came to McGill and there, save for some years of service in the war, he has remained and since 1957 has been Chairman of our Department of Anatomy. He brought from his beloved master in France an interest in the localization of ascorbic acid in the cells and tissues of the body; is perhaps most widely known for his studies on the biogenesis and fate of the hormones of the thyroid gland; but has also made most fundamental contributions of the rate and mechanism of replacement of one generation of cells by another in various organs, and of the process of calcification in bones and teeth.

A survey of his work impresses one by its versatility. He remains a master of classical histological techniques; but when his problems have seemed more amenable to attack by biochemical or enzymatic methods, or by the use of radio-active isotopes or of the electron microscope, or various combinations of these tools, he masters the new methodology without apparent effort and uses it with an elegance often surpassing the efforts of the originators of the techniques; he has touched nothing that he has not adorned. All those who heard his address to Section V, on the thyroid gland, must have been struck by the beauty and clarity of his more recent slides as contrasted with those of his first essays in which he was content to follow the processes that had seemed adequate to his predecessors. Elegance, a truly Gallic elegance, characterizes all his work. His experiments are beautifully designed to yield crucial results yet to remain free from the bias of presuppositions; his command of techniques is always impressive yet constantly improving; his discussion of his results is lucid, critical, and convincing.

This Society, of course, and rightly, honours him mainly as an investigator; but I should not pass over in silence his gifts as a teacher and administrator. No one has a keener eye to detect or a surer hand to control the individual differences between one graduate student and another, and he has launched many on very promising careers. I have found him a wise and helpful colleague, and across Canada there are many holders of grants from the National Cancer Institute who have found his advice and criticism to be both helpful and constructive.

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1960 - Edmund Murton Walker, FRSC

Dr. Edmund Murton Walker, Professor Emeritus of Zoology, University of Toronto, has an international reputation for his contributions in several fields of entomology. His work in any one of these would have entitled him to recognition as among the foremost of Canadian entomologists. In parasitology he is noted for the discovery and proof of the parasitic habit of a fly which deposits larvae in the flesh of infants. His entomological work has been chiefly taxonomy and distribution although he is also recognized as one of the leading authorities in insect morphology. His earliest taxonomic and distributional studies were on Canadian Orthoptera on which he published twenty papers.

In 1913 he discovered in the Rocky Mountains a primitive orthopteroid insect, Grylloblatta. A long series of papers which he published on this insect has contributed to a clearer understanding of the relationships of the more primitive orders of insects. Most of Dr. Walker's later work has been on the Odonata or dragonflies in which he is still engaged. In 1958 he published the second of a three-volume definitive work on the Odonata of Canada and Alaska. He is still at work on the third volume. Altogether he has published more than 100 papers, several of a monographic character, illustrated by his own masterly drawings. In addition to his own scientific work, Professor Walker has contributed to the advancement of Canadian zoology through services to many scientific societies including the Royal Society of Canada, the Ontario Entomological Society, the Royal Canadian Institute, and the Ontario Society of Biologists. From 1934 to 1948 he was Head of the Department of Zoology at the University of Toronto.

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1959 - Murray L. Barr, FRSC

Murray Barr’s classical discovery of a visible difference between the nuclei of somatic cells of males and females was greeted at first with incredulity. Then, as confirmation succeeded confirmation, incredulity was followed by delight among his friends and acclaim from a steadily increasing circle of admirers. There was peculiar satisfaction about a discovery of such a clear and definite fact of morpholo-gy which had eluded the sharp eyes of many thousands of microscopists for more than a century.

Dr. Barr was born in Belmont, Ontario. He attended primary schools in Belmont and London, Ontario, and secondary school in London, Ontario. In 1926 he entered the University of Western Ontario with a scholarship in French, but with his aim a career in medicine. In 1930 he received his B.A. in Honour Science with a gold medal. In 1933 he graduated M.D. and earned a place among the prize winners of his class. After a year as a rotating intern in the Hamot Hospital, Erie, Pennsylvania, he began general practice in London, Ontario. Like many another young doctor who was starting practice in the early 1930s, he had more time to spare than was altogether pleasant. Some of it he spent in visits with the lecturer in physiology for chats about the hazards and frustrations of the young general practitioner. Some of it he used to acquire the techniques of Cajal for the staining of neurones. His continuing interest in the cytology of nerve cells enabled him, fourteen years later, to see what generations of microscopists had failed to see.

In 1936 he became an Instructor in the Department of Anatomy of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Western Ontario. Soon after the outbreak of the Second World War he joined the Medical Branch of the RCAF, in which he attained the rank of Wing Commander. After the war he returned to the Department of Anatomy of the University of Western Ontario as an Associate Professor. In 1951 he was promoted to full professorship. His interest in aviation medicine did not cease with his resumption of academic work and from 1954 to 1956 he was chairman of the Panel on Aviation Medicine of the Defence Research Board.

It was in 1949 that there appeared in Nature a paper by Barr and Bertram entitled, “A morphological distinction between neurones of the male and female.” Barr and Bertram had observed that in the nerve cell nuclei of some cats a small rounded body of chromatin was present beside the nucleolus. This body, however, could not be demonstrated in the nerve cell nuclei of other cats. They then searched for the reason for this particular difference in cats and were rewarded by finding that the presence or absence of this little body depended on the sex of the animal. It was present in females but not in males. They called the little body, seen to advantage only in the cells of females, the nucleolar satellite, because of its position. This was the beginning of long and rewarding investigations into many hitherto obscure problems involving sex differences. Curiously enough the particular site where they first found evidence of a sex difference between the somatic cells of males and females proved to be the unusual instead of the usual one. As cells of other mammals and cells other than nerve cells were investigated, the little body of chromatin signifying the female was almost always found, not beside the nucleolus, but on the inner aspect of the nuclear membrane, and so the term nucleolar satellite was dropped and replaced by a more accurate one, the sex chromatin. Although the sex chromatin cannot be distinguished in the somatic cells of all mammals it can be in most, including those of man. It became apparent that the probable reason for its being clearly visible in the somatic cells of females and not in males is due to the two X chromosomes in the nuclei of the cells of females forming a stainable mass of sufficient size to be resolved clearly with the light microscope. The XY combination in the somatic cells of males probably does not form a stainable mass of sufficient size to be clearly resolved.

As a result of Dr. Barr's work and confirmatory investigations by scores of other scientists, the chromosomal sex of humans can be determined by the microscopic examination of cells of the skin, blood, or samples taken from scraping of oral mucous membranes. It can also be used to determine the chromosomal sex of young embryos. The technique is relatively simple and is now widely used for the investigation of abnormalities of sexual development. The impetus which has been given to studies of such anomalies has been very great. A new method always creates new knowledge. The vistas which have been revealed by the discoveries and developments of Dr. Barr and his colleagues are yet to be fully explored.

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1958 - Allan Grant Lochhead, FRSC

Dr. Allan Grant Lochhead began his scientific career at McGill University and graduated with honours in chemistry in 1911. He was awarded a Master of Science degree by the same institution in 1912. A few months thereafter he was enrolled in the University of Leipzig. The requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy were completed just as war broke out. The next four years were devoted to studying and teaching in the famous, or rather infamous, civilian prisoners' camp at Ruhleben. Upon his return to Canada in December 1918, he was appointed Lecturer in Bacteriology at Macdonald College and, on the basis of his work at Leipzig, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by McGill University in 1919.

In 1923, after three years of chemical and bacteriological work with industry and one year at the University of Alberta, where he was associated with Dr. J. B. Collip, Dr. Lochhead was named head of the newly created Division of Bacteriology in the Dominion Department of Agriculture. Here, after engaging very successfully in a variety of research problems, he dedicated himself to studies of soil bacteria. The results of his work in this field, extending over a period of nearly forty years, reveal a pattern of progress possible only for one with rare gifts of intellect and perseverance.

Dr. Lochhead is author or co-author of over eighty scientific papers. Notwithstanding significant work in several branches of bacteriological research, his reputation has been established mainly through his studies on soil-inhabiting bacteria. His work on classification, based on nutritional characteristics, is a monument of which he may well be proud. This he extended to comparative studies of forms inhabiting the rhizosphere and those living in soil remote from plant roots. This work was followed by studies on the selective stimulation of certain forms by plant roots, and by investigations of the production of antibiotics, vitamins, and other growth factors by various species. Last year a special issue of the Canadian Journal of Microbiology was published in Dr. Lochhead's honour and was dedicated to him. The 312 pages are devoted to thirty research papers written by bacteriologists in eleven different countries.

Three years ago Dr. Lochhead relinquished his position as Chief of the Bacteriology Division. However, he is pursuing his researches as vigorously as ever. His skill as a research director is evidenced by the work of his colleagues and the qualities of the men and women attracted to his laboratory.

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1957 - Thomas Wright M. Cameron, FRSC

Thomas Wright M. Cameron, professor of Parasitology at McGill and Director of the Institute of Parasitology at Macdonald College, was born in Scotland, educated at the Universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, Oxford and London, and holds, among other degrees and distinctions, a Ph.D. in Parasitology and a D.Sc. in Zoology. Before coming to Canada he held positions on the staff of the Universities of London and Edinburgh. In World War I he served first with the Highland Light Infantry and then joined the Royal Flying Corps and R.A.F. In the last war he was Instructor in Tropical Medicine to all Canadian Armed Forces. The responsibilities reflected in his appointments, membership of committees, and special undertakings prove the confidence he has earned in the opinion of scientists and responsible public and scientific bodies. To cite only a few examples, he is Vice-President of this Society, a member of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Consultant to the Laboratory of Hygiene of the Department of National Health and Welfare, Visiting Professor to the Universities of Ottawa and Vermont, and Editor of the Canadian Journal of Zoology. Dr. Cameron is a Fellow of several scientific societies and a member of many more.

Although Dr. Cameron has accepted many time-consuming responsibilities, he has maintained his primary interest in parasitological research, as shown by the large number of important research papers he has published, together with five books that are widely used as textbooks or reference works. His research involves the recognition of a number of new species, elucidation of difficult life histories, recognition of new hosts, enlightening studies on the physiology of both parasite and host, and penetrating concepts on the place of parasitology in both its economic and scientific aspects.

As a parasitologist, he is not bound by hard and fast restrictions, but he brings to every problem a refreshing orientation and general biological coordination that not only give perspective but envisage the essential needs for investigation. As a teacher he exercises a stimulating influence on students and those associated with him in research with his generous encouragement and wise guidance, and his relations with them reflect friendship and admiration.

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1956 - George Lyman Duff, FRSC

George Lyman Duff, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, and Director of the Pathological Institute, McGill University, has entirely devoted his career to scientific research and education. He has contributed largely to the advancement of science and to the welfare of humanity.

Born in Hamilton in 1904, he graduated with honours in Biology at the University of Toronto, received an M.D. degree with the David Dunlap Memorial Prize in 1929, and a Ph.D. in Pathology, with the Starr Gold Medal, in 1932, from the same University. He was on the teaching staff of the Johns Hopkins University from 1931 to 1935; Assistant Professor of Pathology at the University of Toronto from 1935 to 1939; and Strathcona Professor of Pathology and Director of the Pathological Institute, McGill University since 1939. Appointed Dean of the McGill Faculty of Medicine in 1949, he has maintained his scientific work with the same energy, the same talent, the same proficiency, in the field of human pathology, despite the administrative burden placed upon his shoulders.

From the impressive list of his publications it is evident that his curiosity was focused on two main subjects, namely arteriosclerosis and diabetes. Among his outstanding contributions to the pathological literature is the chapter on the musculo-skeletal system which he wrote for the book entitled The Collagen Diseases, published in 1952. Dean Duff's leadership and scientific prestige have brought him numerous honours and responsibilities in Canada, the United States, and abroad. He was elected president of the International Academy of Pathology in 1950.

Our distinguished colleague is consulting pathologist to eight Montreal hospitals as well as member of many editorial boards and various committees attached to national research institutions. Enjoying an enviable reputation in international scientific circles, he has been an excellent ambassador of Canada and a brilliant representative of the Royal Society of Canada, to which he was elected in 1947.

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1955 - Charles Samuel Hanes, FRSC

Charles Samuel Hanes has distinguished himself in many fields of endeavour. As a scientist, he has made contributions to the in vitro biosynthesis of starch and peptides, which have gained him an international reputation; as an administrator, he has held such senior positions as the Director of the Food Investigations Board of Great Britain; as a liaison officer and adviser during the war years, he served the British Government with distinction throughout the Commonwealth; finally, as an educator, he has been a member of the senior staff of the University of Cambridge and the University of Toronto.

Born in Toronto in 1903, he graduated with high honors in biology at the University of Toronto in 1925 and was awarded the 1851 Exhibition Scholarship. After completing his Ph.D. at Cambridge, he remained for two additional years as a senior Exhibition Scholar. Although he returned to Canada several times in various capacities, Cambridge was his real home until 1951. In that year he became Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Toronto. It is a privilege and honour to have him with us again.

Much of Dr. Hanes' early research was concerned with the degradation of starch by amylases and he wrote a classic monograph on this subject. In March 1940, he reported the first enzymic synthesis of amylose, a contribution considered as the outstanding biochemical achievement of the year. Elected to the Royal Society in 1942, he was then one of its youngest fellows, an outstanding tribute to his scientific attainments.

With the advent of war Dr. Hanes' abilities in other fields were recognized by the British Government. He became Scientific Adviser to the British Food Mission in North America and during this period established his superlative qualities as an administrator. This led to his appointment as Director of the Food Investigations Board of Great Britain in 1944. Here he followed in the steps of such men as Sir William Hardy and had under his direction all of the Board's laboratories, including the Low Temperature Research Station at Cambridge, where he had worked as a staff member. Dr. Hanes never resigned his first love for scientific experimentation and in 1947 he joined the staff of Cambridge University as a Reader in biochemistry. In a few years his work on the enzymic synthesis of peptides placed him with that select cup who have contributed effectively to our knowledge of protein synthesis.

Dr. Hanes' personal qualities, his open friendliness and generosity, have won him a legion of friends. His advice on all manner of major and minor problems has been sought, not only by students but by senior scientific personnel. He has thrived on interruption and still maintained that peace of mind essential to progressive scientific investigation.

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1954 - David Aylmer Scott, FRSC

David Aylmer Scott is one of Canada's most distinguished biochemists. He was born and brought up in the province of Ontario. His mother was Mary McKenzie, whose father came from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, to settle in Bruce County. His father, James Robert Scott, was born in Walkerton after his parents had moved from Scotland to Canada. It was in this beautiful part of the country—where “the Bruce beckons”—that David Scott grew up. He had many interests but on entering the University of Toronto his attention was centered on Chemistry. He received his Bachelor's degree in 1920, his Master's in 1922 and his Ph.D. in 1925. In 1922 he played a very prominent role in the large-scale preparation of insulin and subsequently was instrumental in making possible great advances in the purification of the material. In extending his researches he discovered the presence of zinc in crystalline insulin and this work proved to be one of the foundations on which the development of slow-acting insulins is based. With Dr. Albert Fisher he developed protamine-zinc-insulin. Dr. Scott's work on the preparation, purification, and crystallization of heparin has also been of outstanding quality and practical importance. Much of this work was done in co-operation with Dr. Arthur Charles.

Dr. Scott's researches have illuminated other fields but his investigations on insulin, on heparin on carbonic anhydrase, and on the hormones of the posterior pituitary gland, are the major landmarks in his scientific career. Dr. Scott was elected to the Royal Society of Canada in 1939 and to the Royal Society of London in 1949. He has been for many years a scientist of international fame. His friends have found him not only a most generous and helpful colleague but a man of kindly spirit and deep loyalties.

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1953 - Everitt George Dunne Murray, FRSC

Professor Everitt George Dunne Murray was born in Johannesburg, South Africa, July 21, 1890. He was one of the third generation of Murrays in Africa. His father was Dr. G. A. E. Murray, famous surgeon, colourful figure, and loyal Briton, who in addition to his professional interests took part in political affairs, which had as their objective maintaining British supremacy in that part of the world. E. G. D. Murray received his early education in Africa, then, emulating his father, went to England for university training. There he entered Christ's College, Cambridge, and took the Natural Sciences Tripos, thereby receiving a firm grounding in all aspects of the field of biology. Clinical medicine was studied at St. Bartholomew's Hospital where special attention was devoted to pathology and bacteriology.

When the First World War broke out he entered the Royal Army Medical Corps and almost immediately demonstrated his efficiency as a bacteriologist. At this time cerebrospinal fever was a plague among the troops. The extensive studies that were undertaken resulted in the classic paper by Gordon and Murray on serotypes of the meningococcus. In 1916 he was sent to Mesopotamia and there saw all manner of diseases, particularly dysentery, which was rampant among service men. Many strains of the causative agent of this infection were collected and later studied, and the results were published in 1918. These results form the basis of the serological classification of the dysentery group. As if the importance of the disease had to be emphasized in the investigator's mind, Murray managed to contract the infection and had to be given leave of absence from the country. There followed a period of service on troop ships and finally a transfer to the Royal Army Medical College at Millbank. There he was placed in charge of the department where vaccines for the British Expeditionary forces were prepared. For the outstanding work conducted in this field he was awarded the O.B.E.

In 1917 Murray married Harriet Winnifred Hardwick Woods who since, but not without difficulty, has been successful in keeping him out of serious trouble if not out of mischief. After discharge from the army he returned to St. Bartholomew's Hospital as senior demonstrator in pathology and almost immediately was appointed research bacteriologist by the Medical Research Council, and required to establish a laboratory at Milton near Cambridge. Here work was carried on until 1923, at which time he moved to the Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge; he became a Fellow of Christ's College, and a lecturer in Pathology and inaugurated at the university new teaching courses in the fields of pathology and bacteriology. As a member of numerous College and University committees, contributions were made in other fields.

During this period studies on virulence, endotoxins, and more particularly a detailed study of the meningococcus, were carried on. This culminated in the classic monograph published by the Medical Research Council in 1929. About this time Murray, together with Webb and Swann, discovered a new organism now known as the Listeria monocytogenes.

In 1930 he accepted the invitation of McGill University to become Professor of Bacteriology and Immunology and Chairman of the Department. Immediately training in the undergraduate field was greatly improved, an exacting honours course was established, and provision was made for training a limited number of postgraduate students. To carry out these progressive changes, Professor Murray had to limit his personal research and devote the greater part of his energies to the duties of instruction. Although this in some respects was to him an unpalatable change, it was one which those interested in the field will applaud for his department has since formed an unexcelled training ground for bacteriologists. Thereby his influence has broadened over North America and in particular has raised the standard of bacteriology throughout this country. From his department there has been an increasing flow of sound papers on the fundamental and applied aspects of bacteriology.

During the war Professor Murray served on a number of committees and commissions. In fact he gave up his university responsibilities temporarily to devote full time to some of the aspects of diseases of potential danger from a defence standpoint. The United States in particular was conscious of the great service he rendered and conferred on him the Medal of Freedom.

Professor Murray's interest in the open spaces is proverbial. His holidays are spent in the bush with pack and canoe living close to nature, which he knows well and appreciates fully. Perhaps part of the reason for his easy assimilation into the life of this young country is to be found in a love of nature in all forms and an appreciation of worth no matter in what disguise it may appear. (Professor E. G. D. Murray is the father of Dr. R. G. E. Murray, Flavelle Medallist in 1984).

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1952 - Archibald G. Huntsman, FRSC

Archibald Gowanlock Huntsman, today generally considered to be the doyen of Canadian biologists, is a Canadian of the fourth generation, born in 1883 of Scotch-English parentage on a farm at Tintern on the Niagara Peninsula. His youth must have been exemplary as, of course, it should have been in virtuous Ontario—for little is recorded of his boyhood and nothing of any misdemeanours. He was, however, already given to argumentation and was, in consequence, frequently advised to become a lawyer. But that profession, being looked at askance and as hardly fit for an honest son of reputable Presbyterian stock, was never seriously considered, and Huntsman's final career appears to have been the product of chance, Scotch parentage, a distinguished aunt, and a fickle fate. He never seems to have suffered the usual biologist's passion for cluttering up the house with birds’ eggs or beetles, or the youthful dream of becoming an engine driver. Instead he had a flair for chemistry but when he nearly demolished his great aunt's residence, in which he then lived, through an explosion of unexpected violence in an improvised laboratory, his aunt seems to have impressed him with the folly of his ways and converted him to medicine: she had the unique distinction of being the first woman licensed to practise medicine in Canada.

Of several scholarships won from the University of Toronto, when he matriculated from St. Catharines Collegiate Institute, he took the most substantial. The Scotch in him no doubt made a decision easy spontaneous; to Toronto he went. Here chemistry might still have claimed him, but he soon discovered that while he was not permitted to stay after hours in the Department of Chemistry—possibly as well in view of his former exploits—overtime was permissible in the Department of Biology where he could certainly do no harm. This concession seems to have slanted him in the direction to which he has since adhered: he is still in that department and now occupies the very office of his former Professor of Anatomy.

At the end of this third year at Toronto, Huntsman was invited to work at the Georgian Bay Biological Station for the summer. He was so intrigued with this experience that he has subsequently spent practically every summer of his life at one or another of the continent's biological stations. In spite of this allurement, however, he followed up his arts course with a degree in medicine, to end up a Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. Yet he never practiced medicine. About this time he seems to have lived down his Scottish genes for he now preferred the offer of a lectureship in biology on a mere pittance to a substantial scholarship in medical research. So Huntsman became a biologist and achieved his first step towards the honour that is being conferred upon him this evening. He had finally graduated in the vast school of life, and found himself.

It is difficult to summarize Professor Huntsman's numerous honours through his long life. In brief they run something like this: in the University of Toronto he has successively been assistant in biology, lecturer, associate professor, and professor. Distinctions have included appointments as Editor and Consulting Director of the Biological Board of Canada; Director of the Atlantic Fisheries Experimental Station; Secretary and Chairman of the North American Council on Fisheries Investigation; Secretary of the Board of Inquiry for the Great Lakes Fisheries; Trustee of the Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts; Vice-President of the Bermuda Biological Station; President of the American Fisheries Society; Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, President of Section V, and President of the Society.

His chief interests have been Ascidians, Decapods, Amphipods, plankton in general, oceanography, marine fishes, and the migrations of herring and salmon. On the last he has done perhaps his most significant work. He also has published some 200 papers, technical and popular. All the foregoing may sound like a fishy career, but perhaps the word funny is more fitting to the occasion, for the name of Huntsman will always be associated primarily with fisheries investigations. Among the most significant of his recent work is the elucidation of the relation of oceanographic conditions to fish production in the Bay of Fundy. Yet our medallist's real distinction transcends the limitations of mere research. To most of us he is a man who is an inveterate attender of meetings and pops up incessantly to offer opinions and criticisms. His remarks are always kindly and constructive: he exhibits a rare combination of broad knowledge and the philosophical outlook. As a contributor to original thinking, even though not always unanimously agreed with, he stands out as a unique, influential, and courageous figure in the world of Canadian Biology. (The Royal Society of Canada and the Bedford Institute of Oceanography have awarded an A. G. Hunstman Award since 1980.)

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1951 - Wilder G. Penfield, FRSC

Dr. Wilder G. Penfield, world-famous for his work upon the brain, is professor of Neurology and Neurosurgery at McGill University, and has been director for more than twenty years of the Montreal Neurological Institute. Born at Spokane, Washington, he came East to Princeton when Woodrow Wilson was there. Perhaps he would have been successful in politics as well as in neurosurgery for he helped to organize one of the first Wilson-for-President clubs! At Princeton he was outstanding as a football player. He was also a football coach—but we have no record of his skill in that field.

A Rhodes Scholar, he studied at Oxford, then at Johns Hopkins, and again at Oxford. His degrees, earned and honorary (if one should make that distinction), are too numerous to detail. Dr. Penfield has been a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada since 1935. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, and of the Royal Society of London, and a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. A splendid speaker, as those who heard his Flavelle Medal Address to Section V yesterday will agree, he has given the Harvey Lecture and the Shattuck Lecture (1936), the Ferrier Lecture to the Royal Society (1946), and the Lane Lectures at Stanford (1947). He is said to have made careful preparations for one lecture—perhaps for one of these—and then to have backed his car out of the garage and over his lantern slides!

One of our busiest men, Dr. Penfield yet finds time to be a successful farmer—or should one say lumberman? for his farm near Magog is said actually to make money, largely from its timber resources. He is the author of well over a hundred papers, and of books such as Cytology and Cellular Pathology of the Nervous System, Epilepsy and cerebral Localization (with T. C. Erickson), and a Manual of Military Neurosurgery. That last title reminds us that he was with the Red Cross during the First World War, was bombed at sea and badly injured and that as a close friend of the Osler family he convalesced at the Osler home—yet another link in the many that bind him to McGill.

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1950 - Charles Herbert Best, FRSC

Dr. Best is a Nova Scotian, whose parents came from King's County and who counts Major William Best, one of the founders of Halifax, as a direct ancestor. He himself has carried on this pioneering tradition and is one of the founders of modern physiological research. He has achieved world-renown as a co-discoverer of insulin. His interest in diabetes began in his pre-medical years in Toronto and it was the newly graduated B.A. who worked with Banting to give insulin to the world in 1921, four years before he became a doctor of medicine. In 1926 he was appointed Assistant Professor of Physiological Hygiene and in 1927 he became Head of the Department. In the following year he obtained his doctorate in Science from the University of London and in 1929 he became Professor of Physiology at Toronto. In 1941 he assumed the additional positions of Director of the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Honorary Consultant of the Connaught Laboratories. Thereafter in rapid succession he received honorary doctorates from Chicago, Paris, Cambridge, Amsterdam, Louvain, Liège, and Oxford.

However, he has done much more than research in insulin, the exploration of its physiological actions, and the prevention of diabetes. He discovered a new enzyme—histaminase—and a new dietary factor—choline He initiated the now well-known research on the use of purified heparin in the prevention of thrombosis. He initiated the equally well-known Canadian project for the provision of dried human blood serum for military use, a project which was of incalculable value in saving lives. His interests have been wide and he has written, alone or jointly, some 250 papers on physiological subjects. His writings have not been limited to scientific journals, however, and from his immense fund of knowledge he has drawn the material for two text books on physiology, The Human Body and The Living Body, and, with Dr. N. B. Taylor, has written the indispensable Physiological Basis of Medical Practice.

Beyond the classroom and the laboratory, he has served on many academic, hospital, and government boards and committees, both in Canada and in the United States. He has served Canada also in both the army and the navy. In the First World War, he interrupted his undergraduate studies to become a sergeant in the Royal Canadian Artillery, while throughout the Second World War he was a Surgeon Captain in the Royal Canadian Navy.

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1949 - W.P. Thompson, FRSC

The first award of this medal, in 1925, honoured Sir Charles E. Saunders, who used genetic principles in the synthesis of a good milling early maturing wheat which is called “Marquis.” Last year W. P. Thompson presented Margaret Newton for this award, to recognize the selection of rust resistant strains of wheat. Mendel's Law and the evaluation of mutant forms have been utilized in extending the world production of this basic food. On this occasion one is presented who has contributed materially to the knowledge of the genetic mechanism of inheritance, particularly in wheat. In genetics the chromosomes are as the electrons, neutrons, and deutrons of physical science; they carry the key which unlocks the doors to many avenues of scientific discovery and progress. Dr. Thompson has revealed the behaviour and the eccentricities of these chromatic, microscopic units which transmit genes and which are stable ordinarily and mutable occasionally as are atoms.

It is significant and fitting that the Royal Society of Canada honours a scientist who pays tribute to the bilateral contributions of heredity and of environment in the growth and development of a living entity, whether wheat or man. The freedom of research and expression through publication is magnified in our midst, and stands in relief against the avowed repression elsewhere of scientific endeavour which does not contribute to certain prescribed tenets, economic and Political. (Reference, publication of an official statement from Izvestia, in Science, January 28, 1949.) In honouring the recipient of this Medal, this Society declares that the search for truth shall not be in vain and shall not be restrained.

A Canadian university has elected Dr. Thompson to a presidency; the Royal Society of Canada claimed him as President last year and this year he is recognized as one worthy of this notable award of the Flavelle Medal.

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1948 - Margaret Newton, FRSC

Although born in Montreal and educated at McGill University, from which she graduated with the degree of Master of Science in 1919, Dr. Margaret Newton has spent most of her life in the West. After a few years of postgraduate work at the University of Minnesota and of teaching at the University of Saskatchewan, she was appointed senior plant pathologist at the Dominion Rust Research Laboratory in Winnipeg in 1925. This position she held until 1945, when ill health forced her to resign her labours in this field.

Dr. Newton’s interest in the disease of wheat caused by the rust fungus, Puccinia graminis, was aroused even before her graduation. She has continued to investigate the fungi which attack the grains, especially the rusts of wheat, with meticulous care and notable ingenuity for three succeeding decades. The immense importance of the rust fungi to the Canadian economy in terms of wheat is generally recognized. At the time when Dr. Newton began her investigations, scientific knowledge to guide plant-breeders in planning a rational programme of selection was inadequate, due to ignorance of genetic and physiological factors associated with the rust fungi. The existence of races of Puccinia graminis which are morphologically identical but parasitically specialized, made the problem of the development of resistant varieties of wheat enormously complicated. Dr. Newton has not only identified races which are physiologically distinct, but has contributed to the genetics of these races, particularly as to their origin. She has determined resistance to them of a wide range of varieties of wheat and of the hybrid progenies derived from numerous crosses of those which were rust-resistant. Parallel investigations with respect to leaf rust were carried out along with those on stem rust of wheat as well as a similar study of stripe rust of wheat and barley. These investigations have established a body of information on these phases unparalleled in the literature of plant pathology.

Dr. Newton has attacked with equal vigour and discernment the problems of the influence of environment on the expression in the plant of these diseases. Latterly she and her colleague, Dr. T. Johnson, have made no less fundamental contributions to the knowledge of the occurrence of mutations of Puccinia graminis and factors influencing them, and the inheritance of pathogenicity in the rust fungi—contributions of the highest merit—and also to the genetics of obligate fungous parasites.

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1947 - Guilford Bevil Reed, FRSC

His outstanding contributions to the science of bacteriology have gained Dr. Guilford Bevil Reed, professor of Bacteriology, Queen’s University, international reputation as an authority on important aspects of the subject, and during the war secured for Canadian bacteriology an honoured place in international scientific councils. Dr. Reed was a member and later chairman of a committee of the Department of National Defence which organized and directed a large research project, which is still on the secret list. As director of a special research laboratory he was responsible for considerable work also not yet open for publication. He was a member and later Canadian chairman of a joint United States-Canadian commission which organized and directed an extensive research programme on the control of Rinderpest. This research resulted in the large-scale production of a new and highly effective vaccine.

Dr. Reed is author or joint author of more than fifty papers on a variety of phases of bacteriology. One series of papers reports on his immunological studies of tuberculosis from the point of view of the antigenic structure of the invading bacteria. This work brought to light the effect of slight biological variation in the bacteria on the infection produced in the host. Another series of his studies was concerned with the general biological principles of variation as seen in several types of bacteria and with the relationship of the phenomenon to parasitism and immunological behaviour. A series of fifteen papers represents a long study of pathogenic anaerobic bacteria, their cultivation, identification, toxin and enzyme production, mode of action in body cells and the animal body in general, the preparation of antigenic fractions, and the production of active immunity in the lower animals and in man. His work on the chemotherapy of gas gangrene has been particularly noteworthy.

Dr. Reed is a graduate of Acadia University and Harvard University, holding the degree of B.Sc., M.A., and Ph.D. As Professor of Bacteriology at Queen's University and consultant to Kingston General Hospital, he has developed a sound department and brought distinction on to it by his own work. He has long been a member of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and of its executive committee. In addition to the numerous and valuable contributions to science in general and bacteriology in particular already referred to, Dr. Reed has served as a member of three associate committees of the National Research Council, namely, those on Tuberculosis and infections, and Associate Committee M1000. He has been Secretary and President of Section V of the Royal Society of Canada, and in 1942 was honoured by the award of an O.B.E. from His Majesty the King for distinguished contributions to science.

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1946 - William Rowan, FRSC

Professor William Rowan, through his researches on the relation between photoperiodism and the reproductive periodicity and annual migration of birds, opened up this whole field of inquiry, which includes some of the most vexed problems of animal behaviour. The field thus opened up soon attracted a number of investigators who have added greatly to our knowledge of the effect of light and other ecological factors on migration, the seasonal reproduction in animals, and related phenomena. The credit for having pointed the way to the investigation of these subjects and for making the first important contribution to their understanding belongs, however, to Professor Rowan. He has found opportunities aside from a heavy academic programme to make, from time to time important contributions to the subject with which his name is inextricably linked. His reputation is world-wide. Professor Rowan has published several important papers on the results of his work, and is the author of a book The Riddle of Migration.

Professor Rowan is a graduate of the University of London, from which institution he holds the degrees of B.Sc., M.Sc., and D.Sc. In 1921 he was given the task of founding and building a Department of Zoology in the University of Alberta. He has not only built there a sound Department, but has brought distinction to it through his researches.

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1945 - Robert Boyd Thomson, FRSC

Professor Thomson's work stands out conspicuously among this century's contributions on the comparative anatomy and phylogeny of plants. On the subject of the gymnosperms, the notable series of researches emanating from his laboratory has extended over forty years and is still continuing, as witness the programme of the present meeting. The thoroughness and insight revealed in this work established for Professor Thomson, while he was still young, an international reputation that has augmented with each new contribution to the series. His papers enshrine no small part of our modern knowledge of phylogeny and relationships in this group.

Of his more recent papers, the ones most commented upon are perhaps those on the evolution of the seed habit in plants. The problem came to the fore in one of his earliest studies, that on “The Megaspore-Membrane of the Gymnosperms” published in 1905, for he found that the characteristics of this structure were not such as to fit the orthodox conception of the evolution of seed plants from lower forms with megaspores. This, together with the fact that no plant, fossil or living, has been discovered that combines the production of megaspores with the anatomical characters of a seed-plant ancestor, presented to phylogenists a profound difficulty for solution. Though his concern over this difficulty was apparent to his colleagues, it was only after more than twenty years of thought and accumulation of evidence that Professor Thomson again attacked the problem in print. Then he announced his concept of the seed spore of seed plants as a development distinct and different from the megaspore of other forms. The essential difference lay in the fact that the ample food supply instrumental in development of the female gametophyte was made available, not by storage inside a large spore, but by the retention of permeability in the spore wall and the retention of the spore in the sporangium. This hypothesis, supported by the mass of evidence its author was able to bring to bear, has stimulated research and provided a new standpoint from which to view the problem of evolution in the higher plants, a standpoint which has attained even the final accolade of mention in elementary textbooks.

Professor Thomson is a graduate in Arts of the University of Toronto, where he was appointed Lecturer in Botany in 1906. In 1928 he became Head of the Department, and has been Professor Emeritus since 1941. His lifelong devotion to theoretical science has in no degree hedged him about, and an estimate of his achievement be seriously incomplete without mention of the inspiration, stimulation, and help that have encouraged the long line of research workers trained in his laboratory.

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1944 - Velyien Ewart Henderson, FRSC

Professor Velyien Ewart Henderson, professor of Pharmacology at the University of Toronto, of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada, and Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, has made numerous and outstanding contributions to knowledge in the fields of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics. His work, and that of his associates, presented in more than eighty publications, covers a wide range of subjects. These include many investigations into the action of various drugs on the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, the uterus and the mammary glands, and on the secretion of saliva. He has made other investigations concerned with the analysis of the factors governing muscular contraction, and particularly the role of acetylcholine in neuro-muscular coordination. He has made an extensive study of affections of the joints in Tabes dorsalis and he has published numerous papers describing his researches on the action of anaesthetics. His best known studies are perhaps those concerned with anaesthesia. It is to him that we owe the important discovery of the anaesthetic properties of cyclopro-pane. This discovery, apart from its intrinsic scientific importance, is a very significant contribution to the efficiency of surgical medicine, for it has provided the surgeon with a safe and efficient anaesthetic which has markedly reduced shock and other undesirable features associated with anaesthesia and has, in consequence, contributed to the safety and comfort of many thousands. In 1931, the International Anaesthesia Research Society awarded him the “Scroll of Recognition” and in 1933 he was made an Honorary Member of the Kaiserliche Leopold Carolinische Akademie der Natur Forscher.

Professor Henderson is a graduate in Arts and Medicine of the University of Toronto, and he has been a member of its Faculty of Medicine continuously since 1904. He has been Professor of Pharmacology since 1912. He served overseas in the last war as Major combatant unit, the 198th Battalion, and during the demobilization he was a Divisional Educational officer in the Khaki University.

As Honorary Secretary-Treasurer and Scientific Adviser of the Banting Research Foundation and as the founder and enthusiastic supporter of the Toronto Biochemical and Biophysical Society, Professor Henderson has exerted a wide influence on Canadian research in the medical sciences. He has been a Fellow of this Society since 1927.

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1943 - B.P. Babkin, FRSC

I have the honour to present Dr. B. P. Babkin for the Flavelle Medal in recognition of his outstanding work on the secretory mechanism of the digestive glands. The physiology of secretion by the salivary, gastric, and pancreatic gland cells has been clarified and greatly enlarged through his researches. His recent work and that of his associates on gastric secretion may be especially mentioned both for its fundamental importance and its practical applicability to the problem of ulcers.

The results of his researches and those of his associates are included in more than two hundred publications. His monumental monograph Die Assure Sekretion der Verdauungdrussen has gone through two large editions and a volume of lectures The Secretory Mechanism of the Digestive Glands is in process of publication.

Dr. Babkin is a graduate in medicine of the Military Medical Academy of Leningrad, and in science of the University of London. He brought to this country, and particularly to Dalhousie and McGill universities, the great traditions of the Pavlov School, which he has worthily continued and extended. The Pavlov School has always regarded the living animal, as a whole, the object of physiological experimentation. The system or phenomenon under study is thus viewed as part of the life of the animal. Pavlov's work on the salivary glands led to the elaboration of the “conditioned reflex” complex and Babkin's work on the same glands led to one of the earliest demonstrations of humoral transmission in mammals.

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1942 - John Hubert Craigie, FRSC

If it be true, as Swift writes, “that whoever could make two ears or two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together,” surely as much may be said of one who does so much to discourage pathological attack on plant life that decided may be given that the grain of corn or the blade of grass may grow in good health to maturity, to produce perfect seed after its kind.

For several decades Canada, and more particularly that part of it included in the Prairie Provinces, has been the granary or quite a significant portion of the population of the world. The area utilized for cereal production, wheat especially, has gradually expanded, but the crop expansion has not kept pace in all cases. The main setback has been due to the insidious attack of the stem rust, which has been so persistent that in 1916, and again in 1925, the losses were estimated to be as much as one hundred million bushels, and for twenty-five successive years to average thirty-five million bushels.

To meet this invasion with some chance of success, the Dominion Rust Research Laboratory was established in Winnipeg in 1925, with D. L. Bailey, Officer-in-charge. J. H. Craigie joined the laboratory staff at that time as Pathologist, became Senior Pathologist in 1927 and Officer-in-charge in 1928, when Dr. Bailey resigned. This laboratory has achieved an international reputation. Although rust resistance has been stressed in the production of suitable wheat, varieties for Western Canada with such success that rust ravages.have been very much reduced, research on several other diseases, comparable to that on stem rust, has been carried out in the laboratory.

Dr. Craigie's research contributions have dealt mainly with the origin of new races of the stem rust and the manner of their inheritance. From cytological studies on the various stages of the fungus as it appears in the barberry, it was shown for the first time that the pycnium has a definite function in the life-history of the rust fungus. The study of this function was the basis of the strong suggestion that hybridization had much to do with the origin of new races. By studying some simple colour mutations it was further observed that, in general, the rust fungi obey the laws already enunciated for higher plants and animals. With this knowledge as a background, and with the co-operation of the members of the laboratory staff, it has been possible to develop these rust-resistant wheat varieties already mentioned.

Dr. Craigie has many published papers to his credit; he is a member of several scientific societies; in 1930 he was awarded the Eriksson Prize for cereal rust investigations, and in 1937 the Medal of the Professional Institute of the Civil Service of Canada. He is recognized as the leading cereal pathologist in Canada, and one with few peers in the world.

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1941 - Thomas Leonard Walker, FRSC

Professor Thomas Leonard Walker has long been a leader among mineralogists on this continent because of his success as a teacher, an organizer of instructional facilities and research, and an author of scientific publications. His personal contributions exceed one hundred papers in addition to a book on crystallography and reports on the tungsten and molybdenum deposits of Canada, and they appear in at least three languages. His greatest contribution has been due, however, to the high standard in thoroughness that he has demanded of himself and of the investigators who have worked in his laboratories. He established Contributions to Canadian Mineralogy, an annual publication issued by the University of Toronto, which has for many years served to stimulate interest in the investigation of the minerals of this country. He was the first petrographer to recognize the differentiation of the Sudbury nickel eruptive into basic and acid phases and his work in this field has remained a very valuable contribution to the study of this famous intrusive.

Dr. Walker served as Assistant Superintendent of the Geological Survey of India for four years, head of the Department of Mineralogy and Petrography at Toronto for thirty-six years, and Director of the Royal Ontario Museum of Mineralogy for twenty-four years. The excellence of his University Department and Museum has been recognized by all who are familiar with them and is a tribute to his organizing ability. In recognition of his standing as a scientist, Dr. Walker was elected President of the Mineralogical Society of America in 1922, and in 1938 he was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Toronto. He will long be remembered as a man who did much for mineralogy in this country. It is a matter of great regret that impaired health prevents him from being here to receive the medal in person.

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1940 - Robert William Boyle, FRSC

This award is made to Robert William Boyle, M.A., M.Sc., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.C., Director of the Division of Physics and Electrical Engineering of the National Research Council Laboratories, in particular recognition of his researches on submarine detection during the latter part of the Great War of 1914-18. His basic work when he was in charge of the development of “asdics” for the British Admiralty, has led to results of great value in the present war, and is cited specially as an important scientific contribution to the technique of antisubmarine warfare and national defence.

In addition to this specific contribution of national significance, the Awarding Committee has taken cognizance of his fundamental researches in ultra-sonics, in which field he has developed new technique and made original contributions to knowledge bearing upon the propagation, transmission, reflection, interference, energy distribution, and detection of beams of ultra-sonic waves. His early contributions in radioactivity under the supervision of Lord Rutherford at McGill University and again at Manchester, also include important contributions to knowledge.

As a Newfoundlander still in his prime, who has devoted his life successfully to several aspects of science in Canada, he increases in considerable measure the debt we owe to that hardy, oldest colony, which has provided this country with many able men. His versatility in scientific services is strikingly apparent in the wide range of his activities. After a brilliant undergraduate career at McGill University in Electrical Engineering, followed by postgraduate specialization in Physics and the award of one of the famous 1851 Exhibition Scholarships, he served as a Lecturer in Mathematics, then as Assistant Professor of Physics at McGill University, and was appointed Professor of Physics at the University of Alberta in 1912. After his services in war research for the anti-submarine division of the Admiralty Board of Inventions and Research, when the notable work on “asdics” was begun, he returned to Edmonton and soon afterwards became Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and a member of the Alberta Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. It was during this period that he initiated and developed his fruitful programme of research on ultra-sonics which has since received world-wide recognition as a valuable series of contributions.

Since 1929 he has held his present post of Director of the Division Physics and Electrical Engineering at the National Research Council Laboratories, throughout the whole period of the development of these magnificent laboratories to their present state. A Fellow of our Society since 1921, and President of Section III in 1925, he has also been an active member of many physical and engineering societies on this continent, serving as an officer in many of them.

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1939 - James Playfair McMurrich, FRSC

The Flavelle Medal was founded in 1924 to be awarded to “Fellows of the Royal Society of Canada or others who shall have accomplished original work in Science or Literature of especial and conspicuous merit.” In connection with the present award it is a matter of interest that the medal and die, together with the endowment funds, were handed over to the Society by James Playfair McMurrich and that the President of the year, Dr. J. C. McLennan, combined a motion of thanks to Sir Joseph Flavelle with one of gratitude to Dr. McMurrich for the interest he had taken in securing and placing this gift at the disposal of the Society. Moreover, Dr. McMurrich was a member of the Committee which made the first award in 1925 to the late Sir Charles E. Saunders.

It is singularly appropriate, therefore, that the distinction should come this year to James Playfair McMurrich. It is sad, however, that in summing up a record of original work of conspicuous merit we must write after it “finis,” for Dr. McMurrich died on February 9 of this year.

Born of parents who came out from Renfrewshire, Scotland, Dr. McMurrich was a Toronto man, who, after graduating in Arts, spent some years in the United States, taking his doctor's degree at Johns Hopkins and holding posts in various American universities. His selected field of teaching and research was comparative anatomy and embryology, particularly of marine forms of life, his most important papers dealing with the morphology of the actinaria and the embryology of the mollusca and crustacea. Some twenty-three papers on these matters came from his pen between the years 1887 and 1921, obtaining for him world-wide recognition as an authority in this field.

Returning to his Alma Mater in 1907, he held the post of professor of anatomy in the University of Toronto for twenty-three years. A stimulating lecturer and able teacher, he believed in creating a thirst for knowledge in his pupils rather than spoon-feeding them with facts. A distinguished pupil recalls his daily visits to the dissecting room, “where he would often sit down with us and converse in an intimate and friendly way on anatomical problems.” Equipped with a broad knowledge of animal life in all its grades and branches, he was a teacher of anatomy and a worker in the direct Hunterian succession. His interest was not confined to the science of life, as his papers on Leonardo da Vinci, Greek and Roman Medicine, and Evolution and Religion testify.

His connection with the Royal Society of Canada was long and intimate. In 1923 he held the post of President of the Society and his presidential address on “The Royal Society of Canada: Its Aims and Needs” is well worthy of consideration now as then. In this address he strongly advocated the accumulation of funds by the Society, for, said he, “A Royal Society without sufficient resources to reward meritorious work and to aid in its prosecution cannot fulfil the purposes for which it was created.” The closing paragraph of the oration might be taken as his last message to his native land: “With our wonderful natural resources and this rapid development there is danger that we as a people may be carried away by material prosperity and, seeking for immediate practical results, neglect to cultivate that breadth and depth of vision which alone leads to true knowledge and true progress.”

It would not be fitting for me to close without reference to the passing this year also of the generous donor of the medal, Sir Joseph Flavelle.

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1938 - W. Lash Miller, FRSC

For nearly fifty years W. Lash Miller has brought his brilliant and his clear analytical mind to bear on the solution of chemical problems. Every one of the papers, numbering almost a hundred, published under his own name or under those of his students whose researches he inspired and guided, bears the impress of his genius and clearness of thought.

Dr. Miller has clarified by his touch nearly every field of physical chemistry. His researches, including work on basic salts, reaction velocity in solution, transport numbers, high current arcs, overvoltage, diffusion, colloids, etc., are about evenly divided between the complementary fields of equilibria and rates of reaction. From his study of kinetics and overvoltage he was led into a mathematical investigation of certain exponential functions, while out of his work on the application of thermodynamics to toxicity there grew his more recent series of researches on bios, upon which he is still actively engaged.

His influence on the teaching of science has been widespread. His uncompromising insistence on clear expression and clear understanding of fundamentals has profoundly affected the method of teaching chemistry both in his own university and also, indirectly through his students, in the secondary schools of Ontario, for all who come under Dr. Miller's influence carry away something of his philosophy deeply rooted in their minds.

Dr. Miller was born in Galt, Ontario, in 1866. From 1891 until 1937 he was actively connected with the Department of Chemistry of the University of Toronto, and on his retirement last year was appointed Emeritus Professor of Physical Chemistry. He is a life member of the Royal Society of Canada, and was its President for the year 1934-35. In the same year he was made Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire.

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1937 - Frank D. Adams, FRSC

Dr. Frank Dawson Adams, one of the most distinguished Canadian geologists, was born in Montreal in 1859, was graduated as B.S. from McGill University in 1878 and as Ph.D. from Heidelberg in 1892. He has received honorary degrees from McGill, Tufts, Toronto, Queen's and Mt. Allison universities; and was appointed Lecturer in Geology at McGill in 1889 and Logan Professor of Geology in 1894. He has also been Dean of Applied Science in 1908 and Acting Principal of McGill in 1919-20.

He has been president of a number of scientific societies, including the Royal Society of Canada, and is an F.R.S. and an honorary member of many scientific societies in the new and old worlds, so that his work as a geologist has been recognized and honoured in all possible ways. His most important work has been done as a petrographic student the of the Pre-cambrian rocks of Canada and the eruptive rocks of the Monteregian hills of Quebec. His study of the batholiths and schistose and sedimentary rocks of the Haliburton region in Ontario has become a classic and has thrown much light on the complex relationships of our most ancient geological formations. His laboratory studies on the strength of rocks has also supplied most valuable data for the geologist. He has been a great traveller and his study of the gems of Ceylon and their geological relationships is a very interesting result of his journeys.

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1936 - J.B. Collip, FRSC

Professor J. B. Collip has achieved international fame for his researches on the physiology and biochemistry of the endocrine glands. While a Rockefeller Fellow in the Department of Physiology in the University of Toronto, Dr. Collip was associated in the work of Banting, Best and Macleod which resulted in the discovery of insulin, and he was largely responsible for the early methods of purification which made possible its safe administration to human diabetics. While Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Alberta he carried out an investigation on the physiology of the parathyroid glands, the exact function of which was at that time doubtful. Dr. Collip demonstrated clearly that the parathyroid hormone controlled the level of the calcium in the blood and prepared a highly active preparation of the hormone.

After his appointment as Professor of Biochemistry at McGill University, he turned his attention to a study of the hormones present in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland end in the placenta. He has made many notable contributions to this field of research during the last few years. The methods which he has devised for the separation of the different pituitary hormones, his demonstration that the placenta contains a water-soluble derivative of oestriol, and that the body produces anti-hormones in response to overdoses of certain of the pituitary principles, are universally recognized as most significant and fundamental contributions to endocrinology.

Professor Collip holds the degree of B.A., M.A. and Ph.D. of Toronto, and D.Sc. and M.D. of Alberta. He was elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Society of Canada in 1925, and in 1933 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London.

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1935 - Frank T. Shutt, FRSC

The Society awards the Flavelle Medal this year to one of its members who has given long and distinguished service to the cause of science. Dr. Frank T. Shutt was appointed Dominion Chemist as long ago as 1887. That was the year of Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee. Sir John Macdonald was then Prime Minister of Canada. It was nearly half a century ago. Many things have happened since then, in the world of science as in other fields of human activity, and in the development of some of them Frank Shutt has taken an active and important part. Agricultural chemistry owes a deep debt of gratitude to his patient and constructive research in the development of types of wheat adapted to Canadian conditions, nutritive grasses, the agricultural value of peat and muck soils, and in many other directions. The importance of his investigations has been recognized from time to time by such awards as the prize of $1,250 given to him in 1929 by the American Society of Agronomy for his researches in connection with the Nitrogen Problems of North American Agriculture. From the Transactions of our own Society as well as from the publications of other learned bodies could be compiled a formidable list of Dr. Shutt's papers in the field that he has made so peculiarly his own. Nor should it be forgotten that his interests have never been confined either to his own particular branch of science, or even to the entire field of science. As chemist, scholar and man, the Society honours itself in honouring him.

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1934 - Louis Vessot King, FRSC

Louis Vessot King, the most brilliant mathematical physicist that Canada has produced, was born in Toronto in 1886 and educated at McGill and Cambridge universities. He was elected a Fellow of this Society in 1915 and a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1924. He has been a member of the staff of McGill University since 1910 and Macdonald Professor of Physics there since 1920.

No Canadian has displayed greater originality or versatility in his scientific work than Dr. King, for he has won international fame as a mathematician, physicist and engineer. He is a worthy disciple of the school of Kelvin and Rawleigh. Some of the fields in which he has won distinction are electrodynamics, kinetic theory, particularly in the study of the properties of solar and sky radiation and in that of the molecular scattering of light; hot wire anemometry; fog signal machinery and the numerical calculation of elliptic functions and integrals. The mathematical work of Dr. King is characterized by the elegance and economy of the methods used.

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1933 - Joseph Burr Tyrrell, FRSC

Joseph Burr Tyrrell was born in Weston, Ontario, seventy-five years ago next November. He was educated at Upper Canada College and Toronto University, obtaining his B.A. in 1880 and M.A. in 1889. The same year he obtained his B.Sc. from Victoria University. He joined the staff of the Geological Survey of Canada in 1881 and remained with that important organization for seventeen years, during which time he carried out notable explorations in western and northern Canada. In 1893 he crossed the Barren Lands from Lake Athabaska to Chesterfield Inlet, and the following year again explored this remote region from Reindeer Lake to the west coast of Hudson Bay. The two following years took him into the little-known country north of Lake Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan River.

Since he retired from the Geological Survey, Dr. Tyrrell has added to his experience and done very useful work as a mining engineer. He is the author of many reports on exploration in the regions mentioned, and has edited for the Champlain Society Samuel Hearne's Journey from Prince of Wales Fort in Hudson Bay to the Northern Ocean, David Thompson's Narrative of his Explorations in Western America, and the Early History of Hudson Bay. He is also the author of numerous papers on geological, mining and historical subjects. He was awarded the Back Award by the Royal Geographical Society in 1896, the Murchison Medal by the Geological Society of London in 1918, and the Daly Gold Medal by the American Geographical Society. He is a Fellow of the Geological Society of London, of the Geological Society of America, of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the Royal Society of Canada; is Honorary President of the Canadian Geographical Society, and a member of numerous engineering and geological societies. He has done much for the encouragement of research and exploration in his own country and elsewhere.

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1932 - John Stanley Plaskett, FRSC

John Stanley Plaskett was born near Woodstock, Ontario, and received his elementary education there. He spent the years 1885 to 1889 in the works of the Edison Company at Schenectady, N.Y., learning the construction of electrical machinery when electrical engineering was evolving from its rudimentary state. From 1890 to 1903 he was mechanical and lecture assistant in the Department of Physics in the University of Toronto. While assisting in the lectures he also followed the instruction given by the professors, and by private study entered on the B.A. course in the university. In 1899 he graduated with first class honours in mathematics and physics.

In 1903 he became mechanical superintendent of the new Dominion Observatory at Ottawa, then in course of construction, and in 1905 was given the status of Astronomer. He made important solar and stellar spectroscopic researches; and realizing the need of larger equipment he began, with the director's approval, a campaign for a reflecting telescope of aperture 72 inches. In this he was successful and the instrument was located at Victoria, B.C. Work with it began in 1918 and since then there has been a continuous stream of investigations from this Observatory which has aroused the admiration of the world. Perhaps Dr. Plaskett's work on the rotation of the galaxy is the most important of his researches.

Dr. Plaskett has received honorary degrees from his alma mater and from the universities of Pittsburgh, British Columbia and McGill. He was awarded in 1930 the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Rumford gold medal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; and in 1932 the Bruce gold medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

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1931 - Sir Frederick Banting, FRSC

Frederick Grant Banting was born at Alliston, Ontario, in 1891. He graduated M.B. from the University of Toronto in 1916 and got his doctor's degree from the same institution in 1922. He joined the Canadian forces as a private and rose to the rank of captain. He was wounded at Cambrai in September 1918, and received the Military Cross for gallantry in action.

Upon his return from the war he practiced medicine for a time at London, Ontario, and in 1921 began in Toronto his research work on the internal secretion of the pancreas. Applying himself wholeheartedly to this problem, he was able within a year to demonstrate a potent extract which had the property of controlling the metabolism of carbohydrates. This extract was the basis from which the subsequent purified insulin was derived. The practical use of these discoveries has found world-wide application in the treatment of diabetes. No individual discovery in medical science during the last century has been as far-reaching in its benefits to mankind as insulin. Dr. Banting has continued his studies upon the internal secretions, particularly in reference to the adrenal gland.

In 1923 he became Professor of Medical Research at the University of Toronto, and is also honorary consulting physician of the Toronto General Hospital, the Hospital for Sick Children and the Toronto Western Hospital. The same year, with Dr. J. J. R. Macleod, he was awarded the Nobel Prize, and has also been honoured with the Starr Gold Medal (Toronto), George A. Peters Prize (Toronto), Charles Mickle Fellowship (Toronto), Reeve Prize (Toronto), John Scott Medal (Philadelphia), Rosenberger Gold Medal (Chicago), Cameron Prize (Edinburgh). Toronto, Yale, Queen's, and Western Ontario have all given him honorary degrees. He is the author of numerous papers and articles relating to medical research.

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1930 - Archibald Byron Macallum, FRSC

Archibald Byron Macallum, who may be justly named the father of micro-biochemistry on this continent, was born at Belmont, Ontario, and educated at Toronto University, where he obtained his M.B. degree in 1889, followed by a Ph.D. at the Johns Hopkins University, and other degrees from Aberdeen, McGill, Yale, and Dublin. He was elected a Fellow of our Society in 1900, and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1906. After four years as Lecturer in Physiology, he was for five years Professor of Physiology, and for eleven years Professor of Biochemistry at Toronto. The Great War brought new problems to the fore, and in 1916 Dr. Macallum was appointed Chairman of the Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. During five years he laid the foundations of the great movement, which has developed into the present National Research Council and National Research Laboratory, the importance of which, in the interests of Canada's future welfare and progress, can scarcely be over-estimated. From 1920 to 1928 Dr. Macallum was Professor of Biochemistry at McGill, and since his retirement he has continued his research work at Western University, London.

Dr. Macallum's most notable work has been in the micro-chemistry of cells, both animal and vegetable, on the localization of the elements within them, and on the composition of cellular and tissue fluids in the animal body. Moreover, he has presented his results in good literary form, for he combines the excellencies both of scholar and of savant. It is a special pleasure to award the Flavelle medal to a former President of this society (1916-17).

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1929 - Arthur Henri Reginald Buller, FRSC

Arthur Henry Reginald Buller, Professor of Botany at the University of Manitoba, is an Ex-President of this Society. Dr. Buller's researches and publications in the field of physiological botany, and particularly in regard to the Fungi, have won for him an international reputation, but his interests and activities have by no means been confined to this field that he has made so particularly his own. He has taken an active part in the work of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, has been President of the British Mycological Society as well as of the Canadian Phytopathological Society, and the Mycological Section of the American Botanical Society, and is a Membre Associé de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique. To all those honours previously conferred upon him, Dr. Buller has just a few days ago added a very great and special one: he has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London.

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1928 - Arthur Philemon Coleman, FRSC

Arthur Philemon Coleman, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.C., is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Geology of the University of Toronto and an ex-President of this Society. Dr. Coleman enjoys an international reputation in the field of geology. He has made outstanding contributions to our knowledge of the glacial periods of the whole world and has devoted especial attention to the Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene glacial periods of Canada. He has recently embodied the results of his glacial studies in a book called Ice Ages, Recent and Ancient, which is regarded as authorative. Another of his books, The Canadian Rockies, is written from the point of view of an enthusiastic mountaineer. Finally, the work of Professor Coleman on the origin of the Sudbury ore deposits is a contribution to economic geology of the first rank.

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1927 - Sir Arthur G. Doughty, FRSC

A. G. Doughty, Deputy Minister of Public Archives, is a former Dominion Archivist, Ottawa.

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1926 - Sir John C. McLennan, FRSC

J. C. McLennan was also a member of the Senate, Ottawa.

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1925 - Sir Charles E. Saunders, FRSC

C. E. Saunders, Dominion Cerealist at the Central Experimental Farm, is awarded the Medal for his discovery and development of Marquis Wheat.