American Renaissance Store
  Color of Crime
  New Subscriptions
  Subscription Renewals
  Audio Tapes
  Video Tapes

Contact us

To order by mail,
please send check
or money order to:

AR, P.O. Box 527
Oakton, VA 22124

(703) 716 0900

(703) 716 0932


Race, Evolution, and Behavior

by J. Philippe Rushton
3rd Edition, Unabridged (soft cover)


Race, Evolution, and Behavior is one of the best books ever written about on race. It marshals statisticson race differences and provides a comprehensive gene-based evolutionary theory to explain them. It may startle many people to learn just how much information we have on race differences in brain size, intelligence, sexuality, personality, growth rate, life span, crime, and family stability. Also surprising to many will be the consistency with which, on all of these traits, Orientals fall at one end of the spectrum, blacks at the other end, and whites in between.

On average, Orientals are slower to mature, less fertile, and less sexually active, have larger brains and higher IQ scores. Blacks are at the opposite end in each of these areas, and whites fall in the middle, often close to Orientals. This pattern is true over time and across nations and this means we cannot ignore it.

Race, Evolution, and Behavior shows that Oriental children are slower to mature than white children while black children are faster to mature. This is true for the rate of bone and tooth development and the age at which a child first sits, crawls, walks, and puts on clothing.

There are also racial differences in sexual activity. Orientals are the least sexually active, whether measured by age of first intercourse, intercourse frequency, or number of sexual partners. Blacks are the most active on all of these measures. Once again whites fall in between. These contrasts in sexual activity lead to differences in the rate of diseases like syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydia. There are high levels of AIDS in Africa, black America, and the Caribbean and low levels in China and Japan. European countries again fall in between.

The races differ in rate of ovulation. Not all women produce one egg during the menstrual cycle. When two or more eggs are produced at the same time, a pregnancy is more likely. So is the likelihood of producing fraternal twins (i.e., two-egg twins). The number of twins born is 16 out of every 1,000 births for blacks, 8 out of every 1,000 births for whites, and 4 or less for Orientals. Triplets and other multiple births are rarest in Orientals and highest in blacks, with whites in between.

Much of Race, Evolution, and Behavior is about race and intelligence. Hundreds of studies on millions of people show a three-way pattern. IQ tests are often made to have an average score of 100, with a “normal” range from 85 to 115. Whites average from 100 to 103. Orientals in Asia and the U.S. tend to have higher scores, about 106. Blacks in the U.S., the Caribbean, Britain, Canada, and in Africa average lower IQs—about 85. The lowest average IQs are found for sub-Saharan Africans—from 70 to 75.

Prof. Rushton also looks at brain size. Bigger brains have more brain cells and this leads to higher IQs. The races vary in brain size. Some of the reviewed studies are very large. For example, the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project followed more than 50,000 children from birth to age seven years. Orientals had larger brains than whites at birth, four months, one year, and seven years. Whites had larger brains than blacks at all ages. In another large study this racial ranking was confirmed in a random stratified sample of 6,325 U.S. Army personnel.

Up until recently most work on race was carried out in the U.S. on differences between whites and blacks. Beginning in the 1970s, however, race research became become global. New statistics emerged on East Asians in the United States, as well as from Hong Kong and Japan. Also, more data began to come in from black populations in Africa, the Caribbean, and Britain. All the data consistently showed a 3-way pattern of race differences.

In the U.S. Orientals are a “model minority.” They have fewer divorces, fewer out-of—wedlock births, and fewer reports of child abuse than whites. More Orientals graduate from college and fewer go to prison. On the other hand blacks are 12 percent of the American population and make up 50 percent of the prison population. In the U.S., one out of every three black men is either in jail, on probation, or awaiting trial. That is much more than the number who graduate from college.

Race, Evolution, and Behavior shows that this racial pattern in crime is found worldwide. INTERPOL Yearbooks show that violent crime rates are four times lower in Asian and Pacific Rim countries than in African and Caribbean countries. Whites in the United States and in European countries are in between.

Why Are There Race Differences?

Why does history show Africa trailing behind Asia and Europe? Why do whites average between Orientals and blacks in so many areas? Why do the groups with larger brains have lower rates of two-egg twinning? To know the answer, you must look at all of the traits taken together because they form a pattern. No environmental factor can explain all of them taken together. There is, however, a gene based explanation. The patterns make up what is called a “life-history.” They evolved together to meet the trials of life—survival, growth, and reproduction.

Race, Evolution, and Behavior proposes a gene based “life-history theory” to explain the racial pattern in brain size, intelligence, and other traits. Evolutionary biologists call it the r-K scale of reproductive strategies. At one end of this scale are r-strategies that rely on high reproductive rates. At the other end are K-strategies that rely on high levels of parental care.

On this scale, Orientals are more K-selected than whites, while whites are more K-selected than blacks. Highly K-selected women produce fewer eggs (and have bigger brains) than r-selected women. Highly K-selected men invest time and energy in their children rather than the pursuit of sexual thrills. They are “dads” rather than “cads.” These race differences in reproductive strategies make sense in terms of human evolution. Modern humans are thought to have evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago. Africans and non-Africans then split about 100,000 years ago. Orientals and whites split about 40,000 years ago.

The more north the people went “out of Africa,” the harder it was to get food, gain shelter, make clothes, and raise children. So the groups that evolved into today’s whites and Orientals needed larger brains, more family stability, and a longer life. But building a bigger brain takes time and energy during development. So, these changes were balanced by slower rates of growth, lower levels of sex hormones, less aggression, and less sexual activity.

Why? Because Africa, Europe, and Asia had very different climates and geographies that called for different skills, resource usage, and lifestyles. Blacks evolved in a tropical climate which contrasted with the cooler climate of Europe in which whites evolved and even more so with the cold Arctic lands where Orientals evolved.

Because intelligence increased the chances of survival in harsh winter environments, the groups that left Africa had to evolve greater intelligence and family stability. This called for larger brains, slower growth rates, lower hormone levels, less sexual potency, less aggression, and less impulsiveness. Advanced planning, self-control, rule-following, and longevity all increased in the non-Africans.

Finally it is worth mentioning that in Chapter 4 of the unabridged edition (not covered in the abridged version) the author presents his “genetic similarity theory” to explain ethnic nationalism. It likens “races” to extended families. Prof. Rushton shows that genes influence why people tend to marry and associate with others like themselves. The important pull of genetic similarity can be felt in small groups and even large ones (national and international). The reason people like and seek genetic similarity and fear and avoid dissimilarity is to be found in the sociobiology of altruism. Altruism toward genetically similar others evolved in order to help replicate similar genes (extended kin). Xenophobia is then seen as the ‘dark side’ of human altruism. Because ethnic nationalism is part of human nature, the world may face an unending series of upheavals as more and more peoples rise to ethnic self-consciousness.

New Century Foundation is pleased to offer for sale both the 106-page abridged edition ($6.95, postage included) and the 400-page 3rd unabridged edition ($16.00, postage included) of Race, Evolution, and Behavior. Both versions, published in June 2000 by the Charles Darwin Research Institute, provide the most up-to-date research on this critical topic. The unabridged edition contains over 1,000 references to the scholarly literature, a glossary, complete name and subject indexes, and 65 charts, maps, tables, and figures. It is an essential reference book for anyone seeking a profession treatment of the subject of race. The 3rd edition provides a 30-page preface that summarizes the main scientific findings since the 2nd edition (1997), which in turn had a 21-page afterword updating the science since the 1st edition (1995).


“This brilliant book is the most impressive theory-based study . . . of the psychological and behavioral differences between the major racial groups that I have encountered in the world literature on this subject.”

—Arthur R. Jensen, University of California, Berkeley

The only acceptable explanation of race differences in behavior allowed in public discourse is an entirely environmental one . . . Professor Rushton deserves our gratitude for having the courage to declare that ‘this emperor has no clothes,’ and that a more satisfactory explanation must be sought.”

—Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., University of Minnesota

“Astronomy and the physical sciences had their Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo a few centuries ago; society and the welfare of humanity is the better for it today. In a directly analogous fashion, psychology and the social sciences today have their Darwin, Galton, and Rushton.”

—Glayde Whitney, Contemporary Psychology

“Professor Rushton is widely known and respected for the unusual combination of rigour and originality in his work . . . .Few concerned with understanding the problems associated with race can afford to disregard this storehouse of well-integrated information which gives rise to a remarkable synthesis.”

—Hans J. Eysenck, University of London

“Should, if there is any justice, receive a Nobel Prize.”

—Richard Lynn, Spectator


J. Philippe Rushton is a professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. He holds two doctorates from the University of London (Ph.D. and D.Sc). Prof. Rushton has published six books and nearly 200 articles.