Evolution, and Behavior
by J. Philippe Rushton
3rd Edition, Unabridged (soft cover)
and Behavior is one of the best books ever written about
on race. It marshals statisticson race differences and provides a comprehensive
gene-based evolutionary theory to explain them. It may startle many people to
learn just how much information we have on race differences in brain size, intelligence,
sexuality, personality, growth rate, life span, crime, and family stability.
Also surprising to many will be the consistency with which, on all of these
traits, Orientals fall at one end of the spectrum, blacks at the other end,
and whites in between.
On average, Orientals are slower to mature,
less fertile, and less sexually active, have larger brains and higher IQ scores.
Blacks are at the opposite end in each of these areas, and whites fall in the
middle, often close to Orientals. This pattern is true over time and across
nations and this means we cannot ignore it.
Race, Evolution, and Behavior shows that
Oriental children are slower to mature than white children while black children
are faster to mature. This is true for the rate of bone and tooth development
and the age at which a child first sits, crawls, walks, and puts on clothing.
There are also racial differences in sexual
activity. Orientals are the least sexually active, whether measured by age of
first intercourse, intercourse frequency, or number of sexual partners. Blacks
are the most active on all of these measures. Once again whites fall in between.
These contrasts in sexual activity lead to differences in the rate of diseases
like syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydia. There are high levels of AIDS
in Africa, black America, and the Caribbean and low levels in China and Japan.
European countries again fall in between.
The races differ in rate of ovulation. Not all
women produce one egg during the menstrual cycle. When two or more eggs are
produced at the same time, a pregnancy is more likely. So is the likelihood
of producing fraternal twins (i.e., two-egg twins). The number of twins born
is 16 out of every 1,000 births for blacks, 8 out of every 1,000 births for
whites, and 4 or less for Orientals. Triplets and other multiple births are
rarest in Orientals and highest in blacks, with whites in between.
Much of Race, Evolution, and Behavior
is about race and intelligence. Hundreds of studies on millions of people show
a three-way pattern. IQ tests are often made to have an average score of 100,
with a normal range from 85 to 115. Whites average from 100 to 103.
Orientals in Asia and the U.S. tend to have higher scores, about 106. Blacks
in the U.S., the Caribbean, Britain, Canada, and in Africa average lower IQsabout
85. The lowest average IQs are found for sub-Saharan Africansfrom 70 to
Prof. Rushton also looks at brain size. Bigger
brains have more brain cells and this leads to higher IQs. The races vary in
brain size. Some of the reviewed studies are very large. For example, the U.S.
Collaborative Perinatal Project followed more than 50,000 children from birth
to age seven years. Orientals had larger brains than whites at birth, four months,
one year, and seven years. Whites had larger brains than blacks at all ages.
In another large study this racial ranking was confirmed in a random stratified
sample of 6,325 U.S. Army personnel.
Up until recently most work on race was carried
out in the U.S. on differences between whites and blacks. Beginning in the 1970s,
however, race research became become global. New statistics emerged on East
Asians in the United States, as well as from Hong Kong and Japan. Also, more
data began to come in from black populations in Africa, the Caribbean, and Britain.
All the data consistently showed a 3-way pattern of race differences.
In the U.S. Orientals are a model minority.
They have fewer divorces, fewer out-ofwedlock births, and fewer reports
of child abuse than whites. More Orientals graduate from college and fewer go
to prison. On the other hand blacks are 12 percent of the American population
and make up 50 percent of the prison population. In the U.S., one out of every
three black men is either in jail, on probation, or awaiting trial. That is
much more than the number who graduate from college.
Race, Evolution, and Behavior shows that
this racial pattern in crime is found worldwide. INTERPOL Yearbooks show that
violent crime rates are four times lower in Asian and Pacific Rim countries
than in African and Caribbean countries. Whites in the United States and in
European countries are in between.
Why Are There Race Differences?
Why does history show Africa trailing behind
Asia and Europe? Why do whites average between Orientals and blacks in so many
areas? Why do the groups with larger brains have lower rates of two-egg twinning?
To know the answer, you must look at all of the traits taken together because
they form a pattern. No environmental factor can explain all of them taken together.
There is, however, a gene based explanation. The patterns make up what is called
a life-history. They evolved together to meet the trials of lifesurvival,
growth, and reproduction.
Race, Evolution, and Behavior proposes
a gene based life-history theory to explain the racial pattern in
brain size, intelligence, and other traits. Evolutionary biologists call it
the r-K scale of reproductive strategies. At one end of this scale are r-strategies
that rely on high reproductive rates. At the other end are K-strategies that
rely on high levels of parental care.
On this scale, Orientals are more K-selected
than whites, while whites are more K-selected than blacks. Highly K-selected
women produce fewer eggs (and have bigger brains) than r-selected women. Highly
K-selected men invest time and energy in their children rather than the pursuit
of sexual thrills. They are dads rather than cads. These
race differences in reproductive strategies make sense in terms of human evolution.
Modern humans are thought to have evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago.
Africans and non-Africans then split about 100,000 years ago. Orientals and
whites split about 40,000 years ago.
The more north the people went out of
Africa, the harder it was to get food, gain shelter, make clothes, and
raise children. So the groups that evolved into todays whites and Orientals
needed larger brains, more family stability, and a longer life. But building
a bigger brain takes time and energy during development. So, these changes were
balanced by slower rates of growth, lower levels of sex hormones, less aggression,
and less sexual activity.
Why? Because Africa, Europe, and Asia had very
different climates and geographies that called for different skills, resource
usage, and lifestyles. Blacks evolved in a tropical climate which contrasted
with the cooler climate of Europe in which whites evolved and even more so with
the cold Arctic lands where Orientals evolved.
Because intelligence increased the chances of
survival in harsh winter environments, the groups that left Africa had to evolve
greater intelligence and family stability. This called for larger brains, slower
growth rates, lower hormone levels, less sexual potency, less aggression, and
less impulsiveness. Advanced planning, self-control, rule-following, and longevity
all increased in the non-Africans.
Finally it is worth mentioning that in Chapter
4 of the unabridged edition (not covered in the abridged version) the author
presents his genetic similarity theory to explain ethnic nationalism.
It likens races to extended families. Prof. Rushton shows that genes
influence why people tend to marry and associate with others like themselves.
The important pull of genetic similarity can be felt in small groups and even
large ones (national and international). The reason people like and seek genetic
similarity and fear and avoid dissimilarity is to be found in the sociobiology
of altruism. Altruism toward genetically similar others evolved in order to
help replicate similar genes (extended kin). Xenophobia is then seen as the
dark side of human altruism. Because ethnic nationalism is part
of human nature, the world may face an unending series of upheavals as more
and more peoples rise to ethnic self-consciousness.
New Century Foundation is pleased to offer for
sale both the 106-page abridged edition ($6.95, postage included) and the 400-page
3rd unabridged edition ($16.00, postage included) of Race, Evolution, and
Behavior. Both versions, published in June 2000 by the Charles Darwin Research
Institute, provide the most up-to-date research on this critical topic. The
unabridged edition contains over 1,000 references to the scholarly literature,
a glossary, complete name and subject indexes, and 65 charts, maps, tables,
and figures. It is an essential reference book for anyone seeking a profession
treatment of the subject of race. The 3rd edition provides a 30-page preface
that summarizes the main scientific findings since the 2nd edition (1997), which
in turn had a 21-page afterword updating the science since the 1st edition (1995).
This brilliant book is the most impressive
theory-based study . . . of the psychological and behavioral differences between
the major racial groups that I have encountered in the world literature on this
Arthur R. Jensen, University of California,
The only acceptable explanation of race differences
in behavior allowed in public discourse is an entirely environmental one . .
. Professor Rushton deserves our gratitude for having the courage to declare
that this emperor has no clothes, and that a more satisfactory explanation
must be sought.
Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., University of
Astronomy and the physical sciences had
their Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo a few centuries ago; society and the welfare
of humanity is the better for it today. In a directly analogous fashion, psychology
and the social sciences today have their Darwin, Galton, and Rushton.
Glayde Whitney, Contemporary Psychology
Professor Rushton is widely known and
respected for the unusual combination of rigour and originality in his work
. . . .Few concerned with understanding the problems associated with race can
afford to disregard this storehouse of well-integrated information which gives
rise to a remarkable synthesis.
Hans J. Eysenck, University of London
Should, if there is any justice, receive
a Nobel Prize.
Richard Lynn, Spectator
J. Philippe Rushton is a professor of psychology
at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. He holds two
doctorates from the University of London (Ph.D. and D.Sc). Prof. Rushton has
published six books and nearly 200 articles.