SOUTH AFRICA


See also CAPE TOWN AND PRETORIA ANGLICAN CHURCH IN SOUTH AFRICA ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY IN SOUTH AFRICA 1848 - 1945 SOUTH AFRICAN HIGH COMMISSION SOUTH WEST AFRICA

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA

In 1910 four selfgoverning British colonies in Southern Africa - The Cape, Natal, the Orange River Colony and Transvaal - were united into the Union of South Africa, a semi-independent Dominion part of the British Empire. (1) Following the Imperial Conference of 1926 the Union became one of the equal members of the British Empire and in 1931, with the Statute of Westminster, it finally achieved full sovereignty, while remaining a member of the British Commonwealth. (1) Dutch style used until 1925 : Unie van Zuid Afrika Afrikaander style used 1925 - ca 1933 : Unie van Suidafrika Afrikaander style used since ca 1933 : Unie van Suid-Afrika From 1925 Dutch was gradually replaced as official language by its South African variant, Afrikaans. Unlike Australia or Canada the new Union had no federal structure and the former colonies were reduced to provinces under direct authority of the central government. BOER REVOLTS DURING WWI In 1914, taking advantage of the outbreak of WWI, some Boers, hoping for German assistance, revolted in an attempt to restore the ancient independent republics of the Orange Free State and of Transvaal. By 1915 the revolts had however been quelled by the South African army. Overall Leader of the revolt and Leader of the revolt in the Cape 1914 - 1915 Gen. Solomon Gerhardus "Manie" Maritz 1876 - 1940 Leader of the revolt in the Orange Free State 1914 Gen. Christiaan Rudolf De Wet 1854 - 1922 Leader of the revolt in Transvaal 1914 Gen. Christiaan Frederik Beyers 1869 - 1914 __________________________________________________________________________________

HEADS OF STATE

Kings - Konings 1931 - 1952 The Kings of the United Kingdom (2) (2) Although the Union was mentionned by name in the oath used at the coronation of King George VI in 1936, no separate style was used during the period 1931 - 1945. Governors General - Goewerneurs Generaal (also High Commissioners in and for South Africa until 1931) 1910 - 1914 Herbert John Gladstone, Viscount Gladstone 1854 - 1930 1914 - 1920 Sydney Charles Buxton, Viscount Buxton of Newtimber 1853 - 1934 1920 - 1923 Prince Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert of Connaught 1883 - 1938 Acting for Prince Arthur 1920 Sir James Rose-Innes 1855 - 1942 1923 - 1924 Sir James Rose-Innes* s.a. 1924 - 1931 Augustus Alexander George Cambridge, Earl of Athlone 1874 - 1957 Acting for the Earl of Athlone 1930 - 1931 Jacob de Villiers 1868 - 1932 1931 - 1937 George Herbert Hyde Villiers, Earl of Clarendon, last Governor General to be High Commissioner in 1931 1877 - 1955 1937 - 1943 Sir Patrick Duncan 1870 - 1943 1943 - 1945 Nicolaas Jacobus de Wet* 1873 - 1960 __________________________________________________________________________________

MINISTERS

DefenceHome AffairsNative AffairsJustice
Financial AffairsEconomic and Social AffairsCuktural AffairsWithout Portfolio
Prime Ministers and (since 1927) Ministers of Foreign Affairs - Eerste Ministers en Ministers van Buitelandse Sake 1910 - 1919 Gen. Louis Botha 1862 - 1919 1919 - 1924 Gen. Jan Christian Smuts 1870 - 1950 1924 - 1939 Gen. James Barry Munnik Hertzog 1866 - 1942 1939 - 1948 Gen. Jan Christian Smuts (2x) Ministers of Defence - Ministers van Verdediging 1910 - 1912 The Minister of Home Affairs s.b. Acting Under Secretary in charge of Defence Affairs - Waarnemende Ondersekretaris belas met Verdedigingsaangeleenthede 1910 - 1912 Henry Roland Murray Bourne 1912 - 1919 Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts s.a. 1919 - 1924 Col. Hendrik Mentz 1877 - 1938 1924 - 1933 Col. Frederic Hugh Page Creswell 1866 - 1948 1933 - 1939 Oswald Pirow 1890 - 1959 1939 - 1948 Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts (2x) Ministers of Home Affairs - Ministers van Binnelandse Sake 1910 - 1912 Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts, also in charge of Defence s.a. 1912 - 1913 Abraham Fischer 1850 - 1913 1913 - 191. Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts* (2x) 191. - 1921 Sir Thomas Watt 1857 - 1947 1921 - 1924 Patrick Duncan s.a. 1924 - 1933 Daniel François Malan 1874 - 1959 1933 - 1936 Jan Frederik Hendrik Hofmeyer 1894 - 1948 1936 - 1939 Richard Stuttaford 1870 - 1945 1939 - 1943 Harry Gordon Lawrence 1901 - 1973 - 1943 - 1948 Charles Francis Clarkson 1881 - 1959 Ministers of Native Affairs - Ministers van Naturellen Sake 1910 - 1912 Henry Burton 1866 - 1935 1912 Gen. James Barry Munnik Hertzog s.a. 1912 - 1913 Jacobus Wilhelmus Sauer 1850 - 1913 1913 - 1919 Gen. Louis Botha s.a. 1919 - 1924 Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts s.a. 1924 - 1929 Gen. James Barry Munnik Hertzog (2x) 1939 - 1933 Ernest George Jansen 1881 - 1959 1933 - 1938 Pieter Gert Wessel Grobler 1872 - 1942 1938 - 1939 Henry Allan Fagan 1889 - 1963 1939 - 1943 Deneys Reitz 1882 - 1944 1943 - 1948 Pieter Voltelyn Graham van der Byl 1899 - Ministers of Justice - Ministers van Justisie 1910 - 1912 Gen. James Barry Munnik Hertzog s.a. 1913 - 1913 Jacobus Wilhelmus Sauer s.a. 1913 - 1924 Nicolaas Jacobus de Wet s.a. 1924 - 1929 Tielman Johannes de Villiers Roos 1879 - 1935 1929 - 1933 Oswald Pirow s.a. 1933 - 1939 Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts s.a. 1939 - 1945 Colin Fraser Steyn 1887 - 1959 Ministers of Finances - Ministers van Finansies 1910 - 1912 Henry Charles Hull 1866 - 1942 1912 - 1915 Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts s.a. 1915 - 1916 Sir David Pieter de Villiers Graaff 1859 - 1931 1916 - 1917 Henry Burton s.a. 1917 - 1920 Thomas Orr 1857 - 1937 1920 - 1924 Henry Burton (2x) 1924 - 1939 Nicolaas Christiaan Havenga 1882 - 1957 1939 - 1948 Jan Frederik Hendrik Hofmeyer s.a. Ministers of Economic and Social Affairs
Lands, Agriculture, etcCommerce, Mines, etcPublic Works and CommunicationsSocial Affairs
Ministers of Lands, Agriculture, etc Ministers of Lands - Ministers van Grondsake 1910 - 1913 Abraham Fiscer s.a. 1913 - 1915 Hendrik Schalk Theron 1869 - 1922 1916 - 1920 Gen. Hendrik Mentz s.a. 1921 - 1924 Deneys Reitz s.a. 1924 - 1933 Peter Geert Wessel Grobler s.a. 1933 - 1935 Deneys Reitz (2x) 1935 - 1939 Jan Christoffel Greyling Kemp 1872 - 1946 1939 - 1948 Andrew Meintjes Cobnroy 1877 - 1951 Minister of Irrigation - Minister van Irrigasie 1928 - 1933 Ernest George Jansen s.a. Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry Minister of Agriculture - Ministers van Landbou 1910 - 1912 Louis Botha s.a. 1912 Jacobus Wilhelmus Sauer 1850 - 1913 1912 - 1913 Louis Botha (2x) 1913 - 1920 Hendrik Christiaan van Heerden 1862 - 1920 - 1921 François Srephanus Malan 1871 - 1941 1921 - 1924 Sir Arthur Francis Thomas William Smartt 1858 - 1929 1924 - 1934 Jan Christoffel Greyling Kemp s.a. Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry - Ministers van Landbou en Bosbou 1934 - 1935 Jan Christoffel Greyling Kemp s.a. 1935 - 1938 Deneys Reitz s.a. 1937 - 1944 William Richard Collins 1876 - 1944 1944 - 1948 Jacobus Gideon Nel Strauss 1900 - Ministers of Commerce, Mines, etc Ministers of Commerce and Industry - Ministers van Handel en Industrie 1910 - 1911 Sir Frederick Robert Moore 1853 - 1927 1911 - 1912 Sir George Leuchars 1858 - 1924 Ministers of Mines - Ministers van Mynbou 1910 - 1912 Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts s.a. 1912 François Stephanus Malan s.a. 1912 : Ministry reorganied and renamed Minisrers of Mines and Industry - Ministers van Mynbou en Industrie 1912 - 1924 Frannçois Stephanus Malan s.a. 1924 - 1929 Fredrik William Beyers 1867 - 1938 1929 - 1933 Adriaan Paulus Johannes Fourie 1882 - 1941 1933 : Ministry divided : - Ministry of Commerce and Industr, later renamed Economic Development, - Ministry of Mines Ministers of Commerce, Industry and Economic Develoment Ministers of Commerce and Industry - Ministers van Handel en Industrie 1933 - 1938 Adriaan Paulus Johannes Fourie s.a. 1938 - 1939 Oswald Pirow s.a. 1939 - 1941 Ricahrd Stuttaford 1941 - 1944 Sidney Frank Waterson 1896 - 1976 Minister of Economic Development - Minister van Ekonomiese Ontwikkeling 1944 - 1948 Sidney Frank Waterson s.a. Ministers of Mines - Ministers van Mynbou 1933 - 1936 Patrick Duncan s.a. 1936 - 1938 Jan Frederik Hendrik Hofmeyer 1939 Gen. Jan Christian Smuts s.a. 1938 - 1939 Deneys Reitz s.a. 1939 - 1945 Charles Frampton Stallard 1871 - 1971 Ministers of Public Works and Communications Ministers of Public Works - Ministers van Openbare Werke 1910 - 1912 Sir David Pieter de Villiers Graaff 1859 - 1931 1912 - 1920 Sir Thpmas Watt s.a. 1920 - 1921 Sir Jacobus Arnoldus Combrinck Graaff 1921 - 1924 Sir Thomas Watt (2x) 1924 - 1925 Thomas Boydell 1882 - 1966 1925 - 1928 Walter Bayley Madeley 1873 - 1947 1928 - 1933 Henry William Sampson 1872 - 1938 1933 - 1945 Charles Francis Clarkson s.a. Ministers of Railways, Harbours, Transport Ministers of Railways and Harbors - Ministers van Spoorwege en Hawe 1910 - 1912 Jacobus Wilhelmus Sauer s.a. 1912 - 1921 Henry Burton s.a. 1921 - 1924 John William Jagger 1859 - 1930 1924 - 1933 Charles Wynazd Marias Malan 1883 - 1933 1933 - 1938 Oswald Pirow s.a. 1928 - 1939 Adriaan Paulus Johannas Fourie s.a. 1939 - 1944 Frederick Claud Starrock 1882 - 1958 Minister of Transport - Minister van Transport 1911 - 1948 Frederick Claud Starrock s.a. Ministers of Posts and Telegraphs - Ministers van Pos en Telegrafie 1910 - 1912 Sir David Pieter de Villiers Graaff s.a. 1912 Sir George Leuchars s.a. 1912 - 1915 Sir Thomas Watt s.a. 1916 - 1919 Sir Johannes Hendricus Meiring Beck 1855 - 1919 1919 - 1920 Thomas Orr 1920 - 1921 Sir Jacobus Arnoldus Comrinck Graaff 1863 - 1927 1921 - 1924 Sir Thomas Watt (2x) 1924 - 1925 Thomas Boydell s.a. 1925 - 1928 Walter Bayley Madeley s.a. 1928 - 1933 Henry William Sampson s.a. 1933 - 1945 Charles Francis Clarkson s.a. Ministers of Social Affairs Ministers of Labour and Social Welfare - Ministers van Arbeid en Sosiale Welvaart Ministers of Labour - Ministers van Arbeid 1924 - 1925 Col. Frederic Hugn Page Creswell s.a. 1925 - 1929 Thomas Boydell s.a. 1929 - 1933 Col. Frederic Hugh Page Creswell (2x) 1924 - 1925 Adriaan Paukus Johannes Fourie s.a. Ministers of Labour and Social Welfare - Ministers van Arbeid en Sosiale Welvaart 1935 - 1936 Adriaan Paukus Johannes Fourie s.a. 1936 - 1937 Jan Frederik Hendrik Hofmeyer s.a. 1937 : Ministry divided Minister of Labour - Ministers van Arbied 1937 - 1938 Jan Frederik Hendrik Hofmeyer s.a. 1938 - 1939 Harry Gordon Lawrence s.a. 1939 - 1945 Walter Bayley Madeley s.a. Minister of Social Welfare - Ministers van Sosiale Welvaart 1937 - 1938 Jan Frederik Hendrik Hofmeyer s.a. 1938 - 1939 Henry Allan Fagant 1889 - 1963 1939 - 1943 Walter Bayley Madeley s.a. 1943 - 1944 Harry Gordon Lawrence s.a. Ministers of Public Health - Ministers van Openbare Gesondheid 1919 - 1921 Sir Thomas Watt s.a. 1921 - 1924 Patrick Duncan s.a. 1924 - 1933 Daniel François Malan s.a. 1933 - 1936 Jan Frederik Henrik Hofmeyer s.a. 1936 - 1939 Richard Stuttaford s.a. 1939 - 1944 Harry Gordon Lawrence s.a. 1944 : Ministries of Social Welfare and Public Health merged into the Ministry of Welfare and Demobilisaton Minister of Welfare and Demobilisation - Minister van Welvaart en Demobilisasie 1944 - 1945 Harry Gordon Lawrence s.a. Ministers of Cultural Affairs Ministers of Education - Ministers van Onderwys 1910 - 1921 François Stephanus Malan s.a. 1921 - 1924 Patrick Duncan s.a. 1924 - 1933 Daniel François Malan s.a. 1933 - 1938 Jan Frederik Hendrik Hofmeyer s.a. 1938 - 1939 Henry Allan Fagant s.a. 1939 - 1948 Jan Frederik Hendrik Hofmeyer (2x) Ministers without Portfolio - Ministers sonder Portefeulje 1910 - 1911 Charles O'Grady Gubbins 18.. - 1911 1911 - 1913 none 1913 Sir David Pieter de Villiers Graaf s.a. 1913 - 1920 Sir Jacobus Arnoldus Combrick Graaf s.a. 1920 - 1933 none 1933 - 1936 Richard Stuttaford s.a. 1936 - 1938 Frederick Claud Starrock s.a. 1938 - 1939 Robert Hugh Henderson 1939 - 1943 Pieter Voltelyn Graham van der Byl s.a. __________________________________________________________________________________

MILITARY LEADERS

The South African Army (Union Defence Force - Unieverdedigingsmag) was established in 1912 by the merger of the volunteer forces of the 4 former colonies. (3) Staff Officer for General Staff Duties - Stafoffisier vir Generale Stafpligte 1912 - 1915 Col. John Johnston Collyer 1870 - 1941 Chief Staff Officer of the General Staff - Hoofstafoffisier Generale Staf 1915 - 1917 BrigGen. John Johnston Collyer s.a. Chiefs of the General Staff - Hoofde van die Generale Staf 1917 - 1920 BrigGen. John Johnston Collyer s.a. 1920 - 1933 MajGen. Andries Jacob Eksteen Brink 1877 - 1947 1933 - 1949 Gen. Sir Pierre Helperus Andries van Ryneveld 1891 - 1972 (3) Until 1912 the defence of the 4 colonies was entrusted to : - British troops, which were gradually withdrawn between 1907 and 1921, - the already mentioned volunteer forces existing in the colonies. A unified command for all these forces was established on several occasions, the lats time in 1899 at the outbreak of the 2nd Boer War. British Commanders-in-Chief in South Africa 1899 - 1912. 1899 Gen. Sir Redvers Henry Buller 1839 - 1908 1899 - 1900 FieldMarsh. Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts, Baron Roberts of Kandahar in Afghanistan and of the City of Waterford 1832 - 1914 1900 - 1902 Gen. Horatio Herbert Kitchener, Baron Kitchener of Khartoum and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk 1850 - 1916 1902 - 1904 Gen. Sir Neville Gerald Lyttelton 1845 – 1931 1904 - 1908 Gen. Henry John Thoroton Hildyard 1908 - 1912 Gen. Paul Sanford Methuen, Baron Methuen 1845 - 1932 __________________________________________________________________________________

PARTY LEADERS

LEADERS OF THE ANC The South African Native National Congress (SANNC) was founded in 1912 to organize the protest against the introduction of the Natives' Land Act - which relocated the vast majority of the Blacks into Reserves - and more generally against the exclusion of Blacks from power in the new Union of South Africa. The SANNC was renamed African National Congress (ANC) in 1923. Presidents 1912 - 1917 John Langalibalele Dube 1871 - 1946 1917 - 1924 Sefako Mapogo Makgatho 1861 - 1951 1924 - 1927 Zacharias Richard Mahabane 1881 - 1970 1927 - 1930 Josiah Tshangana Gumede 1870 - 1947 1930 - 1936 Pixley ka Isaka Seme 1882 - 1951 1937 - 1940 Zacharias Richard Mahabane (2x) 1940 - 1949 Alfred Bitini Xuma 1890 - 1962 Secretaries General 1912 - 1917 Solomon "Sol" Tshekisho Plaatje 1876 - 1932 Acting during the journey of Plaatje to the UK 1915 - 1917 Richard Victor Selope Thema 1886 - 1955 1917 - 1919 H. L. Bud M'belle 1919 - 1923 Saul Msane 1923 - 1927 T. D. Mweli Skota 1927 - 1930 E. J. Khaile 1930 - 1936 E. Mdolomba 1936 - 1949 James Arthur Calata 1895 - 1983

SOUTH AFRICAN HIGH COMMISSION

The High Commission in Southern Africa was established in 1847. It was in charge of the relations between the British government and all South African territories and peoples not under direct Britsih control, meaning all regions outside the British colonies of the Cape and Natal. In practice this were at some point : - the Boer states (the Orange Free State, the South African Republic, ...), - the Black nations and states (Basotho, Bechuana, Pondo, Zulu, etc), - the Griqua chiefdoms, - the territories of the British South Africa Company (BSAC), (+ the German and Portuguese possessions in Southern Africa until 19..) As British rule expanded, its jurisdiction area was gradually reduced, and after the transfer of the BSAC territories to direct British administration in 1923, the only territories remaining under its control were : - the three protectorates of
Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland, - the autonomous British colony of South Rhodesia, but only as far as its policy towards its Black majority was concerned. This supervision over South Rhodesian affairs ended in 1937 and thereafter only the three protectorates remeinded under the High Commission. HIGH COMMISSION FOR SOUTH EAST AFRICA In the troubled years 1879 - 1881 - the period of the Zulu War, of the occupation of the South African Republic, etc - there existed for some time a separate High Commission for South East Africa, which covered : - Natal and Zululand - Transvaal (South African Republic) - Griqualand West (since 1880) High Commissioners 1879 - 1880 LtGen. Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley 1833 - 1913 1880 - 1881 MajGen. Sir George Pomeroy Colley 1835 - 1881 After the death of Pommeroy Colley the separate High Commission ended and its area was returned to the South African High Commission. __________________________________________________________________________________

CHIEF ADMINISTRATORS

High Commissioners (until 1878 : High Commissioners in South Africa, thereafter : High Commissioner in and for South Africa) 1847 - 1901 The Governors of the Cape Colony 1901 - 1905 Andrew Milner, Viscount Milner, Governor of the Transvaal and of the Orange River Colony 1854 - 1925 1905 - 1910 William Waldegrave Palmer, Earl of Selborne, Governor of Transvaal and Governor of the Orange River Colony (until 1907) 1859 – 1942 1910 - 1931 The Governors General of South Africa s.a. 1931 - 1933 Sir Herbert James Stanley 1872 - 1955 1933 Edward Evans* 1933 - 1935 Sir Herbert James Stanley (2x) 1935 - 1940 Sir William Henry Clark 1876 - 1952 1940 - 1941 Sir Walter Clarence Huggard* 1883 - 1957 1941 - 1944 William George Arthur Ormsby-Gore, Baron Harlech 1885 - 1964 1944 Harold Eddey Priestman* 1888 - 1956 1944 Sir Walter Clarence Huggard (2x) 1944 - 1951 Sir Charles Evelyn Baring 1903 - 1973
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