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Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (PDQ®): Treatment
Patient VersionHealth Professional VersionEn españolLast Modified: 07/17/2007
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General Information

Stage Information

Treatment Option Overview

Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Stage I, II, III, and IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Changes to This Summary (07/17/2007)

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Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Clinical trials are appropriate and should be considered when possible.[1] In small studies, response rates of more than 40% have been reported for lenalidomide [2] and flavopiridol.[3][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii] Information about ongoing clinical trials for patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia is available from the NCI Web site. Bone marrow and peripheral stem cell transplantations are under clinical evaluation.[4-10]


  1. Byrd JC, Rai KR, Sausville EA, et al.: Old and new therapies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: now is the time for a reassessment of therapeutic goals. Semin Oncol 25 (1): 65-74, 1998.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  2. Chanan-Khan A, Miller KC, Musial L, et al.: Clinical efficacy of lenalidomide in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of a phase II study. J Clin Oncol 24 (34): 5343-9, 2006.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  3. Byrd JC, Lin TS, Dalton JT, et al.: Flavopiridol administered using a pharmacologically derived schedule is associated with marked clinical efficacy in refractory, genetically high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 109 (2): 399-404, 2007.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  4. Dreger P, Brand R, Milligan D, et al.: Reduced-intensity conditioning lowers treatment-related mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a population-matched analysis. Leukemia 19 (6): 1029-33, 2005.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  5. Schetelig J, Thiede C, Bornhauser M, et al.: Evidence of a graft-versus-leukemia effect in chronic lymphocytic leukemia after reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation: the Cooperative German Transplant Study Group. J Clin Oncol 21 (14): 2747-53, 2003.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  6. Ritgen M, Stilgenbauer S, von Neuhoff N, et al.: Graft-versus-leukemia activity may overcome therapeutic resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene status: implications of minimal residual disease measurement with quantitative PCR. Blood 104 (8): 2600-2, 2004.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  7. Moreno C, Villamor N, Colomer D, et al.: Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation may overcome the adverse prognosis of unmutated VH gene in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 23 (15): 3433-8, 2005.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  8. Khouri IF, Keating MJ, Saliba RM, et al.: Long-term follow-up of patients with CLL treated with allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. Cytotherapy 4 (3): 217-21, 2002.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  9. Doney KC, Chauncey T, Appelbaum FR, et al.: Allogeneic related donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant 29 (10): 817-23, 2002.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  10. Pavletic SZ, Khouri IF, Haagenson M, et al.: Unrelated donor marrow transplantation for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia after using myeloablative conditioning: results from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant research. J Clin Oncol 23 (24): 5788-94, 2005.  [PUBMED Abstract]

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