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|More from Britannica on "Ali"...|
|975 Encyclopædia Britannica articles, from the full 32 volume encyclopedia|
cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and fourth of the rightly guided (rau) caliphs, as the first four successors of Muhammad are called. Reigning from 656 to 661, he was the first imam (leader) of Shi'ism in all its forms. The question of his right to the caliphate (the political-religious structure comprising the community of Muslims and its ...
Muslim ruler of Mysore and military commander who played an important part in the wars in southern India in the mid-18th century.
nizam (ruler) of Hyderabad in the period 191148 and its constitutional president until 1956. Once one of the richest men in the world, he ruled over a state the size of Italy.
West African monarch who initiated the imperial expansion of the Western Sudanese kingdom of Songhai. His conquest of the leading Sudanese trading cities established the basis for Songhai's future prosperity and expansion.
eighth imam of the Twelver Shi'ites, noted for his piety and learning until 817, when the caliph al-Ma'mun, in an attempt to heal the division between the majority Sunnites and the Shi'ites, appointed him his successor. The appointment aroused varying reactionsfew of them, even among the Shi'ites, wholly favourableand Iraq, already irritated by al-Ma'mun's transfer of ...
|65 Student Encyclopedia Britannica articles, specially written for elementary and high school students|
|(born 1942). One of the greatest U.S. heavyweight boxing champions, Muhammad Ali was known as much for his flamboyant self-promotion and controversial political stances as for his boxing ability. His motto was I am the greatest! He became the first boxer to win the heavyweight title three times.|
| (18761948). The founder of Pakistan was Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Failing to get Hindus and Muslims to work together, he was the main force behind India's partition in 1947 when Pakistan emerged as a separate Islamic nation.|
| (17691849). When Muhammad 'Ali (also spelled Mehemet Ali) was named pasha of Egypt by the Ottoman Empire, he founded a dynasty that ruled for more than 100 years and paved the way for the modern Egyptian state. His own reign was weakened, though, by his tendency to think of himself before his people.|
|(or Husayn ibn 'Ali) (18561931), first king of Hejaz and recognized by Muslims as descendant of Muhammad; for services with British during World War I, made king of Hejaz 1916; caliph 1924; six months later overthrown; retired to Cyprus; succeeded by his son Ali ibn-Hussein (18781935), who ruled until 1925. His second son, Abdullah, became king of Jordan and his third ...
|(born 1934), Iranian political and military leader, born in Rafsanjan, Kerman province; helped establish Islamic Republican party; elected speaker of Majlis, or parliament, 1980; 1987 appointed to Council of Guardians of the Revolution; named commander in chief of Iran's military effort 1988; elected president of Iran 1989, reelected 1993, serving until 1997.|