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Archon apollinus bellargus lifecycle

Photo © Oz Rittner


This is what I hope and expect to be only a beginning of more detailed data of the Parnassius family.  I continue to search for more photographs to show the appearance of species.  My sincere thanks to Alexei Belik, Yuri Berezhnoi, Anton Biryukov, Simon Coombes, Hans Degler, Jostein B. Engdahl,  Akira Hoshino, Oleg Kosterin, Maxim Markhasiov,  Masamitsu Mori,  Kuniomi Matsumoto,  Robert Nash,  Vladimir Paulus,  Tero Piirainen,  Dr Ather Rafi,   Oz Rittner,  Markku Savela, Jouko Salmela, Dr Adolf Schulte (†),  Dmitriy Sobanin,  Ralph Sturm, Prof. Andrey V. Timshenko , Jaroslav A. Vanek (†), Robert   R Westphal, Roman Yakovlev and Milan Zubrik for their contribution to my website. Most photographs are taken from my own Parnassius collection. I also found some pics on Japanese websites equipped with Japanese text only, therefore I am not in position to express my gratitude to those photographers. If you can contribute to make my Parnassius website more complete or you have any other comments, please Email me. This site will take some time to download.  Still I hope it is worth seeing. Welcome to watch the pages!            

Baroniinae et Parnassiinae

Baronia  Salvin, 1893                                               

Baronia brevicornis

Photo © G. Waldeck


1. Baronia brevicornis (Salvin, 1893)

English:Baronia  Larva on Acacia cochliacantha 

Archon apollinus bellargus

Photo © G. Waldeck

Archon apollinus bellargus female    Photo © Oz Rittner

Greece, Bulgaria, Middle East

2A. Arcon apollinus(Herbst, 1798)                                                                         

English:False Apollo  

 Larva on Aristolochia hastata

Archon apollinaris apollinaris

Photo © G. Waldeck


2B.  Arcon apollinaris                                                                  

English:False Apollo  

 Larva on Aristolochia

Hypermnestra Ménétriés

Hypermnestra helios maxima

Photo © G. Waldeck


Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Turkmenistan

3. Hypermnestra helios (Nickerl, 1846)

    English: Desert Apollo

Larva on Zygophyllum, Halimiphyllum

Parnassius Latreille, 1804

Parnassius széchenyii amdensis

Photo © G. Waldeck

Tibet, W. China

4. Parnassius széchenyii (Frivaldszky, 1886)
Termezetr. Füz. 10:39


Parnassius cephalus helmae

Tibet, W. China

5. Parnassius cephalus (Grum-Grshimailo, 1891)
Trudy russk. ent. Obshch. 25:446
Cephalus distribution map

Parnassius maharaja maharaja

Photo © G. Waldeck


6. Parnassius maharaja (Avinoff, 1913)
Trudy russk. ent. Obsch. 40(5):1-2

Parnassius delphius  ssp

Photo © G. Waldeck

Afghanistan, C. Asia, Pakistan, N. India, Kashmir, Tibet, W.China

7.  Parnassius delphius (Eversmann, 1843)
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 16:541
     English: Banded Apollo
 Larva on Cysticorydalis fedtschenkoana, Corydalis onobrichis

Parnassius stoliczkanus beata

Photo © G. Waldeck


8. Parnassius stoliczkanus (C & R Felder, 1864)
Reise der ... Fregatte Novara (Lep.)
    English: Ladak Banded Apollo
Stoliczkauns distribution map

Parnassius patricius uzungyrus

Photo © G. Waldeck

Kirghizia, Turkmenistan

9. Parnassius patricius (Niepelt, 1911)
Int. ent. Z. 5:274
 Larva on Cysticorydalis fedtschenkoana
Distribution map of Parnassius patricius

Parnassius acdestis marki

Photo © G. Waldeck

Kirghizia, Kashmir, Tibet, Sikkim, Bhutan, W.China

10. Parnassius acdestis (Grum-Grshimailo, 1891)
Trudy russk. ent. Obshch. (25):446  
Distribution of Panassius acdestis in Eastern Tibet
Total distribution of Parnassius acdestis

Parnsssius imperator

P imperator dominus O Bang-Haas 1934

 © Robert Nash

P imperator gigas Kotzsch 1932

 © Robert Nash

Tibet, W. China

11. Parnassius imperator (Oberthür, 1883)
Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6)3:77
    English: Imperial Apollo 
Imperator distribution map

Parnassius charltonius ssp   Photo © Dr Ather Rafi

Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, N.India, Kashmir, Tibet

12. Parnassius charltonius (Gray, 1853)
Cat. Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. I:77
    English: Regal Apollo
Larva on Corydalis stricta, C. gortschakovi
P charltonius distribution map

Parnassius inopinatus mütingi

Photo © G. Waldeck


13. Parnssius inopinatus (Kotzsch, 1940)
Ent. Z. (Frankf. a. M) 54:17
Larva on Corydalis krasnovi, Corydalis paniculigera


Parnassius loxias loxias

Photo © G. Waldeck

Kirghizia, W.China

14. Parnsssius loxias (Püngeler, 1901)

Dt. ent. Z. Iris 14:178

 Larva on Corydalis krasnovi, Corydalis paniculigera

Parnassius autocrator pair

Tadzhikistan, Afghanistan

15. Parnassius autocrator (Avinoff, 1913)

Trudy russk. ent. Obshch. 40(5):16

Larva on Corydalis adiantifolia,  Corydalis fimbrillifera, Corydalis onobrychis

Parnassius tenedius sceptica

Photo © G. Waldeck

Yakutia, Tura, Chita, Mongolia

16. Parnassius tenedius (Eversmann, 1851)
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 24(1):621
Larva on Corydalis capnoides, Corydalis sibirica

Parnassius acco moritai

Tibet, Kashmir, Sikkim

17. Parnassius acco (Gray, 1853)
Cat. lep. Ins. Br. Mus. I:76
     English: Varnished Apollo
Distribution of Parnassius acco/przewalskii

Parnassius przewalskii tangula

Photo © G. Waldeck

Tibet, W. China

18. Parnassius przewalskii (Alpherakyi 1887)

Parnassius hannyngtoni fujisawai 

Photo © G. Waldeck

India, China, Bhutan

19. Parnassius hannyngtoni (Avinov, 1916)
     English: Hannyngton's Apollo 
Parnassius hannyngtoni distribution map

Parnassius simo zarraënsis

Photo © G. Waldeck

Tadzhikistan, Kirghizia, Kashmir, N.India, Tibet, W.China, Mongolia

20. Parnassius simo (Gray, 1853)
Cat. Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. I:76
     English: Blackedged Apollo
Larva probably on Lagotis glabosa, L. decumbens
     Pupa hibernating


Parnassius hardwickii


Photo © G. Waldeck

N.India, Kasmir, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan

21. Parnassius hardwickii (Gray, 1831)
Zool. Miscell.:32
     English: Common Blue Apollo 

Parnassius orleans groumi

Photo © G. Waldeck

W. China

22. Panassius orleans (Oberthür, 1890)
Descr. espece. nouv. lep. gen. Parnassius (Rennes):1
Distribution of P orleans

Parnassius clodius incredibilis

 © Robert Nash

Alaska, British Columbia, Washington - Nevada

23. Parnassius clodius (Ménétriés, 1855)
USA: Clodius Parnassian
Enum. Corp. Anim. Mus. Imp. Sci. Petrop. (1)
Larva on Dicentra, D. formosa


P.eversmanni altaicus

Photo © G. Waldeck

P.eversmanni thor

Photo © G. Waldeck

E.Russia - Mongolia, Japan, Alaska

24. Parnassius eversmanni (Ménétriés, 1849)
USA: Eversmann's Parnassian
Eunum. Corp. Anim. Mus. Imp. Sci. Petrop. (1):73
Larva on Corydalis gigantea, C. pauciflora, C. arctica, C. paeoniiholia, C. gorodkovi,
C. pauciflora

Parnassius felderi felderi

Photo © G. Waldeck

E. Russia

25. Parnassius felderi (Bremer, 1861)
Larva on Corydalis gigantea

Parnassius ariadne ariadne

 © Robert Nash

Russia, Altai, W.Mongolia

26. Parnassius ariadne (Lederer, 1853)
/ clarius Eversmann 1843
Verh. zool-bot. Ver Wien. 3:345
Larva on Corydalis nobilis

Parnassius nordmanni minimus

Photo © G. Waldeck

P nordmanni  nordmanni larva

Photo © G. Waldeck

P nordmanni nordmanni male

Photo © G. Waldeck


27. Parnassius nordmanni (Nordmann, 1849)

Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 24(2):423

 Larva on Corydalis alpestris, C. conorhiza, C. emanueli

Parnassius mnemosyne from a recently

found population in Norway

Photo © Jostein Engdahl

Parnassius mnemosyne litavius

Photo  © G Waldeck

Parnassius mnemosyne adamellicus

  © Robert Nash


Pyrenees, Europa, Iran, Caucasus, C. Asia

28. Parnassius mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758)
Finnish: Pikkuapollo English: Clouded Apollo Mnemosynefjäril German: Schwarzer Apollo French: Le semi-apollon Spanish: Blanca de Asso

Syst.Ent 10.465
Larva on Corydalis ssp.

Parnassius stubbendorfi typicus

Photo © G. Waldeck

Parnassius stubbendorfi typicus © Oleg Kosterin

Parnassius stubbendorfi hoenei

 Parnassius stubbendorfi larva © Oleg Kosterin

Russia - Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Kurile Islands

29. Parnassius stubbendorfi (Ménétriés, 1849)

Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 6(8):273

Larva on Corydalis bracteata, C. gigantea, C. ambigua

Parnassius glacialis

Parnassius glacialis glacialis

Photo © G. Waldeck


30. Parnassius glacialis (Butler, 1886)
J. Linn. Soc. 9:50

P.apollonius alpinus

Photo © Göran Waldeck

P.a.narynus larvae

Photo © Göran Waldeck

P.a.narynus male        Photo © Göran Waldeck

P.apollonius alpinus


P apollo apollo

Photo © Göran Waldeck

P.a.narynus larva

Photo © Göran Waldeck

P.a.narynus pair mating

Photo © Göran Waldeck

Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, W.Sinkiang

31. Parnassius apollonius (Eversmann, 1847)
Soc. Nat. Moscou 20(2):71
Larva on Sedum telephium, Pseudosedum leveni, Rosularia ssp.
Distribution range of Parnassius apollonius

Parnsssius honrathi alburnus

Photo © G. Waldeck


Tadzhikistan, Afghanistan

32. Parnassius honrathi (Staudinger, 1882)  
Berl. Ent. Z. 26:161
 Larva on Pseudosedum ssp.
Distribution map of Parnassius honrathi

Parnassius bremeri bremeri

Photo © G. Waldeck

Russia, Korea, China

33. Parnassius bremeri (Bremer, 1864)
Mem. Acad. imp. Sci. St. Petersburg:6
Larva on  Dicentra perigrina, Sedum obtusatum, Sedum telephium

Parnassius jacquemontii hermes

Photo © G. Waldeck

Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, N.India, Tibet, Sinkiang, Kansu, Szechwan

34. Parnassius jacquemontii (Boisduval, 1836)
Spec. gen. Lep. 1:400
     English: Keeled Apollo
 Larva on Rhodiola ssp.

Parnassius epapahus gyaellus

Photo © G. Waldeck

Afghanistan - Kashmir, Nepal, Sikkim, Tibet - Singkiang, Kansu, Tshingai, Szechwan

35. Parnassius epaphus (Oberthür, 1879)
Etudes d'Ent. 4:23
English: Common Red Apollo

Parnassius actius actius

Photo © G. Waldeck

Tadzhikistan, Kirghizia, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Sinkiang, Kansu

36. Parnassius actius (Eversmann, 1843)
Bull. Soc. nat. Moscau 16:540
 Larva on Rhodiola
Parnassius actius distribution map

Parnassius phoebus sacerdos

Photo © G. Waldeck

Parnassius phoebus ochotskensis  Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Parnassius phoebus ochotskensis

Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Parnassius phoebus styriacus larva

Photo © G. Waldeck

Alps, Urals, Siberia, Kazakhastan, Mongolia, China, Canada, W.USA

37. Parnassius phoebus (Fabricius, 1793)
English: Small Apollo USA: Phoebus Parnassian German: Alpen-ApolloSpanish: Apolo Alpapollo
Ent. Syst. 3:181
Larva on Saxifraga aizoides, Saxifraga calycina, Saxifraga nivalis, Sempervivum montanum, Sempervivum tectorum, Sedum album, Sedum debile, Sedum lanceolatum, Sedum obtusatum, Sedum stenopelatum, Sedum wrighti, Sedum telephium, Rhodiola rosea, Rhodiola quadrifida
 Parnassius phoebus extension of Central Europe

Parnassius  tianschanicus melaneus

Photo © G. Waldeck

Parnassius  tianschanicus olympius larva

Photo © Anton Biryukov

Tadzhikitan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan - Kasmir, Sinkiang

38. Parnassius tianschanicus (Oberthür, 1879)
Etudes d'Ent. 4:108
English: Large Keeled Apollo
Larva on Sedum telephium, Rhodiola quadrifida, Rhodiola kirilovii
Parnassius tianschanicus distribution map

Parnassius nomion nomion

Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Parnassius nomion korshunovi

Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Parnassius nomion koiwayai

Photo © G. Waldeck

Parnassius nomion nomion

Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Russia, Mongolia, China, Korea

39. Parnassius nomion (Hübner, 1799 & Fischer de Waldheim, 1823)
Entom. de la Russie (Lep):242
Larva on Sedum aizoon, Sedum ssp., Orostachys ssp.

Parnassius apollo finmarchius female

Photo © Jouko Salmela

Parnassius apollo norwegicus

Photo © Jostein Engdahl

Parnassius apollo linnaei larva at foodplant Sedum album

Photo © G. Waldeck

Parnassius apollo ciscaucasicus larva

(with typical yellow pattern)

Photo © G. Waldeck

  Parnassius apollo linnaei pair mating

Photo © G. Waldeck

  Parnassius apollo apollo male, rare black aberration

Photo © B Petersson

  Parnassius apollo germaniae female

Photo © G. Waldeck

Parnassius apollo nominate (male black aberration) mating

Photo © G. Waldeck


Europa, C. Asia

40. Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus, 1758)
Finnish: Apollo English: Apollo Apollofjäril German: Apollo French: l'Apollon Spanish: Apolo
Syst. Nat. 10:465
Larva on Sedum telephium, Sedum album, Sedum rosea, Sedum purpurascens, Sedum aizoon, Sedum hybridum, Sempervivum
 Parnassius apollo distribution in Scandinavia
 Parnassius apollo sample pics

Not listed in the IUCN Red Data Book

Parnassius andreji

Photo © G. Waldeck


Parnassius andreji (Eisner 1930)   

Photo © Andrey V. Timshenko

E. Yakutia

Parnassius arcticus (Eisner, 1968)
/ammosovi (Korshunov, 1988)
 Larva on Corydalis gorodkovi

Parnassius hide pavlae

Photo © G. Waldeck

China Qinghai, Kunlun Mountains

Parnassius hide (Koiwaya, 1987)
Gekkan Mushi 201:6
Distribution of Parnassius hide

Parnassius nosei

Photo © G. Waldeck


Parnassius nosei (Watanabe 1989)
W. Kitawaki in Notes on Eurasian Insects No. 1, 1990 p.2

Parnassius huberi

Photo © Milan Zubrik


Parnassius huberi (Vladimir Paulus 1999)
Distribution of P huberi

Parnassius hunza

Photo © G. Waldeck

S E Pamir

Parnassius hunza (Grum-Grshimailo, 1888)
Berl.ent. Z., 26:163, Taf 2, Abb. 7, 8, 8a. 
 Larva on Corydalis onobrychis, Cysticorydalis fedtschenkoana

Parnassius boëdromius prasolovi

Photo © G. Waldeck


Tien Shan

  Parnassius boëdromius (Püngeler, 1901)
R. Püngeler in: D. ent. Z. Lep.,v 14 p. 177 t.1 f. 3, 4  
 Larva on Lagotis decumbens,  L. integrefolia

Parnassius stenosemus

Photo © G. Waldeck



 Parnassius stenosemus (Honrath 1890)
Distribution of Parnassius stenosemus 

Parnassius jacobsoni

Photo © G. Waldeck


Tadzhikistan, Afghanistan

 Parnassius jacobsoni (Avinov, 1913)  
Trudy Russk. entomol. obsch., 1913, v.40, No.5: 1-21, pl.2.

Parnassius baileyi

Photo © G. Waldeck



Parnassius baileyi (South 1927)   
Distribution map of P baileyi          

Parnassius kiritshenkoi

Photo © G. Waldeck


Sarykolsky Mts, Zaalaisky Mts

Parnassius kiritshenkoi (Avinov, 1910) 
Hor. Soc. ent. Ross: 39:228   

Parnassius labeyriei

Photo © G. Waldeck


Parnassius labeyriei (Weiss & Michel 1989)         

Parnassius nandadevinensis

Mt Nanda Devi, India

Parnassius nadadevinensis (D Weiss 1990)
Acta ent. Mus.natn. Prague, p 329 

Parnassius dongalaicus


Photo © G. Waldeck


Parnassius dongalaicus (Tytler 1926) 

Parnassius schultei shibasakii

Photo © G. Waldeck

Tibet,W. China

Parnassius schultei (Weiss & Michel 1989) 
Distribution of P schultei

Parnassius staudingeri workmani

Photo © Maxim Markhasiov

Gissar-Darvaz Mts. Baisuntau, Deosai Plateau, Gissar, Zeravshan, Turkestan

Parnssius staudingeri(Bang-Haas, 1882)
Staudingeri:  Über einige neue Parnassius...Central-Asiens (1882)
 Larva on Cysticorydalis fedtschenkoana, Corydalis onobrychis

Parnassius simonius simonius

Photo © G. Waldeck

N. Pamir Mts.

Parnassius simonius (Staudinger, 1889)
Centralasiatischen Lepidopteren. Stett. entomol. Z., 1889 Bb.50: 16-61  
 Larva on Lagotis decumbens, Veronica luetkeana

Parnassius maximinus maximinus

Photo © G. Waldeck

W. Tien Shan Mts

Parnassius maximinus (Staudingeri, 1891)
D.ent.Z.Iris, 1891, Bd. 4: 158-162. 
 Larva on Corydalis darwasica, C. ledebouriana                                                             

Parnassius cardinal cardinal

Photo © G. Waldeck

N W Pamir Mts, Afghanistan

Parnassius cardinal (Grum-Grshimailo, 1887)
Bericht über meine Reise...Ed. Romanoff., St. Petersbourg, 1887 , v 3:357 - 402 .
 Larva on Corydalis ledebouriana                                                                                                

Sericinius  Westwood

Sericinus montela koreana

Photo © G. Waldeck

Sericinus montela

E. Russia, China, Korea, Japan

41. Sericinius montela(Gray, 1843)
/telamon (Donovan, 1798)
Larva on Aristolochia contorta
Pupa hibernating

Allancastria Bryk

Allancastria cerisyi ferdiandi

Photo © G. Waldeck

[cerisyi-1u.jpg] Upperside Turunc, SW Turkey 11/04/95, Photo © Simon Coombes

Middle East, Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Caucasus

42. Allancastria cerisyi (Godart 1824)
English: Eastern Festoon
Larva on Aristolochia

Allancastria derollei eisneri

Photo © Oz Rittner

Turkey, Middle East

43.  Allancastria deyrollei (Oberthür 1872) 


Allancastria caucasica tsatshukovi

Photo © G. Waldeck

Caucasus, N. Turkey

44. Allancastria caucasica (Lederer, 1864)
Larva on Aristolochia iberica
Pupa hibernating

Allancastria louristana

Photo © G. Waldeck


45. Allancastria louristana (Le Cerf, 1908)

Zerynthia  Ochsenheimer

Zerynthia polyxena polyxena

Photo © G. Waldeck

S. Europe, Ucraine, Belarus,        S. Russia

46. Zerynthia polyxena (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)
English: Southern FestoonFrench: La DianeGerman: Osterluzeifalter

Larva on Aristolochia clematitis

Zerynthia rumina


S W. Europe, N. Africa

47. Zerynthia rumina (Linnaeus, 1758)
English: Spanish Festoon Spanish: Arlequin
Larva on Aristolochia

Bhutanitis  Atkinson
Distribution map of Bhutanitis species

Bhutanitis mansfieldi pulchristiata

Photo © G. Waldeck

Yunnan, China

48. Bhutanitis mansfieldi (Riley, 1939)
Larva on Aristolochia 

Bhutanitis thaidina thaidina

Photo © G. Waldeck

China, Tibet

49. Bhutanitis thaidina (Blanchard, 1871)
Larva on Aristolochia 
Distribution map of Bhutanitis thaidina     

Bhutanitis lidderdalii lidderdalii

Photo © G. Waldeck

Bhutan, Nepal, N. India, Burma, Thailand, W. China

50. Bhutanitis lidderdalii (Atkinson, 1873)
     English: Bhutan Glory 
Larva on Aristolochia

Bhutanitis ludlowi


51. Bhutanitis ludlowi (Gabriel, 1942) 
Larva on Aristolochia? 


 Luehdorfia Crüger

Luehdorfia chinensis

Photo © G. Waldeck


E. China

52. Luehdorfia chinensis (Salvin, 1893)             
Larva on Asarum sieboldi, Asarum nipponicum, Asarum forbesi
Distribution map of Luehdorfia chinensis

Luehdorfia japonica japonica

Luehdorfia japonica

Luehdorfia japonica

Honshu, Japan

53. Luehdorfia japonica (Leech, 1889)
Larva on Asarum  caulescens, A. sieboldii, A. hexalobum, A. asperum, A. tamaense, A. curvistigma, A. asaroides, A. blumei, A. nipponicum, A.fauriei, A. takaoi, A. kurosawae, A. heterotropoides, A. megacalyx, A. yohikawai. In captivity larva will not accept any plant of Arisolochia
Distribution map of Luehdorfia japonica


Luehdorfia puziloi

Luehdorfia puziloi inexpecta

Photo © G. Waldeck

E. Russia, N E. China, Korea, Japan

54. Luehdorfia puziloi (Erschoff, 1872)
Larva on Asarum sieboldi, A. heterotropoides, A. megacalyx, A. takaoi, A .fauriei
 Pupa hibernating
Distribution map of Luehdorfia puziloi

Not listed in the IUCN Red Data Book

Luehdorfia longicaudata taibai

Photo © G. Waldeck


Luehdorfia longicaudata (Lee 1982)
Larva on Saruma henryi, in captivity also Asarum nipponicum, Asarum sieboldi and Asarum caulescens
     Distribution map of Luehdorfia longicaudata

 Parnassius species with doubtful status:

     Parnassius pythia (Rotschild, 1932)  

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