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SQUAD WEAPONS

 

USMC KA-BAR FIGHTING KNIFE

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The USMC Fighting Knife is famous in its own right, and has an historical background behind it that is an exciting adventure story and is now an American legend. This is the story of one of the world's most famous fighting knives.

Ask some World War II Marines what kind of knife they depended on during the war and you'll get only one answer - a KA-BAR!

Back in 1941, after the start of World War II, KA-BAR submitted a Fighting-Utility knife to the United States Marine Corps that was accepted as the standard issue for the Corps.

KA-BAR started supplying these knives and they soon became the prized possession of every fighting Marine. They depended on it for a combat weapon and for such every day tasks as pounding tent stakes, driving nails, opening ration cans or digging fighting holes (fox holes to the Army) - their KA-BAR was constantly at their side.

During World War II, the KA-BAR Fighting Knife earned the greatest respect, not only of the Marines, but also of those who served in the Army, Navy, Coast Guard and Underwater Demolition Teams, who were eventually issued the USMC/KA-BARS.

Years later, during the Korean, Vietnam and Desert Storm conflicts, many KA-BARS were reactivated into military service as World War II veterans, remembering how well the knife had served them, passed their personal KA-BARS along to their sons.

The dependability and quality of the wartime KA-BARS weren't the result of just a casual approach to the production of these knives. In addition to the constant on-premise quality control procedures of the US Marine Corps and Navy Supply Depot inspectors, Dan Brown, then President of KA-BAR, and the entire KA-BAR Company was dedicated to making this knife their contribution to the war effort. As a result of this personal involvement, quality went into the knife that assured its meeting all types of tests without failing. Even tough Marine Corps and Navy test were supplemented by additional trials, such as driving the blade deep into a 6" x 6" timber and straining the blade back and forth at extreme angles, constantly testing edge retention in cutting through all types of materials and submitting the leather handles to severe atmospheric and corrosion tests to be sure they would hold up under all conditions of cold, heat or jungle rot without loosening or decomposing. As a result, the many thousands of KA-BARs produced during World War II performed so well that the people at KA-BAR were very proud of the reports that came back from all areas of operations and the excellent reputation that had earned.

World War II ended and KA-BAR Fighting Knives went out of production until 32 years later when the original KA-BAR factory in Olean, New York and some of the craftsmen who worked on the original knife began production again to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the United States Marine Corps. KA-BAR wanted to recognize this great milestone in USMC history by issuing a "full dress model" of the original KA-BAR - a limited edition would be most meaningful to the Marines.

Throughout the production of the Commemorative a few KA-BAR senior employees proudly performed the same tasks they worked on during the years 1942 to 1945 when KA-BAR was making its contribution to the war effort. As a result the completed knives were a true "work of art", but retained the look, feel and performance of a battle ready combat knife. KA-BAR was proud to present Commemorative Serial No. 1 to the Commandant of the Marine Corps destined to be displayed in the USMC Museum at Quantico, VA. THE USMC Commemorative was so enthusiastically received that it became obvious that the old KA-BAR Fighting/Utility Knife had retained it notoriety throughout the years. The limited production Commemorative was very quickly taken up by Marines, knife enthusiasts and collectors and KA-BAR knew that it should now be returned to production, in its standard issue form, with all of the original specifications. Fortunately, they were available because the original blueprints were found in the company archives.

So the "fighting KA-BAR" got back into its original gear and today it continues to be a favorite among Marines who adopt them as their own personal option knife and carry them into active service, but it's also a favorite of adventurers, survivalists, outdoor sportsmen and, of course, knife collectors who know this knife - this "American legend" - above all, deserves a place in their collection. And so it is, not only in America, but throughout the world.

 

 

 

DEADLIEST WEAPON

THIS IS MY RIFLE

 

M-16

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MY RIFLE 

This is my rifle. There are many like it but this one is mine. My rifle is my best friend. It is my life. I must master it as I master my life. My rifle, without me is useless. Without my rifle, I am useless. I must fire my rifle true. I must shoot straighter than my enemy who is trying to kill me. I must shoot him before he shoots me. I will. My rifle and myself know that what counts in this war is not the rounds we fire, the noise of our burst, nor the smoke we make. We know that it is the hits that count. We will hit. My rifle is human, even as I, because it is my life. Thus, I will learn it as a brother. I will learn its weakness, its strength, its parts, its accessories, its sights and its barrel. I will keep my rifle clean and ready, even as I am clean and ready. We will become part of each other. We will. Before God I swear this creed. My rifle and myself are the defenders of my country. We are the masters of our enemy. We are the saviors of my life. So be it, until victory is America's and there is no enemy, but PEACE.

"THE DEADLIEST THING IN THE WORLD IS A MARINE AND HIS RIFLE."

GENERAL PERSHING, U.S. ARMY

 

History of the Creed:

In a conversation which took place sometime early in 1942 between BGen William H. Rupertus, USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Base, San Diego, and Capt Robert P. White, USMCR, Public Relations Officer of the base, the general stated that his men must be made to understand �that the only weapon which stands between them and Death is the rifle�they must understand that their rifle is their life�it must become a creed with them.� Whereupon Capt White suggested that the general write an editorial to that effect with the tentative title of �My Rifle is My Life.� The general, who had won the Distinguished Marksmanship Badge as a second lieutenant in 1915, liked the title but disagreed with the idea of an editorial which he considered, would sound like a sermon. Instead, he felt that the rifle creed should be �something so deep, a conviction so great, a faith so lasting that no one should have to be preached to about it.�

 The very next morning, the general appeared in the captain�s office with a �random scrap of paper� on which were penciled the notes which have since become the rifle creed. Capt White�s part in the final production of the creed is best expressed in his own words: �All I did was to translate it, type it, suggest a few different word usages and add a line here and there to complete the General�s thought. My job was that of an editor; and no editor could have bettered the General�s piece in that particular.�

 

 

 

Production of the AR-15 rifle was licensed to to Colt Manufacturing Company in 1959. Early Colt AR-15s, their magazines, and their operators manuals were marked with ArmaLite�s name. Colt�s retained the AR-15 designation on commercial rifles. To this day Colt�s has a model designation with the letters AR, which stands for �ArmaLite�.

The AR-15 was selectable for full and automatic fire. The AR-15 was to have had the same effective range as the M14 rifle, but it was most effective at a range of 215 yards (200m) or less. The M16 used a 5.56mm (.223 cal.) cartridge in 20- or 30-round magazines. The U.S. Air Force completed tests of the AR-15 in January 1961. The Air Force procured 8,500 rifles in 1961 and standardized the AR-15 in 1963. The weapon was first deployed to the Air Force�s Air PoliceThe original AR-15 was designated the M16 in 1962.

In the Vietnam era, DARPA (then ARPA) gained acceptance for the AR-15 by sponsoring its demonstration in combat. Colt brought the weapon to DARPA in 1962. Through Project AGILE, DARPA purchased 1,000 AR-15s and issued them to combat troops in Southeast Asia for field trials, to prove that the high-velocity 5.56 mm round had satisfactory performance. The subsequent DARPA report, documenting the lethality of the AR-15, was instrumental in motivating the Secretary of Defense to reconsider the Army�s decision and eventually adopt a modified AR-15 as the US military individual weapon of choice. Although opposed by the Ordnance Corps, the Armalite AR-15 was adopted by the Secretary of Defense as the 5.56mm M16 rifle.

By 1963 US Army was purchasing the M16 for use in South East Asia and by various elite forces. The Army also ordered 85,000 rifles in 1963. An additional 35,000 were ordered in 1964, 100,000 in 1965, and 100,000 in 1966. These rifles were initially issued primarily to combat troops in the Dominican Republic and to Special Forces, Airborne, helicopter crews, Air Commando and other special category troops in Vietnam.

The M-16 was type classified standard A in 1965 and became the military�s basic service rifle. By 1966 it was in widespread use. The M16 was called the "black rifle" and "Mattel toy" thanks to its appearance. Troops liked the light weight, but complained about insufficient range and lethality. While the M16 had been marketed as virtually "maintenance free, poor maintenance instructions (or even no instructions) and jungle climate together with the fouling-prone direct gas system caused trouble. Its high rates of fire in the jungle environment had a larger impact on increasing American morale than on actually inflicting enemy casualties. The move to high-velocity 5.56 mm was also subsequently adopted by the Israelis, the Soviets, and NATO allies. DARPA�s most significant contribution to this program was its willingness to �think outside of the box� and try something new.

 

M-16 RIFLES AUDIO

 

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M-16 QUALIFICATION COURSE

 

BAYONET

 

For use with the M-16 rifle and also used as a hand weapon.

The blade is unmarked but underneath the cross guard USM7 is stamped along with the manufacture's name

Black plastic textured handle, diamond cut pattern for a secure grip with a black carbon steel blade, double edged, 3 inches on one side and full edged on the other side.

The blade length is 6 1/2 inches and the overall length is 11 3/4 inches.

The scabbard is type M8A1 olive-drab fiberglass body with steel throat and drag.

 

 

M-14

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The U.S. Rifle 7.62 mm M14 was adopted for military service by the United States in 1957. It is a rotating bolt, gas operated, air cooled, magazine fed, shoulder fired weapon. As adopted, the M14 was 44.14" long and weighed 8.7 pounds. With a full magazine and sling it weighed 11.0 pounds. The maximum effective range was 460 meters (503 yards). 1,380,358 M14 rifles were made from 1958 to 1965 by four entities. These were the U. S. Army Springfield Armory, Winchester (Olin-Mathieson Chemical Corp.), Harrington & Richardson Arms Co. and Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge (TRW). The M16 rifle replaced the M14 rifle in the mid-1960s as the standard arm of the U. S. Armed Forces. The U. S. Government sold the M14 rifle production machinery to Taiwan in 1968. Taiwan began making their Type 57 rifles in 1969. M14 type rifles have also been produced in the Peoples Republic of China. Philippine rebel groups have used M14 rifles made in the People�s Republic of China. Today, there remain less than 170,000 M14 rifles in the U. S. military inventory. At least 450,000 rifles have been transferred to foreign armies (Israel, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). Israel was given 35,000 M14 rifles by the U. S. Government in 1973 at the start of the Yom Kippur War. The Israelis built 10,000 sniper rifles out of these and they remained in service until 1997. Another 750,000 have been destroyed by Presidential Executive Order. However, the M14 rifle remains in use today aboard U. S. Navy ships, in Navy SEAL Teams, and at West Point Military Academy and JROTC units nationwide. Some police departments in the United States also have them in inventory.

 

 

GUNS UP

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The M-60 can be used in both offensive and defensive configurations. In offensive situations, it provides a higher rate of fire than the standard U. S. assault weapon, the M16. It also has a greater range and a larger caliber than individual weapons. In defensive configurations, the long-range, close defensive, and final protective fires delivered by the M60 form an integral part of a unit's battle plan. The weapon is effective to 1,100 meters when firing at an area target and using a tripod, to 800 meters when firing at an area target using a bipod, to 600 meters when firing at a point target, and to 200 meters when firing at a moving point target; US Marine Corps doctrine holds that the M60 and other weapons in its class are capable of suppressive fire on area targets out to 1,500 m, if the gunner is sufficiently skilled.

The M-60 is considered to be a "crew served" weapon which means that it is operated by two soldiers: one the gunner and one the assistant. The gunner carries the weapon while the assistant carries an additional barrel and extra ammunition. The basic ammunition load carried by the "crew" is 600 to 900 rounds; which, at maximum rate of fire allows for approximately two minutes of firing. In many US units that used the M-60 as a squad automatic weapon in Vietnam, every person in the rifle squad would carry at least 200 rounds of ammunition for the M-60, or a spare barrel, or both, in addition to own weapon and

The M60 machine gun began development in the late 1940s and borrowed strongly from German designs such as the MG42 and FG42, combining the stamped sheet metal construction and belt feed mechanism of the former with the finicky, unreliable, fragile, excessively complex gas piston operating system of the latter. It was adopted by the US Army in 1957 and served for almost 35 years, hated the whole time by almost everyone who had to use it.

The gun first became widely known during the Vietnam war period and has since appeared in numerous television shows and movies. It was discontinued in the late 20th century as the M240 machine gun (a licensed copy of the FN MAG 58) was finally adopted by the US military in 1991, more than three decades after the M60's glaring deficiencies were well-known to everyone who cared.

Design

The M60 is a gas-actuated, air-cooled, belt-fed, automatic machine gun that fires from the open-bolt position. Ammunition is fed into the weapon from a 100 round bandoleer containing a disintegrating metallic split-link belt. As with all such weapons, it can be fired from the shoulder, hip, or underarm position. However, it is recommended that a bipod-steadied position or a tripod-mounted position is used as the weapon is heavy and cumbersome when firing without support.

The original design of the M60 incorporated several innovative features--or, rather, they seemed innovative to those who don't know they were borrowed from German designs that existed 15 years earlier. The straight-line layout allowed the operating rod and buffer to run directly back into the buttstock and reduce the overall length of the weapon. The large grip also allowed the weapon to be conveniently carried at the hip. The gun can be stripped using a live round of ammunition as a tool.

Design Problems

When tested in the field, the M60 immediately displayed several very severe problems. Some say that the most commonly complained of feature was weight, but all belt-fed weapons of this type are rather heavy; in most units in Vietnam, the single most common complaint was that the M60 was unreliable and prone to jamming and other malfunctions, especially when it was dirty (fine sand and dust in the mechanism tend to bring the M60 to an immediate halt, which is why the Israelis never bought any M60s), and that it required far more maintenance and was far more difficult to clean and maintain than the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, or BAR, that it replaced; there were also complaints that the safety was very awkward to operate and worked the "wrong way" for men who had recently been trained on the M16 rifle and M1911A1 pistol--that is, that it required an upward movement of the thumb on the safety catch to make the gun ready to fire rather than a downward movement as with the other weapons. The M60 was also unusually prone to tearing rims off of fired cartridges during the extraction cycle, resulting in failure to extract a fired cartridge case, causing a jam that could take many minutes to clear. There were also early complaints that the barrel latch mechanism, a swinging lever, was prone to getting caught on the gunner's equipment and accidentally getting swung up into the "unlatched" mechanism, causing the barrel to drop out of the gun and land on the ground (this was redesigned as a pushbutton catch mechanism that was less prone to this problem, but many of the swinging-lever latches are still on guns in inventory, forty years after this problem was discovered). Likewise the grip / trigger housing assembly is held in place with a rather fragile leaf spring clip instead of the captive pins used in other designs, and the spring clip has been known to be prone to breakage since about five minutes into the first trials at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Duct tape and cable ties are often seen put on M60s in the field, just in case that clip breaks.

Early production runs of M60 machine guns were also very fragile, as some critical parts, such as the receiver cover and feed tray were made from very thin sheet metal stampings and very prone to becoming bent or broken; heavier parts were eventually forthcoming, after 1970. Early production M60s also had driving spring guides, and operating rods that were too skinny and gas pistons that were too narrow behind the piston head in an attempt to save weight; this made them very prone to bending and breakage (some suggested at the time that metallurgical problems also played a part, always a problem when weapons are made by the lowest bidder), but after 1970 a slightly heavier part was designed and slowly put into the supply chain. US Marines especially despised the M60 and in many units they held onto their BARs until 1967-68. Weight was reduced somewhat and reliability was improved slightly in the M60E3; the M60E3 variant was designed in the mid 1980s for the US Marine Corps. Users also complained about the quickly-overheating barrel. After approximately 200 rounds had been fired within one minute, the barrel had to be removed and replaced. Unfortunately, this occurred most often during combat situations. In order to replace the barrel, a crewman had to don heat-resistant asbestos mittens, further slowing down the process. In the M60E3 variant, this problem only got worse as the previous 200 rounds per minute limit was reduced to 100 rounds per minute due to the lighter barrel, though the M60E3's barrel has a wire and plastic handle near the breech end and can theoretically be changed safely without the asbestos mittens.

In 1991 the M60 was finally officially replaced with the Belgian-designed FN-MAG-58 machine gun, which in US service is called the M240. Even in 2004 many M60s remain in inventory, though most of them are now used by Army Reserve and National Guard units, and it is as universally loathed by American soldiers in 2004 as it was in 1967.

Ammunition

The M60 family of weapons are capable of firing many different kinds of ammunition. Most common among them are the M61 Armor piercing, the M62 Tracer, the M80 Ball, the M63 Dummy, and the M82 Blank; the new depleted uranium M995 Armor piercing ammunition can be used with the M60 as well, though it did not enter service until long after the M60 was withdrawn from service in active-duty units. When firing blanks, the M13 or M13A1 Blank Firing Adapter (BFA) is necessary in order to get the weapon to cycle full-auto with blanks. All of these ammunition types are delivered to the gun via a NATO-standard disintegrating metallic split-link belt. The standard combat ammunition mix for the M60 is a four ball (M80) cartridges and one tracer (m62) mix. The four to one ratio theoretically allows the gunner to accurately "walk" the fire into the enemy. A skilled machine gunner also knows that tracer bullets do not always fly quite the same trajectory as ball, and weapon's sights must be used --particularly at ranges in excess of 800 meters, where 7.62 x 51 mm tracer bullets usually burn out and are no longer visible (which is a problem with all weapons in this caliber; smaller-caliber tracer bullets, such as the 5.56 mm used in the M249 Automatic Rifle, hold even less tracer compound and are even more different in weight from ordinary bullets, and so fly trajectories even more different from non-tracer bullets and burn out at only 300 m or thereabouts


M-60 MACHINE GUN AUDIO

 

BLOOPER

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Commonly known as the 'Thumper' or 'Blooper', this weapon first appeared during the Vietnam war and closely resembled a large bore, single barrel, sawn-off shotgun. The first M79 Grenade launchers were delivered to the US Army in 1961.

The M79 was designed as a close support weapon for the infantry, with two weapons being issued to each rifle squad. The tactical use of the weapon required the gunner (grenadier) to be dedicated to the weapon and only carried a pistol as a side arm. the M79 was intended to bridge the gap between the maximum throwing distance of a hand grenade, and the lowest range of supporting mortar fire - between 50 and 300 meters - and thus gave the squad an integral indirect fire weapon. With a length of 737mm (barrel = 355mm) and a loaded weight of 3kg, (6 and a half pounds) the M79 was an ideal weapon in the close terrain of Vietnam.

The M79 was a single shot, shoulder fired, break-barrel weapon which fired a spherical 40mm diameter grenade loaded directly into the breech. It had a rubber pad fitted to the shoulder stock to absorb some of the shock. The M-406 40mm HE grenades fired from the M79 traveled at a muzzle velocity of 75 meters per second, and contained enough explosive within a steel casing that upon impact with the target would produce over 300 fragments at 1,524 meters per second within a lethal radius of up to 5 meters. Stabilized in flight by the spin imparted on it by the rifled barrel the grenade rotated at 3,700rpm, this in turn, after approximately 15 meters of flight, armed the grenade.

For close range fighting the Army came up with two types of M79 rounds. The first was a flechette round ( or Bee Hives round) which housed approx 45 small darts in a plastic casing, these rounds were issued on an experimental basis. Later this round was replaced by the M-576 buckshot round. This round contained twenty-seven 00 buckshot which on firing was carried down the barrel in a 40mm plastic sabot which slowed down in flight so that the pellets could travel in their forward direction un-aided. The M79 could also fire smoke grenades (both standard and parachute), CS gas, and flares.

The M79 had a large flip up sight situated half way down the barrel, with a basic leaf foresight fixed at the end of the barrel. The rear sight was calibrated up to 375 meters (410 yards) in 25 meter (27.3 yards) intervals. In the hands of a good experienced Grenadier the M79 was highly accurate up to 200 meters. Later in the war the M79 was superseded by the M203.

 

 

LAW

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Prior to the fielding of the AT-4 the M-72 Light Anti-tank Weapon (LAW) was the Army's primary shoulder-fired, man-portable, light anti-tank rocket. The M72 66mm LAW (Light Anti-armor Weapon) was developed in the 1960s. It was a revolutionary idea: a pre-packaged rocket which could be fired and the launcher then thrown away. Like the RPG-7, the M72 is capable of penetrating a foot of armor, but its effective range is only 170 to 220 meters. Manufactured by Talley Industries in the U.S. and under license in Norway, it not only became a NATO standard but was copied and produced in Czechoslovakia and Russia (as the RPG-18 and RPG-26). Early versions were frequently inaccurate, corrected by an improved sight and a more powerful rocket motor.

The M72-series LAW is a lightweight, self-contained, antiarmor weapon consisting of a rocket packed in a launcher. It is man-portable, may be fired from either shoulder, and is issued as a round of ammunition. It requires little from the user--only a visual inspection and some operator maintenance. The launcher, which consists of two tubes, one inside the other, serves as a watertight packing container for the rocket and houses a percussion-type firing mechanism that activates the rocket.

Outer Tube. The trigger housing assembly (which contains the trigger assembly) is on the upper surface of the outer tube. So are the trigger arming handle, front and rear sight assemblies, and the launcher's rear cover.

Inner Tube. The inner tube telescopes outward toward the rear, guided by a channel assembly that rides in an alignment slot in the outer tube's trigger housing assembly. The channel assembly also houses the firing pin rod assembly, which includes a detent lever assembly. The detent lever assembly moves under the trigger assembly in the outer tube, locking the inner tube in the extended position and cocking the weapon. All this must occur before the weapon can be fired.

Rocket. The rocket is a percussion-ignited, fin-stabilized, fixed munitions. It is attached by the igniter to the inside of the launcher. The rocket consists of a 66-mm HEAT warhead, a point-initiating, base-detonating fuze, and a rocket motor. Six spring-loaded fins are attached to the rear of the rocket motor. These fins are folded forward along the motor when the rocket is in the launcher. When ignited, the propellant in the rocket motor burns completely, producing gasses about 1,400F(760C). The gas pressure pushes the rocket toward the target and exits to the rear of the launcher as the back blast.

The M72-series LAW is issued as a round of ammunition. It contains a nonadjustable propelling charge and a rocket. Every M72-series LAW has an integral high-explosive antitank (HEAT) warhead. The warhead is in the rocket's head (or body) section. The fuze and booster are in the rocket's closure section. The propellant, its igniter, and the fin assembly are in the rocket's motor. No inert versions are available. Appendix B provides information about appropriate gunnery training devices and ammunition. Although the M72-series LAW is mainly used as an anti-armor weapon, it may be used with limited success against secondary targets such as gun emplacements, pillboxes, buildings, or light vehicles.

 

 

 

.45

 

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The M1911 is a .45 caliber, single action, semi-automatic handgun, originally designed by John Browning, which was the standard-issue handgun in the combat arm of the United States Armed Forces from 1911 to 1985.

The weapon's origin was a response to problems encountered by American units fighting Moro insurgents during the Philippine-American War in which the then-standard .38 caliber revolver was found to be unsuitable for the rigors of jungle warfare. The Army formed an Ordnance Board, headed by John T. Thompson, to select a more suitable weapon. The board decided a .45 caliber (~11.4 mm) weapon would be most appropriate, and took bids from six firearms manufacturing companies in 1906.

Of the six designs submitted, two were selected for field testing in 1907, one of them being Colt's model, which Browning had basically modified to government specifications from an earlier autoloading .38 caliber (~9.65 mm) design of his. A series of field tests was designed to decide between the two finalists (the other being a design by Arthur Savage) and the Colt passed with flying colors, firing 6,000 rounds non-stop (a record at the time).

The weapon was formally adopted by the Army on March 29, 1911, thus gaining its nomenclature. It was adopted by the Navy and Marine Corps in 1913. Originally manufactured only by Colt, demand for the firearm for use in World War I saw the expansion of manufacture to the government-owned Springfield Armory.

Battlefield experience in the First World War led to a redesign of the weapon, completed in 1926, and named the M1911A1. Changes to the original design were exceedingly minor (shorter trigger, recesses behind the trigger frame, curved mainsping housing, etc.); for this reason, those unfamiliar with the sidearm are often unable to tell the difference between the two models at a glance, and also for this reason those familiar with the weapon consider its design one of the most effective in the history of firearms. The soundness of design is also borne out in its longevity of service (over 70 years).

World War II and the years leading up to it created a great demand for the weapon, which in turn led to the Army's extending manufacturing contracts to several manufacturers, including Remington Rand, Ithaca, Union Switch and Signal Company, and Singer (the sewing-machine manufacturer), as well as the Springfield Armory and Rock Island Arsenal. So many were produced that after 1945, the government did not order any new pistols.

After the Second World War, the sidearm continued to be a mainstay in the U.S. armed forces, seeing action in the Korean War and the Vietnam War (where it was the weapon of choice for U.S. "tunnel rats"). It was replaced, largely due to considerations of NATO commitments, with a 9mm sidearm, the M9, on January 14, 1985. The M1911A1 is still used by special operations units of the U.S. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, and by Hostage Rescue Team units of the FBI, among other agencies. The M1911A1 design is also favored by police SWAT teams throughout the United States

 

 

 

CLAYMORE

 

The M18 Claymore Mine was used extensively during the Vietnam War and is a very effective anti-personnel mine. The M18 Claymore is a directional fragmentation mine and is 8.5 inches (21.6 cm) long, 1.375 inches (3.5 cm) wide, 3.25 inches (8.6 cm) high, and weighs 3.5 pounds (1.6 kg). The mine is loaded with 700 steel balls (10.5 grains) backed by a 1.5 pound (0.68 kg) layer of composition C-4 explosive and is initiated by a No. 2 electric blasting cap. The M18 is a command-detonated mine and may be employed with obstacles or on the approaches, forward edges, flanks, and rear edges of protective minefields as close-in protection against an unprotected infantry attack.

The Claymore mine propels a fan-shaped pattern of steel balls in a 60-degree horizontal arc with a maximum height of 6.6 feet (2 meters), and has a casualty radius of 328 feet (100 meters). The optimum effective range (the range at which the most advantageous balance between lethality and area coverage is attained) is 164 feet (50 meters). The forward danger radius for the weapon is 820 feet (250 meters). The back blast area is unsafe in exposed areas 53 feet (16 meters) to the rear and sides of the mine. Friendly personnel within 328 feet (100 meters) to the rear and sides of the Claymore mine should be in a protected position to be safe from secondary fragments. Another choice is to sandbag to the rear and sides of the Claymore mine to protect friendly personnel.

The M18A1 mine is the improved version and is designed primarily a defensive weapon. The Claymore mine may be employed to a limited extent in certain phases of offensive operations, especially during the beginning phases of the operation. The M18A1 mine has the same basic capabilities as most antipersonnel mines and may be used in most situations where other types of antipersonnel mines are utilized. In addition, the Claymore has the ability to be sighted directionally to provide fragmentation effects over a specific area and does not necessarily rely upon the chance detonation by the opposing forces. The M18A1 mine can be adapted for covering the ranges between maximum hand grenade throwing distance and the minimum safe distance of mortar and artillery supporting fires.

The M18 Claymore antipersonnel mine is the earlier model of the M18A1 Claymore antipersonnel mine. The original M18 antipersonnel mine comes in two versions, one with and one without a peep-sight, otherwise, the two versions are indistinguishable. The Claymore mine is a curved, rectangular, plastic case and contains a layer of composition C3 explosive. The front side has a label which is written "FRONT" with "TOWARDS ENEMY" below. The mine has a fragmentation face of rectangular steel fragments. The front face containing the steel fragments is designed to produce a fan-shaped spray which can be aimed at a prescribed target area. The Claymore mine sits of four scissor type legs when positioned for firing. The electrical firing device issued with the original M18 Claymore Mine is not safe. Due to its construction, the firing device may cause premature detonation of the mine. Whenever possible, the battery holder (firing device) issued with the M18 mine should be replaced by the standard M57 firing device. If the battery holder is used, both firing wires should be connected to a single terminal until the desired moment of detonation.

Weight: 3.5 pounds (1.6 kg)
Damage: Front 60-degree horizontal Cone: 4D6x10 SDC for a 164 foot (50 meter) range, 2D4x10 SDC for a 328 foot (100 meter) range, and 4D6 SDC for a 820 foot (250 meter) range. Rear and Sides: 1D4x10 SDC for a 53 foot (16 meter) range and 4D6 SDC for a 328 foot (100 meter) range.
Arming: Manual / Command Fusing
Maximum Effective Range: 820 feet (250 meters)
Payload: One Use
Cost: $250

 

 

 

FRAG

 

 Body. The M26 and M26A1 grenade bodies are cast iron.

Filler. The fillers have TNT, either flaked or granular.

Fuze. The fuze is an M204A1 or M204A2.

Weight. Each grenade weighs 21 ounces.

 Capabilities. The average soldier can throw these grenades 40 meters. They have an effective casualty radius of 15 meters.

 Color and Markings. These grenades have an olive drab body with a single yellow band at the top and yellow markings, which indicate a    high-explosive filler