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Doing Research? : Immigration in Your Backyard

Immigration Impact:
Oklahoma

 
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State Population (2006 CB estimate)

3,579,212

State Population in 2000

3,454,508

Average Annual Change 2000-2006

0.6%

Foreign Born Population 2006 1/

167,255

Foreign Born Share 2006

4.7%

Foreign Born Population 2000

131,747

Foreign Born Share 2000

3.8%

Average Annual Change 2000-2006

4.3%

Population Projection 2010

3.6 million

Population Projection 2025

3.8 million

Population Projection 2050 (FAIR)

4.4 million

All numbers are from the U.S. Census Bureau unless otherwise noted.
Additional Census Bureau, INS, and other immigration-related data are available for Oklahoma.

Population Change
Oklahoma’s population increased by 9.8 percent between 1990 and 2000, and by 3.6 percent between 2000 and 2006, bringing Oklahoma’s total population to approximately 3.6 million. 

Approximately 28.5 percent of the total population increase between 2000 and 2006 in Oklahoma was directly attributable to immigrants.

FAIR estimates the illegal alien population in 2005 at 83,000, which ranks 22nd in the U.S. for the FAIR estimate.

This number is 45% above the U.S. government estimate of 46,000 in 2000, and 419% above the 1990 estimate of 16,000.

According to an estimate of the Pew Hispanic Center, in 2005 there were an estimated 50,000 to 75,000 illegal aliens living in Oklahoma. 2/
FAIR estimates in 2004 that the taxpayers of Oklahoma


 

FAIR’s projected annual fiscal costs to Oklahoma taxpayers
for emergency medical care, education and incarceration resulting if an amnesty is adopted for illegal residents.

Current

2010

2020

$207,000,000

$356,000,000

$624,000,000


 
Population  Profile

Oklahoma increased by ten percent, or 305,000 people, between 1990 and 2000.

Oklahoma’s immigrant population more than doubled during the 1990s, increasing by 101 percent.

 

Foreign-Born Population 

Oklahoma’s foreign-born population increased by 27.0 percent between 2000 and 2006. During that period Oklahoma gained over 35,000 immigrants, bringing the total number of foreign-born residents in the state to over 167,000. 23% of Oklahoma's major urban roads are congested.

 

Environmental and Quality of Life Profile

Traffic: As population growth put more traffic on the roads, the average commute for Oklahoma residents increased from 19 minutes in 1990 to 20.1 minutes in 2005. 4/, 5/  42 percent of Oklahoma's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition, and vehicle travel on Oklahoma's highways increased 38% from 1990 to 2003. The Oklahoma Department of Transportation has a $583.4 million backlog of deferred maintenance, and Driving on roads in need of repair costs Oklahoma motorists $969 million a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs --- $413 per motorist. Congestion in the Oklahoma City area costs commuters $245 per person per year in excess fuel and lost time, and congestion in the Tulsa area costs commuters $247 per person per year in excess fuel and lost time. 6/

Travelers in the Tulsa area experience an annual delay of 12 hours. 7/   8 percent of commuters in Oklahoma have a commute that is 45 minutes or more. 8/

Between 1991 and 2001, vehicle miles traveled increased 31 percent in Oklahoma. Between 1996 and 2001, the percent of badly congested urban interstates increased from 20 percent to 25 percent. 9/

Disappearing open space: Each year, Oklahoma loses 35,300 acres of open space and farmland due to development. 10/

A study of urban sprawl between 1970 and 1990 that calculated the impact of population increase and per capita land use found that 307.7 square miles of additional land were consumed by urban sprawl in the Oklahoma metropolitan area, and 46.8 percent of that sprawl was attributable to population increase. In the Tulsa metro area sprawl consumed an additional 124.3 square miles and population increase accounted for 46.7 percent of the increase. 11/

Crowded housing: In 2005 over 30,000 Oklahoma households were defined as crowded or severely crowded by housing authorities. 12/ Studies show that a rise in crowded housing often correlates with an increase in the number of foreign-born.13/, 14/

Air pollution: As population increases, pollution usually rises along with it. Tulsa has failed the Environmental Protection Agency’s new national clear air standards and has until 2007 to meet the standard though a series of voluntary steps. If the standard isn’t met, then the area could face a number of clean air mandates, including restrictions on emissions, tighter regulations on industry, and costly changes in fueling equipment.15/ Tulsa county received a grade of “F’ from the American Lung Association in their “State of the Air 2005” report. Carter county received a “D”, and Oklahoma and Mc Clain Counties received a “C”. 16/

Poverty: In 2005 21.3 percent of immigrants in Oklahoma had incomes below the poverty level, and increase of 18.8 percent since 2000. Among non-citizens, the poverty rate climbs to 26.4 percent.17/

Education: Between 2000 and 2006 Oklahoma’s K-12 student enrollment increased by over 7,000 students, 18/, 19/ and is projected to increase by an additional 8,000 students by the year 2015. 20/ Oklahoma’s student-teacher ratio of 15.2 currently ranks 32nd in the U.S. 21/

Solid Waste: Oklahoma generates 1.28 tons of solid waste per capita. 22/

Endotes:

  1. "Estimates of the Unauthorized Migrant Population for States based on the March 2005 CPS", Pew Hispanic Center.
  2. Martin, Jack. “Breaking the Piggy Bank: How Illegal Immigration is Sending Schools into the Red,” A Report by the Federation for American Immigration Reform.
  3. “Table DP-1-4, Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000,” Census 2000, U.S. Census Bureau.
  4. Selected Economic Characteristics: 2005 Data Set - 2005 American Community Survey, American Fact Finder, U.S. Census Bureau.
  5. Report Card for America's Infrastructure 2005," American Society of Civil Engineers.
  6. "The 2005 Urban Mobility Report", Texas Transportation Institute.
  7. U.S. Population 2007 Data Sheet,” Population Reference Bureau.
  8. Janet Pearson, “Interstate System Faces Tough Challenges,” Tulsa World, February 2, 2003.
  9. “State Rankings by Acreage and Rate of Non-Federal Land Developed,” Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture
  10. Beck, Roy and Leon Kolankiewicz, “Weighing Sprawl Factors in Large U.S. Cities,” NumbersUSA, March 2001.
  11. Selected Housing Characteristics: 2005 Data Set - 2005 American Community Survey, American Fact Finder, U.S. Census Bureau.
  12. Haya El Nasser, “U.S. Neighborhoods Grow More Crowded,” USA Today, July 7, 2002.
  13. Randy Capps, “Hardship Among Children of Immigrants: Findings from the 1999 National Survey of America’s Families,” Urban Institute, 2001.
  14. Associated Press, “Compact Keeps Tulsa off EPA’s 'Dirty Air’ List,” Tulsa World, January 7, 2003.
  15. “State of the Air 2005: Oklahoma”, American Lung Association.
  16. Oklahoma State Factsheet,” Migration Information Source, Migration Policy Institute.
  17. "Overview of Public Elementary and Secondary Schools and Districts: School Year 1999-2000," National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
  18. "Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment, High School Completions, and Staff From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005-06', National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, June 2007.
  19. Projections of Education Statistics to 2015, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
  20. "Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment, High School Completions, and Staff From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005-06', National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, June 2007
  21. Report Card for America's Infrastructure 2005," American Society of Civil Engineers.
 


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