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Avicenna

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born 980, Bukhara, Iran
died 1037, Hamadan

Photograph:Avicenna, French line engraving, 1584.
Avicenna, French line engraving, 1584.
The Granger Collection, New York

Arabic  Ibn Sina,  in full  Abu 'Ali al-Husayn ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Sina   Iranian physician, the most famous and influential of the philosopher-scientists of Islam. He was particularly noted for his contributions in the fields of Aristotelian philosophy and medicine. He composed the Kitab al-shifa' (“Book of Healing”), a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which is among the most…


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More from Britannica on "Avicenna"...
77 Encyclopædia Britannica articles, from the full 32 volume encyclopedia
>Avicenna
Iranian physician, the most famous and influential of the philosopher-scientists of Islam. He was particularly noted for his contributions in the fields of Aristotelian philosophy and medicine. He composed the Kitaa (“Book of Healing”), a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which is among the most famous books in the history of ...
>Avicenna's influence
   from the Avicenna article
In the Western world, Avicenna's influence was felt, though no distinct school of “Latin Avicennism” can be discerned as can with Averroës, the great Spanish-Arabic philosopher. Avicenna's Book of Healing was translated partially into Latin in the 12th century, and the complete Canon appeared in the same century. These translations and others spread the thought of ...
>Philosophy: Averroës and Avicenna
   from the Islamic arts article
Philosophy, medicine, and theology, all of which flourished in the 'Abbasid East, were also of importance in the Maghrib; and from there strong influences reached medieval Europe. The influences often came through the mediation of the Jews, who, along with numerous Christians, were largely Arabized in their cultural and literary outlook. The eastern Muslim countries could ...
>The hidden secret of Avicenna's “Oriental Philosophy”
   from the Islam article
The hidden secret of Avicenna's “Oriental Philosophy” appears, then, to be that the philosopher must return to the cave, educate himself in the ways of nonphilosophers, and understand the incompatibility between philosophical life and the life of the multitude, which must be governed by religion and divine laws. Otherwise, his ignorance will lead him to actions dangerous ...
>The teachings of Avicenna
   from the Islam article

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9 Student Encyclopedia Britannica articles, specially written for elementary and high school students
Avicenna
(980–1037). During the Middle Ages, few scholars contributed more to science and philosophy than the Muslim scholar Avicenna. By his writings he helped convey the thought of the Greek philosopher Aristotle to the thinkers of western Europe, and his ‘Canon of Medicine' became the definitive work in its field for centuries.
The Middle Ages
   from the biology article
During the Middle Ages (roughly AD 500–1400), the center of biological studies shifted from Europe to the Middle East. The Islamic scholar al-Jahiz expanded on the observations of the Greeks. His multi-volume Book of Animals, discussed a variety of topics, such as the relationships among different animal groups and animal mimicry. The writings of the Persian physician ...
Spain and North Africa
   from the Islamic literature article
Despite its remoteness from the 'Abbasid center at Baghdad, Spain experienced a parallel flowering of literature during its Muslim period, one that flourished under its own Umayyad caliphate. The culture of the Western land contains some of the greatest names in Islamic literature.
Arabian Medicine
   from the medicine article
After the breakup of the Roman Empire the tradition of Greek medicine continued in the universities of the Arab world. Many of the original Greek manuscripts were preserved at these centers and were used in formal medical studies. Since the Near East abounded with plants from which drugs could be extracted, Arab physicians used them extensively. The study of anatomy, ...
Ghazali, al-
(1058–1111). One of the most prominent figures in the history of the religion of Islam was a jurist, theologian, and mystic named al-Ghazali. One of his more significant contributions to thought was bringing Greek philosophical concepts and methods into the mainstream of Islam.

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