SIMAROUBACEAE [Draft]

苦木科  ku mu ke

Peng Hua (彭华)[1]; Wm. Wayt Thomas[2]

Trees or shrubs usually with bitter bark. Leaves alternate, sometimes opposite, pinnate to unifoliolate or rarely simple, stipules present or absent. Inflorescence axillary, racemose, paniculate, cymose, rarely spicate. Flowers generally small, bisexual or unisexual (andromonoecious, functionally dioecious, or distinctly dioecious), often with rudiments of opposite sex, actinomorphic. Calyx of 4–5 (-8) sepals, imbricate or valvate; petals usually 4–5 (-8), free, imbricate or valvate. Stamens the same number as the petals and alternate with them, or twice as many as the petals (or more); filaments free, the base often with an appendage; anthers oblong, versatile, bicelled, with a longitudinal slit.  Disc usually present, sometimes a gynophore or androgynophore. Gynoecium weakly united a the base, or virtually free, usually 2–5-carpellate; ovary superior, with axile placentation, 1–2-ovuled per locule, ovule apical or basal; style, connate or free ,; stigmas 2-5 . Fruit a drupe or a samara (technically, there are 1-5 fruit-like monocarps produced per flower, each a druparium or a samarium); endosperm present or 0; embryo straight or curved, with thick cotyledons.

Twenty genera and ca. 95 species: mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, some species in temperate regions; three genera and ten species (six endemic) in China.

Chen Pangyu. 1997. Simaroubaceae. In: Chen Shukun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 43(3): 1–16.

Harrisonia and Suriana, treated in Simaroubaceae in FRPS, are treated in Rutaceae and Surianaceae, respectively, in FOC.

1a.       Fruit a samara, flat, oblong-elliptic ..................................................................  1. Ailanthus

1b.       Fruit a drupe, ovate or oblong-ovate.

2a.       Drupe with persistent calyx; leaflets glabrous on both surfaces or pubescent on midvein or lateral veins when young .................................................................................................  2. Picrasma

2b.       Drupe without persistent calyx; leaflets pubescent abaxially or on both surfaces
........................................................................................................................  3. Brucea

1. Ailanthus Desf. Mem. Acad. Sci. Paris 1786:265. 1788, nom. cons.

臭椿属  chou chun shu

Trees or small trees; branchlets pubescent, with a pith. Leaves alternate, pinnate, the leaflets 13–41, papery or thin leathery, opposite or nearly so, the base oblique, the margin entire or serrate, the apex acuminate, the base sometimes 1–2-dendate on either side, the teeth glandular abaxially at the apex. Flowers small, polygamo-dioecious, in axillary or terminal thyrses; sepals 5, imbricate; petals 5, valvate; disc 10-lobed; stamens 10, inserted at base of disc, undeveloped or rudimentary in pistillate flowers; carpels 2–5, free or slightly connate only at base; 1–2-ovules per locule, campylotropous or anatropous; styles 2–5, connate, but only with female trace in male flowers. Samara (samarium) oblong elliptic, with a seed surrounded by wing; seed flat, rounded, obovate or slightly deltoid, with some endosperm or without, endocarp thin, cotyledons compressed.

About ten species: Asia to N Oceania; six species (four endemic) in China.

1a.       Leaflet blade entire, the base without marked teeth on either side, carpels 3–5.

2a.       Small tree, carpels 5, lower portion of filaments glabrous ................................  3. A. fordii

2b.       Tree, 15-40 (-45) m tall, carpels 3, filaments pilose below (unknown in A. guanxiensis)

3a.       Samara 4.5–8 × 1.5–2.5 cm ...................................................................  1. A. triphysa

3b.       Samara 12–15 × 3.5–4 cm .............................................................  2. A. guangxiensis

1b.       Leaflet blade entire, sinuous, or shallowly sinuous-dendate, the base with 1-several teeth on each side, carpels 5.

4a.       Branches with soft thorns when young, leaflet blade with 2–4 teeth on either side, petiole sometimes with thorns ................................................................................................  4. A. vilmoriniana

4b.       Branches without soft thorns when young, leaflet blade base with 1–2 teeth on either side, petiole without thorns.

5a.       Branches yellow or yellow-brown, pilose when young, then glabrescent, leaflet blade margin entire     5. A. altissima

5b.       Branches gray-white or gray-brown, pilose, leaflet blade margin sinuous or shallowly sinuous-dentate                                                                                                                    6. A. giraldii

1. Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst.) Alston in Trimen Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6. suppl., 41. 1931.

岭南臭椿  ling nan chou chun

Adenanthera triphysa Dennst. Schluss. Hort. Mal. 32. 1818; Ailanthus malabarica DC. Prodr. (DC.) 2: 89. 1825.

Tree, evergreen, usually 15–20 (-45) m high. Leaves pinnate, 30–60 cm long; leaflets 6–17 (–30) pairs, the petiolule pubescent, 5–7 mm long, the blades ovate lanceolate or oblong lanceolate, 15–20 × 2.5–5.5 cm, thin leathery, the base broadly cuneate or slightly rounded, oblique, the margin entire, the apex acuminate, abaxially more or less short pubescent or glabrous. Panicle axillary, more or less short pubescent, 25–50 cm long; bracts small, ovate or deltoid, 5–7 mm long, early caducous; pedicel ca. 2 mm long; calyx abaxially pilose, 5-lobed, lobes shorter than 1 mm, deltoid, as long as tube; petals 5, glabrous or nearly so, ca. 2.5 × 1–1.5 mm, valvate; stamens 10, inserted at base of filament; filaments gracile, curved and folded in buds, lower part pilose; 1–3 mm long in females, 3–6 mm long in males; anthers ca. 1 mm long in male, shorter in female; carpels 3, glabrous, 2–2.5 mm long; styles free or connate at base, stigma 3-lobed, lobes shield-shaped, , ca. 2 mm wide. Samara 4.5–8 × 1.5–2.5 cm, both tops slightly obtuse; seeds flat, surrounded by wing. Fl. Oct–Nov, fr. Jun–Mar.

Montane, roadside sparse or thick woods; 50–540 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, S Yunnan [India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

2. Ailanthus guangxiensis X. L.Mo ex C. F. Liang & X. L. Mo, in Guihaia 2(3): 145–146. 1982.

广西臭椿  guang xi chou chun

Tree, to 40 m high; trunk straight; bark gray or gray brown, nearly smooth, annulate or subannulate, the lenticels prominently rounded. Branchlets robust, nearly glabrous, leaf-scars conspicuous. Leaves even-pinnate, crowded at apex of branches, 25–50 cm long, longer when young than old; leaflets 4–6-pairs, more when young than old, alternate, very rarely opposite; petiolules 1–2 cm long; blade adaxially dark green, lucid, papery, thin, abaxially light green, both surfaces glabrous, ovate or oblong ovate, 7–16 (–20) × 4–8 cm, the base oblique,both sides with several semi-transparent glands ca. 3 mm diam., the margin entire, the apex acuminate; lateral veins 5–8-pairs, the midrib and lateral veins prominent on both surfaces, the reticulate veins inconspicuous. Flowers not seen. Infructescence paniculate, 15–35 cm long, lax. Samara compressed, oblong, 12–15× 3.5–4 cm, apex somewhat contorted, reticulate; seeds 1, at middle of wing, compressed, 1.5–2 cm diam. Fr. Aug–Oct.

* In forests of limestone valley; 240 m. Guangxi (Longzhou Xian, Ningming Xian).

3. Ailanthus fordii Nooteboom in Steen. Fl. Males. Ser. 1. 6:220. 1962.

常绿臭椿  chang lu chou chun

Small tree, evergreen; branchlets gray brown, densely puberulous. Leaves crowded at apex of branches, 40–60 cm long, the petiole 7–13 cm long; leaflets 6–13 pairs, opposite or nearly so, oblong ovate, 7–13 × 4–6 cm, the base obtuse-rounded, oblique, the margin entire, the apex short acuminate or obtuse-rounded; rachis puberulous. Panicle terminal, 20–40 cm long, base of branches at different levels articulate; flowers unisexual or polygamous, 1–3-fasciculate, pedicel 1–2 mm long, subtending bracts small, deltoid; calyx cup-shaped, puberulous, ca. 0.5 mm high, with 5 short and obtuse lobes; petals 5, glabrous, 2–3 × 1 mm; stamens curved and folded, glabrous, 3–5 mm long in buds of males, 1–3 mm long in females; anthers ca. 0.8 mm long, degenerate in female; carpels 5, densely puberulous, styles connate, 0.5–1 mm high, less or more puberulous, stigma 5, free or only base slightly connate, 1–1.5 mm long. Samara 3–5 × 1–1.8. Fr. Dec–Apr.

* Mixed forests of hills and mountains; 540 m. S Guangdong, Hong Kong, Yunnan (Xishuangbana).

4. Ailanthus vilmoriniana Dode in Rev. Hortic. 444. 1904.

刺臭椿  ci chou chun

Ailanthus glandulosa var. spinosa Vilmorn & Bois.

Tree, usually over 10 m high; branches with soft thorns when young. Leaves odd-pinnate, 50–90 cm long, with petiole violet red and spiny; leaflets 8–17 pairs, opposite or nearly so, the blade lanceolate oblong, 9–15 (–20) × 3–5 cm, adaxially glabrous or puberulous except for the veins which are pubescent, abaxially gray green, pilose, the base broadly cuneate or somewhat rounded, each side 2–4-dentate, the teeth abaxially glandular. Panicle ca. 30 cm long. Samara ca. 5 cm long.

* Sparse woods of Mountainous slopes or valleys, 500–2800 m. Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan.

5. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle in Journ Wash. Acad. Sci. 6:459. 1916.

臭椿  chou chun

Tree, deciduous, up to 20 m high; bark smooth and straightly grained; branches with pith, yellow or yellow brown pubescent when young, then glabrescent; Leaves odd-pinnate, 40–60 cm long; petiole 7–13 cm long; leaflets 13–27, opposite or nearly so, the blade ovate lanceolate, abaxially dark green, adaxially gray green, smelly when rubbed. Panicle 10–30 cm long; flowers light green; pedicle 1–2.5 mm long; sepals 5, imbricate, 0.5–1 mm long; petals 5, 2–2.5 mm long, the base hispid. Stamens 10; filaments densely hispid basally, longer than petals in males, shorter than petals in females; anthers oblong, ca. 1 mm long; carpels 5, the styles connate, the stigma 5-lobed. Samara oblong 3–4.5 × 1–1.2 cm; seed in the middle of wing, flat rounded. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Aug–Oct.

In many habitats; 100–2500 m. all regions of China except Heilongjiang, Jilin, Ningxia, Qinghai, Hainan [cultivated throughout the world].

1a. Samara 5–7 × 1.4–1.8 cm ........................................................................  5c. var. sutchuanensis

1b. Samara 3–4.5 × 0.7–1.2 cm.

2a. Samara 1–1.2 cm wide ...............................................................................  5a. var. altissima

2b. Samara 0.7–0.8 cm. wide ............................................................................  5b. var. tanakae

5a. Ailanthus altissima var. altissima

臭椿  (Ô­±äÖÖ) chou chun (yuan bian zhong)

Toxicodendron altissima Mill. Car. Dict. Ed. 8. n. 10. 1768; Albonia peregrine Buchoz; Rhus cacodendron Ehrh.; Ailanthus glandulosa Desf.; Pongelion glandulosum Pierre; Ailanthus cacodendron (Ehrh.) Schinz & Thell.

Bark smooth and straightly grained; petiolules 0.6–1.5 cm long; Samara oblong 3–4.5 × 1–1.2 cm.

In many habitats; 100–2500 m. all regions of China except Heilongjiang, Jilin, Ningxia, Qinghai, Hainan [cultivated throughout the world].

5b. Ailanthus altissima var. tanakae (Hayata) Kanehira & Sasaki in Kanehira, Form. Tree rev. Ed. 321. f. 276. 1936 [??“tanakai”].

台湾臭椿  tai wan chou chun

Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. var. tanakae Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 4: 2. 1914 [??“tanakai”].

Bark yellow gray, smooth; petiolules shorter, samara 7–8 mm wide.

* Mainly in alpine forests of the northern Taiwan.

5c. Ailanthus altissima var. sutchuanensis (Dode) Rehd. & Wils. In Sarg. Pl. Wilson. 3: 449. 1917.

大果臭椿  da guo chou chun

Ailanthus sutchuanensis Dode in Bull. Soc. Dendr. France. 192. fig. a. 1907.

Bark white lenticellate; samara 5–7 × 1.4–1.8 cm.

* Mainly in valleys and in the wet sparse forests or shrub forests; 1700–2500 m. Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.

6. Ailanthus giraldii Dode in Bull. Soc. Dendr. France 191. 1907.

毛臭椿  mao chou chun

Ailanthus giraldii var. duclouxii Dode.

Trees deciduous, ca. 10 m high; branches densely gray white or gray brown, puberulous when young, Leaves odd-pinnate, 30–60 (–90) cm long; leaflets 9–16 (–20) pairs, the blade broadly lanceolate or sickle-shaped lanceolate, 7–15 × 2.5–5 cm, the base cuneate, oblique, both margins 1–2-dentate, the teeth abaxially glandular, the margin shallowly sinuous to sinuous, the apex long-acuminate or acuminate, the lateral veins in 14–15 pairs, adaxially dark green, glabrous but puberulous on veins, abaxially gray green, densely white puberulous; petiolules 3–7 mm long, puberulous. Panicle 20–30 cm long; flowers not seen. Samara 4.5–6 × 1.5–2 cm, Fl. Apr–May, fr. Sep–Oct.

* Sparse forests or mixed forests of mountains; Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.

2. Picrasma Blume, Bijdr. 247. 1825.

苦木属  ku mu shu

Tree with bitter bark; branches with a pith, glabrous. Leaves odd-pinnate, base of petiole or petiolule often dilated into a pulvinus which withers when dry; leaflets opposite or nearly so, the blade entire or serrate; stipules early deciduous or persistent. Inflorescence axillary, cymes in panicle; flowers unisexual or polygamous, 4–5-merous; bracts subtending each flower small or early deciduous, the lower half of the pedicel articulated; sepals small, free or the lower half connate, persistent; petals valvate or nearly valvate in bud, the apex short–incurved, cuspidate, longer than sepals, persistent in females; stamens 4–5, inserted at base of disc; disc slightly thickened, entire or 4–5 shallowly-lobed, sometimes dilate in fruit; carpels 2–5, free, degenerate or rudimentary in males; style connate basally, the apex free; stigma free; carpels each with a single ovule. Fruit comprising one or more drupe-like monocarps (each a druparium), the exocarp thin, fleshy, wrinkled when dry; endocarp bony; seeds with a broad hilum, exalbuminous; testa membranous, slightly thick and hard.

About nine species: tropical and subtropical America and Asia; two species (both endemic) in China.

1a.       Sepals 5, sometimes 4.  Leaflets 9–15, blade margin irregularly serrate; drupe blue-green when ripe, 6–8 × 5–7 mm .................................................................................................  1. P. quassioides

1b.       Sepals 4.  Leaflets 5–9, blade entire or sometimes sinuate or wrinkled-sinuate; drupe red-brown when ripe, 10–13 × 7–9 mm .......................................................................................  2. P. chinensis

1. Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. Pl. Jav. Rar. 198. 1844.

苦树  ku shu

Tree. deciduous, up to 10 m high, bark purplish brown, smooth, with gray stripes; Leaves alternate, odd-pinnate, 15–30 cm long; leaflets 9–15, the blade ovate-lanceolate or broadly ovate, the base cuneate, oblique except for the terminal leaflet, the apex acuminate, both surfaces glabrous except abaxially pubescent on midrib or lateral veins when young, then glabrescent; leaf scar conspicuous, semirounded or rounded; stipules lanceolate, early deciduous. Flowers dioecious, in axillary cymes; rachis densely yellow-brown puberulous; sepals 4-5, small, ovate or oblong, abaxially yellow brown puberulous, imbricate; petals as many as sepals, ovate or broad ovate, both surfaces with midrib puberulous; stamens twice long as petals in males, shorter than petals in females, opposite the sepals; disc 4–5-lobed; carpels 4–5, free. Drupe globose?, blue green when ripe, 6–8 × 5–7 mm, testa thin, calyx persistent. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Jun–Sep.

* In mountainous mixed forests; 1400–2400 m. Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei Hunan, Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Tianjin, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.

1a. Leaflet blade abaxially pubescent only on midrib or lateral veins when young; inflorescence rachis densely yellow-brown puberulous ..................................................................  1a. var. quassioides

1b. Leaflet blade glabrous, inflorescence and infructescence glabrous or sparsely pubescent then glabrecent .....................................................................................................................  1b. var. glabrescens

1a. Picrasma quassioides var. quassioides

苦树  (Ô­±äÖÖ) ku shu (yuan bian zhong)

Simaba quassioides D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nep. 248. 1825; Rhus ailanthoides Bunge; Picrasma japonica A. Gray.

Leaflet blade glabrous, but abaxially pubescent along midrib or lateral veins when young; inflorescence rachis densely yellow brown puberulous.

* In mountainous mixed forests; 1400–2400 m. Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei Hunan, Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Tianjin, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.

1b. Picrasma quassioides var. glabrescens Pamp. In Nouv. Giorn. Bot. Ital. Ser. 2, 18: 171. 1911.

光序苦树  guang xu ku shu

leaflet blade glabrous, inflorescence and infructescence glabrous or sparsely pubescent then glabrecent.

* In mountainous mixed forests; 1850–3200 m. Hubei, Yunnan.

2. Picrasma chinensis P. Y. Chen in Act. Bot. Austr. Sin. 1: 71. fig. 1: 1–9. 1983.

中国苦树  zhong guo ku shu

Tree, deciduous?, up to 15 m high; branches yellow green when young, glabrous, purplish red, gray-white and lenticellate when old. Leaves alternate, odd-pinnate; petiole 4–7 cm long, ca. 1/3 of rachis, terete, sparsely puberulous or glabrous; leaflets 5–9, opposite or nearly so, petiolule 3–9 mm long; stipules early deciduous; blade glabrous, oblong or ovate-oblong, 7–13 × 2.5–5 cm, papery or thick papery, the base cuneate or broad cuneate, oblique with one side sometimes slightly rounded, the margin entire or sometimes sinuate or shallowly sinuate serrate, the apex long acuminate or caudate acuminate; midrib and lateral veins prominent, especially abaxially; lateral veins 5–8-pairs; panicle axillary, 5–12 cm long, longer in males than in females; flowers polygamous, usually 4–merous, sometimes 5-merous, smaller in males than in bisexuals; pedicle 2.5–3 mm long; sepals 4, ovate, 0.6–1 mm long, abaxially puberulous; petals 4, yellow green, ovate oblong, 2–2.5 mm long, the apex obtuse, abaxially very sparsely puberulous or glabrous; Stamens 4, as long as petals, the filaments white, long hairy; disc 4-lobed, white long hairy; bisexual flowers: pedicle 4–5 mm long; sepals 4, broad ovate, ca. 1.5 mm long, abaxially puberulous; petals 4, ovate oblong, 4–5 mm long, apex obtuse or acute, abaxially very sparsely puberulous or glabrous; stamens 4, 1/2 as long as petals, filaments white, long hairy; ovary 4-loculed; style terete, stigma 4-lobed. Drupe globose, color?, 1–1.2 mm diam.; testa wrinkled when dry; petals persistent, oblong or ovate oblong, 10–13 × 7–9 mm. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Jun–Aug.

* In sparse forests or mountain thickets ; 600–1400m. Guangxi, Xizang, Yunnan.

3. Brucea J. F. Mill. Icon. Anim. Pl. T. 25. 1779–1780, nom. cons.

鸦胆子属  ya san zi shu

Shrubs or small trees, monoecious or dioecious, with bitter root cortex and bark, branches pubescent or puberulous when young. Leaves odd-pinnate; stipules absent; leaflets 3–15, the blade ovate or lanceolate, the base slightly oblique, the margin entire or serrate, the apex acuminate. Flowers unisexual, rarely bisexual, in narrow axillary, cymose panicles. Sepals 4, small, ovate, oblong-ovate or deltate, the bases connate, imbricate in bud; petals 4, small, free, imbricate in bud, oblong ovate, oblong or linear; disc thick, 4-lobed. Stamens 4, filaments short, inserted between the lobes of disc; anthers cordate or ovate; stamens only with rudiments in females or fully degenerated. Ovary 4-carpellate, the carpels free, ovoid, with 1-ovule; styles free or basally connate, stigmas ?? Fruit comprising one or more drupe-like monocarps (each a druparium),, hard, somewhat fleshy; seeds exalbuminous.

About six species: mainly in Africa, Asia, and N Oceania; two species in China.

1a.       Leaflet blade ovate or ovate lanceolate, the margin coarsely toothed; drupe 6–8 × 4–6 mm; exocarp reticulate wrinkled when dry ........................................................................  1. B. javanica

1b.       Leaflet blade elliptic-lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, the margin entire; drupe 8–12 × 6–8 mm; exocarp shallowly reticulate wrinkled when dry
                        ………………………………………………………………..2. B. mollis

1. Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. in Journ. Arn. Arb. 9:3. 1928.

鸦胆子  ya san zi

Rhus javanica L. Sp. Pl. 265. 1753; Gonus amarissimus Lour; Brucea sumatrana Roxb.

Shrubs or small trees; young branches, petioles and inflorescence yellow-tomentose. Leaves 20–40 cm long; leaflets 3–15; petiolule 4–8 mm long; blade ovate or ovate lanceolate, 5–20 (–13) × 2.5–5 (–6.5) cm, the base broadly cuneate or nearly rounded, usually somewhat oblique, the margin serrate, the apex acuminate, both surfaces villous, especially along veins and abaxially. Panicle 15–25 (–40) cm long in males, ca. half as long in females. Flowers small, dark purple, 1.5–2 mm diam.; males: pedicle slender, ca. 3 mm long; sepals densely puberulous, 0.5–1 × 0.3–0.5 mm; petals sparsely pubrulous or nearly glabrous, 1–2 × 0.5–1 mm; filaments subulate, ca. 0.6 mm long, the anthers ca. 0.4 mm long; females: pedicle ca. 2.5 mm long, sepals and petals the same as in males, stamens rudimentary. Drupes 1–4, free, oblong ovoid, 6–8 × 4–6 mm, gray-black when ripe; exocarp reticulate, wrinkled when dry; endocarp hard bony, seeds yellow-white, ovoid, thin membranous, with copious oil, terribly bitter. Fl. Jun–Jul, fr. Aug–Oct.

Open, shrubby forests of foothills; 40–1000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Yunnan [Australia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka].

2. Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 42: 64. 1873.

柔毛鸦胆子  rou mao ya san zi

Brucea mollis var. tonkinensis Lecomte; B. acuminata H. L. Li.

Shrubs or small trees, usually 1–2 m high, sometimes up to 5 m; branchlets yellow-green, puberulous, branches red-purple, densely white lenticellate. Leaves odd-pinnate, 20–45(–60) cm long; rachis and petiole densely yellow pubescent; leaflets 5–15, the blade yellow tomentose when young, then puberulous or glabrescent, elliptic-lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, 5–12 (–15) × 2.5–5 cm, the base broadly cuneate or slightly rounded, somewhat oblique, the margin entire, the apex long acuminate or acuminate; lateral veins 8–10-pairs, abaxially conspicuously prominent; petiolules 3–7 mm long. Flowers in slender, long panicles; panicle 10–25 cm long, rachis densely yellow tomentose, then sparsely pubescent or glabrescent; flowers 2–3 mm diam.; petals spoon-shaped, short pubescent, longer than stamens; disc flat and globose in males, shallowly disk-shaped in females; ovary densely pubescent. Drupe ovoid, 8–12 × 6–8 mm, glabrous, red-brown when dry, scarcely reticulate wrinkled.

In mountainous sparse forests, thicklets, or roadsides shrubs; 750–1200 (–1850) m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam].



[1] Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heilongtan, Kunming, Yunnan 650204, People’s Republic of China.

[2] Institute of Systematic Botany, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458-5126, U.S.A.