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SOUTH AFRICAN HISTORY TIMELINES

1980s

The 1900s have been broken into decades

1980

     
1980 is declared the Year of the Charter, marking the 25th anniversary of the adoption of the Freedom charter in 1955.

1980       SACTU declares the year as the year of the Worker

1980       Massive national school boycotts rocks the townships.

1980      
Fietas, Johannesburg: The Pageview Residents Association (PRA) enters into negotiations with the Department of Community Development in an attempt to keep residence.

1980 - 1983      
Between 1980 and 1983 important amendments were made to the 1979 Industrial Conciliation Amendment Act, but by 1983 the following major changes had been made:
•The term ‘employee’ was redefined to include all persons working for an employer.
•Racially mixed unions were allowed.
•Ministerial approval was no longer required for the registration of mixed unions.
•Job reservation was repealed (Bendix 1989: 305).

1980      
Republic of South African Constitution Fifth Amendment Act No 101:

Abolished the Senate, which was replaced with a multiracial President’s Council, consisting of sixty white, coloured and Indian nominated members. The council was charged with creating a new constitution that would give expression to coloured and Indian political ambitions. The recommendations of this body would lay the basis for the constitution of a tricameral Parliament.
Commenced: 1 August 1983
Repealed by the Constitution of Republic of South Africa Act No 200 of 1993

1980       Gazankulu: Divorce Act No 7:
Commenced: 1 April 1981

1980       QwaQwa: Police Act No 7:
Commenced: 27 February 1981

1980 - 1981      
Commission of Inquiry on the Constitution
Mandate: To inquire into and report on the introduction of a new Constitution for the Republic of South Africa
Date of Report: Interim Report: 6 May 1980
Final Report: 4 February 1981
Chair: SCHLEBUSCH, A. L.
Ref: Interim Report: RP 68/1980
Final Report: RP 23/1981

1980      

Commission of Inquiry into Reporting of Security Matters regarding the South African Defence Force and the South African Police Force
Mandate: To inquire into and make recommendations on -

a)the delimitation of, on the one hand, the interests of the news media and the public’s right to be informed on affairs of the state and, on the other hand, the interests of the state and of its citizens as entrenched by section 118 and other provisions of the Defence Act of 1957 and the Police Act of 1958, which require that newsworthy information should sometimes not be made known;
b)ways of reconciling these interests and any changes that might be needed to the Defence Act of 1957 and the Police Act of 1958.
Date of Report: 1980
Chair: STEYN, M.T.
Ref: RP 52-80


1980      
The Senate was abolished in 1980 and was replaced by a President's Council consisting of 60 members of the Chinese, Coloured, Indian and white communities.

1980      
The Taxation of Blacks Amendment made further provision to put 'African taxpayers on the same footing as those of other races.'

1980       16 707 were convicted on politically-related charges.

768 people were detained up until November 1980.

1980      
Attendance at African schools increased by 89% since 1965.

Boycotts of schools and universities started at secondary schools in Cape Town and spread to primary schools and spread finally to schools country-wide.

The boycott of red meat was called for by the Western Province General Workers Unions. A boycott of Colgate was also called for by the Chemical Workers Industrial union.


1980      
Cape school boycotts begin.

The De Lange Commission is instituted to conduct an in-depth investigation into education and to make recommendations for an education policy for South Africa.

1980      
The number of economically active women in South Africa is at 31.5%.

Fatima Meer builds schools in Umlazi, Port Shepstone, Inanda, establishes Tembalihle Tutorial College and a Crafts’ Centre in Phoenix.

Zubeida Jaffer,journalist, is detained for two months after exposing police killings.

Geraldine Fraser-Moleketi goes into exile, she joins ANC in Zimbabwe and works in political structures under the late Joe Gqabi.She later becomes a member of Umkhonto we Sizwe and receives training in Angola.Geraldine receives Officer Training at Military Institute of USSR and specialized training in Cuba.

The formation of the United Women's Organization in the Western Cape. This became instrumental in the formation of the United Democratic Front.

1980 January    
The Schlebush Commission holds hearings in Cape Town on the country’s constitutional future. Among the organizations submitting memoranda, or alternative proposals, are the PEP, the NRP, the South African Indian Council and Inkatha.

1980 January    
In January three guerrillas were shot dead in a siege at the Volkskas bank in Pretoria. Two hostages were killed and 9 hostages and two policeman were seriously injured.

1980 3 January     A police station at Soekmekaar, Northern Transvaal, is attacked.

1980 6 January     South Africa:Signs loan agreement with Malawi.

1980 10 January    
Security Police in Port Elizabeth, detain three black civil rights leaders after the Port Elizabeth Black Civic Organisation (PEBCO) decide to implement a city-wide strike and demonstrations against the planned removal of residents from Walmer. Banning orders are placed on all three on their release from detention on 27 February 1980.

1980 12 January    
A British Sports Council team begins a three-week fact-finding tour of South Africa to investigate racial discrimination in sport and to report on its findings.

1980 21 January    
It is revealed in Switzerland that the International University Exchange Fund’s Deputy Director, Craig Williamson, has been working as an agent for the South African Security Police. This is confirmed by the Minister of Police, Louis le Grange, on 24 January 1980.

1980 25 January    
A bank and twenty-five hostages are seized at Silverton, Pretoria. Two of the hostages die; several are injured; all three ANC guerrillas are killed.

1980 31 January    
The Swiss government send an official protest to the South African government over the illegal activities of South African agents operating in Switzerland and liaising with Anti-Apartheid organizations. The International University Exchange Fund (IUEF) Director, Lieutenant-General Erikssen, resigns with effect from July 1980, his health having deteriorated after the exposure of Craig Williamson. Financial irregularities are also alleged.

1980 6 February    
The Prime Minister explains that the administrative rationalization is to be implemented in four states, and announces that the Department of National Security (DONS) is to become the Directorate of National Intelligence (DNI). Mr. Botha further rejects calls made by Helen Suzman, (PFP) for a Parliamentary investigation into allegations that DONS has intercepted mail and tapped telephones to build up dossiers on NP opponents.

The Minister of Cooperation and Development, Dr. Piet Koornhof, announces that the ‘72-hour curfew’ will be lifted on a trial basis in Pretoria and Bloemfontein, as part of a movement to remove restrictions.

1980 7 February    
Transkei announces it is re-establishing diplomatic relations with South Africa because South Africa is now willing to negotiate over disputed land.

1980 12 February    
The Quail Commission, examining, at the request of the government of the Ciskei, the question of the feasibility of independence of the Ciskei releases its report. It finds that ninety per cent of all Ciskeians favour a one-man one-vote system within South Africa and advises against independence as a first option.

1980 15 February    
Prime Minister P.W. Botha decides to invite leaders of the black ‘homelands’ to join in a discussion on a ‘statement of intent’, by all South Africans.

1980 18 February    
In a joint statement the leaders of seven black ‘homelands’ set out the basis of a possible consensus solution for South Africa’s constitutional future.

1980 19 February    
The South African Defence Force has taken over from the police the security of Northern Natal since the area is becoming a third front in Security Force action against guerrilla infiltration.

1980 21 February    
South Africa warns Mozambique it will not hesitate to strike back if Mozambique continues to shelter guerrillas conducting murderous operations and acts of sabotage against South Africa.

1980 22 February    
The South African Coloured Persons’ Council Bill is introduced into Parliament. A government memorandum released on the same day gives obstruction by the Labour Party as the reason for the abolition of the previous Coloured Persons’ Representative Council. The Bill is opposed by the PEP and the NRP.

1980 28 February    
An Angolan priest, the Reverend David Russell, is sentenced to a year’s imprisonment for defying his banning order and attending a church synod meeting. He is released on 18 December 1980 after the Supreme Court has, on 5 December 1980, ruled an appeal that his sentence should be suspended except for fourteen days.

1980 29 February    
Justice Petrus Cillié submits to Parliament his report on the violent racial disturbances beginning in Soweto in June 1976, and covering the period to February 1977. The report concludes that the immediate cause of the riots was the government’s decision to introduce the use of Afrikaans on an equal basis with English as the official teaching medium in black schools. Underlying dissatisfaction had been exploited by activists.

1980 March    
the Sunday Post launches a nationwide “Release Mandela” campaign, about 15 million sign the petition.

1980 March    
A campaign is launched for the release of Nelson Mandela. Organizations supporting the campaign include the Soweto ‘Committee of, Inkatha, AZAPO, the Labour Party, the Natal Indian Congress and the South African Council of Churches (SACC).

1980 March    
Following the Rhodesian elections, the Sunday Post, Johannesburg, launched a campaign for the release of Nelson Mandela; it received wide support in the country.

1980 March    
Following the Rhodesian elections, the Sunday Post, Johannesburg, launched a campaign for the release of Nelson Mandela; it received wide support in the country.

1980 3 March    
A large cache of arms is discovered in a township near Springs, East of Johannesburg. Together with the buried arms are bundles of ANC leatlets.

1980 9 March    
Prime Minister P.W. Botha announces that all South Africa’s races will take part in a constitutional conference, but he emphasizes that he rejects one-man, one-vote and systems based on consensus and federalism.

1980 11 March    
After a Cabinet meeting, both P.W. Botha and Dr. Treurnicht issue statements calling for party unity.

South Africa:Signs agreement with Taiwan for the reciprocal exemption from taxes on income.

South Africa:Signs agreement with Taiwan for the reciprocal treatment of navigation.

South Africa:Signs agreement with Taiwan for scientific and technological cooperation.
South Africa:Signs air service agreement with Taiwan.

1980 12 March    
The Nederduitse Gereformerde Kerk (NGK) together with its sister church for blacks (the NGK in Afrika), Coloureds (the NG Sendingkerk) and Indians (the Reformed Church in Africa) issue a statement stating that the Churches bring no objection in principle if the authorities judge that circumstances justify reconsideration of the Immorality Act and the Mixed Marriages Act.

A court in Pretoria sentences nine blacks to terms of imprisonment from five to seven years on charges of training as guerrillas outside South Africa or recruiting others to undergo training.

1980 13 March     Lilian Ngoyi, a leading member of the Executive of the ANC dies.

1980 13 March    
The former Prime Minister and President, John Vorster, re-emerges into public life with a speech in Bloemfontein in which he questions P.W. Botha’s policy initiatives and backs the hard-line taken by Dr. Treurnicht. Separate development, he says, is the salvation of South Africa.

1980 13 March     Lillian Ngoyi dies

1980 15 March    
The Prime Minister states that those who disagree with the government’s 12-point strategy, accepted by all four National Party Provincial Congresses in 1979, and unanimously endorsed by the Cabinet, do not belong within the National Party.

1980 16 March    
Dr. Connie Mulder, leader of the recently-formed Nasionale Konservatiewe Party (NKP), foresees a new political alliance bringing to power a conservative government.

1980 21 March    
The Prime Minister dismisses allegations that the Cabinet is divided, and denies that there are differences in principle between Dr. Treurnicht and himself.

1980 21 March - 23 February    
A weekend of events commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Sharpeville shootings on 21 March 1960. Speakers attack the policy of apartheid.

1980 26 March    
The 1980 Defence Budget amounts to R2,074 million or fifteen percent of the total Budget

1980 April - July    
Serious unrest among the Coloured population leads to a school boycott, joined by students and teachers and accompanied by widespread demonstrations ending in violence. Over thirty people are killed in rioting,while several hundred are detained by police.

1980 April - July    
In student protests all over the country, more than a thousand students as well as several lecturers and public leaders - were detained. Many students were killed or injured.

1980 April    
In April the Coloured Representative Council was dissolved.

In April the Black Consciousness Movement of South Africa changed its name to the Black Consciousness Movement of Azania.

In April, the African United Automobile Workers Union split and the Motor Assemblies and Components Workers Unions of South Africa was formed (MACWUSA).

1980 1 April    
The South African Coloured Persons’ Council BILL comes into force. It abolishes the Coloured Persons’ Representative Council (CRC) and provides for the creation of a Coloured Persons’ Council (CPC) to consist of not more than thirty members nominated by the State President, with an Executive comprising an Administrator of Coloured Affairs and four other members, also appointed by the State President.

1980 1 April    
A summit meeting of nine southern African countries in Lusaka decided to form the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) to promote regional development and lessen dependence on South Africa.

1980 1 April    
A summit meeting of nine southern African countries in Lusaka decided to form the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) to promote regional development and lessen dependence on South Africa.

1980 2 April    
Among those giving the Constellation’ plan warm, but qualified support, is Harry Oppenheimer. Opening the Constellation of Southern African States’ exhibit he says that this excellent idea can only succeed if racial discrimination is eliminated and a settlement is reached over Narntbm.

1980 4 April    
ANC insurgents launch a rifle, rocket and grenade attack on Booysens Police Station, Johannesburg. Pamphlets are scattered demanding the release from Robben Island of Walter Sisulu.

1980 11 April    
The Minister of Manpower Utilization announces the removal of the ban on the employment of skilled black construction workers in white areas.

The Prime Minister states that the government has no intention of releasing Nelson Mandela.

The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution condemning South Africa for continued, intensified and unprovoked acts against Zambia. South Africa blames terrorist attacks launched from Zambia for border instability.

1980 12 April - 13 April    
Chief Buthelezi urges his supporters to use the official community councils in black urban areas as part of the democratic struggle against the apartheid system.

1980 14 April    
The Steyn Commission of Inquiry appointed to investigate relations between the Security Forces - both Military and Police - and the press proposes that new restrictions should be introduced on the publication of details of acts of political violence and the manufacture of arms. The system of accreditation of journalists should be more strictly applied and foreign correspondents should be subject to a more vigorous registration procedure.

1980 15 April    
The (Coloured) Labour Party National Executive Committee resolves to expel from the party anyone accepting nomination from the government to the Coloured Persons’ Council (CPC).

The leader of the PFP states that the PFP as a party has not taken a decision regarding the campaign to have Nelson Mandela released, but he, personally, has urged his release providing he renounces violence.

1980 18 April     Zimbabwe gains its independence.

1980 20 April    
Mounting protests by Coloured students against the educational and political system escalate further. Representatives of more than sixty Coloured high schools, teacher training colleges and the University of the Western Cape resolve to continue their boycott of classes. The boycott begins on 21 April 1980 and is widely observed by approximately 100,000 students from seventy schools for three weeks.

1980 21 April    
The Coloured schools boycott is joined by pupils at a number of Indian schools in Pretoria and Natal. Support is also pledged by Black Consciousness groups.

1980 29 April    
Hundreds of Coloured school children are arrested in Johannesburg during a student-police confrontation during the school boycott in terms of the Riotous Assemblies Act. The Prime Minister warns in Parliament that such actions would meet with the full might of the state.


1980 6 May    
The Advocate-General’s report confirms that the Herstigte Nasionale Party’s office telephones have been illegally tapped and calls intercepted. He recommends stricter controls over the State Security Services’ monitoring of mail and telephone conversations.

Black PEBCO activist Thozamile Botha breaks his banning order and escapes to Lesotho.

1980 7 May    
The interim majority report of the Schlebusch Commission is tabled. A minority report by the PFP members of the Commission opposes the proposal to create a President’s Council which would not include black representatives.

1980 8 May    

Prime Minister P.W. Botha announces that his government accepts the recommendations of the Schlebusch Commission including the replacement of the Senate by a President’s Council comprised of sixty Whites, Coloureds, Indians and Chinese. Also proposed is the nomination of twenty additional Members of Parliament to be appointed on a proportional basis by the leaders of the political parties.


In the Fauresmith by-election the National Party retains its seat against a double right-wing challenge from the Herstigte Nasionale Party and the recently formed National Conservative Party.


1980 12 May    
The British Sports Council urges the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and all other international sporting governing bodies to bring South Africa back into international competition.

1980 20 May    
Signs multilateral Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.

1980 22 May    
In a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament it is unanimously agreed to re-entrench the language rights in the constitution in anticipation of the abolition of the Senate.

1980 26 May    
Fifty-three churchmen are arrested at a demonstration in central Johannesburg against the detention of a fellow clergyman who had supported the schools boycott by Coloured students, They are released on bail the following day, after being charged under the Riotous Assemblies Act, and warned to appear in court on 1 July 1980.

1980 27 May    
The schools boycott spreads to universities and to rural areas and the’ homelands following warnings against political protests, widespread detentions are reported.

1980 28 May    
The schools boycott spreads to the black townships and riot police are in action in Durban and Port Elizabeth. At Elsies River, near Cape Town, police fire on Coloured children, killing two and wounding three.

1980 29 May    
The Republic of South Africa Constitution Fifth Amendment Bill, establishing a framework for deliberations on the country’s future constitutional, economic and social development is introduced into Parliament. The Bill is based closely on the majority recommendations of the Schlebusch Commission.

1980 30 May    
National Security Intelligence and National Security Council Act No 4:

Enacted mechanisms for state security.
Commenced: 30 May 1980

1980 June - July    
A further series of strikes in the motor industry, affecting especially the Volkswagen works at Uitenhage, ends on 14 July with an agreement including a twenty-five percent increase in minimum wages for blacks in the industry.

1980 1 June    
Umkhonto weSizwe strike at the Sasol Complex, causing damage estimated at R66 million.

1980 1 June     The SASOL I fuel plant complex at Sasolburg, fifty miles south of Johannesburg, is attacked. On the same night SASOL II at Secunda suffers an unsuccessful limpet mine explosion which fails to set off fires. Oliver Tambo, President of the ANC, claims that both attacks were made by ANC guerrilla units.

1980 6 June    
Dr. Renfrew Christie, an academic and former student leader from the University of Cape Town, is sentenced to ten years imprisonment, with four other sentences of five years each to run concurrently, after being found guilty on five charges under the Terrorism Act. He is said to have supplied information to the ANC concerning South Africa’s nuclear programme, and to have exposed vital installations to the danger of sabotage.

1980 6 June    
Public Security Further Amendment Act No 20:

Made further amendments regarding the declaration of states of emergency.
Commenced: 6 June 1980

1980 7 June - 8 June    
The South African Black Alliance (SABA) condemns the proposed composition of the President’s Council and the nomination of its members.

1980 11 June    
The Wiehahn Commission publishes its recommendations on the training of black workers, including government- supported training in industrial relations.

1980 12 June    
The government publishes details of proposed legislation under which the Minister of Defence could designate any place, area or installation as a national key point for which adequate security measures would have to be taken.

The Republic of South Africa Constitution Bill receives its third reading. Among its provisions are the abolition of the Senate and the creation of a sixty-member President’s Council comprising Whites, Coloured, Indian and Chinese representatives nominated by the State President for a five-year term. A new office, that of Vice State President, will be created: he will act as chairman of the President’s Council. It is opposed by the PFP principally on the grounds of the exclusion of blacks.

1980 13 June    
Following a meeting 4-13 June 1980, held at the request of the African group, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution strongly condemning South Africa for its massive repression and for its defiance of General Assembly and Security Council resolutions. Inter alia it calls for the release of all political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela.

John Wiley, the leader of the South African Party (SAP), announces that his party is to disband. SAP representatives will retain their seats and join the National Party, thus increasing the NP strength in the House to 136.

1980 13 June    
Security Council adopted resolution 473 (1980), following police violence against a series of demonstrations by students and other groups in South Africa, strongly condemning the South African regime for further aggravating the situation. It called on that regime to end violence against the African people, and take a series of measures to eliminate apartheid and grant equal rights to all South Africans. It urgently called for "the release of all political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela and all other black leaders with whom the regime must deal in any meaningful discussion of the future of the country."

1980 16 June    
The ANC issues a call for the intensification of the liberation struggle on all fronts, but demonstrations on the anniversary of Sharpeville are generally low key.

1980 18 June - 19 June    
Renewed rioting occurs in the Cape. Criminal elements in the Coloured community are blamed. Official figures give twenty-nine dead and 141 injured. Damage to shops and businesses runs into millions of rands.

1980 18 June    
The Netherlands Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favour of an oil embargo on South Africa.

1980 23 June    
The Prime Minister warns the country that confrontation awaits it if his proposed President’s Council fails. Pretoria is prepared to create consultative bodies for Coloured. Indian and Black leaders, but not to accept majority rule as the ultimate end.

1980 25 June    
Helen Joseph, the seventy-five year old political campaigner, is served with a two-year banning order. She is already a ‘listed person’, has had several restrictions previously imposed upon her, as well as being detained and sentenced to imprisonment. She regards her banning order -her fourth - as a - certificate of merit’.

1980 26 June     ANC award Isithwalandwe to Govan Mbeki and Bishop Ambrose Reeves.

1980 26 June    
Zimbabwe’s Prime Minister, Robert Mugabe, announces that he will cut diplomatic ties with South Africa.

1980 July    
Boycotts continue at a number of black high schools and higher primary schools, particularly in the Eastern Cape, with violent disturbances recurring.

1980 July     10 000 Johannesburg municipal workers went on strike.

1980 1 July    
The Chamber of Mines of South Africa announces wage increases of fifteen percent and twenty-eight percent respectively, for black face and surface workers in the gold and coal mining industries.

1980 1 July     Gazankulu: Police Act No 5:
Commenced: 1 July 1981

1980 8 July    
Foreign Minister ‘Pik’ Botha announces that all senior members of the South African diplomatic mission in Salisbury have been withdrawn.

1980 16 July    
The ‘Committee of 81’, representing all Coloured schools and colleges in the Western Cape. decide to end class boycotts.

1980 17 July    
The United States expresses deep concern to the South African Ambassador, Donald Sole, over government and police response to strikes and demonstrations. Mentioned particularly are the pervasive ban on peaceful assembly, widespread detentions without charge or trial, and bannings of moderate leaders of all racial groups.

1980 18 July    
The Nigerian President of the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa (SCSA) states that Britain and other countries maintaining sporting ties with South Africa are toying with the unity of the Commonwealth, African and Caribbean countries, particularly object to the British Lions Rugby Union tour of South Africa that ended on 14 July 1980.

1980 19 July - 20 July    
‘Homeland’ leaders do not necessarily reject the concept of the President’s Council, provided it is revised to include black representation. A similar stance is taken by the Urban Council’s Association of South Africa, speaking for leaders of the officially-recognized community councils in black urban areas.

1980 23 July    
The Prime Minister announces that the government is establishing formal machinery to promote its concept of a ‘constellation of Southern African states’. Dr. Gerhard de Kock, the Finance Ministers Chief Economic Adviser, is appointed co-ordinator of Constellation Affairs to chair a Constellation Committee to examine, inter alia. proposals for a multilateral development bank, industrial decentralization and financial arrangements between participants.

1980 24 July     Strike of 10,000 Johannesburg municipal workers.


1980 30 July    
Following decisions by the ‘Committee of 81’ on 16 July and 30 July 1980 Coloured students suspend their boycott of schools in the Western Cape.

1980 1 August    
A strike by black municipal workers in Johannesburg, ends when police supervise the removal of over 1,000 dismissed men. The Chairman of the unofficial Black Municipal Workers’ Union (BMWU), Joseph Mavi, is arrested and subsequently charged under the Sabotage Act, together with the BMWU Secretary.

1980 1 August     Industrial Conciliation Amendment Act No 95:

Commenced: 1 August 1980
Repealed by the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995.

1980 1 August    
Public Security Amendment Act No 6:

Made further amendments to state security legislation, allowing for greater control by state security mechanisms.
Commenced: 1 August 1980

1980 5 August    
It is reported that the Netherlands government, co-sponsors of the International University Exchange Fund (IUEF) along with the governments of Canada, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, has withdrawn its financial support for the Fund and that Denmark and Norway have also ended their contributions.

The trial begins in Pretoria of nine men accused of having planned the siege of a suburban bank in Pretoria in January, in which five people died, of belonging to the banned ANC and of having undergone military training in Angola.

1980 7 August    
A delegation of the South African Council of Churches meets the Prime Minister and other government leaders, following calls by churchmen for urgent discussions on the causes of unrest in the country. The government undertakes to end all compulsory mass removals.

1980 8 August    
The government abandons the proposal to create a separate black advisory council.

1980 11 August    
After a meeting between P.W. Botha and the leader of the (Coloured) Labour Party and the Freedom Party, the government reportedly abandons its proposals to create a nominated Coloured Persons’ Council (CPC).

1980 15 August    
The offices of a member of the Prime Ministers’ team, responsible for drawing up plans for a Southern African ‘constellation of states’, Professor Jan Lombard, are destroyed at the University of Pretoria. A rightwing group, the Wit Commando later claims responsibility for the bomb attack.

1980 15 August    
Preservation of Good Morals Act No 14:

Dictated segregation similar to that required by South African apartheid laws.
Commenced: 15 August 1980

1980 20 August    
The Prime Minister meets Lesotho’s Chief Leabua Jonathan in an attempt to improve relations between the two countries.

1980 22 August    
Leaders of Port Elizabeth’s black secondary school children, decide to end a four-month boycott of classes. Negotiations have taken place between the local parents’ committee and the Port Elizabeth Students Council (PESCO).

1980 26 August    
Prime Minister P.W. Botha, announces a reorganization of his government, with effect from 7 October, including the appointment of seven new ministers.

1980 27 August    
The government decides to lift the ban on political meetings affecting the main metropolitan areas. Announcing this, Minister of Justice Alwyn Schlebusch, says he will not hesitate to reintroduce the ban if it is necessary to maintain public peace.

1980 1 September    
Dr. Andries P. Treurnicht, Minister of Public Works, Statistics and Tourism, is unanimously re-elected as the National Party’s leader in the Transvaal. As the chief spokesman for the conservative wing he re-affirms that the party will continue to work for independent national groups on a geographical basis.

1980 2 September    
Zimbabwe announces it has severed diplomatic relations with South Africa, but will maintain a trade mission in Johannesburg.

1980 3 September    
African Defence Force (SADF) and Lieutenant-General Jan Geldenhuys as Chief of the Army, with effect from October 1980.

John Wiley, former leader of the South African Party, is elected as National Party member for Simonstown, defeating the PFP candidate by 1,182 votes in an eighty-two per cent poll.

1980 4 September    
At a congress in Bloemfontein, the Prime Minister says that the National Party has to draw together as many people as possible, allowing them to maintain their separate identities, but uniting them in a common front against Marxism.

1980 14 September    
The Council of Unions of South Africa (CUSA) was formed, comprising 9 affiliates.

1980 19 September    
The town of Mafeking is officially surrendered by the Republic of South Africa to the Republic of Bophuthatswana, and upon its transfer changes its name to the African form ‘Mafikeng’.

1980 22 September    
Signs treaty with Zimbabwe for the reciprocal appointment of trade representatives

1980 24 September    
Closure of more than seventy black schools, mainly in the Cape Province. is ordered by the government following five months of boycotts by pupils. Talks with community leaders have failed and incidents of violence continue.

1980 29 September    
The former Secretary for Information, Dr. Eschel Rhoodie, is acquitted by the Bloemfontein Appeal Court of five charges of fraud. His conviction and sentence are set aside.

1980 October    
In October the Media Workers Association of South Africa called for a boycott of all commercial newspapers. MWASA was previously known as the Writers Association of South Africa.

1980 2 October    
The Prime Minister appoints fifty-six members to the President’s Council, comprising forty-one Whites, seven Coloureds, seven Indians, and one Chinese.

1980 3 October    
The leader of the New Republic Party, Vause Raw, states that his party is prepared to give the President’s Council a chance as a start on the road to a negotiated future.

1980 5 October    
Chief Lennox Sebe, Chief Minister of the Ciskei, accepts independence in principle, and wins endorsement for his stand at a rally in Zwelitsha, near East London. He pledges to hold a referendum on the issue.

1980 6 October    
Parliament meets in special session to elect the National Party candidate, Alwyn Schlebusch, as the nation’s first Vice-President. In this role, he will be Chairman of the President’s Council, from 1 January 1981.

1980 17 October    
The Prime Minister, P.W. Botha, concludes a five-day state visit to Taiwan, during which he and his twenty-member delegation meet Taiwan’s Premier and other officials and discuss substantial cooperation in economic and technical projects.

1980 23 October    
In the by-elections at East London North, the seat is won by the conservative NRP, defeating the PFP’s candidate D. John Malcomess who had previously held the seat.

Amendments to loan agreement with Malawi.

1980 28 October     KwaZulu: Labour Amendment Act No 9:
Commenced: 28 November 1980


KwaZulu: Divorce Act No 10:
Commenced: 28 November 1980

1980 31 October    
The draft laws are gazetted providing some benefits for black people. These include greatly increased mobility and security of tenure for blacks qualified to be in white areas. Piet Koornhof claims the proposed Bills are the beginning of a process of normalizing race relations.

1980 3 November    
A nationwide strike is launched by black journalists for increased pay and for recognition of their union, the Media Workers’ Association of South Africa (MWASA).

1980 5 November    
Disturbances break out in the black townships of Port Elizabeth and police open fire on rioting crowds. Tensions rise in the areas.

1980 10 November    
South Africa:Signs multilateral treaty extending the declaration on the provisional accession of Colombia to GAIT.

1980 12 November    
The Minister of (black) Education and Training announces that compulsory education for black children will be introduced in stages, with a first programme beginnning near Pretoria.

1980 13 November    
South Africa’s Medical Association agrees to ask its ethical committee to conduct a public investigation into issues raised by the death of Steve Biko in police custody in November 1977.

1980 26 November    
At the end of the Soekmekaar and Silverton trial in Pretoria, three young black men are found guilty of high treason, as well as of attempted murder and robbery with aggravating circumstances and are sentenced to death. Six others are given prison sentences. The ANC calls on the world community to intervene to save the men.

1980 28 November     Mandela receives the Jawaharlal Nehru Award.

1980 28 November    
At a ceremony at the headquarters of the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva, the ANC President, Oliver Tambo, declared the adherence of the organisation to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Protocol 1 of 1977 on the humanitarian conduct of war.

1980 29 November    
At a National Party rally in Ladysmith (Natal), the Prime Minister restates his policies. The government is not thinking in terms of a union or a federal form of government for all population groups, nor of one man, one vote, but proposes to establish a constellation of states.

1980 10 December    
A new Coloured political movement, the Congress of the People (COPE) is launched in Cape Towns Bellville district.

1980 12 December    
A white extremist group, the ‘Wit Kommando’ claims responsibility for the bombing of the offices of Professor F.A. Maritz at the University of South Africa.

During the thirty-fifth Regular Session, the United Nations General Assembly adopts two resolutions concerning South Africa’s nuclear capacity, requesting the Security Council to prohibit all forms of co-operation with South Africa in the nuclear field and demanding that South Africa submit all its nuclear installations to inspection by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

1980 16 December    
The United Nations General Assembly adopts a total of eighteen resolutions on the situation in South Africa and problems created by the application of the governments apartheid policy.

1980 17 December    
The results of the referendum on the issue of independence for Ciskei, held on 4 December 1981, are announced. They show a decided majority in favour of independence.

1980 23 December    
Four black newspapers, Post Transvaal, Saturday Post, Sunday Post and the Sowetan, are banned on a technicality on the same day that the eight week strike of black journalists ends.

1980 29 December    
Justice Coetzee in the Rand Supreme Court refuses to lift an order barring resumption of publication of four black newspapers. Security police serve three-year banning orders on the President and Vice-President of the black journalists’ trade union, Media Workers of South Africa. A storm of protest erupts, even from the strongly pro-government Afrikaans press.

1981      
Declared the Year of the Youth to pay tribute to the heroism displayed by the youth.

1981      
Fietas, Johannesburg: July Allan, ‘the China Man’, an owner of a sweet shop, is forced to leave Pageview. He moves to a northern suburb of Johannesburg with his sister, Ming, but finds the transition very painful, remarking on the difference in treatment he receives from his new customers, who ridicule him for being Chinese and take products from his shop without paying.

1981      
Fietas, Johannesburg: The Save Pageview Association (SPA) is established, replacing the Pageview Residents Association (PRA), which in turn had replaced the Pageview Traders and Standholders Association after the eviction of traders from Pageview to the Oriental Plaza. Most people have moved to Lenasia, but 67 Indian families still remain in Pageview ‘illegally’. They are all members of the SPA.

1981      
Fietas, Johannesburg: The Pageview mosques come under threat of demolition in order to make way for a highway. The SPA and various Muslim bodies lodge complaints to the City Council of Johannesburg and it is found that, in terms of the ‘protection of religious rights’, buildings on these grounds cannot be demolished.

1981      
The formation of the United Women's Organisation in the western Cape. This became instrumental in the formation of the United Democratic Front (UDF) in 1984.

1981      
KwaNdebele proclaimed a self-governing territory.
Ciskei independence.

1981       The Status of Ciskei Act No 110:

Enabled Ciskei to get its independence.

1981       KwaZulu: Act on the Code of Zulu Law No 6:
Commenced: 29 October 1982

1981      
Commission of Inquiry into Security Legislation
Mandate: To inquire into, report and make recommendations on the necessity, adequacy, fairness and efficacy of legislation pertaining to the internal security of the Republic of South Africa.
Date of Report: 21 November 1981
Chair: RABIE, P.J.
Ref: RP 90-81

1981      
The National Party won the general election by winning 131 of 165 seats in parliament.

The Anti - South African Indian Council Committee and the Transvaal Anti-SAIC Committee were formed to oppose South African Indian Council elections. Less than 20% of registered voters cast ballots, in Fordsburg the percentage poll was 1,75%.

Over fifty organisations banded together to campaign countrywide against the 20th anniversary celebrations of the South African Republic.

Twelve African National Congress members killed when South African armed forces attacked Matola in Mocambique.

At least fourty attacks by ANC insurgents occurred during 1981.

630 people were detained in 1981.

1981      
Just under twenty people were banned in 1981.

The Government-appointed De Lange Commission of Enquiry into Education recommended equal opportunities for education including equal standards for everyone.

A boycott of Wilson-Rowntree sweets was called by the South African Allied Workers Union.

There were 342 strikes affecting 87 189 workers as compared to 1976 where there were 245 strikes affecting 28 013 workers.


1981      
The De Lange Report recommends a single department of education for all South Africans, education of equal quality for all, and a changed schooling structure. It is met with a mixed reception.

1981 1 January     QwaQwa: Special Taxation Act No 8:
Commenced: 1 January 1981

1981 9 January    
Draft legislation is published giving owners and managers of hotels and restaurants the right to admit blacks.

1981 14 January    
Under a proposed amendment to the Population Registration Act South Africans of all races will have their fingerprints taken and recorded on a central fingerprint register. A uniform identity document will be issued to all races.

1981 19 January    
In a referendum organized by King William’s Town municipality, the voting is overwhelmingly against incorporation into the Ciskei. despite a recommendation from the van der Walt Commission on consolidation of the homelands that this he done.

1981 20 January    
The Minister of the Interior informs the Argus Printing and Publishing Company that if it applied for re-registration of the Post newspapers these would be banned because they had aimed at creating a revolutionary climate in South Africa. This decision is widely condemned.

1981 22 January    
Percy Qohoza, who had resigned as editor of the Post papers on 13 January 1981 and left immediately for the United States, says in Washington that in the light of the Minister’s remarks it is difficult to see how a credible newspaper for blacks can ever be created in South Africa.

Student committees decide to end the boycott of black schools, the Congress of South African Students (COSAS) having declared itself in favour of suspending the action in order to ‘regroup forces and formulate a new strategy’.

1981 23 January    
In the House of Assembly, twelve new nominated members are sworn in. They include Professsor Owen Horwood, former Leader of the Senate.

1981 27 January    
A Marine Traffic Bill empowers the Minister of Transport Affairs to order ships to be stopped or searched if they are believed to be carrying drugs or cargo in persons constituting a threat to the sovereignty, integrity or political independence of South Africa. The Bill is passed on 2 February 1981 with the support of all parties.


Former President John Vorster says he has decided to withdraw from politics for family reasons.
The government decides to close The Post and The Sunday Post because they have become media for communist viewpoints.


1981 28 January    
Prime Minister Botha announces that general elections to the House of Assembly and the Provincial Councils will be held on 29 April 1981, on the grounds that seventeen parliamentary and thirteen provincial by-elections are due in the near future. They are to be held eighteen months earlier than is necessary under the Constitution.

The Security Police arrest Major A.M. Kozlov, a senior officer in the Soviet KGB, during his third visit to South Africa in 1980, on charges of spying in South Africa.

Signs loan agreement with Lesotho.

1981 30 January    
The South African Army raids Mozambique and assassinate 12 ANC members.

1981 30 January    
General Constand Viljoen, Chief of the South African Defence Force, announces that earlier in the day a South African commando has attacked and destroyed the planning and control headquarters of the ANC at Matola, Maputo, Mozambique.

1981 30 January    
South African commandos raid Matola, attacking three residences of South African refugees; 12 ANC members were killed and 3 kidnapped. Eleven South Africans were killed.


1981 2 February    
A new black daily paper, promising to expose political ills, appears in Johannesburg. The Sowetan has the same format as the banned Post and Sunday Post and is apparently following the same editorial policies.

1981 3 February    
The President’s Council is formally inaugurated as a policy-advisory, problem-directed, reform-orientated and future-looking body. The new tri-racial Council, consisting of sixty-one nominated White, Coloured and Indian members is the first multi-racial institution of its kind to be established in South Africa.

1981 5 February    
Police announce the arrest of a number of whites in connection with sabotage acts for which the Wit Kommando has claimed responsibility on 15 August 1980 and on 12 December 1980.

1981 6 February    
The government withdraws three controversial Parliamentary Bills relating to freedom of movement of the black population for penetrating revision by a ten-member technical committee headed by Justice Rossouw.

1981 8 February    
Mozambique stresses its continued support for the ANC, in a statement made at the funeral of twelve ANC members killed in the South African raid on Matola, Maputo, on 30 January 1981.

1981 14 February    
President Samora Machel of Mozambique, declares solidarity with the plight of the South African people, as a reaction to the massacre.

1981 14 February    
A new right-wing group Aksie Eie Toekoms (Action for our Own Future) (AET) is founded in Pretoria, mainly by Afrikaner academics. It stands for strict racial segregation at all levels.

1981 20 February    
Prime Minister P.W. Botha announces that the Ciskei will become fully independent on 4 December 1981.

1981 21 February    
The Republic of South Africa Constitution Amendment Bill, providing for the extension of the terms of office of nominated and indirectly elected members of the Assembly, after the dissolution of Parliament and empowering the State President to alter the names of electoral divisions by proclamation, is condemned by the opposition as gerrymandering.

1981 22 February    
The Minister of Manpower Utilisation warns that the government is planning to take a tougher line with the rapidly expanding and increasingly militant black trade unions. The newly established industrial court may be used to discipline certain unions.

The Soviet Union supports Mozambique after the South African raid on Matola by sending two warships to Maputo. More are expected soon.

1981 23 February    
The Prime Minister declares that Soviet threats will not prevent South Africa from attacking ANC bases in Mozambique.

1981 27 February    
The Minister of Police announces the arrest of five further alleged Wit Kommando members.

1981 2 March    
The United Nations General Assembly Credentials Committee rejects the credentials of the South African delegation, by six votes to one

1981 6 March    
The United Nations General Assembly resolution calls on the Security Council to impose comprehensive sanctions against South Africa to compel it to end its illegal occupation of Namibia.

1981 11 March     Govan Mbeki is presented with the Fucik Award.

1981 18 March    
The PAC announces in Dan es Salaam that it has reinstated seventy-two members expelled from the movement in July 1978.

1981 20 March     KwaNdebele proclaimed a self-governing territory.

1981 23 March    
Nominations for the elections close with candidates for the 165 seats in the House of Assembly being nominated as follows: National Party, 155; Progressive Federal Party seventy-seven, Herstigte Nasionale Party, eighty-nine; New Republic Party, thirty-eight; National Conservative Party, nine and Aksie Eie Toekoms, two.

The HNP’s policies are defined by its leader, Jaap Marais: no concessions to the black man; withdrawal of South Africa from the United Nations; no mixing of races in sport, parks, hotels or theatres; a homeland for Coloureds and no political mixing with them and an inflation rate of only two percent.

1981 24 March    
The government announces that it is terminating its preferential trade agreement concluded with Rhodesia in 1964.

1981 25 March    
Dr. C.P. Mulder, speaking for the National Conservative Party (NCP) discloses that his party has reached an understanding with the HNP not to nominate candidates against one another.

The leader of the NRP, Vause Raw, states that the country’s major parties are divided and in disarray and that the NRP could lay the base for a regrouping of moderates.

1981 30 March    
From 1 June 1981, holders of Zimbabwean passports will require visas to enter South Africa. The Zimbabwean government reciprocates amid deteriorating relations in both political and economic spheres.

The Irish government’s efforts to persuade the Irish Rugby Football Union to call off its tour of South Africa fail.

1981 3 April    
The PFP issues its election manifesto, laying emphasis on the party’s aim of caring for the voter, linking the future security and welfare of the whites with the security and welfare of blacks.

1981 6 April    
The Heads of State of Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique and Swaziland meet in Mbabane, to discuss South African military incursions and subversive activities against black Southern African states.

1981 13 April    
The Transkei Legislative Assembly approves a Criminal Law Amendment Bill making it illegal for anyone to publish anything about the Transkei government without ministerial approval.

1981 16 April    
The government seizes the passport of Bishop Desmond Tutu, the Anglican General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches, apparently because of his speeches made in the United States in March 1981.

1981 17 April    
The government announces that King William’s Town will not be handed over to the Ciskei at independence.

1981 20 April - 21 April    
A bomb explosion during the night at a power station near Durban, causes an extensive blackout and temporarily paralyzes industry in the area. It is attributed to members of the ANC.

1981 29 April    
The elections result in the return to power, with a slightly reduced majority, of the National Party and notable gains for the opposition Progressive Federal Party. Right-wing opposition groups, led by the HNP, more than quintriple their votes, but gain no seats.

1981 30 April    
The Prime Minister warns neighbouring states against supporting ‘terrorist’ movement operations from their territories, but re-iterates that he is ready to conclude non-aggression pacts with them.

1981 May    
Police make more than seventy arrests at student and trade union demonstrations, protesting against official celebrations marking the twentieth anniversary of the founding of the Republic of South Africa.

1981 8 May    
Relations between Zimbabwe and South Africa deteriorate further when the Minister of Police, L. le Grange, threatens retaliatory action if Robert Mugabe persists in supporting the ANC.

1981 12 May     P.W. Botha is re-elected as National Party leader.

1981 14 May    
The United Nations General Assembly publishes a roster of sixty-five multi-national companies supposedly in ‘criminal collaboration’ with South Africa and a blacklist of some 270 sportsmen and women who have furthered sports contacts with South Africa. This publication was subsequently updated.

1981 15 May    
First register of sports contacts with South Africa published by the Special Committee against Apartheid.

1981 20 May - 27 May    
International Conference on Sanctions against South Africa organised by the United Nations, in cooperation with the OAU, at UNESCO House, Paris.

1981 22 May    
The Minister of National Education has approved amendments to certain Acts, to encourage the normalization of sports relations.

1981 25 May - 27 May    
There are several sabotage attacks - in Soweto, on the Natal coast, East London and in Durban - for which the ANC claim responsibility.

1981 30 May    
State President M. Viljoen describes the twenty years since South Africa became a Republic as a ‘golden era’ during which the country has experienced phenomenal growth and development in the economic, industrial, scientific and technological fields.

1981 31 May    
Nation-wide protests and boycotts of the celebration of 20 years of the South African Republic.

1981 June    
A nationwide campaign to reject the so-called “Republic celebrations” is launched. Mass detentions and banning follow.

1981 1 June    
Festivities to mark the twentieth anniversary of the South African Republic reach a climax with a massive military display in Durban, attended by P.W. Botha, the Prime Minister.

Three offices of the PFP are petrol-bombed in Johannesburg. Responsibility is claimed by the South African Liberation Support Cadre (SALSC).

1981 3 June    
Rioting breaks out in the Coloured townships south-west of Johannesburg. A class boycott and arrests follow.

1981 11 June    
Lesotho and South Africa decide to establish a consultative committee to resolve misunderstandings arising from the movement of people across their common border.

1981 15 June    
In two separate statements, the ANC and the UN Committee Against Apartheid call for a more concerted and intensified effort from the international community to bring about change in South Africa.

Six South African members of the PAC are sentenced to fifteen years’ imprisonment, by the Tanzanian High Court, for the killing in Dar es Salaam of David Sibeko, PAC representative at the United Nations.

1981 16 June    
On the anniversary of the Soweto uprising, police and troops cordon off Soweto and other black townships in the Johannesburg and Pretoria areas, stopping and searching all vehicles. Sporadic clashes occur near the Regina Mundi Roman Catholic Church in Soweto.

1981 18 June    
ILO General Conference in Geneva condemned apartheid as degrading, criminal and inhuman, and decided to give ILO assistance to South African liberation movements. It set up a permanent conference committee to monitor South Africa’s racial policies and approved ILO technical assistance to liberation movements through a voluntary fund.

1981 18 June    
ILO General Conference in Geneva condemned apartheid as degrading, criminal and inhuman, and decided to give ILO assistance to South African liberation movements. It set up a permanent conference committee to monitor South Africa’s racial policies and approved ILO technical assistance to liberation movements through a voluntary fund.

1981 21 June    
Police confirm the capture of eight leaders of the Nigeria-based South African Youth Revolutionary Council (SAYRCO).

1981 30 June    
Zwelakbe Sisulu, President of the Black Media Workers Association of South Africa, and son of Walter Sisulu, is arrested under security laws that provide for unlimited detention without trial.

The campaign against dissident South African students continues with the banning of three more students immediately after the serving of restriction orders on Andrew Boraine, President of the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) and son of opposition M.P., Dr. Alex Boraine.

1981 1 July     KwaNdebele: Public Services Act No 3:
Commenced: 1 July 1981

1981 16 July     Joe Gqabi assassinated in Salisbury.

1981 17 July    
The Government Gazette announces an extension to the provisions of the 1964 Tear Gas Act to widen the range of those empowered to use tear gas.

1981 21 July    
Explosions occur at two electrical power stations in the Eastern Transvaal. Responsibility is claimed by the ANC’s military wing Umkhonto We Sizwe.

1981 31 July    
The first person to be banned under the 1976 Internal Security Act, Fatima Meer, is banned again for a further five years.

1981 1 August    
For the sixth time in eight months, a leader of the Media Workers’ Association of South Africa (MWASA) is banned. Its Acting President and senior reporter on the East London Daily Dispatch, is served with a two-and-a-half year banning and house arrest under the Internal Security Act.

1981 9 August    
International Day of Solidarity with the Struggle of Women of South Africa and Namibia was observed for the first time, on the 25th anniversary of the demonstration of South African women against pass laws.


1981 9 August    
International Day of Solidarity with the Struggle of Women of South Africa and Namibia observed for the first time, on the 25th anniversary of the demonstration of South African women against pass laws.


1981 12 August    
A rocket attack is launched on the Voortrekkerhoogte military area near Pretoria, which leads to the larger black townships in the Pretoria- Johannesburg area being

1981 12 August    
Four rockets exploded in Voortrekkerhoogte, a large military base in a suburb of Pretoria. The ANC claimed responsibility.


1981 14 August    
Co-operation and Development Minister, Piet Koornhof, states that uncontrolled squatting cannot. be tolerated, and will not be allowed in the interests of the squatters themselves... No squatting will be allowed on the relevant site in Nyanga.

1981 18 August    
Deadlock is reached between the Peninsula Administration Board and the Nyanga squatters.

Three black men are found guilty of high treason and of having been involved in the sabotage of SASOL fuel installations and the attack on Booysens Police Station. They are sentenced to death, with appeals being lodged on their behalf.

1981 19 August    
A mass arrest of 2,000 Nyanaga squatters is carried out, under immigration legislation allowing summary deportation. They are to be charged under the Admission of Persons to the Republic Regulation Act of 1972.

1981 20 August    
Mass protests in Cape Town over the enforced removal from Nyanga camp are followed by widespread criticism both within and without South Africa.

South Africa bans three white Zimbabweans from visiting South Africa and addressing members of the University of Cape Town

1981 25 August    
Confrontation between South Africa and Transkei over the deportation and return to Transkei of squatters from the Cape Town area.

1981 September     South African troops occupied a large area in southern Angola.

1981 22 September    
The Broederbond reverses its 1972 decision to expel HNP members from its ranks. This is interpreted as confirmation of growing Afrikaner discontent over P.W. Botha’s ‘enlightened approach’ to racial matters.

1981 23 September    
The Rand Supreme Court rules that blacks from the homelands can establish the right to reside permanently in towns in white South Africa.

1981 24 September    
In the first post-independence election in Transkei, the ruling Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP) is returned to power winning virtually all seventy-five elected seats.

1981 30 September    
The sixth and final report of the Wiehahn Commission, inquiring into labour legislation, is tabled in Parliament. Dealing with the mining industry, its main recommendation is that Blacks as well as Whiles and Coloured workers should be issued with blasting certificates.

1981 October    
Early October. A separate alliance of right-wing parties is formed, comprising the National Conservative Party (NCP) and the Aksie Eie Toekoms (AET) together with the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) or Afrikaner Resistance Movement, led by Eugene Terre’blanche, and the Kappie Kommando, an organization of Afrikaner women.

1981 2 October     KwaZulu: Police Amendment Act No 11:
Commenced: 2 October 1981

1981 6 October    
Dr. D. de Villers wins the Piketberg, Western Cape, seat for the National Party with a slightly reduced majority.

1981 8 October    
Equal education for all races, including a provision that will allow white government schools to admit blacks, is proposed in the Human Sciences Research Council, Committee report, chaired by Professor J.P. de Lange. Eleven guiding principles are laid down.

1981 11 October    
In a provisional White Paper on the De Lange education report, the government reaffirms its commitment to the policy of separate education departments.

1981 16 October    
The Status of Ciskei Bill is signed by the State President, having been opposed at all stages by the opposition parties. It confers Ciskei citizenship on approximately two million Xhosa people, of whom about half live permanently outside Ciskei’s borders.

1981 23 October    
President Kaiser Matanzima of Transkei announces his intention to retire from the Presidency in February 1982, to devote more time to tribal and family affairs. By April 1982 this has not happened.

1981 26 October    
The ANC claims responsibility for an attack on a police station at Sibasa, near the capital of Venda, Thohoyandou. Nevertheless the Venda government charge three ministers of the Lutheran Church with murder.

The South African Indian Council requests the Prime Minister to reverse the Cabinet’s decision not to return Pageview and District Six to their respective Indian and Coloured communities. The Prime Minister refuses this request and a massive boycott of the Indian elections follow.

1981 November     Tshifiwe Muofhe died in detention in November.

1981 1 November    
A new Labour Relations Amendment Act becomes effective, banning only links between unions and political parties.

1981 1 November    
Labour Relations Amendment Act No 57:

Redefined ‘employee’ to cover all black workers, including local and foreign migrants and commuters (SRR 1981: 202). The Act deleted the 1956 provision which prohibited the establishment of new unions (SRR 1981: 203). It gave black workers the right to organise and abolished job reservation. However, it clamped down on unions’ involvement in politics by, for example, prohibiting any union, federation or employers’ organisation from giving financial assistance to a person involved in an illegal strike (SRR 1981: 203-4). Union headquarters could not be established in independent states (SRR 1981: 203). This Act repealed the 1953 Black Labour Relations Regulation Act which provided for works and liaison committees, and replaced these with works councils (SRR 1981: 203).
Commenced: 1 November 1981, excluding the provisions of s 21(b): 1 November 1982 and s 63(1): 1 March 1982
Repealed by the Labour Relations Act No 66 of 1995.

1981 3 November    
The government appoints a judicial Commision of Inquiry, under the chairmanship of Justice C.F. Eloff, to investigate the inception, development, objects, history and activities of the South African Council of Churches (SACC), as well as organizations and people giving money or assets to the Council.

1981 4 November    
The first elections to the South African Indian Council are held. Of the SAIC’s forty-five members, forty are up for election, five being nominated, but only 10.5 per cent of the electorate vote.

1981 4 November     Elections to the South African Indian Council were boycotted by over.

1981 19 November    
Mr. Griffith Mxenge, member of ANC and prominent lawyer, assassinated.

1981 20 November    
A total of eighty-two agreements between South Africa and Ciskei are signed in Cape Town by Chief Sebe and the Prime Minister and other Cabinet Ministers.

Signs multilateral agreement on the control of pollution of water resources in the South African region.

1981 25 November    
Forty-five mercenaries from South Africa landed in Seychelles, attacked the airport and caused heavy damage. Those who were not captured and detained by Seychelles security forces fled by hijacking an Air India plane which they diverted to South Africa.

1981 December    
Fietas, Johannesburg: Officials of the Department of Community Development hand eviction notices to the remaining 67 families in Pageview. This means that they have to evacuate the premises or be forcibly removed. The families lodge an application before the Rand Supreme Court to restrain the Department of Community Development from evicting them from their homes. Pending the decision of the court the families are allowed to stay.

1981 December     The Ciskei became an independent homeland' in December.

1981 3 December    
Ciskei becomes the fourth black ‘homeland’ to be granted independence. Chief Sebe is elected President by the National Assembly, consisting of both elected members and thirty-seven hereditary chiefs.

1981 4 December     The bantustan of Ciskei was proclaimed "independent".


1981 4 December     Ciskei becomes an independent homeland.

1981 10 December    
The Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid was established in Paris with the support of the Special Committee against Apartheid.

1981 10 December    
Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid established in Paris with the support of the Special Committee against Apartheid.

1981 14 December    
Ciskei accepts independence. Chief Lennox Sebe becomes its first president.

1981 29 December    
Winnie Mandela is banned for a further five years and continues to be restricted to the small town of Brandfort.

1982       South African army raids Maseru, Lesotho, killing 42 people.

1982      
The bombing of South Africa's only nuclear power station at Koeberg, outside Cape Town, took place on 18 December 1982.

1982      
Fietas, Johannesburg: White’ people receive leases to their first homes in primarily the southern part of Pageview. By the end of the year they start moving in.

1982      
Security Police continue to take measures including detentions and banning orders against students, journalists, clerics, black leaders, and a British citizen Steven Kitson. Guerrilla activity by the ANC increases markedly.

1982      
International Year of Mobilisation for Sanctions against South Africa [proclaimed by the General Assembly in resolutin 36172B of 17 December 1981].

1982      
International Year of Mobilization for Sanctions against South Africa.

OAU crisis over dispute concerning admission of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.

1982      
Black Local Authorities Act No 102:

Provided for the establishment of local communities, village councils and town councils for blacks in certain areas.
Commenced: 1 August 1983
Repealed by the Local Government Transition Act No 209 of 1993

1982      
The Ciskei National Assembly amends its Constitution so that no law in effect in the territory can be declared invalid by any court of law on the grounds that it contravenes fundamental human rights.

1982       Labour Act No 18:

Enacted labour legislation similar to that of South Africa.
Commenced: 29 April 1983

1982      
Gazankulu: Business and Trading Undertakings Amendment Act No 7:
Commenced: 1 April 1983

1982       KwaZulu: Marriage Amendment Act No 9:
Commenced: 25 February 1983

1982      
Commission of Inquiry into the Monetary System and Monetary Policy in South Africa
Mandate: To inquire into and report on the oversight on the monetary system and the monetary policy in South Africa.
Date of Report: November 1982
Chair: DE KOCK, G.P.C.
Ref: RP 93/1982

Commission of Inquiry into the Mass Media
Mandate: To continue with and build on the work of the Van Zijl Commission (1950-64), the Commission of Inquiry on Security Matters regarding the Defence Force and the Police Force (1979-80) and the Meyer Commission (1969-71), which investigated the desirability of establishing a television service.
Date of Report: 1982
Chair: STEYN, M.T.
Ref: RP 89/1981 ( 3 vol. )


1982       In the Western Cape two federations of civic associations were formed. They were the Cape Areas Housing Action Committee and the Federation of Cape Civics.

The National Union of Mine-workers was formed.

Membership of FOSATU passed the 100 000 mark.

The International Security Act of 1982 replaced the International Security Act of 1950, the Suppression of Communism Act of 1953, the Riotous .Assemblies Act of 1956, and sections of the General Laws Amendments. The Act served to consolidate all security legislation. Other security legislation passed were the Protection of Information Act, Intimidation Act, and the Demonstrations in or near Court Buildings Prohibition Act.

264 people were detained.

1982      
85 people were restricted under the Internal Security Act.

87 people were either refused passports or had them withdrawn.

Sporadic boycotting of schools and universities continued.

1982      
Barbara Hogan is arrested for High Treason,and sentenced to ten years imprisonment for belonging to banned organization, ANC.

(Dorothy Nyembe awarded Soviet Union’s People’s Friendship Award.

Ruth First is killed by a letter bomb in Maputo.

1982 5 January    
The forty-five mercenaries alleged to have commandeered an Air India Boeing and forced it to fly to Durban, after attempting a coup in the Seychelles in November 1981, appear in magistrates’ courts in five South African cities. They are all to go on trial in South Africa.

1982 7 January    
The Acting General Secretary of the Lutheran Church in South Africa claims that in addition to four ministers detained in Venda, T. Muofhe, a Lutheran elder, has died in custody. Brigadier T.R. Malandzi, head of Venda’s National Force confirms this.

1982 8 January    
The ANC President, Oliver Tambo, declares, at a gathering in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, celebrating the seventieth anniversary of the founding of the ANC, that under the slogan ‘Unity in Action’ that 1982 will be a year of massive actions against the apartheid system.

1982 11 January    
The United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid launches the International Year of Mobilisation for Sanctions against South Africa.

1982 21 January    
A spokesman for the Lutheran World Federation, meeting in emergency session in Geneva, says there are now twenty-one people detained in Venda, two of whom are believed to have ‘died of torture’. Attempts by the President of the South African Council of Churches, the Reverend Peter Storey and Bishop Tutu, to visit the detained clergymen are frustrated and they are expelled from Venda.

1982 February    
Fietas, Johannesburg: The Department of Community Development starts digging up roads and trenches around the remaining residents of Pageview’s houses. This results in further court cases after which the trenches had to be moved. This period is referred to as the ‘siege of Pageview’.

1982 February     In February Nell Aggett died in detention.

1982 1 February    
The official Commission of Inquiry into the media, appointed in June 1980, under the chairmanship of Justice M. Steyn, tables its report. It recommends that a general council of journalists should be established by law to regulate entry into the profession and sit in judgement on journalists accused of violating a statutory code of conduct. The report’s findings and recommendations are widely opposed.

1982 3 February    
The six-man Commission of Inquiry into security legislation, under the chairmanship of Justice P.1. Rabie, presents its report and recommendations. It suggests that a Ministry of Law and Order be established with two separate components of Police, and a Directorate of Internal Security.

The Venda Attorney General announces he has ordered an inquiry into the death of Mr. Muffle to be held in the Sibasa Magistrate’s Court in May.

Three draft Bills revising and streamlining South Africa’s security laws are placed before Parliament, their object being to regroup and consolidate more than thirty existing security laws. The proposed legislation consists of: (i) an Internal Security Bill, to deal with the four redefined offences of terrorism’, subversion’, sabotage’ and ‘communism’; (ii) a Protection of Information Bill to replace the existing Official Secrets Act; and (iii) a Bill to combat a new offence of intimidation. These embody the recommendations of the Rabie Commission.

1982 5 February    
Dr. Neil Aggett, acting Transvaal Regional Secretary of the African Food and Canning Workers’ Union (AFCWU) is found dead in his cell at the Security Police Headquarters in John Vorster Square, Johannesburg, having been detained, along with several other Trade Union leaders on 27 November 1981. Widespread concern and condemnation, both external and internal, follow. He is said to be the forty-sixth person to have died in Security Police custody since 1963.

Signs treaty with Taiwan concerning cooperation in agricultural science and technology.

1982 5 February    
Dr. Neil Aggett, a trade union leader, died in detention. He was the first white to die in detention.

1982 11 February    
A call for a thirty minute work stoppage, in protest against the death of Dr. Aggett, is supported by virtually all independent black unions, and tens of thousands of workers. Outrage at his death cuts across racial lines, with white opposition politicians, lawyers, academics and churchmen leading demands for the end of prolonged detention without trial in solitary detention and the intolerable pressures it creates.

1982 11 February    
More than 85,000 workers all over South Africa participated in a 30-minute work stoppage in protest against the death in detention of Dr. Aggett, and 5,000 persons attended his funeral two days later in Johannesburg.

1982 16 February    
The Prime Minister confirms that the government accepts the Rabie Commission on security legislation recommendations, although these are criticized by the legal profession and politicians.

1982 17 February     South Africa:Signs security agreement with Swaziland.

1982 18 February    
Botswana accuses South Africa of kidnapping a former Soweto student leader, Peter Lengene, from Gaborone and transporting him to South Africa. The Minister of Police confirms his presence in South Africa.

1982 19 February    
The Minister of Justice, Kobie Coetsee, announces that the most comprehensive and intensive investigation is being carried out into the death in detention of Dr. Neil Aggett. A formal inquest will be held soon.

1982 20 February    
Prime Minister P.W. Botha describes the National Party policy of inter-racial consultation and joint responsibility, as ‘a form of power-sharing’. He expects that every Cabinet Minister will submit to this statement.

1982 24 February    
Twenty-two Members of Parliament refuse to support a motion of confidence in Prime Minister P.W. Botha at a National Party Parliamentary caucus meeting. The Prime Minister gives them eight days to decide whether they wish to remain in the Party: they must recant by 11 am. on 3 March 1982.

1982 25 February    
Louis Ie Grange, Minister of Police and Prisons, states in the House of Assembly that twenty-one trade unionists have been detained since the beginning of 1981, of whom ten have been released without charge and ten are still being held.

1982 28 February    
More than 200 of the Transvaal National Party vote on either Dr. Treurnicht or Mr. Botha’s interpretation of Party policy. The vote is 172 to thirty-six votes in favour of the Prime Minister. Dr. A. Treurnicht is immediately suspended as the Transvaal Party chairman.

1982 March    
Walter Sisulu, Raymond Mhlaba and Andrew Mlangeni and Nelson Mandela moved to Pollsmoor Prison. A few months later they are joined by Ahmed Kathrada.

1982 March    
In March, fifteen National Party members broke away to form the Conservative Party.

1982 2 March    
The inquest into Dr. Aggett’s death begins, and is immediately adjourned for six weeks, to allow further investigation.

Dr. Andries Treurnicht resigns as Minister of State Administration and of Statistics and announces the formation of the Conservative Party. It becomes the third largest Parliamentary group with sixteen Members of Parliament.

1982 3 March    
In municipal and rural council elections in the Transvaal the National Party is still dominant, but loses ground to both the left and the right. The Herstigte Nasionale Party is elected to public office for the first time, winning six of Pretoria’s thirty-six seats.

1982 6 March    
F.W. de Klerk, Minister of Mineral and Energy Affairs, is unanimously elected the new leader of the Transvaal National Party.

1982 7 March    
Six Front Line States meet in Maputo and decide to coordinate further their military and economic policies to counter South Africa’s economic and military aggression.

The Commission of Inquiry into the constitutional, political, economic and social development of KwaZulu,Natal set up by Chief Buthelezi in August 1980, publishes its report. Its central recommendation - that Natal should be merged with the KwaZulu ‘homeland’ to form a new multi-racial regional administration - is rejected by the government.

1982 9 March    
Venda Advisory Council Act No 8:

Provided for a state advisory council to dictate state policy.
Commenced: 9 March 1982


1982 10 March    
Over fifty squatters begin a hunger strike in St. George’s Cathedral, Cape Town, protesting against evictions from Nyanga squatter camp. The strike ends on 1 April 1982 after a meeting with Dr. P. Koornhof.

The trial begins in the Natal Supreme Court of the mercenaries accused of hijacking an airliner to flee from the Seychelles after a failed coup on 25-26 November 1981.

1982 11 March    
Chief Gatsha Buthelezi maintains that majority rule, tempered by safeguards for whites and other minorities, offers the only realistic alternative to deepening confrontation.

Two former Soweto student leaders, K. Seathlolo and Mary Loate, are sentenced to fifteen and ten years’ imprisonment under the Terrorism Act.

1982 14 March    
A bomb wrecks the ANC offices in Islington, London, shortly before the beginning of a mass rally organized by the Anti-Apartheid Movement.

In a radio and television interview, Prime Minister P.W. Botha, sets out the principles on which he is leading the government towards a new Constitutional dispensation.

1982 14 March     London office of ANC bombed.

1982 15 March    
Evidence of the government’s complicity in the abortive coup plot against the Seychelles’ Socialist government, is taken in camera.

1982 18 March    
The Preferential Trade Agreement with Zimbabwe, due to expire next week, has been extended.

1982 20 March    
At a meeting in Pretoria, attended by some 7,000 to 8,000 people, the Conservative Party of South Africa (CPSA) is launched. It brings together, in alliance with Dr. Treurnicht and the National Party rebels, the National Conservative Party (NCP or Nasionale Konservatiewe Party) and the Aksie Eie Toekoms (AET). It outlines fifteen guiding principles, of which the most important is that every group should have its own political structure and authority.

1982 20 March    
A powerful bomb at 2:05 am destroyed the cells behind the Langa Commissioner's Court in Cape Town where thousands of pass law
offenders are sentenced. The blast caused widespread damage in the office which houses personal files on Africans in the Western Cape.
It was apparently part of ANC campaign aimed at creating confusion in the apartheid administration by destroying records of blacks.
It took place on the eve of the anniversary of the Sharpeville massacre. No one was injured.

1982 21 March    
Declaration by about 1,500 Mayors calling for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African political prisoners published by the Special Committee against Apartheid. (The Declaration was initiated by the Lord Provost of Glasgow, the Right Honourable Mr. David Kelly, with the support of the Special Committee.


1982 21 March    
Declaration by about 1,500 Mayors calling for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African political prisoners published by the Special Committee against Apartheid. (The Declaration was initiated by the Lord Provost of Glasgow, the Right Honourable Mr. David Kelly, with the support of the Special Committee against Apartheid).

1982 23 March    
South Africa is to expand its military call-up to include all white men aged between seventeen and sixty-five, almost doubling the size of its forces. Commando units are to be strengthened.

1982 24 March    
The United Nations Security Council Commission of Inquiry, investigating the abortive Seychelles coup, fails to reach a definitive conclusion on the extent or level of South African knowledge or responsibility.

1982 25 March    
In announcing the 1982 Defence Budget, Owen Horwood reaffirms that the government’s highest priority remains that of giving South Africa an effective defence capability and a self-sufficient arms industry.

1982 25 March - 20 April    
The Seychelles coup trial is adjourned to allow the defence and prosecution to go to the Seychelles to hear key witnesses.

1982 26 March    
Eight political detainees are released. They will all appear as state witnesses in the ‘Barbara Hogan case’ on 30 April 1982.

1982 28 March    
ARMSCOR’s Chairman announces that South Africa has produced a world-beating 155-millimetre artillery system - the G5 gun.

1982 April     Siphiwo Mtimkhulu of COSAS disappeared in April, 1982.

1982 1 April    
Nelson Mandela and three other ANC leaders were moved from Robben Island to Pollsmoor prison.

1982 8 April    
The Bloemfontein Appeal Court turns down appeals by three ANC members sentenced to death in November 1980.

1982 13 April    
The inquest into Dr. Aggett’s death reopens, and it is argued that he met his death by ‘induced suicide’.

1982 14 April - 16 April    
A special Commission, empowered by the Supreme Court, hears evidence in Victoria, Seychelles, relating to happenings at the airport during the attempted Seychelles coup.

1982 15 April    
The main provisions of the Constitutional Amendment Bill give rise to speculation that Coloured and Indians are to be appointed to senior government posts.

1982 21 April    
A Group Areas Amendment Bill introduced on 7 March 1982 and enacted on 21 April, maintains the existing commitment to the principle of separate residential areas, schools and amenities for different races, but excludes sports from its provisions.

1982 30 April    
President Kaunda of Zambia meets the Prime Minister, P.W. Botha on the Botswana border to discuss the political situation in Namibia and South Africa. This is the first meeting between any leader of a Front Line State and a South African premier since the Victoria Falls meeting between B.J. Vorster and President Kaunda on 25-26 August 1976.

1982 6 May    
Three leaders of the black South African Allied Workers’ Union (SAAWU) are charged under the Terrorism Act. They are remanded in custody until 28 May and their names added to the pending ‘Barbara Hogan trial’.

1982 11 May    
The leader of the Herstigte Nasionale Party, Jaap Marais, is charged in the Pretoria Regional Court with disclosing secret information on the country’s oil supplies.

The Prime Minister announces that eight very important Western intelligence agents, held by the Soviet Union, and one South African soldier, held in Angola, have been exchanged somewhere in Europe for Major AM. Kozlov, a senior Soviet intelligence officer arrested in South Africa in July 1980.

1982 12 May    
The multiracial President’s Council presents its recommendations for a reform of the constitutional and political system. Its principal proposal is that a degree of power-sharing between the White, Coloured and Indian communities should be introduced at central government level. The Black community is specifically excluded, except at local government level. The proposals are rejected by Black leaders and criticized by both wings of the opposition.


1982 12 May    
A powerful bomb damaged the office of the West Rand Administration Board in Meadowlands, Soweto, at 7:00 pm. No one was injured.


1982 21 May    
A full bench of eleven judges of the Appeal Court upholds an appeal against a conviction under the Terrorism Act, on the grounds that the Act is inconsistent with Bophuthatswana’s Declaration of Fundamental Rights enshrined in it’s Constitution and based on the European Convention on Human Rights.

1982 22 May    
The Intimidation Act specifies that it is an offence to assault or threaten any person in order to compel or induce that person ‘to do or to abstain from doing any act or to assume or to abandon a particular standpoint’.

1982 24 May - 26 May    
Asian Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Manila, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Government of the Philippines.

1982 24 May - 26 May    
Asian Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Manila, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with the Government of the Philippines.

1982 1 June    
The inquest into Dr. Aggett’s death is adjourned for the third time when police object to the use, as evidence, of a statement made by Neil Aggett fourteen hours before his death, in which he declares under oath, that he has been assaulted and tortured.

1982 2 June    
The State President commutes the death sentences on three black men, for their part in the attack on the Soekmekaar Police Station in 1980, to life imprisonment.

1982 2 June     Intimidation Act No 72:

Repealed s 10-15 of the Riotous Assemblies Act No 17 of 1956.
Commenced: 2 June 1982

1982 2 June    
Internal Security Act No 74:

Following the recommendations of the Rabie Commission of Inquiry, this Act provided for the following:
• Sections 4 and 6: Banning of organisations, if the Minister had reason to believe than an organisation was using, encouraging, or threatening violence or disturbance in order to overthrow or challenge state authority or bring about change.
•Sections 5 and15: Banning of publications.
•Sections 19(1) and 20: Banning of people, including confinement to a particular district, prohibition from attending any kind of meeting and prevention from being quoted. Also provided for house arrest.
•Section 28: Indefinite preventive detention.
•Section 29: Indefinite detention for interrogation. Detainees were held in solitary confinement.
• Section 29(2): The validity of a detention order was not subject to court challenge.
•Section 31: Detention of potential witnesses for not longer than six months or for the duration of a trial.
•Section 30: Empowerment of the Attorney-General to order that prisoners arrested be refused bail.
•Section 50: Fourteen-day preventive detention. A low-ranking police officer could detain a person deemed to be threatening public safety. For the detention to be extended beyond fourteen days, a magistrate’s permission was required.
•Sections 46-53: Prohibition of meetings.
•Section 54: Redefinition of ‘communism’ to include campaigns of civil disobedience and creation of racial hostility between European and non-European races of the Republic (SRR 1982: 222). This definition was removed by the 1991 Internal Security and Intimidation Amendment Act.
•Section 54(2): Proscription of such activities as the promotion of ‘general dislocation’ or the causing of ‘prejudice or interruption’ to an industry or undertaking ‘with the purpose of effecting social, political, constitutional, industrial or economic change’.
• Section 56(1): A ban on the publication or dissemination of any stateme made by a listed person, except with the permission of the Minister of Law and Order.
•Section 62: Prohibition of actions causing, encouraging or fomenting feelings of hostility between different population groups.
Commenced: 2 July 1982
IN FORCE: CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE.

1982 3 June    
The Protection of Information Act is given Presidential Assent. Under threat ofre this might endanger state security.

Revised figures for the Defence Budget indicate the funds available to the South African Defence Force have been increased to R3,068 million.

1982 4 June    
A senior ANC member, P. Nyaose and his wife, are killed by a car bomb in Swaziland. Their deaths are blamed on the South African government by Alfred Nzo, the ANC Secretary-General.

The Supreme Court rules that the statement of Neil Aggett is admissable as evidence. heavy penalties the Act implicitly places the onus on the press not to publish reports of a detention whe

1982 4 June    
A bomb exploded in the elevator of the building in the centre of Cape Town which houses the President's Council. One man was killed. According to Security Police, 60 attacks by insurgents belonging to the ANC were recorded last year. That number compares with 19 in 1980 and 12 in 1979.

1982 5 June    
The Commission of Police reports a wave of bomb attacks on major installations, buildings used by government departments
and quasi-government organisations.

Prime Minister P.W. Botha persuades a combined gathering of the Provincial and Parliamentary caucuses of the National Party to accept the new constitutional proposals.

The inquest into the death of Dr. Neil Aggett reopens after a seven week break.

1982 10 June    
The newspaper proprietors and editors of all the main South African newspapers, both English and Afrikaans, unanimously opposed to the government’s planned legislation, decide at an emergency meeting in Johannesburg to establish a media council which will operate independently from the State.

1982 14 June    
Albertina Sisulu, wife of ANC leader, Walter Sisulu is placed under a banning order for the fifth time since 1963.

The Minister of Cooperation and Development, Dr. Piet Koornhof, announces in the KwaZulu Legislative Assembly in Ulundi, that the KaNgwane national state and the lngwavuma district in the north of KwaZulu are to be incorporated into the Kingdom of Swaziland. This Cabinet decision is strongly opposed. Outrage is expressed not only by the governments of KwaZulu, KaNgwane and ‘homeland’ leaders but by all four opposition parties.

1982 16 June    
An ANC spokesman in Lusaka calls for increased participation by white sympathizers in the black emancipation struggle.

On the anniversary of the Soweto uprising, police bar forty-seven local and overseas journalists from entering Soweto and tear gas is later fired to disperse crowds at the Regina Mundi Cathedral.

1982 17 June    
Dr. Koornbof defends the proposed border adjustment between Natal and Swaziland as ‘a step towards the fullfslment of a long-cherished ideal of the Swazi people... to be united under one king in one country’.

1982 18 June    
The Government Gazette publishes a Proclamation by which the forty-two member KaNgwane Legislative Assembly is dissolved, and, together with the Ingwavuma district, placed under the direct control of the Department of Cooperation and Development, despite the opposition of the great majority of the Legislative Assembly.

1982 20 June    
The Swaziland government welcomes South Africa’s offer to hand over parts of KaNgwane and KwaZulu to Swaziland, since, it claims the territory is historically Swazi.

1982 23 June    
A Defence Amendment Bill provides for a re-organization of the defence system intended to give the South African Defence Force (SADF) adequate manpower to deal with almost every conceivable threat, internal or external, but as flexibly as possible so as to ensure the minimum of disruption to normal life.

1982 24 June    
The police confirm that three leading members of the black journalist trade union, the Media Workers Association of South Africa have been arrested and detained under the General Laws Amendment Act.

1982 25 June    
The Durban Supreme Court cancels the state’s announcement of 18 June 1982 that it has repossessed the Ingwavuma region of KwaZulu, on the grounds that the government did not meet its legal obligation to consult fully with the KwaZulu authorities before making its announcement. The State President responds by issuing a new Proclamation, under a different law, once again placing Ingwavuma under government control.

1982 29 June    
After the Court is told by the Head of Interrogation at John Vorster Square, Major Arthur Cronwright, that the Security Police have withheld statements by Dr. Aggett because they contain secret information relating to the Communist Party, and that he had given permission for Dr. Aggett to be interrogated for a sixty-two hour period, the inquest is adjourned until 20 September 1982.

Libya, as chairman of the OAU, supports Swaziland’s claims to South African territory. Its Foreign Minister outlines Libya’s position during a visit to Mbabane, at the end of June.

1982 30 June    
The Provincial Council of Natal passes at a special sitting, a resolution urging the government to hold a referendum in Natal and in the Ingwavuma region of KwaZulu on the proposed land deal. The government has also been challenged to hold a referendum by Enos Mabuza, former Chief Minister of KaNgwane.

1982 July    
Fietas, Johannesburg: Two Pageview residents, a mother and her four-year-old daughter, are killed when a neighbouring wall that was being demolished collapses on them. The tragedy is blamed on the City Council and the Department of Community Development, who are blamed of negligence and a lack of precautions in their operations.

1982 1 July    
It is announced that some political prisoners have been granted remission of their sentences and released.

Helen Joseph, who has been under a series of banning orders since she became the first South African to be placed under house arrest in October 1962, is released from such restrictions.

1982 2 July    
The Internal Security Act becomes operative. Opposition parties oppose the massive powers given to the authorities to investigate any organization or publication.

1982 6 July    
Following an order granted to the KwaZulu government by the Supreme Court in Natal, officials of the Department of Cooperation and Development begin withdrawing from the disputed Ingavuma area. The Prime Minister denies that he is going to reconvene Parliament to deal with this crisis, but may exercise this option later.

The Prime Minister announces a government reorganization, including the creation of a new portfolio of Constitutional Development, the rearrangement of six ministries and the appointment of three new Ministers.

1982 16 July     South Africa’s first State President, Charles Robberts Swart, dies, aged eighty-seven.

1982 30 July    
The Federal Congress of the National Party supports the set of constitutional reforms outlined by Prime Minister P.W. Botha, and explained to the Congress by the Minister of Constitutional Affairs, Chris Heunis. If enacted, Parliamentary rule, based on the Westminster model, will be replaced by a Presidential system, with real power still concentrated in white hands. The tri-cameral structure is specifically designed to maintain National Party control of legislation.

1982 August     Ernest Dipale died in detention.

1982 5 August    
The twentieth anniversary of the arrest of Nelson Mandela is marked by a call for his release by China, publicized in the Communist Party organ, the Peoples Daily and an appeal signed by more than 2,000 mayors from fifty-three countries, made public by the United Nations Centre Against Apartheid in New York.

1982 6 August    
Three ANC members are sentenced to death for attacks directed against the Moroka and Orlando Police stations in Soweto and the Wonderboom Police station in Pretoria in which four policemen were killed. The attacks took place in May 1979 and December 1981.

1982 8 August    
Lieutenant-General Johann Coetzee, Head of the Security Police, announces that Ernest Dipale, arrested under the new Internal Security Act and charged with furthering the aims of a banned organization, has been found hanged in his cell at John Vorster Square. He is the forty-seventh person to die in detention. PFP’s justice spokesperson, Helen Suzman, calls for the whole structure of detention laws to be changed.

1982 9 August    
The PFP’s spokesman on Police Affairs, Ray Swart, calls for a commission of inquiry into all aspects of the conditions of detainees under security legislation. The Minister of Law and Order promises a clear-cut policy statement on the treatment of security detainees, but it will not be a formal code of conduct, nor will it be embodied in a law.

1982 13 August    
The Minister of Manpower, S.P. Botha, states there have been 182 strikes in the first six months of 1982, involving 51000 workers. Disputes in the gold mines have been violent, resulting in riots and some deaths.

1982 17 August    
Dr. Ruth First, wife of ANC leader Joe Slovo, and herself a political activist, is killed by a letter bomb in Maputo.

1982 19 August    
In a by-election in Germiston the National Party retains its seat, but with a reduced majority, reflecting a considerable swing to the Conservative Party.

1982 25 August    
The World Alliance of Reformed (Presbyterian and Congregational) Churches (WARC) suspends the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK) and the Nederduitse Hervormde Kerk (NHK) from membership because of their support for apartheid. They may still attend meetings, but no longer have the right to vote.

1982 26 August    
The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) chooses the South African Reverend Alan Boesak, of the Dutch Reformed Mission Church, as its new President.

1982 27 August    
National Security Act No 13:

Replaced Proclamation R252 of 1977. Provided for detention without trial, banning of individuals and outlawing of organisations and publications. Offences were defined in typically broad terms (SRR 1982: 386-7).
Commenced: 27 August 1982

1982 6 September    
Former American Secretary of State Dr. Henry Kissinger, lectures South Africans on the need for racial reform and a new Constitution during a two-week private visit to South Africa.

1982 14 September    
The Transvaal Congress of the National Party overwhelmingly supports P.W. Bothas constitutional proposals.

1982 21 September - 21 December     During the proceedings of the General Assembly of the United Nations resolutions are adopted appealing for clemency for ANC members sentenced to death for alleged guerrilla activities, asking the IMF to refrain from granting credit or assistance to South Africa, and condemning a South African raid into Lesotho on 9 December 1980.

1982 22 September    
The Nederduitse Hervormde Kerk (NHK) severs its ties completely with the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) rather than accept WARCs ruling that apartheid is contrary to the scriptures.

1982 30 September    
The Appeal Court in Bloemfontein rules that the Presidential Proclamation issued in June, purporting to restore Ingwavuma to South African jurisdiction, is null and void since the State President acted ultra vires. It is announced that a Commission under the chairmanship of Frans Rumpff, will be appointed to investigate and report on conflicting claims between KwaZulu and Swaziland.

1982 1 October    
A report compiled by the Detainees’ Parents Support Committee provides detailed evidence of systematic torture as an integral feature of the detention system.

1982 9 October    
Applications for parole by the thirty-four mercenaries involved in the Seychelles attempted coup are refused. Most are due to be released in January 1983.

1982 16 October    
The Southern African Black Alliance (SABA) and the PFP declare their total opposition to the pending constitutional changes involving the creation of a tricameral Parliament

1982 21 October    
Barbara Hogan is sentenced in the Rand Supreme Court to an effective ten years in prison for high treason and membership of the ANC. Hogan admitted her membership, but pleaded not guilty to treason.

1982 27 October    
An intensified campaign to enforce the pass laws leads to increased prosecutions in the Cape Town area. The government is working towards stricter enforcement of influx control, particularly in the Western Cape.

1982 28 October    
The Reverend Beyers Naudé is served with his second banning order, restricting him for a further three years. The order is the first to be served under the comprehensive new security law, the Internal Security Act of 1982, on the sole discretion of the Minister of Law and Order, and the decision cannot be questionned in court.

1982 3 November    
Four leading South African journalists are charged under the new Protection of Information Act. The charges relate to reports concerning National Intelligence Service agent Martin Dolinchek, his involvement in the Seychelles attempted coup, and NIS reaction to his capture by Seychelles security forces.

1982 4 November    
The results of four Parliamentary and three Provincial Councils by-elections demonstrate a vote of confidence by the electorate in the governments proposals for constitutional reform.

1982 5 November    
On the 20th anniversary of the General Assembly resolution on sanctions against South Africa, the United Nations presented awards, for outstanding contribution to the international movement for sanctions against South Africa, to:
the late President Houari Boumediene (Algeria)
Romesh Chandra (India)
Madame Jean Martin-Cisse (Guinea)
The Most Reverend Trevor Huddleston, C.R. (United Kingdom)
The late Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (United States of America)
Jan Nico Scholten (Netherlands)


1982 13 November    
Security Police have failed to obtain a single conviction against any of the twenty trade unionists detained and interrogated during the last eighteen months.

1982 22 November    
The President’s Council, mandated to consider South Africa’s constitutional future, releases its final report. Central items of its plan include establishment of a strong executive President chosen by a triracial electoral college, a three-chamber Parliament representing the White. Coloured and Indian communities, and a division between national and communal interests. It reaffirms the need for separation of executive and legislative power.

1982 23 November    
Swaziland and Lesotho take steps to clear themselves of suspicion of allowing insurgents of the ANC to use their territory as springboards for attacks on South Africa.

1982 25 November    
The government concedes another legal defeat in its attempts to transfer the KaNgwane ‘homeland’ to Swaziland. Dr. Piet Koornhof, Minister of Development and Cooperation, announces the withdrawal of a Proclamation dissolving the Legislative Assembly of KaNgwane issued in June 1981. As a result of the settlement, Enos Mabuza, Chief Executive Councillor of KaNgwane, withdraws his application to the Pretoria Supreme Court for return of the administration of KaNgwane to the tribal authorities. The government is ordered to pay his legal costs.25 Nov. 1982 Minister of Law and Order, Louis le Grange, announces a new series of directives for the protection of detainees.

1982 26 November     South Africa:Signs loan agreement with Malawi.

1982 27 November    
Prison authorities release thirty-four of the forty-two mercenaries involved in the hijacking of an Air India plane after the abortive Seychelles coup. Released after four months imprisonment are twenty-one South Africans, six Britons, five Zimbabweans, one Australian and one Austrian. The eight still in prison include the commando leader, Colonel Mike Hoare.

1982 2 December    
Afrikaans poet, Breyten Breytenbach, is released from prison after serving seven of the nine years to which he was sentenced in 1975.

1982 3 December     South Africa:Signs amendment to multilateral Convention on Wetlands.

1982 9 December    
South African forces raid houses in Maseru, killing thirty members of the ANC and seven women and children caught in the crossfire. A chain of sabotage incidents within South Africa are blamed on the ANC command structure in Lesotho. The incursion is widely condemned

1982 13 December    
Security Police arrest the leader, Eugene Terreblanche and eight other members of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) after uncovering illegal arms caches in different parts of the country.

1982 17 December    
Up to 100 ANC members are reported to have been detained in Swaziland. The arrests are confirmed by the Swaziland Police Commissioner and a large cache of arms in the north of the country is found.

1982 18 December - 19 December    
Four explosions occur at the Koeberg nuclear power station for which the ANC claims responsibility.

1982 21 December    
At the conclusion of a forty-four-day inquest into the death in detention of the white trade union leader, Dr. Neil Aggett, the Johannesburg magistrate, Pieter Kotze. finds that no one is to blame for his death. The verdict, which completely exonerates the Security Police, is greeted with astonishment and anger.

1983      
Sisulu visit by Zwelakhe after United Democratic Front launch.

1983      
the South African Defence Force uses direct intervention to eliminate ANC bases and it supported opposition groups who challenged governments in neighbouring states that harboured ANC saboteurs.

1983       Raid on Gaborone, Botswana, killing ANC personel.

1983      
By the end of 1983, neighbouring states appeared reluctant to provoke South Africa by openly showing active support for the ANC ﷓﷓ but they did not turn their backs completely on the ANC either.

1983      
Republic of South Africa Constitution Act No 110:

Provided for the establishment of a tricameral Parliament consisting of separate legislative houses for whites, coloureds and Indians. Matters before Parliament were to be divided into ‘general affairs’ (to be discussed by all houses and applying to all South Africans) and ‘own affairs’ (relevant to one particular race group). The Constitution also made PW Botha both the formal and executive head of state and Commander-in-Chief of the South African Defence Force.
Commenced: 3 September 1984, except ss 48, 49(1)-(3), 50 & 102(9): 24 February 1984.
Repealed by the Constitution of Republic of South Africa Act No 200 of 1993.

1983       Electoral Act No 18:

Provided for state elections and the creation of a voters’ roll.
Commenced: 17 February 1984

1983      
The National forum committee was revived. 100 organisations were present.

CUSA's membership reached the 100 000 mark. Its fastest growing affiliate was the National Union of Mineworkers.

Boycotts and demonstrations at schools affected 10 000 pupils country-wide. At least 22 meetings were banned. Simon Mndawe and Paris Malatji died in custody.

48 people died in 220 incidents of insurgency since 1976. 172 ANC insurgents were killed during that period

1983      
The government issues a White Paper which accepted the De Lange guiding principles but rejects the major recommendation of a single education department for all.

The government places more emphasis on technical education. It encourages industry to set up training programmes to 'upgrade' black workers. Trade unions also began to play a more active role in providing education for workers.

Student protests joined broader protests against elections for the new Tricameral Parliament. Start of the Education Charter Campaign.

1983 January - April    
Three bomb explosions damage the old building housing the Supreme Court in Pietermaritzburg, and the new building nearing completion.

1983 2 January    
Several ANC members detained in Swaziland decide to leave the country voluntarily for Mozambique. A further group of seventeen ANC members leave Mawelawela refugee camp, near Mbabane, fearing a South African attack.

1983 4 January    
At its annual conference in Eshowe, Natal, the Labour Party overwhelmingly adopts a resolution stating that it seeks to represent the Coloured community in a restructured Parliament, even though it rejects the racial premises on which the constitutional proposals are based. This decision is welcomed by the Prime Minister but criticized by other political organizations. Three leading members resign immediately after the Conference

1983 7 January    
The Government Gazette proclaims that only one-fifth of District Six, will be returned in its entirety to its earlier status and again be designated a Coloured area.

1983 12 January    
The South African Indian Council (SAIC) decides to give the government’s constitutional proposals ‘a reasonable chance’, provided the Indian community approves them in a referendum.

1983 19 January    
Chief Buthelezi meets President Matanzima of Transkei at Tongaat, north of Durban, where they dedicate their homelands to opposing the constitutional proposals which exclude blacks.

1983 22 January    
The TIC is re-launched in Johannesburg and
Mr Molvi Saloojee, the last president of the TIC and resident of Fietas dies.

1983 23 January    
At the annual congress of the Transvaal Anti-SAIC Committee held in Johannesburg, it is decided to revive the old Transvaal Indian Congress and to establish a united democratic front to mobilize resistance on a national scale to participation by Indians and Coloureds in the new Constitution.

1983 26 January    
The Prime Minister calls a special press conference to announce that a senior South African naval officer, commanding Simonstown dockyard, Commodore Dieter Gerhardt and his wife, have been detained for questioning in connection with alleged espionage.

1983 27 January - 28 January    
The third Annual Meeting of the Council of Ministers of the SADCC and representatives of donor countries and organizations, held in Maseru, is marked by further criticism of South Africa’s foreign policy and deliberate interference in the region.

1983 1 February    
The government is to establish a special Cabinet committee to look at the problems of urban blacks.

1983 4 February     South Africa:Signs meteorological treaty with Taiwan.

1983 7 February    
Cedric Mayson, former Methodist Minister, banned for five years in 1977 and detained on 27 November 1981, appears before the Pretoria Supreme Court on charges including treason and being a member or an active supporter of the ANC. He is released on bail, flees the country and arrives in Britain the day before his case is due to resume on 18 April 1983.

1983 15 February    
South Africa:Signs multilateral Convention on Agency in International Sale of Goods.

1983 15 February    
National Security Amendment Act No 35:

Empowered police officers to detain and interrogate persons suspected of having committed or intending to commit an offence.
Commenced: 15 February 1983.

1983 17 February    
Signs agreement with Swaziland and Mozambique on the establishment of a tripartite permanent technical committee on water resources.

1983 18 February    
A bomb explosion in an administrative building in the Batho township of Bloemfontein, injures seventy-six blacks while seeking registration for employment. The ANC denies responsibility.

1983 21 February    
The Minister of Manpower, Fanie Botha, the leader of the Conservative Party, Dr. Andries Treurnicht, and one of his senior lieutenants, Tom Langley, all resign as Members of Parliament and begin a trial of strength between the Conservative Party and the National Party.

1983 4 March    
Four senior newspaper editors are found guilty on between one and three counts under the 1982 Protection of Information Act, and sentenced to fines (mainly suspended) of from R300 to R2000. Information published relating to the involvement of NIS self-confessed agent, Martin Dolinchek, in the Seychelles attempted coup, was held to have been prejudicial to the security or the interests of the Republic.

1983 16 March    
In elections to the 100-member Lebowa National Assembly, Dr. Phatudi’s ruling Lebowa People’s Party wins more than three-quarters of the forty elective seats.

1983 21 March    
The twenty third anniversary of Sharpeville, the International Day for the Elimination of Apartheid, is marked by messages issued by the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid and the Pan Africanist Congress.

1983 21 March    
Publication of declaration for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African Political Prisoners signed by over 4,000 public leaders. The declaration was initiated by Archbishop Trevor Huddleston in cooperation with the Special Committee against Apartheid

1983 21 March    
Publication of declaration for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African Political Prisoners signed by over 4,000 public leaders. The declaration was initiated by Archbishop Trevor Huddleston in co-operation with the Special Committee against Apartheid.

1983 26 March - 27 March    
The Lesotho government accuses South Africa of launching raids into Lesotho. South Africa denies this.

1983 30 March    
Prime Minister P.W. Botha announces that, contrary to previous indications, the constitutional proposals will be put to a referendum of the white electorate.

1983 2 April    
Saul Mkheze, leader of a black farming community, is shot dead during a protest meeting at Driefontein, 200 miles east of Johannesburg. The United States State Department calls on 5 April for a full investigation into the circumstances of his death, and on 7 April the Foreign Minister, Pik Botha, says the government ‘deeply regretted’ such incidents.

1983 7 April    
The French government decides to request all sporting bodies to end links with South Africa, since the government is against racial discrimination in all its forms.

1983 9 April - 10 April    
At a meeting in Cape Town seven predominantly black trade unions decide in principle to form a federation, estimated to have a potential membership of about 180,000.

1983 11 April    
Chief Leabua Jonathan, Prime Minister of Lesotho, tells the National Assembly that Lesotho is faced with a war with South Africa.

1983 13 April    
A Defence Amendment Bill provides for an alternative form of national service for conscientious objectors, who oppose military service on religious grounds. The offer is not extended to objectors motivated by political values.

1983 25 April    
The Labour Party, in anticipation of probable expulsion, announces it has withdrawn from the South African Black Alliance (SABA).

1983 28 April    
The Prime Minister, P.W. Botha, orders the Minister of Law and Order, le Grange, to investigate the activities of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB).

1983 30 April    
The Prime Minister meets Lesotho’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, discusses the revival of the Highland Water Scheme and emphasizes the paramount importance of economic and geographic facts in establishing realistic relations between the two countries.

1983 May    
Late May: The government is planning to build a large new township, Khayalitsha, twenty-five miles outside Cape Town. More than 150,000 black people living in townships near Cape Town, will be expected to move to the new development. This is a policy reversal of the government’s virtual freeze on all building for blacks in the Cape.

1983 May     The Transvaal Indian Congress was revived.

1983 5 May    
The Republic of South Africa Constitution Bill is placed before the House of Assembly. It is opposed by the Conservative Party, while the PFP abstains. It is read a second time on 18 May, the New Republic Party (NRP) supporting the government, the other opposition parties voting against it.

1983 6 May    
The KwaNdebele Legislative Assembly passes a unanimous motion instructing the homeland’s Cabinet to begin independence negotiations with South Africa.

1983 10 May    
Three parliamentary by-elections in the Transvaal represent a major electoral test for the Conservative Party. They result in the technical regaining of one seat by the National Party from the Conservative Party, while Dr. Treurnicht’s success in holding his seat represents an effective defeat for the National Party.

1983 19 May    
Signs treaty with Taiwan relating to the acceptance of international tonnage certificates.

1983 20 May    
a car bomb exploded outside Pretoria's air force headquarters leaving seventeen killed and more than 200 injured.

1983 20 May    
Outside the headquarters of the South African Air Force (SAAF), and other government offices, a car bomb explodes in Pretoria killing nineteen and injuring about 200 people.

The Minister of Defence, General Magnus Malan, announces that a total of six districts, all on or near South Africa’s borders with Swaziland and Mozambique, are now activated under the 1982 Amendments to the Defence Act. In three of them, all white men up to the age of fifty-five, will have to register for commando duty.

1983 20 May    
A car bomb explosion near the headquarters of the South African Air Force resulted in 17 dead and several hundred injured. The ANC claimed responsibility for the blast.

1983 21 May    
A total of thirty-two organizations join to form the United Democratic Front (UDF) to oppose the constitutional proposals.

1983 23 May    
In retaliatory action for the Pretoria car bomb, the South African Air Force (SAAF) launch a raid on six ANC targets in the suburbs of Maputo.

1983 23 May    
South African Air Force bombers attacked a Maputo suburb. Five Mozambicans (including two women and two children) and one South African refugee were killed. Over 30 injured.


1983 23 May    
South African Air Force planes bombed suspected ANC houses in Maputo.

1983 26 May    
Traffic flow slows at the border posts between South Africa and Lesotho is reported following bomb explosions in Pretoria and Bloemfontein, for which the ANC office in Lesotho first claims, and later denies, responsibility.

1983 27 May - 29 May    
Swazi police discover a hidden arms cache in the Mlilwane game park and three men, said to comprise an ANC military training group in the same park, are arrested as part of a renewed crackdown on ANC activities.

1983 30 May    
The Appeal Court hands down a landmark decision in the case Rikhoto v. East Rand Administration Board (ERAB) granting him the right to permanent urban status. This ruling may affect about 150,000 black contract workers in urban areas, who can now apply to have their families living with them.

1983 1 June    
An inquest into the death of Ernest Dipale, who had died in custody in Johannesburg Security Police headquarters in August 1982, finds no-one criminally liable for his death.

1983 3 June    
Foreign Minister, ‘Pik’ Botha, meets Lesotho’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. They agree on the need to curb cross-border guerrilla activity and to place their relations on a more amicable footing.

1983 3 June    
Prisons Amendment Act No 8:

Prohibited any publications about prisons and prisoners without the permission of the Commissioner of Prisons.
Commenced: 3 June 1983.

1983 6 June - 7 June    
Black trade unionist, Oscar Mbetha, is one of ten people found guilty by the Cape Supreme Court on charges of terrorism andlor murder. On 28 June he is sentenced to five years’ imprisonment and on 1 August 1983 is elected as one of the three Presidents of the United Democratic Front.

1983 7 June    
Dr. Piet Koornhof declares that, pending the implementation of the Orderly Movement and Settlement of Black Persons Bill, interim steps will have to be taken to prevent too many migrant workers from qualifying for permanent residence.

1983 9 June    
three ANC members, convicted of attacking police stations, were hanged.

1983 9 June    
Three black ANC guerrillas are executed in Pretoria, appeals for clemency 6 Aug. 198 having been turned down, and an appeal for a stay of execution having failed. International outrage follows

1983 9 June    
Simon Mogoerane, Jerry Mosololi and Thabo Motaung -three combatants of Umkhonto - executed.


1983 10 June - 11 June    
International Conference of Trade Unions on Sanctions and other Actions against the Apartheid Regime in South Africa, Palais des Nations, Geneva, organised by the Workers' Group of the ILO Governing Body and the UN Special Committee against Apartheid, in cooperation with the United Nations Council for Namibia, the OAU and the Organisation of African Trade Union Unity.

1983 10 June - 11 June    
International Conference of Trade Unions on Sanctions and other Actions against the Apartheid Regime in South Africa, Palais des Nations, Geneva, organised by the Workers' Group of the ILO Governing Body and the Special Committee, in co-operation with the United Nations Council for Namibia, the OAU and the Organisation of African Trade Union Unity.


1983 11 June - 12 June    
The National Forum representing 170 black organizations, holds its first Conference at Hammanskraal near Pretoria. Delegates from political, religious, student and trade union movements unanimously adopt a manifesto identifying racial capitalism as the real enemy and pledging to establish a Socialist republic. AZAPO predominates: absent are movements subscribing to the Freedom Charter adopted by the ANC and its allies.

1983 14 June     United Democratic front (UDF) is formed in Cape Town.

1983 14 June    
Two former members of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWI3) are sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment after being found guilty of terrorism.

1983 16 June    
The seventh anniversary of the Soweto uprisings is again commemorated by absenteeism from work and popular disturbances.

1983 17 June     National Security Intelligence and National Security Council Amendment Act No 8:

Granted further powers to the intelligence mechanisms.
Commenced: 17 June 1983


1983 23 June    
Laurence Eagleburger, the United States Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs, defends his government’s policy of constructive engagement’ with South Africa designed to support those who are committed to change away from apartheid.

1983 28 June    
Two bomb blasts cause extensive damage to the Department of Internal Affairs office and the police headquarters at Roodepoort, near Johannesburg. The ANC is held to be responsible.

1983 30 June    
South Africa:Signs multilateral agreement establishing the Development Bank of Southern Africa.

1983 - 1986 July - March    
The boycott of buses in Mdantsane, Ciskei ' was started in July, 1983 and was called off in March, 1986.

1983 1 July    
Under the 1982 internal Security Act all existing banning orders are automatically revoked a year later, and, as a consequence, more than fifty banning orders are lifted. Fresh banning orders are issued in several cases, including that of Winnie Mandela.

1983 4 July    
Professor Carel Boshoff resigns as chairman of the Broederbond. He is critical of the government’s constitutional proposals which, he says, may stimulate rather than appease racial conflict.

1983 5 July    
The South African Bureau of Racial Affairs (SABRA) issues a statement by Professor Boshoff (Dr. Hendrik Verwoerd’s son-in-law) arguing that every race group should have its own geographical sphere in which it can exercise authority - and this applies to Coloureds and Indians also.

1983 13 July    
The Transvaal Attorney General announces that AWB leader Eugene Terreblanche and three associates, will face terrorism charges, having been accused of attempting or planning to overthrow the South African government by violent means.

1983 23 July    
The last six mercenaries from the attempted Seychelles coup are pardoned, freed and arrive in Johannesburg. The Minister of Law and Order indicates that South African authorities have no further interest in the case.

1983 28 July    
South Africa and Lesotho exchange prisoners across the Caledon River, heralding a new rapprochement and a lifting of strict border control measures.

1983 August    
The United Democratic Front (UDF) was launched with 575 affiliate organisations.

1983 August    
More than two-thirds of white voters supported the new constitution in a referendum.

1983 5 August     Arms and Ammunition Amendment Act No 17:

Removed several clauses in the old Act (Arms and Ammunition Act 75 of 1969) adopted from South Africa.
Commenced: 5 August 1983

1983 5 August    
Explosives Amendment Act No 18:

Amended the Explosives Act 26 of 1956 [SA] to include, under ‘explosive’, petrol bombs and other apparatus which could cause an explosion.
Commenced: 5 August 1983

1983 6 August    
A bomb explodes at a synagogue in central Johannesburg four hours before State President Viljoen is due to attend a ceremony there.

1983 8 August - 31 August    
Debates on the Constitution Bill continue and reconnnendations of the select committee empowered to suggest amendments to the Bill, but not to propose changes to the principle are discussed.

1983 15 August    
The Lesotho Foreign Ministry appeals for international help to stop South Africa applying an economic squeeze designed to force Lesotho to expel up to 3,000 political refugees

1983 19 August     Publications Act No 15:

Provided for state censorship of the media.
Commenced: 19 August 1983

1983 20 August    
The United Democratic Front (UDF) is formally launched at a meeting in Mitchell’s Plain, near Cape Town, attended by delegates from 320 community groups, trade unions, women’s groups and student organizations. It is opposed to the government’s constitutional proposals and pledges itself to a single non-racial and unfragmented South Africa.

1983 24 August    
It is announced that the referendum will be held on 2 November 1983, with the whites being asked whether they are in favour of the Constitution, 1983, as approved by Parliament.

1983 30 August    
The government withdraws its plan to place a quota limit on the admission of black students to white universities, but remains committed to universities that retain their community-directed character.

1983 September - October    
Opposition to the Constitution and calls to the white electorate to reject the new dispensation are voiced by a variety of groups including the Southern African Catholic Bishops’ Conference, the South African Council of Churches and the leader of six black ‘homelands’.

1983 September     Tricameral Constitution passes in South Africa's Parliament.


1983 September    
In September the Republic of South African Constitution Act was passed. The Act made provision for a State President with wide-ranging executive powers and a tricameral parliament.


1983 1 September    
The Southern African Development Bank, financed primarily by South Africa, is formally established with headquarters in Midrand, near Johannesburg.

1983 5 September    
The trial begins in the Cape Town Supreme Court of Commodore Dieter Gerhardt on charges of spying for the Soviet Union. The Judge President grants an application by the state that the proceedings be held in camera.

1983 8 September    
The Lesotho government announces that an undisclosed number of South African refugees have decided voluntarily to withdraw from Lesotho. On 10 September it airlifts the first batch of twenty-two ANC members to Mozambique and Tanzania. Another 200 will follow later.

1983 9 September    
Parliament approves the new Constitution by 119 votes to thirty-five, after a marathon session lasting 127 sitting days.

1983 9 September    
South African Parliament approved a new racist constitution which set up chambers for Coloured people and Indians and excluded Africans.


1983 10 September    
Balthazar Johannes Vorster, Prime Minister of South Africa and leader of the National Party from 1966 to 1978 and State President in 1978-79, dies aged sixty-seven.

1983 11 September - 12 September    
The Lesotho Foreign Ministry protests to South Africa, following further clashes with guerrillas in the Leribe district, and an eight-hour attack against Maryland Roman Catholic mission near the border.

1983 16 September    
Signs agreement with Swaziland regarding financial and technical assistance.

1983 16 September - 18 September    
Latin American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Caracas, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Government of Venezuela.

1983 16 September - 18 September    
Latin American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Caracas, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with the Government of Venezuela.

1983 19 September     Fietas, Johannesburg: Dr. Yusuf Dadoo dies in exile.

1983 22 September     The Republic of South Africa Constitution Bill is enacted.

1983 29 September    
A commission of inquiry into malpractices in South African prisons is ordered by the Minister of Justice, following disturbances and deaths at the
Barberton prison farm complex in the Eastern Transvaal.

1983 October    
Inkatha attacked students, men and women suspected of ANC sympathies, at University of Zululand, Ngoya. Four were killed and 113 injured.

1983 5 October    
The leaders of six black - homelands reject the new Constitution. Their statement is also signed by a number of black business and church leaders.

1983 17 October    
South African forces raid offices of the ANC in Maputo. The raid is internationally condemned.

1983 17 October    
South African commandos attacked a house belonging to the ANC in Maputo.


1983 21 October     Aliens and Travellers Control Amendment Act No 16:

Regulated the control of travellers during states of emergency.
Commenced: 21 October 1983

1983 26 October    
The Special Committee against Apartheid published the first Register of Entertainers, Actors and Others who have Performed in South Africa.

1983 26 October    
Publication of the first Register of Entertainers, Actors and Others who have Performed in South Africa, published by the Special Committee against Apartheid.


1983 November    
The constitutional referendum showed that the majority of whites were in favour of P W Botha's ideas for evolutionary reform.

1983 2 November    
The white referendum is held on the constitutional proposals. The results, announced on 3 November 1983 show that 1,360,223 people (65.95%) have voted in favour, 691,577 (33.53%) against, with 10,669 (0.52%) spoilt papers, on a 76.02% turn out.

1983 15 November    
Fanie Botha, a senior Member of the Cabinet, announces his resignation as Minister of Manpower, following allegations that he has refused to hand over diamond leases promised in a secret deal with Brigadier Johann Blaauw.

The United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution declaring that the constitutional proposals are contrary to the principles of the UN Charter and further entrench apartheid, and that the results of the referendum on 2 November 1983, endorsed by an exclusively white electorate, are of no validity whatsoever.

1983 17 November    
Following the resignation of F. Botha, new ministerial appointments are made.

1983 22 November    
Opening of the Art Contre Against Apartheid exhibit at the Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et Plastique, Paris, sponsored by the Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid, in cooperation with the Special Committee against Apartheid.


1983 22 November    
Opening of the Art Contre Against Apartheid exhibit at the Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et Plastique, Paris, sponsored by the Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid, in co-operation with the Special Committee against Apartheid.


1983 24 November    
A former theology student, Carl Niehaus, is sentenced to fifteen years in prison for high treason in the Rand Supreme Court, his fiancée, Johanna Lourens, to four years.

1983 3 December    
Elections to the country’s twenty-nine new black local authorities, over the previous ten days, are met with demonstrations and calls for a boycott. The last round of voting finishes in Johannesburg, in Soweto, Dobsonville and Deep meadow. Elections in Soweto, with a turnout of eleven percent give E. Tshabalalas Sofasonke Party control of the new authority.

1983 5 December    
A bomb explosion, shattering the Johannesburg office of the Department of Foreign Affairs, is the forty-second attack by ANC saboteurs in 1983.

1983 5 December    
The General Assembly adopted a new programme of action against apartheid.

1983 5 December    
A new programme of action against apartheid adopted by the General.

1983 14 December    
South African invasion of Angola begins on pretext of attacking SWAPO bases.

1983 23 December    
South Africa and Mozamhican delegations hold talks in Mbabane, concerning peaceful co-existence.

1983 29 December    
Commodore Dieter Gerhardt, the former commanding officer of the Simonstown naval base, and his wife Ruth Gerhardt, are sentenced to life imprisonment and ten years’ imprisonment respectively, being found guilty of high treason on charges of spying for the Soviet Union.

1984       Sisulu awarded honourary degree from University of York in Canada.

1984       P.W. Botha and Samora Machel sign the Nkomati Accord.

1984       Bishop Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

1984      
Troops and police had moved into the townships at the end of 1984 engaged in running battles with youths - armed with stones and petrol bombs - in an effort to re-establish control.

1984      
Fietas, Johannesburg: A ‘white’ resident of Pageview lodges a complaint about the ‘azaan’, the Islamic call to prayer, which is supposed to be read aloud from the mosque to call the faithful to perform their prayers at the mosque. A compromise is reached where the public address system of the mosque is turned down to a volume that cannot be considered a public disturbance.

1984      
Fietas, Johannesburg: The last remaining trader in Pageview, Baba Saheb, leaves Pageview and his family’s butcher shop to move to Lenasia. He was locked out of his shop following an eviction order, which he had ignored. The matter had been taken to court and the Department of Community Development was ordered to open the shop, but left with few options Mr. Saheb and his family moved.

1984      
Fietas, Johannesburg: The Department of Community Development demolishes the wrong house. In Pageview many of the houses are attached to each other and in this case, instead of demolishing the correct house, the Department destroyed the neighbouring house, owned by Mr. Ahmed Cassim.

1984       KaNgwane proclaimed a self-governing territory.


1984      
Public Service Act No 111:

Provided for the organisation and administration of the public service, and laid down terms of office and conditions of employment and discharge for members of the public service.
Assent gained: 12 July 1984; commencement date not found
Repealed by s 43 of Proc 103 of 1994.

1984      
Industrial Conciliation Act No 8:

Prohibited unions with head offices outside the homeland from organising within the homeland. COSATU continued despite these restrictions.
Commenced: 1 July 1983

1984      
Diplomatic Privileges Act No 4:

Regulated the recognition of diplomats and privileges afforded in reciprocity.
Commenced: 22 February 1985

1984      
Gazankulu: Application of Laws to Added Areas Amendment Act No 7:
Commenced: 25 October 1985

1984      
Commission of Inquiry into South African Council of Churches
Mandate: To inquire into and report on –
a)the inception, development, objects and activities of the South African Council of Churches, including the way it functions and is managed;
b) the way in which the South African Council of Churches and individuals connected with it solicit or obtain money and assets (at present or in the past), the purpose for which these funds are used and the organisations and individuals from or through whom they are solicited or received.
c)any other matter pertaining to the South African Council of Churches, its present and past office bearers or officers and other persons connected with it, on which the Commission is of the opinion that a report should be made in the public interest.
Date of Report: 1984
Chair: ELOFF, C.F.
Ref: RP 74/1983

1984      
Commission of Inquiry into Township Establishment and Related Matters
Mandate: To inquire into, report on and make recommendations regarding –
a)methods and proposals for the accelerated provision of affordable new housing by giving particular attention to simplifying and expediting township establishment by, for instance, removing or streamlining any impeding legislation and regulations;
b)ways of transferring land to competent institutions, or any other measures in cases where township establishment does not proceed as desired;
c) ways to facilitate efficient use of land, for example by relaxing some of the restrictions on the subdivision or the placing of more than one housing unit on an erf or holding; and
d) any other methods which may promote the provision of sufficient residential erven and reduce their cost.

Date of Report: 29 March 1983
Chair: VENTER, A.A.
Ref:RP 20, 21 and 54/1984
First report: RP 20/1984.
Second report: RP 21/1984.
Third report: RP 54/1984.

1984      
The elections in the (Coloured) House of Representatives had a poll of 18,1% of eligible voters, the percentage poll in the (Indian) House of Delegates was 16,2% of eligible voters, this was a result of the campaigning against the election by black political organisations.

50 members of community councils resigned after pressure from students, youth and civic organisations. There were 30 petrol bomb attacks against community councillors. 99-year leasehold rights for African people were extended to the Western Cape. There were 58 incidents of sabotage. 469 strikes occurred involving 181 942 workers. 300 families in Mogopa in Western Transvaal were forcibly removed from their ancestrial homes.

50,13% of pupils in the Department of Education and Training passed their matriculation examinations.

The ban on all outdoor meetings was renewed for another year.

530 people were detained in terms of security legislation. Another 1127 people were detained under other laws.

Sergeant Jan Harm van As was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for the death in detention of Paris Malatji. This was the first conviction for a death in detention.

Some political prisoners released were Heman Andimba Toivo ja Toivo, David Kitson and Dorothy Nyembe.

1984      
The National Policy for General Education Affairs Act is passed. This brings education structures into line with the new constitution of 1983. A 'general affairs' education department is set up to oversee finance, teachers' salaries and registration, and curricula. 'Own affairs' Departments of Education and Culture are set up for whites, coloureds and Indians. African education remains under the DET. Education in the ten 'homelands' fall under their own departments.

1984      
Sister Bernard Ncube elected President of FEDTRAW (Federation of Transvaal Women)

Mamphela Rampele enters South African Development Research Unit of UCT as research fellow. Appointed senior research officer in Dept of Social Anthropology, obtains PHD.


1984 January    
Sisulu is throughly examined by a specialist physician, Dr. Dawid Le Roux. Sisulu is declared healthy except for the normal infirmities of old age and that his left eye is very weak. Offer of conditional release rejected.

1984 1 January     Lebowa: Royal Allowance Act No 3:
Commenced: 1 January 1984

1984 4 January    
The (Coloured) Labour Party opts for an election for the eighty representatives to the Coloured House of Representatives, without first holding a referendum.

1984 8 January     South African security forces begin withdrawal from southern Angola.


1984 16 January    
A second series of meetings is held between South Africa and Mozambique in Pretoria and in Maputo. Four working groups discuss security matters and economic relations.

1984 26 January    
The South African Indian Council (SAIC) calls for a referendum in the Indian community on the acceptability of the Constitution.

1984 February     Herman Toivo Ja Toivo released from prison in Namibia.

1984 14 February    
Elections for the Coloured and Indian Parliament under the new Constitution are announced by the government. They are to be held on 22 August 1984; with nomination day likely to be 16 July 1984.

1984 15 February    
By-elections are held for two seats in the House of Assembly. The Northern Transvaal seat is won by the CP, the Natal seat is retained by the PFP. Both results are disappointments for the National Party.

The judicial Commission of Inquiry into the Activities of the South African Council of Churches (SACC) accuses it of pursuing strategies of resistance to government policies and of identifying with the liberation struggle. However, it stops short of recommending a total ban on foreign funding, as requested by the Commissioner of Police.

1984 20 February    
At the end of the third meeting between Mozambique and South Africa, in Maputo, a joint statement is released announcing that the two countries have agreed on the central principles concerning security arrangements between them; and that they intend to enter into a formal agreement in this regard.

1984 27 February    
The recommendations of the Strydom Committee on the Group Areas Act and related laws - that central business districts in major centres be opened to all race groups - welcomed by city councils, the Association of Chambers of Commerce and other organisations.


1984 10 March - 11 March    
The ANC mounts a sabotage attack on a petrol depot in which five storage tanks are damaged.

1984 14 March     The nuclear power station at Koeberg becomes operational.

1984 16 March    
President Samora Machel of Mozambique and Prime Minister Botha, sign the Nkomati Accord, a non-aggression and good-neighbourliness pact, on the border between the two countries.

1984 16 March    
Agreement on Non-aggression and Good Neighbourliness signed by South Africa and Mozambique (Nkomati Accord).

1984 16 March    
On 16 March Mocambique and South Africa signed the Nkomati peace accord.

1984 17 March    
A Defence Force spokesman confirms in Cape Town that South Africa is to stop supplying the United States and Britain with intelligence reports on the movements of Soviet warships around the Cape by the end of the year.

1984 23 March    
Dorothy Nyembe is released and participates in activities of Natal Organization of Women (NOW).

1984 24 March    
The harbour of Richards Bay is to be extended at a cost of approximately $75 million.

1984 26 March    
The Mozambique-South Africa Joint Security Commission meets for the first time in Maputo, as further raids are carried out against ANC houses and offices by the Mozambican authorities.

1984 31 March    
It is disclosed that South Africa and Swaziland signed a non-aggression pact in February 1982. The two countries now also agree to exchange trade representatives and to establish trade missions in their respective countries.

1984 April    
Walter Sisulu writes a letter to Lindiwe about Matanzima's release plans.

1984 1 April    
South Africa recalls its ambassador to Britain for urgent consultations, after four South Africans and a Briton are charged in Coventry with illegally exporting military equipment to South Africa.

1984 1 April    
Black Communities Development Act No 4:

Introduced freehold ownership (Budlender 1989: 5). The Act stated that only a ‘competent person’ could lease or rent property. A person was ‘competent’ if she/he had section 12 rights in terms of the 1945 Natives (Urban Areas)Consolidation Act. (For further information see RRS 1984: 161-3.)

This Act provided for purposeful development of black communities outside the national states and amended and consolidated certain laws which applied to such communities.
Commenced: 1 April 1984, except s 55: to be proclaimed; ss 56 & 57: 1 November 1985
Repealed by s 72 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991, with the exception of chapters VI and VIA.

1984 5 April    
The Hoexter Commission presents its fifth and final report to Parliament recommending major reforms in the judicial system and containing incisive attacks on the administration of the apartheid system.

1984 11 April    
General Magnus Malan tables a wide-ranging Defence White Paper focussing on strengthened border defences to counter sabotage attacks by organizations seen as proxies for the Soviet Union.

1984 24 April    
Carnegie Report on Poverty in South Africa reveals the doubling of blacks living below the poverty line (1960-1980).

1984 2 May    
South Africa, Mozambique and Portugal sign a new agreement in Cape Town on the supply of electric power to South Africa from the Cahora Bassa Hydro-electric Dam in north-west Mozambique.

1984 5 May    
Over 7,000 people attend a rally in Pretoria to mark the foundation on 4 May 1984 of the Afrikaner Volkswag (People’s Guard), a cultural organization led by Professor Care] Boshoff. The new Conservative group is expected to challenge the influence of the Broederbond.

1984 10 May     South Africa:Signs amendment to the Convention on Civil Aviation.

1984 10 May - 12 May    
Talks take place in Cape Town between Swaziland and South Africa concerning trade and regional security. South Africa is to open a consulate in Swaziland. It is reported that more than sixty ANC members are in detention in Swaziland and four have been handed over to the South African authorities.

1984 11 May    
South Africa’s longest serving white political prisoner, David Kitson, is released, seven months short of completing his twenty-year sentence for sabotage and barely three weeks before the Prime Minister is due to meet Margaret Thatcher in London.

1984 16 May    
South Africa concedes that almost two million black people have been relocated since 1960, but maintains that only 456,860 were moved for ideological reasons. The fact that some forced removals have taken place is admitted by the Minister for Cooperation and Development, Dr. Piet Koornhof.

1984 18 May     Saboteurs blow up two railway lines south of Johannesburg.

1984 23 May    
The Minister of Law and Order states that a total of fourteen armed attacks and explosions have occurred between January and May 1984.

Signs treaty with Italy for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.

1984 25 May    
Signs multilateral treaty to amend the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage.

1984 29 May - 12 June    
Prime Minister Botha visits eight countries in Europe - Portugal, Great Britain, West Germany, Belgium, France, Austria, italy and Switzerland - and has an audience with Pope John Paul II on 11 June 1984. He is accompanied on his tour by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, ‘Pik’ Botha. The tour is seen in South Africa as a diplomatic breakthrough signaling the end of South Africa’s isolation

1984 30 May    
Group Areas Amendment Act No 101:

Amended the 1966 Act in order to give effect to the policy of declaring certain central business districts as free trade areas (RRS 1986: 11). Free trade areas were not permitted in black townships since these were established in terms of the 1945 Natives (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act and other laws and not in terms of the 1966 Group Areas Act.
Commenced: 30 May 1985
Repealed by s 48 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991.

1984 June - September    
Further ANC sabotage attacks occur in Durban, Roodepoort and Johannesburg, involving bomb explosions, causing deaths and injuries.

1984 16 June    
Sporadic clashes with police take place during the annual commemoration of 16 June 1976. The day is marked by pronouncements by the ANC, the PAC and the United Nations Secretary-General, all calling for an end to repression.

1984 18 June    
Chief Gatsha Buthelezi is summoned to Cape Town by Dr. Piet Koornhof and informed that the Rumpff Commission of Inquiry into the implications of the possible transfer of KaNgwane and lngwavuma, KwaZulu to Swaziland has been disbanded.

1984 18 June - 21 June    
North American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, United Nations Headquarters, New York, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid.

1984 18 June - 21 June    
North American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, United Nations Headquarters, New York, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid.

1984 18 June    
Aliens and Immigration Laws Amendment Act No 49:

Amended the 1937 Aliens Act, the 1939 Aliens Registration Act and the 1972 Admission of Persons to the Republic Regulation Act, used against squatters (RRS 1984: 345-6). Several critics warned that the ‘amendment act would lead to a massive clamp-down on Africans present in white-designated areas but officially regarded as citizens of the “independent” homelands’ (RRS 1984: 345). It is not clear from the Race Relations Survey whether this did in fact occur. What is more than clear is that those South Africans eligible to carry passes, if found not carrying one, were arrested and prosecuted for a wide range of influx control related offences (e.g. being in a prescribed area for longer than 72 hours without permission or having taken up employment without the necessary permission being granted).
Commenced: 18 June 1984
Repealed by s 60 of the Aliens Control Act No 96 of 1991.

1984 19 June    
The Foreign Minister gives an assurance that the government will not go ahead with plans for the cession of land to Swaziland, unless it has the majority support of the people concerned.

1984 21 June     Proclamation No 8:

Concerning a state of emergency.
Commenced: 21 June 1984

1984 21 June    
Government Notice No 66:

Restricted the movement of certain persons at institutions of learning.
Commenced: 21 June 1984


1984 26 June    
The nineteenth quintuennial congress of the Universal Postal Union in Hamburg, expels South Africa on account of its apartheid policy.

1984 28 June    
Exiled South African Jenny Schoon, and her daughter Katryn, are killed by a parcel bomb in Lubango, Angola, probably intended for her husband Marius Schoon, named in security trials as an agent of the ANC.

Owen Horwood announces his resignation from the post of Minister of Finance. He is replaced by Barend du Plessis, hitherto Minister of Education and Training.

The NP loses the provincial by-election in Potgietersrus to a right-wing coalition led by the CP, but retains Rosettenville, Johannesburg, with an increased majority in a three-cornered fight with the CP and NRP.

1984 29 June    
Exiled South Africa anti-apartheid campaigner Jeanette Schoon and her six-year-old daughter were killed by a parcel bomb in Angola, her father said.


1984 1 July    
Citizenship Act No 38:

Specified who were citizens, who could become citizens and who could lose their citizenship.
Commenced: 1 July 1985

1984 9 July    
Signs Protocol amending the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas.

1984 12 July     A car bomb explosion in Durban kills five and injures twenty-six.

1984 13 July     The last all-white Parliament ends its last session in Cape Town.

1984 16 July    
Supreme Court Act No 2:

Provided for the separation of the Ciskei judiciary from South Africa.
Commenced: 16 July 1984

1984 27 July     Republic of Ciskei Constitution Amendment Act No 10:

Removed the post of Vice-President.
Commenced: 27 July 1984

1984 30 July     Campaigning for the new tricameral Parliament begins.

1984 30 July    
South Africa has held up supplies of British weapons to Lesotho and the UK has complained several times about the delays, officials said today. South Africa has decided to close its Consulate in Wellington
instead of waiting for New Zealand's new Government to carry out its pledge to shut down, New Zealand's Prime Minister David Lange said.

1984 August     Elections for Coloured and Indian Chambers of Parliament.

1984 August    
Boycotts and demonstrations in schools affected about 7% of the school population. In August demonstrations affected 800 000 school children

1984 7 August - 9 August    
Conference of Arab Solidarity with the Struggle for Liberation in Southern Africa, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid, in cooperation with the League of Arab States.

1984 7 August - 9 August    
Conference of Arab Solidarity with the Struggle for Liberation in Southern Africa, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid, in co-operation with the League of Arab States.

1984 8 August    
The government is to grant self-government to KaNgwane. This is seen as confirmation that it has finally abandoned its land deal with Swaziland, of which KaNgwane was to have been a part.

1984 14 August     Lesotho rejects South Africa’s proposal for a draft security treaty.

1984 16 August    
An explosion, believed to have been caused by a bomb, ripped through police offices near Johannesburg today, a police spokesman
said.


1984 17 August    
The Security Council rejected and declared null and void the new racist constitution of South Africa. It urged governments and organisations not to accord recognition to the "elections" under that constitution. (Resolution 554)

1984 22 August    
Elections to the House of Representatives among the Coloured community show overwhelming support for the Labour Party. Official results record only a 30.9 per cent turn out and protests and boycotts are followed by 152 arrests.

1984 28 August    
Elections to the House of Delegates among the Indian community are marked by a low poll, protests, boycotts and active opposition by the UDF. Results show eighteen seats for the National Peoples Party (NPP), seventeen for Solidarity, one for the Progressive Independent Party (PIP), four for independents.

1984 30 August    
Prime Minister Botha declares that the government does not see the low turnout at the poils as invalidating the revised constitution.

1984 31 August     KaNgwane proclaimed a self-governing territory.

1984 31 August    
South Africa declared the black homeland of Kangwane on the Swaziland border a self-governing territory. The Swazi Council of Chiefs of South Africa, which backs a controversial plan to incorporate Kangwane into Swaziland, warned of possible bloodshed in the territory if it is granted
independence.


1984 September    
Mr P.W. Botha was elected the first executive state president in September.

1984 - 1986 September - 24 January    
From September 1984 to 24 January 1986, 955 people were killed in political violence incidents, 3 658 injured. 25 members of the security forces were killed and 834 injured. There were 3 400 incidents of violence in the Western Cape.

1984 2 September - 3 September     The revised Constitution comes into effect.

1984 3 September    
As South Africa's new Constitution was inaugurated at least 26 people died in riots and police counterattacks in black townships, according to press and news agency reports. Reuter reported that the military has been brought in to guard Government buildings in Sharpeville and other black townships.

1984 3 September    
175 people were killed in political violence incidents. On September 3 violence erupted in the Vaal Triangle, within a few days 31 people were killed.

1984 5 September    
P.W. Botha is unanimously elected to the post of Executive President by an Electoral College composed of the majority parties in each house - fifty NP members of the white House of Assembly, twenty-five Labour Party members of the Coloured House of Representatives, and thirteen National People’s Party members of the Indian House of Delegates.

1984 10 September    
Fresh detention orders were issued for seven opponents of the South African Government freed by a court on Friday. The seven, including Archie Gumede, President of the two million strong anti-apartheid United Democratic Front, had been held without charge since just before the controversial elections to a new Parliament
in August.

1984 11 September    
Following unrest and rioting in the townships, the Minister of Law and Order prohibits all meetings of more than two persons, discussing politics or which is in protest against or in support or in memorium of anything, until 30 September 1984. The ban extends to certain areas in all four provinces, but is most comprehensive in the Transvaal.

1984 12 September    
South African riot police used tear gas and whips in Soweto as unrest continued and a sweeping ban on meetings critical of the
Government came into effect. Opposition leaders criticised the ban, saying that the Government appeared to be overreacting to the unrest, in which about 40 people have died in the past fortnight.

1984 13 September    
Six political refugees, including the President of the United Democratic Front (UDF) seek refuge in the British consulate in Durban, and ask the British government to intervene on their behalf.

1984 13 September    
Six South African dissidents hunted by police in a big security clampdown today entered the British Consulate in Durban, British officials said. Police had been trying to rearrest the six, leaders of the United Democratic Front and the natal Indian
Congress, following their release from detention last Friday on the orders of a judge. Major military manoeuvres were conducted by the South African Defence Force in its biggest exercise since World War II, which, the Times contends in a separate article, will surely be interpreted
by the neighbouring States as a show of hostile preparedness. The exercise seemed to illustrate the successes and the failures of South Africa's efforts to circumvent the international arms embargo
imposed in 1977, the paper adds, noting that Western military specialists were impressed by the manoeuvres.


1984 14 September    
The inauguration of the new President, P.W. Botha, takes place. Under the revised Constitution, the post of President combines the ceremonial duties of Head of State with the executive functions of Prime Minister. Mr. Botha is also chairman of the Cabinet, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and controls the National Intelligence Service which includes the Secretariat of the State Security Council.

Margaret Thatcher, the British Prime Minister, gives an assurance that the six refugees will not be required to leave the consulate against their will, but also states that Britain will not become involved in negotiations between the fugitives and the South African government.

1984 15 September    
Members of a new Cabinet responsible for general affairs of government and three Ministers’ Councils are appointed and sworn in on 17 September 1984.

The leader of the Labour Party, the Reverend H.J. (Allan) Hendrikse and A. Rajbansi of the NPP are appointed to the Cabinet as Chairmen of the Ministers’ Councils, but neither is given a ministerial portfolio.

1984 17 September    
Over the weekend, South Africa's new President, Pieter W. Botha, announced the appointment of a Cabinet which, for the first time in South Africa's history, includes non-whites. The two non-white
Cabinet members, the Reverend Allan Hendrickse, leader of the Labour Party, and Amichand Rajbansi, whose National People's Party is drawn from the Indian community, were sworn into office in Cape Town, along with the other members of the new 19-man Cabinet for General Affairs, which is otherwise all-white.

1984 18 September    
South Africa's black gold miners today called off their first legal strike, which lasted just one day but, according to mine owners, saw 250 workers injured during police action against pickets.

1984 19 September    
Riot police firing birdshot, tear gas and rubber bullets clashed with 8,000 striking gold miners, killing seven and injuring 89,
police said today.

1984 24 September    
Minister of Foreign Affairs, ‘Pik’ Botha, announces that in retaliation for the British government’s refusal to give up the six men, the government will not return to Britain four South Africans due to face charges of having contravened British customs and excise regulations, and believed to be employed by ARMSCOR.

1984 25 September    
South Africa and the UK faced what could be their worst diplomatic crisis for several years because of tension over six dissidents hiding from police in the British Consulate in Durban. Pretoria said last night that in retaliation for London's refusal to evict the fugitives it would not send four South African back to Britain to stand trial on charges of illegal export of arms.


1984 26 September    
Five of the political detainees are released and on the same day the banning order on Dr. Beyers Naudé is lifted.

Schools re-open, but 93,000 pupils continue to boycott classes.

1984 28 September    
South Africa was told by IAEA to open all nuclear plants to international inspection or face sanctions by the International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The resolution was passed by 57 votes to 10, with 23 abstentions. The US and other Western nations opposed it. The resolution was tabled by Morocco on behalf of African States.

1984 2 October     The death toll in rioting and clashes with police has risen to over sixty.

1984 2 October    
The Government took into custody the leader of South Africa's most prominent anti-apartheid group and held him under security law.
The arrest came as four blacks were killed in a day of unrest in black townships - raising to at least 61 the number of people
killed in the past month in ethnic violence - and 130,000 black students boycotted classes.


1984 3 October    
A cease-fire agreement between the Mozambique Government and the insurgent National Resistance Movement (MNR) was announced in Pretoria by South African Foreign Minister Roelof Botha, who acted
as the intermediary.


1984 5 October    
L. le Grange states that the South African Defence Force units will be deployed increasingly in a supportive role to the police in maintaining an effective protective force against radical elements. On 6-9 October they are deployed in Soweto.

1984 6 October    
Three of the six protesters leave the British Consulate in protest against South Africa’s action in linking their sit-in with the Coventry case. They are immediately arrested and detained by security police.

1984 8 October    
South Africa:Signs treaty relating to certificates of airworthiness for imported aircraft with the United States.

1984 8 October    
The Mozambique Government, its right-wing guerrilla opponents and South African officials met in Pretoria to thrash out details of a cease-fire plan to end civil conflict in Mozambique.


1984 9 October    
The three anti-apartheid protesters in the British Consulate in Durban, declare they will not leave the building voluntarily. The British government will have to evict them.

1984 11 October    
Anti-apartheid leader Allan Boesak said that the United Democratic Front (UDF) would campaign against South African Army conscription. Mr. Boesak returned from a tour on which he met European and US
Government officials.


1984 16 October    
The Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that it had decided to award the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize to Bishop Desmond Tutu. The Committee said Bishop Tutu, General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches (SACC), had been a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa. "The Committee wishes to attract attention to the non-violent struggle for liberation to which Desmond Tutu belongs, a struggle in which black and white South Africans unite to bring the country out of conflict", a spokesman added.

1984 17 October    
The United Nations Security Council, by fourteen Votes to none, with the United States abstaining, passes a resolution reiterating its condemnation of the South African regime’s policy of apartheid and condemning its continued defiance of United Nations resolutions, the continued massacres of the oppressed people and the arbitrary detention and arrest of their leaders.

1984 18 October    
Member of UK Parliament Donald Anderson, one of the Labour Party's spokesmen on foreign affairs, told a news conference after a five-day visit to South Africa that he believed South Africa's system of
legalised racial segregation could not last. Mr. Anderson urged Britain to use economic leverage for change before the white-ruled country exploded into racial violence.


1984 22 October    
The Minister of Law and Order rejects conditions set on 18 October 1984 by the three remaining fugitives in the British Consulate in Durban for their voluntary exit. They ask the government to waive detention-without-trial orders or to provide
them with passports to enable them to plead their case before the United Nations Anti-Apartheid Committee.

1984 23 October    
A combined force of about 7,000 South African Defence Force troops and police seal off the townships of Sebokeng, Sharpeville and Boipatong and carry out house-to-house searches, arresting 358 people, some of whom are immediately charged in special courts. its purpose is to eliminate criminal and intimidatory forces from the townships.

The government forfeits 400,000 Pounds Sterling bail when the ‘Coventry four’ fail to appear to answer arms smuggling charges, prevented from doing so by the South African government. Warrants are issued for their arrest.

1984 23 October     700 police and army personnel were used in the Vaal Triangle.

1984 24 October    
The United Nations Security Council endorses a lengthy resolution condemning South Africa’s apartheid regime, demanding the immediate cessation of massacres and the prompt and unconditional release of all political prisoners and detainees.

1984 26 October    
Violence erupted in the black South African township of Sebokeng, 48 hours after 7,000 police and troops swamped the area and made
hundreds of arrests in an attempt to stamp out unrest. Police today reported overnight violence in townships throughout the country, with crowds of up to 2,000 stoning police who retaliated with teargas, rubber bullets and birdshot.


1984 30 October    
South African Foreign Minister Pik Botha left for Cape Verde where he is due to hold talks tomorrow with US negotiator Chester Crocker on the future of Namibia.

1984 31 October    
Internal Security Amendment Act No 22:

Prohibited any meeting of more than twenty persons to be held without the permission of the Minister of Law and Order.
Commenced: 31 August 1984

1984 1 November    
Sweden is to tighten the rules limiting investment by Swedish companies in South Africa and make it illegal to sell vehicles and electronics to the South African police and military, the Government announced today. A two-day work boycott in Transvaal Province was called for next Monday and Tuesday in protest at a range of grievances by blacks, the United Democratic Front (UDF) said today. It said that unless demands ranging from a rollback of rent increases in black townships to education reforms were met South Africa would face
increasing violence.


1984 2 November     South Africa:Amends air services agreement with Great Britain.

1984 2 November    
Two South Africans of Indian descent, including the grand-daughter of Mahatma Gandhi, were told they could not travel to New Delhi to attend the funeral of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Officials of the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) said Farouk Meer and Ela Ramgobin, both opponents of South Africa's apartheid, were denied passports.

1984 5 November    
South African Foreign Minister Pik Botha held talks with Foreign Minsiter Yitzhak Shamir during a private visit that, according to Reuter, has caused embarrassment and anger in Israel. Senior
officials said privately that Israel, which wants to improve ties with black Africa, had tried unsuccessfully to persuade Mr. Botha not to ask for official meeting during his stay. Prime Minister
Shimon Peres would not see the visiting Minister. The visit is officially described as private but Mr. Botha was met at the airport by Mr. Shamir last night.

1984 5 November - 6 November    
A two-day general strike by black workers in the country's industrial heartland was called by anti-apartheid groups in protest
of living conditions for blacks under the apartheid system.


1984 5 November - 6 November    
There were a number of stayaways from work called in 1984. The major stayaway occurred on 5 and 6 November when 500 000 workers and 400 000 students stayed away.


1984 7 November    
Five more people died in overnight violence in South African townships bringing the death toll during a two-day strike by black
workers to 21, police and transport officials said.

1984 8 November     Security police today raided the offices of the United Democratic Front.


1984 9 November    
Following pressure from township residents, resignations have occurred among black municipal councillors.

1984 9 November    
South African police detained at least eight people after a two-day black workers' strike.


1984 14 November    
South Africa:Signs international telecommunications treaty.

In a continued attempt to forestall further unrest, the authorities arrest
several leading trade union activists belonging to organizations affiliated to the UDF.

1984 16 November    
Police arrested 2,300 people in the black township of Sebokeng in what was believed to be the biggest raid against blacks living in work hostels, authorities said today.

1984 17 November - 18 November    
The opposition PFP opens its membership to all races, despite the Prohibition of Political Interference Act which forbids mixed political parties. The Party leadership also votes to oppose military conscription now that the South African Army is being used regularly to suppress mounting black unrest. The decision draws strong opposition within the Party.

1984 18 November    
The Progressive Federal Party (FPP) decided to ignore a 1968 Act banning multi-racial membership in a single political grouping and open its ranks to anyone regardless of colour.


1984 21 November    
Demonstrations begin outside the South African Embassy in Washington, D.C. and continue on an almost daily basis as anti-apartheid protesters demand a stronger anti-South Africa policy from the United States government.

1984 21 November    
U.S. Congressman Walter Fauntroy and two other civil rights activists were arrested for sit-in at South African embassy in Washington. Transafrica established a "Free South Africa" movement to press for the release of 18 black strike leaders.

1984 21 November    
The South African Institute of Race Relations urged the lifting of a 24-year-old ban on the African National Congress (ANC).


1984 23 November    
South Africa:Signs multilateral agreement regulating the appointment of a Southern African tourism coordinator.

1984 26 November    
Cyril Ramaphosa, a lawyer and General Secretary of National Union of Mineworkers, was arrested in Lebowa, on charge of organising or planning to take part in a meeting in Namakgale. The local magistrate had banned meetings in the town.


1984 27 November    
250 persons demonstrated outside the South African embassy in Washington in protest against apartheid and President Reagan's
policy of constructive engagement. Charles Hayes, Black Congressman and Reverend Joseph Lowery, Baptist Minister were arrested for staging a sit-in at the embassy.


1984 29 November    
The NP retains three House of Assembly seats in by-elections, with reduced majorities, losing ground to right-wing parties opposed to the new Constitution.

1984 4 December    
Bishop Desmond Tutu, addressing a United States House of Representatives subcommittee, describes the policy of constructive engagement as immoral and evil and hostile to the conditions of blacks in South Africa.

1984 4 December    
Anti-apartheid demonstrations continued in front of the South African Embassy in Washington and spread to other US cities where South Africa has Consulates.


1984 5 December     Government Notice No 149:

Authorised the arrest and conviction of people found loitering within a municipal area.
Commenced: 5 December 1984

1984 10 December    
American President Reagan, in a speech made on International Human Rights Day, calls on the Pretoria government to engage in effective dialogue with the black population and to broaden the changes taking place, so as to address the aspirations of all South Africans.

1984 10 December    
Three leaders of the anti-apartheid United Democratic Front(UDF) and two officials of the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO) were freed from jail, the UDF and AZAPO said. South Africa announced the withdrawal of detention orders against 14 leading opponents of its racial discrimination policies but immediately charged six of them with treason. The six, including three men detained without trial after spending several weeks in the sanctuary of the British Consulate in Durban, led opposition to a new Constitution. Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Bishop Desmond Tutu in Oslo.

1984 12 December    
The three anti-apartheid activists still in the British Consulate in Durban, leave the building. A. Gumede and one other are immediately arrested and charged with treason.

1984 12 December    
Norway is to reprimanded three oil companies for selling Norwegian
crude to South Africa, an Oil Ministry spokesman said today. He said the reprimands would be part of a tough new Government policy on trade with South Africa. (REUTER-Oslo).
Two of the three anti-apartheid activists who ended a three-month sit-in at the British Consulate in Durban today were promptly arrested by police. A spokesman at police headquarters in Pretoria
said they would appear in court tomorrow on charges of high treason, which can carry the death penalty. (REUTER, AFP, EFE )

1984 13 December    
During the proceedings of the thirty-ninth regular session of the United Nations General Assembly, a series of seven resolutions on the theme of apartheid are adopted.

The United Nations Security Council reaffirms the mandatory arms embargo, and, for the first time requests that all states refrain from importing arms, ammunition and military vehicles produced in South Africa.

1984 13 December    
Two anti-apartheid activists arrested yesterday after they ended a three-month sit-in at the British Consulate appeared in court today charged with high treason. Their case was linked to that of six
other opponents of the Government who worked for organisations affiliated to the United Democratic Front (UDF). All eight face charges of treason, which can carry the death penalty, and alternative charges of contravening the Internal Security Act. All the men charged with treason opposed a new constitution introduced this year.

1984 27 December    
Swaziland and South Africa agree to exchange trade representatives who will have the same rights and privileges as diplomatic personnel.

1984 28 December    
It is announced that Colonel Hoare, the leader of the attempted Seychelles coup, will shortly be eligible for release from prison under a recent amnesty.

1985      
Worker organisation and power also take a major step forward with the formation of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU).

1985      
In 1985, the ANC called on township residents to make townships ungovernable

1985      
Another raid on Lesotho is followed by a coup. Jonathan Leabua’s administration falls.

1985      
Fietas, Johannesburg: Lenasia stages a mass community buss boycott in protest to the poor public transport facilities

1985      
South Africa repealed Mixed Marriages Act of 1949 and Immorality Act of 1957.


1985       Explosives Amendment Act No 30:

Widened the definition of explosives.
Commenced: 7 February 1986

1985      
National Security Second Amendment Act No 33:

Empowered the Attorney-General to prohibit the release on bail of people in seventy different cases (RRS 1985: 264-5).
Commenced: 23 August 1986.

1985      
Maintenance of Law and Order Act No 13:

Provided for state declaration of states of emergency and suppression of uprising. Repealed a number of South African Acts but not the 1953 Public Safety Act [SA]. This was not repealed until the 1995 State of Emergency Act [SA] was passed.
Commenced: 1 April 1986

1985       Gazankulu: Police Amendment Act No 5:
Commenced: 1 January 1984

1985      
KwaZulu: Wage and Basic Conditions of Employment Act No 9:
Commenced: 10 April 1987

1985      
KwaZulu: Tribal, Community and Regional Authorities Amendment Act No 20:
Commenced: 22 August 1986

1985      
KwaZulu Education Amendment Act No 17:

Empowered the Minister of Education and Culture to close schools and to suspend or transfer teachers.
Commenced: 1986

1985       Lebowa: Police Act No 6:
Commenced: 24 August 1979

1985       QwaQwa: Welfare Act No 10:
(Commencement date not found)

1985      
Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Incident which occurred on 21 March 1985 at Uitenhage Mandate: To investigate the circumstances surrounding the incident on the date mentioned, in which people were killed and injured, and to submit an urgent report.
Date of Report: 4 June 1985
Chair: KANNEMEYER, D.D.V.
Ref: RP 74-85; S297/103

1985      
Commission of Inquiry into the Violence which occurred on 29 October 1983 at the University of Zululand Mandate: To inquire into and report on the circumstances surrounding the violence at the University of Zululand on 29 October 1983.
Date of Report: February 1985
Chair: MIDDLETON, A.J.
Ref: RP 80/1985


1985      
1985 was the 30th anniversary of the Freedom Charter.

In the better half of the year the ANC was visited by businessmen, students, the Progressive Federal Party and clergyman from South Africa.

There were 136 incidents of guerrilla activity.

This was 34% more than all the incidents in the last 10 years.

Clashes occurred between supporters of the UDF, Azapo and Inkatha throughout the year.

Since September 1984, damage as a result of political violence amounted to R138 million.

1986 marked the centenary of Johannesburg. The Community Support Committee was formed to oppose centenary projects.

Consumer boycotts of white business began early in the year in the Eastern Cape and later spread country-wide.

South African troops attacked South West African Peoples Organisation's targets 250 km inside Angola.

The right-wing Herstigte Nationale Party won its first parliamentary seat in 17 years.


1985      
State of Emergency. COSAS is banned.
The Soweto Parents Crisis Committee (SPCC) is formed to address the education crisis.

1985 5 January    
Senator Edward Kennedy pays an eight-day visit to South Africa.

1985 25 January    
Opening parliament, President Botha announces that government intends giving blacks more political rights such as those living outside their designated ‘homelands’ and an informal forum where black leaders can discuss changes. Also giving blacks property rights to those living in urban areas.

1985 30 January    
The South African Medical and Postal Council is ordered to hold an inquiry into the conduct of doctors what, treated the Black Consciousness Leader, Steve Biko, who died at the hands of the security police in 1977.

1985 31 January    
Foreign Minister ‘Pik’ Botha denies South African support for RENAMO and that South Africa is committed to the Nkomati Accord of 1984.

President P.W. Botha offers a release proposal to jailed ANC leader Nelson Mandela.

In an address to the Foreign Correspondents Association, Minister of Cooperation and Development, Dr. Gerrit Viljoen announces that the forced removal of blacks will be suspended and government is to review this policy.

1985 5 February    
Foreign Minister ‘P1k’ Botha accuses Botswana of harbouring ANC guerrillas

1985 10 February    
Nelson Mandela, jailed ANC leader, turns down offer of release made to him by President Botha on 31 January.

1985 15 February    
President Botha announces that his offer of release to Nelson Mandela still stands and that government is prepared to talk to the ANC if it renounces violence. Four Pan-Africanist Congress security prisoners take up an offer of release and three other ANC prisoners reject this offer in a six-page memorandum submitted to President Botha.

1985 18 February    
Top leadership officials of the United Democratic Front (UDF) are arrested. Of the thirteen detained, six are to be charged for high treason

1985 21 February    
Government announces ninety-nine year leasehold rights for blacks in three Cape Town townships in order to stop the riots over the policy of forced removal in that region.

1985 9 March     Venda Police Act No 4:

Created a police service and granted policing powers of search and seizure.
Commenced: 9 March 1985

1985 20 March    
Dr. Allan Boesak who is President of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches, is exonerated by his church for having had an extra-marital affair with a white woman and allowed to resume his official duties.

1985 21 March    
At least seventeen people are killed in Langa, a black township near Port Elizabeth, during a commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Sharpevil]e massacre. Government appoints a Commission of Inquiry into this massacre, chaired by Justice D. Kannemeyer.

1985 21 March     Uitenhage massacre: 19 killed when police shot at funeral procession.

1985 21 March     20 people were shot dead by the police in Uitenhage, Port Elizabeth

1985 25 March    
In an important policy shift, South Africa’s Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Louis NeI, discloses that his government is seeking ways to cooperate with FRELIMO in Mozambique to eliminate the rebel RENAMO.

1985 April    
At its third congress, the United Democratic Front agrees to establish closer links with the trade union movement and to increase its presence in rural areas. Popo Molefe, Patrick Lekota and Moses Chikana, three key UDF officials are arrested under security laws.

1985 April    
The government announced in April that it will repeal the Mixed Marraiges Act, the Prohibition of Political Interference Act and the Immorality Act.

1985 1 April     Prisons Act No 3:

Provided for prisons and prison protocol.
Commenced: 1 April 1985

1985 4 April    
South Africa:Signs treaty with Taiwan relating to co-operation in mineral and energy affairs.

1985 15 April    
South Africa’s Foreign Minister announces that South African troop withdrawal from Angola is to be completed within a week.

1985 19 April    
President Botha outlines proposals to improve the lot of blacks. Amongst these are property rights and political representation for urban blacks and future dual citizenship rights to ‘homeland’ blacks.

1985 24 April    
Foreign Minister ‘Pik’ Botha announces in Parliament that South Africa and Mozambique are to establish joint operational centres on their borders to fully implement the Nkomati Accord.

1985 30 April    
The Rand Daily Mail, a leading anti-apartheid newspaper, ceases publication.

1985 May    
Sipho Mutsi of the Congress of South African Students dies during police
custody and Andries Raditsela, an executive member of the Federation of South African Trade Unions dies hours after charges under the Internal Security Act are withdrawn against him.

The ruling National Party wins a parliamentary seat in Newton Park and provincial council seats in the Orange Free State and Eastern Cape.

1985 May    
In May trade unionist Andries Raditsela died a few hours after being released from detention.

1985 7 May - 10 May    
International Conference on Women and Children under Apartheid, Arusha, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with OAU and the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania.


1985 7 May - 10 May    
International Conference on Women and Children under Apartheid, Arusha, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with OAU and the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania.

1985 16 May - 18 May    
International Conference on Sports Boycott against South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Supreme Council on Sports in Africa and the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee.

1985 16 May - 18 May    
International Conference on Sports Boycott against South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with the Supreme Council on Sports in Africa and the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee.



1985 25 May    
The Prohibition of Political Interference Act which bans racially mixed political parties, is to be repealed. June 1985 The Kannemeyer Commission of Inquiry into the Langa shootings of 21 March 1985, blames the police for the events leading to the shooting.

1985 June    
Kabwe Conference of ANC. "Marxist Workers' Tendency, formed in 1979, expelled from ANC.

1985 June    
South African troops attacked Botswana: 8 South Africans and 4 others were killed.

1985 June    
The African National Congress had its first consultative conference since 1969 in Zambia.

In June a raid on Gaborone, Botswana by the SADF resulted in the death of 15 people.

At least 11 political activists were either killed by unknown assailants or went missing.

1985 1 June    
South Africa:Signs agreement with Swaziland on the issue of notes and coin.

1985 14 June    
ANC bases in Gaborone, Botswana, are attacked by South African commanders. At least fifteen people are killed.

1985 16 June - 25 June     Second national consultative conference of ANC in Zambia.

1985 19 June    
Immorality and Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act No 72:

Repealed s 16 of the 1957 Sexual Offences Act.
Commenced: 19 June 1985

1985 25 June    
At its conference held in Lusaka, Zambia, the ANC opens its national executive committee to all race groups by appointing five Indian, White and Coloured people to the committee.

1985 30 June     John Nyati Pokela, PAC chairman dies in Harare.

1985 July    
A state of emergency is declared over many parts of the country. It lasted for six months.

1985 July    
A Dutch subject, Klaas de Jong, is detained under the Internal Security Act for distributing arms and ammunition to the ANC. He seeks refuge in the Dutch Embassy in Pretoria.

1985 July    
The value of the rand dropped to below US$ 0.40c. Foreign exchange dealings were suspended for three days in July.

1985 1 July     Minor cabinet changes are made.

1985 2 July    
Constitutional Affairs Amendment Act No 104:

Amended the 1968 Prohibition of Political Interference Act to allow non-racial political parties. Separate voters’ rolls remained. However, s 3, which prohibited a political party from receiving foreign financial assistance, was re-enacted with technical amendments. The 1968 Act was also renamed to the ‘Prohibition of Foreign Financing of Political Parties Act’ (RRS 1985: 57).
Commenced: 2 July 1985
Repealed by s 230 of the Constitution of Republic of South Africa Act No 200 of 1993.

1985 5 July    
Two white medical doctors are found guilty of misconduct by the Medical Council in the 1977 death of Black Consciousness leader, Steve Biko.

1985 7 July     Government Notice No 76:

Provided for emergency regulations for the maintenance of law and order.
Commenced: 7 July 1985

1985 10 July    
Four British men are jailed for conspiring to smuggle military component into South Africa.

1985 20 July    
20 July midnight: State of emergency declared in terms of Public Safety Act No 3 of 1953, affected 36 magisterial districts.
Regulations (Proc R 121 of 1985) were amended as follows:
•The power to detain was extended to every member of the police, railways police, prisons and army.
•Detainees had no right to visitors or a lawyer, nor were they entitled to receive letters or any reading material other than the Bible.
•No member of the force could be brought to account, by civil suit or criminal charge, for unlawful actions in carrying out emergency laws.
•It became a crime to disclose the identity of any detainee without prior disclosure by the Minister of Law and Order.
•The Commissioner of Police was authorised to impose blanket censorship on press coverage of the emergency.
•The Minister of Law and Order was empowered to ban organisations, individuals, or publications which were ‘calculated to endanger the security of the State or the maintenance of public order’.

Courts were denied jurisdiction to set aside any order or rule issued under emergency regulations.

1985 21 July    
State of Emergency is declared affecting the Eastern Cape. Johannesburg and industrial areas east of Johannesburg.

1985 - 1986 21 July - 7 March    
A state of emergency was declared by the state president and it affected 36 magisterial districts. He withdrew the proclamation on 7 March 1986.

During the first six months 575 people were killed in political violence incidents during the state of emergency. More than half were killed by the police.


7 200 people were detained under emergency regulations.

1985 23 July     State of Emergency declared in much of the country.

1985 25 July     Indemnity Act No 31:

Indemnified the Ciskei administration against any court proceedings arising from their actions.
Commenced: 25 July 1985

1985 26 July    
The Security Council urged Member States to adopt a wide range of economic measures against South Africa. The resolution was, however, not binding on Member States. [resolution 569]

1985 26 July     Defence Amendment Act No 11:

Incorporated the Department of Defence into the Ciskei defence legislation.
Commenced: 26 July 1985

1985 August    
A march to Pollsmoor prison, where a message of solidarity is to be delivered to Nelson Mandela, is prevented by the government. The message is eventually read out at a press conference by Dorothy Boesak, wife of Dr. Allan Boesak, who had called the march. He was detained to prevent him from leading it.

1985 August    
In August clashes between protesters, impis, resident and the police leave 70 dead and 140 injured in urban townships.

The Congress of South African Students was banned in August.


The government freeze foreign loan payments.

The USA imposed limited sanctions against South Africa in August

1985 15 August     President Botha, leader of the National Party, takes a hardline stance at the party’s Natal congress.

1985 16 August    
In response to President Botha’s hardline speech at the party’s Natal congress, the president of the ANC, Oliver Tambo, reaffirms in Lusaka, that the armed struggle will be intensified and whites will lose their lives and property.

1985 23 August     National Security Amendment Act No 24:

Empowered the Minister of Justice to lift banning orders.
Commenced: 23 August 1985

1985 23 August     Repeal of Laws Act No 22:

Further eliminated legislation adopted from South Africa.
Commenced: 23 August 1985

1985 30 August    
Government Notice No 109:

Gave power to a district commissioner or non-commissioned officer of the Transkeian Police, or a chief having jurisdiction in respect of a place where a meeting is held, to cancel such a meeting and/or impose conditions to be adhered to.
Commenced: 30 August 1985

1985 September    
At the National Party Congress in the Orange Free State, President Botha announces the government’s willingness to restore South African citizenship to blacks deprived of it under the policy of separate development.

1985 September     South Africa suspended repayments of its short-term debts.

1985 September    
In September the Metal and Allied Workers Union launched a boycott of white shops in Pietermaritzburg to pressurise BTR Samcol into reinstating their workers.

In September Inkatha and the Progressive Federal Party hosted a meeting to form the Convention Alliance. Both organisations later withdrew from the steering committee.

1985 16 September    
South Africa and Namibian Security Forces cross into Angola in pursuit of SWAPO forces.

1985 21 September    
A Convention Alliance is launched to promote the idea of a national convention to formulate a democratic and multi-racial constitution.

1985 27 September    
In anticipation of a national day of prayer on 9 October, the government outlaws gatherings and meetings.

1985 October    
Dr. Benjamin Tucker is struck off the roll for disgraceful conduct over the death in detention of Black Consciousness leader Steve Biko in September.

1985 October     The Soweto and Parents Crisis Committee was formed in October.

1985 9 October    
General Constand Viljoen, Chief of South Africa’s Armed Forces admits on television that the military, without the government authority, has flaunted the Nkomati Accord by supporting RENAMO.

1985 9 October    
General Constand Viljoen, Chief of South Africa’s Armed Forces admits on television that the military, without the government authority, has flaunted the Nkomati Accord by supporting RENAMO.

1985 9 October    
General Constand Viljoen, Chief of South Africa’s Armed Forces admits on television that the military, without the government authority, has flaunted the Nkomati Accord by supporting RENAMO.

1985 13 October    
The PFP meets the ANC in Lusaka and calls for the release of Nelson Mandela.

1985 13 October    
The PFP meets the ANC in Lusaka and calls for the release of Nelson Mandela.

1985 18 October     Benjamin Moloise - worker, poet and member of ANC - executed.


1985 31 October    
The ruling National Party loses a string of by-elections to the ultra-right parties with the exception of Port Natal.

1985 November     COSATU formed.

1985 1 November    
Government bans television coverage of unrest in black townships in the thirty-eight magisterial districts where the State of Emergency is in force, except with permission from the Commissioner of Police. Curbs on newspaper reports are also imposed.

1985 3 November     South Africa:Signs multilateral treaty on radio regulations.

1985 4 November    
In a cabinet reshuffle, Louis le Grange, Minister of Law and Order, is replaced by Adriaan Vlock, Deputy Minister of Defence and Law and Order.

1985 8 November    
The National Key Points Act No 26:

Aimed at tightening up security following sabotage in Umtata.
Commenced: 8 November 1985

The University of Transkei Amendment Act No 17:

Empowered the Transkei Minister of Education to veto, without giving reasons, the appointment of any person to a post at the University.
Commenced: 8 November 1985


1985 21 November    
South Africa:Signs multilateral agreement on the control of pollution of water resources in the Southern African region.

1985 28 November    
Two strategic oil-from-coal plants based in Secunda are attacked by saboteurs.

1985 30 November    
The Congress of South African Trade Unions was formed with a membership of 500 000.

1985 December     A shopping centre in Amanzimtoti, Natal, is bombed.

1985 December    
In December Inkatha said its membership was now over a million people.

Twelve UDF treason trialists were acquitted in December.

Six people died in a landmine explosion in the Northern Transvaal in December.

A bomb in a shopping centre in Amanzimtoti near Durban killed five people.


1985 9 December    
Twelve of the sixteen UDF members, charged with treason, have these withdrawn.

1985 10 December    
The General Assembly adopted and opened for signature the International Convention against Apartheid in Sports.


1985 10 December    
General Assembly adopted and opened for signature the International Convention against Apartheid in Sports.

1985 20 December    
Internal Security Amendment Act No 39:

Empowered the President to close certain educational institutions in certain circumstances (notably circumstances of unrest etc.), in particular the University of Bophuthatswana.
Commenced: 20 December 1985

1985 20 December    
Security Clearance Act No 40:

Required security clearance of people as a prerequisite to their employment in certain educational or training institutions and certain parastatal bodies.
Commenced: 20 December 1985


1985 30 December    
Winnie Mandela is arrested for contravening a banning order prohibiting her from being in the magisterial district of Johannesburg and Roodepoort.

1985 31 December    
Government extended orders, in force since March, prohibiting anti-government groups from holding meetings, for another six months.
Initially, they affected 29 organisations in 18 districts. In June they were extended to 64 organisations and 30 districts.
Now 10 more groups linked to UDF and AZAPO were added.

1986       Sisulu visits with Mandela; Mandela ill

1986      
By 1986, the ANC, with headquarters in Lusaka, London, and New York, had taken on the key role position of any future black regime. ANC recruits at military camps were influenced by Russian and East German instructors, and the practice of sending ANC students to Russia on scholarships was having a visible effect on the ideological leanings of the younger leaders. Consequently, in its struggle to achieve its aim, the ANC appeared less concerned about ideological arguments, more with change in tactics. Through Radio Freedom it announced a ‘Peoples' War' calling on members to incite local violence to make the country ungovernable. But those who joined in promoting violence faced the ascending role of the South African military.

1986      
the Reagan administration found itself caught in the divisive sanctions debate. In an effort to influence the struggle out of revolutionary channels into political discussions, it increased its policy of constructive engagement to include all the main participants in the South African cauldron of politics. At the same time, it continued to express its disapproval of the violent methods used by the ANC and the degree of Soviet involvement in it.

1986      
Andrew Zondo, who was responsible for the 1985 Amanzimtoti bomb is hanged.

1986      
Restoration of South African Citizenship Act No 73:

Granted South African citizenship to TBVC citizens who were born in South Africa prior to their homeland’s independence or who resided in South Africa permanently. TBVC citizens who remained in South Africa temporarily while seeking employment, working, studying or visiting and whose permanent home was one of the TBVC areas remained ‘aliens’ (RRS 1986: 94-5). Citizenship was restored to about 1 751 400 TBVC citizens, but eight to nine million still remained subject to the provisions of the 1937 Aliens Act. There was, however, according to Budlender (1989: 4), no official attempt to enforce this new migrant labour system.
Commenced: 1 July 1985
Repealed by s 7 of the Restoration and Extension of South African Citizenship Act No 196 of 1993.

1986       Gazankulu: Labour Regulations Repeal Act No 4:
Commenced: 6 February 1987

1986       KaNgwane: Labour Relations Repeal Act No 6:
Commenced: 25 June 1987

1986       KwaZulu: National Welfare Act No 9:
Commenced: 24 July 1987

1986       Alexandra exploded several times, with more than 30 people killed.

1986      
The National Education Crisis Committee (NECC) is formed.

The movement for People's Education grows. A further State of Emergency is called.

The Private Schools Act is made into law. This Act officially allows racially mixed private schools.

1986      
Brigitte Mabandla becomes legal advisor to ANC Legal and Constitutional Affairs Department.

Zubeida Jaffer detained for editing community and trade papers.

Winnie Mandela returns to her home, becomes active in ANC politics.Her opposition to the Botha regime earns her the title “Mother of the Nation.”

1986      
Sister Bernard Ncube is detained,and spends three months in solitary confinement. Sister Ncube’s detentions evoke international condemnation.

1986 January    
Soweto pupils return to school in January in response to a call from the Soweto Parents Crisis' Committee

167 people died in political violence in January.

1986 7 January    
South Africa’s foreign minister ‘Pik’ Botha warns Botswana to take action against ANC operations in its country.

The ANC in exile in Lusaka, calls on its supporters to take the struggle into white areas.

1986 20 January    
Twenty-two black South Africans appear in the Delmas Court for allegedly attempting to overthrow the government.

1986 25 January    
Sixty ANC refugees are airlifted out of Lesotho to counter South Africa’s threat of a blockade against that country.

1986 31 January    
In his opening speech to Parliament, President Botha outlines government policy on the restoration of South African citizenship to blacks, their involvement in decision-making, freehold property rights and uniform identity documents for all population groups. could become president of South Africa.

1986 February    
In February the leader of the Progressive Federal Party resigned from Parliament because he said Parliament is incapable of bringing about the desired reforms.


1986 7 February    
Dr. Frederick van Zyl Slabbert, leader of the opposition PFP, resigns from parliamentary politics.

1986 25 February    
South Africa and Botswana agree to take steps preventing ANC operatives from using Botswana as a transit base into South Africa.

1986 March     COSATU held discussions with ANC and SACTU in Lusaka.

1986 March    
At the National Education Crisis Committee meeting in March it is resolved that the boycott of schools should end.

1986 7 March    
The State of Emergency imposed on 21 July 1985 lifted.

The South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU), the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the ANC issue a joint statement in Lusaka, reiterating their commitment to overthrow white supremacy in South Africa.

1986 7 March     State of emergency lifted (RRS 1985: 455).


1986 7 March     The state of emergency is lifted on 7 March.

1986 8 March    
Moses Mabhida, General Secretary of the South African Communist Party, dies in Maputo.

1986 12 March    
The Eminent Persons Group meets imprisoned ANC leader, Nelson Mandela.

1986 13 March     South Africa:Signs multilateral Wheat Trade Convention.

1986 14 March    
On 14 March, 14 people have been killed since the lifting of the state of emergency.

Since September 1984 to March 1986, 1 416 people have died. March had the highest monthly figure of 171.

1986 26 March    
South Africa and Lesotho issue a joint statement that their respective territories are not to be used for acts of terrorism against each other.

1986 April    
South African Communist Party leader Moses Mabhida, is buried in Maputo, Mozambique in April.

Representatives of 34 organisations attend the Kwazulu-Natal Indaba to discuss regional representation in April. The UDF and National Forum Committee refuse to attend.

A journalist Mr. Lucky Kutumela, died in detention in Lebowa in April. A week later Peter Nchabeleng died in the same police station.

In April there is a complete stay-away of black workers in White River and Nelspruit. The boycott of white shops in Port Elizabeth is re-imposed.

1986 14 April    
Bishop Desmond Tutu is appointed head of the Anglican Church of South Africa.

1986 17 April     Internal Security Amendment Act No 5:

Granted further control over illegal gatherings.
Commenced: 17 April 1986

1986 17 April    
Special Offences Act No 6:

Made it an offence to possess a tyre or similar object, or any inflammable liquid, in circumstances in which it could be inferred that such things could be used to commit an offence.
Commenced: 17 April 1986

1986 18 April    
South Africa:Signs bilateral monetary agreement with Lesotho.

Signs trilateral agreement amending monetary agreement between South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, dated 5 December 1974.

Signs monetary agreement with Swaziland.

1986 1 May     KwaNdebele: Police Act No 11:
Commenced: 1 May 1987

1986 19 May    
South African commandos air strike alleged guerrilla targets in Zambia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, jeopardizing the Eminent Persons Group (EPG) mission to South Africa.

1986 22 May    
The multi-racial National Council, intended to negotiate a constitutional structure for South Africa, is unveiled.

1986 June     a national emergency was declared, that lasted until 1990.

1986 5 June    
South Africa:Signs treaty with Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe relative to the establishment of the Limpopo Basin Permanent Technical Committee.

1986 11 June    
Security Laws Amendment Act No 13:

Imposed imprisonment for up to ten years for disruption of any educational institution, unlawful strikes, boycotting of consumer goods, civil disobedience, obstruction of public places, or attending a restricted funeral.
Commenced: 11 June 1986

1986 12 June    
The Eminent Persons Group releases its report on South Africa.

Government declares a new State of Emergency and hundreds of The State drops the case against the remaining four charged with treason in the Pietermaritzburg Supreme Court.

1986 12 June     State of Emergency declared again - this time, all over the country.


1986 12 June    
Countrywide state of emergency declared in terms of the Public Safety Act No 3 of 1953.

Far-reaching regulations prevent the dissemination or publication of information relating to police conduct or any incidents categorised as ‘unrest’ incidents.
•Regulation 16 provided that the security forces were indemnified from prosecution or civil liability for unlawful acts committed in good faith.
•Regulation 16(3) attempted to exclude the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court to set aside regulations issued in terms of the Act.
•Regulation 10 provided for the prohibition of publication or dissemination of ‘subversive’ statements.

Numerous challenges to the regulations resulted in further amendments. Commissioners of Police were authorised to restrict township funerals, impose curfews, prohibit school pupils from being outside their classrooms during school hours and prohibit indoor gatherings by named organisations.

1986 16 June - 20 June    
World Conference on Sanctions against Racist South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the United Nations in cooperation with OAU and the Movement of Non-aligned Countries.

1986 16 June - 20 June    
World Conference on Sanctions against Racist South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the United Nations in co-operation with OAU and the Movement of Non-aligned Countries.

1986 24 June    
In Britain, Foreign Office Minister Lynda Chalker, meets Oliver Tambo, president of the ANC.

1986 26 June    
Public Safety Amendment Act No 67:

Allowed for any area to be declared an ‘unrest area’ by the Minister of Law and Order, thus avoiding the negative consequences of declaring a national state of emergency. Denied the Supreme Court the jurisdiction to set aside any regulations in terms of the Act.
Commenced: 26 June 1986
Repealed by s 4 of the State of Emergency Act No 86 of 1995.

1986 July    
The Transkei, Kangwane and
KwaNdebele ‘homelands’ are plagued by violence and Piet Ntuli, Home Affairs Minister for KwaNdebele, is killed in a bomb explosion.

The European Community Mission under the leadership of British Foreign Secretary, Sir Geoffrey Howe, pays a weeklong visit to South Africa to assess the situation.

1986 1 July    
Influx control restrictions lifted and passes to be replaced by a uniform identity document for all population groups.

1986 1 July    
Abolition of Influx Control Act No 68:

Amended the 1927 Black Administration Act in order to repeal sections relating to the removal of black communities as well as individual black persons (RRS 1986: 339).
Commenced: 1 July 1986
IN FORCE: LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

1986 1 July    
Abolition of Influx Control Act No 68:

Amended the 1927 Black Administration Act in order to repeal sections relating to the removal of black communities as well as individual black persons (RRS 1986: 339).
Commenced: 1 July 1986
IN FORCE: LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

1986 1 July    
Identification Act No 72:

Repealed the 1952 Blacks (Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act and large portions of the 1950 Population Registration Act (RRS 1986: 338). Identity numbers would no longer reflect a person’s race group in terms of the 1950 Population Registration Act or any other law (RRS 1986: 7).
Commenced: 1 July 1986
IN FORCE (as amended by the Identification Amendment Act No 47 of 1995: CENSUS AND STATISTICS.

1986 1 July     Government Notice No 72:

Defined curfew regulations.
Commenced: 1 July 1986

1986 7 July    
After enduring more than twenty years of government banning, Winnie Mandela is freed of all state-ordered restriction.

1986 31 July    
South Africa:Signs treaty with Zimbabwe regarding the amendment of the trade agreement of 30 November 1964.

1986 August    
Zephania Mthopeng is elected President of the PAC.

South African intelligence forces raid Swaziland in search of ANC activists.

1986 August     Beginning of violence in Natal between Inkatha and UDF supporters.

1986 1 August    
Elite Unit Act No 18:

Established an intelligence organisation which could investigate almost anything.
Commenced: 1 August 1986

National Key Points Act No 16:

Empowered the Minister of Defence to declare any premises a ‘national key point’. Such premises could not be destroyed.
Commenced: 1 August 1986

1986 12 August    
At the Federal Congress of the National Party, President Botha outlines six proposals for discussion with the United States, Britain, France, West Germany and neighbouring African states.

KwaNdebele ‘homeland’ rejects independence.

1986 13 August    
At the National Party Federal Congress, Chris Heunis, Minister of Constitutional Development and Planning, outlines plans for the creation of a black electorate to choose leaders to be represented on a National Statutory Council which will play a role in power sharing. Government also consider establishing independent ‘city states’.

1986 26 August    
Internal Security Amendment Act No 66:

Created a new section 50(a) of the 1982 Internal Security Act to allow for continued detention for a period of 180 days on the authorisation of a policeman at or above the rank of lieutenant colonel, if he was of the opinion that such detention would contribute to the ‘termination, combating or prevention of public disturbance, disorder, riot or public violence at any place within the Republic’.
Commenced: 26 August 1986
Repealed by s 33 of the Internal Security and Intimidation Amendment Act No 138 of 1991.

1986 1 September     QwaQwa: Labour Regulations Repeal Act No 7:
Commenced: 1 September 1986

1986 5 September     KwaNdebele: Labour Regulations Repeal Act No 3:
Commenced: 5 September 1986

1986 8 September     Diplomatic office of ANC in Stockholm bombed.

1986 9 September    
Three ANC members are executed, amongst them Andrew Zondo, who bombed a shopping centre in Amanzimtoti, Natal, in December 1985.

1986 9 September    
Sipho Xulu, Clarence Payi and Andrew Zondo - members of ANC and Umkhonto - executed.

1986 15 September    
Black Communities Development Amendment Act No 74:

Introduced freehold rights in urban black townships and extended the definition of ‘competent person’ such that TBVC citizens could acquire leasehold or ownership (Budlender 1989: 5). The 1984 Black Communities Development Act was amended to allow ‘South African’ citizens and certain other blacks to acquire freehold property rights in black townships (RRS 1986: 343).
Commenced: 15 September 1986
Repealed by s 72 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991.

Both the above Acts introduced freedom of movement for South African citizens (i.e. excluding the TBVC states) (RRS 1986: 343). However, according to the South African Institute of Race Relations, ‘shifting the basis of discrimination from race to foreign nationality would fool nobody’ (RRS 1986: 343). According to the Black Sash, about 7.5 million TBVC citizens who did not have urban residence rights in South Africa remained aliens in ‘South Africa’ (i.e. South Africa excluding the TBVC states) (RRS 1986: 344).

1986 16 September    
The European Economic Community (EEC) imposes sanctions against South Africa, coal being the exception.

1986 26 September     Defence Act No 17:

Established a Ciskei defence force.
Commenced: 26 September 1986

1986 30 September    
President Botha retires as leader of the Cape Division of the National Party.

1986 October     Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act adopted by the USA.

1986 4 October     CUSA/ZACTU merger to form NACTU.

1986 19 October    
Death of President Samora Machel of Mozambique in plane crash in South Africa.


1986 24 October    
South Africa:Signs treaty on Lesotho Highlands Water Project.

Exchange of notes with Lesotho regarding the privileges and immunities accorded to the members of the Joint Permanent Technical Commission

1986 4 November    
Oliver Tambo, who arrived in Moscow at head of a delegation of ANC, met Michael Gorbachev, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee.

1986 27 November     Three of the twenty-two Delmas trialists are freed.

1986 4 December    
Defence Amendment Act:

Dealt mainly with various ways of combating terrorism.
Commenced: 4 December 1986

1987      
Sisulu has a discussions with Mandela regarding meetings with government.

1987       Release of Govan Mbeki. Speculation about Walter's release.

1987      
1987 saw the highest number of strikes ever, including a strike by over 300,000 mineworkers.

1987      
Joe Slovo resigned his post as a chief of staff of Mkhonto, giving rise to speculation that he would concentrate on the labour movement in South Africa. At this time, confusing reports from London and Washington showed a contradictory shift of position at the top. Much international publicity was given to ANC president Oliver Tambo's more conciliatory comments on the occasion of the ANC's 57th anniversary address, when he indicated that the military wing would not deliberately attack civilian targets. On the other hand, Joe Modise, the banned military commander of Mkhonto we Sizwe, told Agence France-Press the ANC was planning to take the war into white households.

1987      
The Electoral Amendment Act No 8:

Stipulated that no person could be nominated as an election candidate without being a registered member of the Venda National Party.

1987       Gazankulu: Civil Protection Act No 5:
Commenced: 25 April 1988

1987       KwaNdebele: Civil Defence Act No 7:
Commenced: 12 February 1988

1987      
The KwaZulu Act on the Tracing and Detention of Offences:

Empowered the KwaZulu Police and South African Police to detain without warrant, for the purposes of interrogation and for a period of up to ninety days, any person suspected by the police of intending to commit or having committed a crime.
Commenced: 1987

1987       QwaQwa: Education Act No 7:
Commenced: 1 July 1988

1987       People’s education material is banned from DET schools.

1987      
Zubeida Jaffer heads Media Department at University of the Western Cape.

1987 8 January    
At the ANC’s seventy-fifth anniversary, its President Oliver Tambo rules out negotiations with the South African government and declares 1987 ‘the year of advance to people’s power’.

1987 9 January    
Security police raid English-language newspapers seizing documents related to an advertisement calling for the legalising of the ANC.

A bomb explodes in a major departmental store in the centre of Johannesburg.

1987 20 January    
The Margo Commission of Inquiry into the death of President Samora Machel has its first hearing in Johannesburg.

1987 28 January    
United States Secretary of State, George Shultz, meets ANC leader, Oliver Tambo, in Washington, D.C.

1987 19 February     President Lennox Sebe of the Ciskei escapes an assassination attempt.

1987 March    
Joe Slovo resigns as Chief of Staff of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the ANC.

1987 16 March    
The International Commission of Jurists states in its report that children are being tortured by security forces.

1987 18 March    
Israel freezes military contracts and imposes cultural and tourism sanctions on South Africa.

1987 22 March    
Archbishop Desmond Tutu meets the ANC in Zambia and fails to convince the organization to abandon the armed struggle.

1987 30 March     The Republic of Venda Constitution Amendment Act No 4:

Had the effect of making Venda a one-party administration (s 24(1)).
Commenced: 30 March 1987

1987 5 April     Transkei deports white Selous Scout mercenaries.

1987 10 April    
Ciskei, Transkei and South Africa sign a security pact forbidding cross-border violence.

1987 16 April    
The Security Council called upon South African authorities to revoke the decree of 10 April prohibiting protests against detention without trial.


1987 30 April    
South Africa:Signs an agreement with Lesotho in regard to the establishment of trade missions.

1987 May    
South African agents attack ANC offices and safe houses in Maputo and Harare.

Major urban areas hit by a wave of pre-election bomb blasts for which the ANC claims responsibility.

1987 6 May    
The ruling National Party wins the general election and the rightwing Conservative Party replaces the PFP as the official opposition in the white House of Assembly.

1987 7 May    
The COSATU building in Johannesburg is seriously damaged by two bomb blasts.

1987 18 May     Walter Sisulu celebrates 75th birthday.

1987 4 June     President Botha visits Sharpeville.

1987 5 June    
Electoral Amendment Act No 7:

Provisions of section 16(a) allowed for the refusal of registration to political parties. Parties could be disqualified if their object was deemed to be ‘hostile to the state’.
Commenced: 5 June 1987

1987 11 June     The year old State of Emergency renewed.

1987 11 June    
State of emergency declared Regulations governed security, media and black education. Initial period of detention extended from fourteen to thirty days.

1987 11 June     State of emergency declared in South Africa .

1987 16 June     Concludes a reciprocal radio agreement with the Republic of Chile.

1987 24 June     Government Notice No 68:

Repealed curfew regulations.
Commenced: 24 June 1987

1987 30 June     Proclamation No 8:

Declared a state of emergency in Transkei.
Commenced: 30 June 1987

1987 July    
Key African ANC personnel are assassinated in South Africa’s neighbouring states. Amongst them is Cassius Make and Paul Dikeledi, both killed in Swaziland.

1987 1 July    
Eight multi-racial Regional Services Councils are established to provide basic services, such as water and electricity.

The Reverend Frank Chikane succeeds the Reverend C.F. Beyers Naudé as head of the South African Council of Churches.

1987 6 July    
A new black party, the Federal Independent Democratic Alliance (FIDA) is launched to oppose apartheid and prepares to work with the government.

1987 9 July    
The Margo Commission of Inquiry into the death of President Samora Machel releases its findings. The plane carrying him crashes due to pilot error and negligence and was not lured off course by a decoy beacon as alleged by the Soviets and Mozambicans.

1987 9 July - 12 July    
Sixty-one white South Africans, mainly from the Afrikaans community, meet the ANC in Dakar, in search of a democratic alternative for South Africa. Eric Mntonga, an IDASA official, who organized this meeting, is found stabbed to death.

1987 10 July    
Ratifies the Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; also ratifies Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident.

1987 20 July    
Signs an agreement with the Federal Islamic Republic of the Comores relating to the basic conditions governing the secondment of officials to, and the recruitment of other personnel by South Africa on behalf of the government of the Republic of the Comores.

1987 26 July    
Prominent anti-apartheid activists are arrested. Amongst them is Azhar Cachalia, national treasurer of the United Democratic Front (UDF).

1987 30 July     A bomb explodes outside the headquarters of the South African Defence Force, injuring soldiers and civilians.

1987 31 July - 3 August    
International Student Conference in Solidarity with the Struggle of the Students of Southern Africa, London.

1987 31 July - 3 August    
International Student Conference in Solidarity with the Struggle of the Students of Southern Africa, London.

1987 14 August     Reverend Allan Hendricks, a cabinet minister, resigns from government.

1987 4 September     KwaNdebele: Public Safety Act No 5:
Commenced: 4 September 1987

1987 7 September    
An intricate prisoner exchange takes place in Maputo, involving 133 Angolan soldiers, anti-apartheid activists, Klaas de Jonge, a Dutch anthropologist, Pierre Andre Albertini, a French university lecturer and Major Wynand du Toit, a South African officer captured in Angola two years ago.

1987 11 September    
A revised National Statutory Council is released providing a forum for blacks to discuss policy and assist in drawing up a new constitution.

1987 13 September     Venda Border Extension Act No 31:

Included further territory into Venda.
Commenced: 13 September 1979

1987 23 September    
Signs treaty with Malawi providing for the training of nurses from Malawi in South Africa.

1987 24 September     Congress of Traditional Leaders of South Africa is launched to articulate the interests of tribal chiefs and act as an extra-parliamentary opposition movement.

1987 27 September    
Oliver Tambo, President of the ANC denies that it is in contact with the South African government.

1987 October    
Chris Hani is appointed new Chief of Staff and Deputy Commander of Umkhonto we Sizwe.

1987 5 October    
President P.W. Botha decides against scrapping the Separate Amenities Act, but agrees that some residential areas can be opened to all races.

1987 6 October     ANC command structure in the Western Cape is arrested.

1987 12 October    
Wynand Malan a former National Party M.P. leads the newly formed Afrikaans dominated political party, the National Democratic Movement (NDM) which is to develop contacts with black politicians.

1987 5 November    
Govan Mbeki released from Robben Island after twenty-three years in prison.

1987 5 November - 7 November    
International Conference against Apartheid Sport, Harare, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Government of Zimbabwe, the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa, the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa, the Union of African Sports Confederations, SAN-ROC and the Zimbabwe National Olympic Committee.

1987 5 November - 7 November    
International Conference against Apartheid Sport, Harare, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with the Government of Zimbabwe, the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa, the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa, the Union of African Sports Confederations, SAN-ROC and the Zimbabwe National.

1987 6 November     Intelligence Service and State Security Council Act No 20:

Granted further powers to the security mechanisms.
Commenced: 6 November 1987

1987 1 December    
Signs an agreement with the USA regarding co-operation in the development, building, installation and operation of an integrated real-time global seismic data acquisition system.

1987 24 December     Gazankulu: Social Pensions Amendment Act No 7:
Commenced: 24 December 1987

1987 30 December     The Transkei military overthrows the administration of Stella Sigcau of the Transkei.

1987 30 December     Bloodless coup d’etat. Martial law declared
(SRR 1987/88: 936).

1987 31 December     Ratifies International Sugar Agreement.

1988      
The ANC executive's attitude to racialism, tribalism and sectarianism was made clear in the more specific constitutional guidelines it drafted for a multiparty democracy in South Africa.

1988      
Fietas, Johannesburg: 867 people are ‘reclassified’. The classification of non-white South Africans adhered to the following criteria: ‘Coolie’ – people of Indian, Asian and Middle Eastern descent, ‘Kaffir’ – African people, ‘Coloured’ – racially mixed South Africans.

The SPA and other extra-parliamentary groups condemn the Group Areas Amendment Bill. The Bill does not become law.

1988      
Gazankulu: Control of Access to Public Premises and Vehicles Act No 5:
Commenced: 20 January 1989

1988      
Gazankulu: Removal of Restrictions on Economic Activities Act No 15:
Commenced: 30 June 1989

1988       KaNgwane: Police Act No 4:
Commenced: 27 January 1989

Control of Access to Public Premises and Vehicles Act No 5:
Commenced: 15 February 1989

1988       KaNgwane: Local Authorities Act No 9:
Commenced: 17 March 1989

1988       KwaNdebele: Criminal Procedure Amendment Act No 8:
Commenced: 5 January 1989

1988       KwaNdebele: Mines and Works Amendment Act No 19:
Commenced: 28 July 1989

1988       QwaQwa: Labour Regulations Act No 13:
Commenced: 13 June 1989

1988       QwaQwa: Local Authorities Act No 18:
Commenced: 2 October 1989

1988      
Commission of Inquiry into alleged misappropriation of funds of the Lebowa Government Service Mandate: To inquire into, report on and make recommendations on-
a)the possible misappropriation of funds of the Lebowa Government Service by -
i)the financing of the erection of a house on the farm Majebaskraal and
ii)the granting of a loan to Kgosi L.C. Mothiba;
b) the methods employed and malpractices committed in connection with any irregularities or advantage accorded anyone, or any misappropriation the Commission may find;
c)steps to end such practices, and action to be taken against those involved.
Date of Report: 18 October 1988.
Chair: DEKKER, L.W.
Ref: RP 45-89; S291/141 (Bilingual)

1988       National Education Crisis Committee (NECC) is restricted.

1988 January    
Fierce fighting erupts between Angolan and South African forces for control of the strategic town of Cuito Cuanavale in Angola.

1988 6 January    
General Bantu Holomisa, who ousted Stella Sigcau in a coup appoints himself as the Transkei’s military and government chief.

1988 12 January    
Signs a medical co-operation treaty with the government of the Republic of China, providing advanced training for medical and nursing personnel.

1988 17 January    
Percy Qoboza, well-known anti-apartheid journalist and editor of The World newspaper, dies.

1988 31 January    
Allan Hendrickse, leader of the Labour Party, replaces Carter Ebrahim as Minister of Education and Culture in the House of Representatives.

1988 February    
President P.W. Botha opens Parliament and ignores the country’s domestic crisis in his opening address.

1988 10 February    
Bophuthatswana troops, led by Rocky Malebane-Metsing; fail to overthrow President Lucas Mangope.

1988 10 February    
South Africa sent troops to Bophuthatswana to reinstate Lucas Mangope who was ousted by local defence force members on charge of corruption.


1988 22 February    
Seventeen organisations effectively banned.
Two days later, 18 people were served with restriction orders.

1988 24 February    
Seventeen anti-apartheid organizations are banned, amongst them the Azanian People’s Organization and COSATU.

1988 24 February    
The State President amended the emergency regulations to allow the Minister of Law and Order to restrict the activities of organisations or people. Orders prohibiting organisations from performing any activities whatsoever could be gazetted (RRS 1987/88: 587).

1988 27 February    
Members of the Afrikaner Resistance Movement (AWB) march to Pretoria and call for a Volkstaat for the Afrikaner people.

1988 28 February     South African commandos raid Gaborone, in search of ANC members.

1988 29 February    
Reverend Desmond Tutu and others are arrested as they present a petition to Parliament.