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SOUTH AFRICAN HISTORY TIMELINES

1960s

The 1900s have been broken into decades

1960 1 January  
Minister of Bantu Education assumes control of University College of Fort Hare.African students are prohibited from attending formerly "open universities" except the University of South Africa and Natal Medical School.

1960 24 January  
Rioting by Africans in Cato Manor (Durban) results in the death of nine policemen. Commissioner of Police subsequently testifies that South African police are meeting increasing hostility from Africans in the routine performance of their duties. (New York Times)

1960 February  
The Pondoland Rebellion: an uprising of peasants in the Transkei

Protests and open rebellion breaks out in Pondoland.

Albert Luthuli warns White South Africans that resentment among Africans is building up.

1960 3 February  
British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan states in South African Parliament that Britain cannot support South Africa's racial policies.

1960 6 February  
Walter Sisulu attends a secret meeting of the ANC at Macosa house, Johannesburg, with Ahmed Kathrada.

1960 March  
The ANC announces that its anti-pass campaign will start at the end of March 1960.

1960 March - April   Nation-wide strikes in response to banning of the ANC.

1960 20 March   Rioting and arson in Pondoland.

1960 21 March  
At Sharpeville the police open fire on the unarmed and peaceful crowd, killing 69 and wounding 186.

Sharpeville Massacre: In the wake of Sharpeville, African students loyal to the African National Congress (ANC) establish the African Students' Association (ASA), PAC sympathising students form the African Students' Union of South Africa (ASUSA), and those loyal to the Non-European Unity Movement (NEUM) form other organisations in the Cape and Natal. However none of these organisations survives long, since identification with banned movements is hazardous, and university authorities are hostile to student political groups. Non-cooperation between peers in different student political groupings makes matters worse.

Police shooting at peaceful demonstrators in Sharpeville against Pass Laws for Africans: 69 men, women and children are killed and about 200 wounded.

The PAC mounts its anti-pass campaign. Police at Sharpeville open fire on peaceful protesters killing sixty-nine and injuring 180. In the Western Cape, police opens fire and two people are killed. The PAC retaliates by calling a work stoppage that lasts for two weeks. Ninety five percent of the workforce goes on strike. PAC youth takes control of the Cape Town townships of Langa and Nyanga, setting up roadblocks and distributing food. 30 000 residents of Black townships of Cape Town march on Caledon Square, led by Philip Kgosana, but the march is thwarted when Kgosana is tricked into calling it off on the promise of top level negotiations. The state calls in the military and the marines, the townships are cordoned off and the situation is brought under government control. A state of emergency is declared, thousands are arrested throughout the country and the ANC and PAC are declared banned organisations. Nelson Mandela is among those imprisoned.

The bloodiest massacre in the history of South Africa takes place in Sharpeville resulting in the Sharpeville Massacre

1960 22 March  
Hendrik Verwoerd tells the South African Parliament that the riots can in no way be described as a reaction against the Government's apartheid policy and has nothing to do with passes. Such disturbances are a periodic phenomenon and has nothing to do with poverty and low wages. He further states that his first duty is to thank the South African police for the courageous, efficient manner in which they handled the situation. The police at times found it difficult to control themselves, but they had done so in an exemplary manner. He announces that 132 members of the PAC, including Robert Sobukwe, are being held in Johannesburg and are to be charged with sedition.

1960 23 March  
Robert Sobukwe, President of the PAC and Kitchener Leballo, its national secretary, as well as 11 others are charged with incitement to riot.

1960 24 March  
The Government bans all public meetings of more than 12 persons until June 30 in an effort to disrupt the wave of protests against the pass laws.

1960 25 March  
Representatives of 29 African and Asian members request an urgent meeting of the Security Council to consider ,"the situation arising out of the large-scale killings of unarmed and peaceful demonstrators against racial discrimination and segregation in the Union of South Africa".

1960 27 March  
The Commissioner of Police announces that the pass laws are to be suspended until a normal situation has been restored, an occasion taken by Chief A. J. Luthuli to burn his pass. The Police Commissioner says that the pass laws are not being suspended to appease the unfounded protests of Bantu agitators, but because the jails can no longer accommodate the many Africans who present themselves for arrest by openly violating the pass laws.

1960 28 March  
ANC calls a nation-wide stay-at-home in protest to the Sharpeville massacre. Pass books are burned in countless bonfires.O. R. Tambo leaves South Africa illegally on the instruction of the ANC to carry on work outside the country

Albert Luthuli publicly burns his pass.

1960 30 March  
At the request of 29 African and Asian Member States the Security Council begins consideration of the situation in South Africa, under an agenda item entitled: "The situation arising out of the large-scale killings of unarmed and peaceful demonstrators against racial discrimination and segregation in the Union of South Africa".

The Regime declares a State of Emergency and arrests over 2 000 people. At lunchtime, 30 000 Africans from surrounding African townships march into the centre of Cape Town and demand an interview with the Minister of Justice. The Chief of Security promises to approach the Minister and the crowds march out of Cape Town. Immediately after they disperse, Erasmus announces in Parliament that a State of Emergency has been declared in 80 of the 300 magisterial districts, including every important urban area, and that 18 regiments of the Citizens Force have been mobilised to supplement the police, army and air force.

Albert Luthuli is detained and held until August, When he is tried he is sentenced to a fine of £100 and a six-month suspended sentence.

Unlawful Organisations Act used to ban the ANC and PAC.

1960 31 March  
Four more regiments of the Citizens Force are mobilised. Legal authorities in Johannesburg claim that the emergency regulations are creating a situation of virtual martial law.One of the basic reasons for declaring the Emergency is to obtain a return to work by the African population. Under the emergency regulations, refusal to work is punishable by a fine of £1400, five years in prison, or both.

1960 1 April  
The Security Council, in its first action on South Africa, adopts Resolution 134 (1960) deploring the policies and actions of the South African Government which have given rise to loss of life of so many Africans and have led to international friction. They call upon the Government to abandon its policies of apartheid and racial discrimination. It requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the South African Government, "to make such arrangements as will adequately help in upholding the purposes and principles of the [United Nations] Charter." The vote on the resolution was 9 in favour and 2 abstentions (France and the United Kingdom).

Proclamation of a State of Emergency in 31 more magisterial districts.Ten thousand Indians and two thousand Coloureds are ordered to vacate Pietermaritzburg.

1960 2 April  
The Bishop of Johannesburg, Ambrose Reeves, takes refuge in Swaziland following continued massive arrests of persons of all races. The New York Times states that the most conservative official estimates place the membership of the ANC and PAC at 70 000.

1960 6 April   The pass system is revived.

1960 7 April  
Unlawful Organisations Act No 34: Provides for organisations threatening public order or the safety of the public to be declared unlawful. The ANC and the PAC are immediately declared unlawful. Commenced: 7 April 1960 Repealed by section 73 of the Internal Security Act No 74 of 1982.

The Extension of University Education Amendment Act, Act No 34, bans Black students from attending White universities.

1960 8 April  
The ANC and the PAC are banned in South Africa.

Passage of the Unlawful Organisations Act.Banning of the African National Congress and the Pan Africanist Congress. Justice Minister Erasmus announces the banning of ANC and PAC for a minimum of one year and states that there can be no political organisation among urbanised Africans.

1960 9 April  
Attempted assassination of Prime Minister Verwoerd at the Rand Easter Show in Johannesburg results in serious wounds in the face. His assailant, a white farmer, is promptly described as mentally unstable.

1960 19 April  
First interim report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjold, pursuant to the Security Council resolution of 1 April.

1960 May - June  
Boycotts of South African goods are being implemented in many countries. Labour organisations refuse to service South African cargoes

1960 4 May  
Robert Sobukwe, President of the PAC, is sentenced to three years' imprisonment for incitement of Africans to urge the repeal of pass laws. He refuses to appeal, and refuses the aid of an attorney, on the grounds that the court has no jurisdiction over him because it cannot be considered either a court of law or a court of justice.

1960 6 May  
The Government states in Parliament that 18 000 persons have been arrested and detained since the proclamation of the emergency.

1960 25 May  
Tribal clashes continue to take place in Pondoland (Transkei) between supporters and opponents of the African territorial authorities. 29 Africans are killed, 50 wounded.

1960 June   Representation of Africans in Parliament ends.

1960 15 June - 24 June  
Second Conference of Independent African States, at Addis Ababa, calls for sanctions against South Africa.

1960 14 July  
Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA), announces its functioning as the SACP, operating underground after its dissolution in 1950.

1960 31 August  
The state of emergency is lifted. 10 500 opponents of the Government are still being detained.

1960 5 October  
In a referendum limited to white voters only, 52% of South African voters favour the establishment of a Republic. (850,000 in favour; 776,000 opposed). Prime Minister Verwoerd subsequently tells British Prime Minister Macmillan that South Africa wants to remain in the Commonwealth.

1960 11 October  
Second interim report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the Security Council resolution of 1 April.

1960 23 November   A police convoy is ambushed in Pondoland.

1960 26 November  
A week of violence continues in which it is officially estimated that 200 huts have been burned. The Botha Sigcau High School is closed following threats by Pondo who objected to government education.

1960 30 November  
The Government closes all lines of communication with five districts in Pondoland and reintroduces emergency regulations for the second time in eight months.Paramount Chief of the Zulus, Cyprian Bhepezulu, and 12 Kraals occupied by his followers are attacked by hostile Africans for their support of the Government's "betterment schemes".

1961  
Walter Sisulu's mother, Alice Sisulu dies.

All-in African Conference held in Pietermaritzburg. Calls for a national convention are made, so as to decide on a new constitution.

The ANC takes up arms against the South African Government, goes underground and continues to operate secretly.

Malmesbury Convention of Coloured leaders

The Group Areas Development Board begins to provide public housing in Lenasia.

Urban Blacks Council Act No 79:The first provision for black ‘self-government' in the urban townships. Assent gained: 30 June 1961; commencement date unknown.Repealed by sect. 14 of the Community Councils Act No 125 of 1977.

When Umkhonto weSizwe (MK) comes into being Phyllis Naidoo's work becomes all the more crucial. She joins the CPSA

The ANC and the PAC establish religious and welfare front organisations. ANC and SACP members set up the armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe. There is a strict undertaking that life will not be endangered, only installations will be attacked. A central high command, with regional commands is set up under the direction of Mandela. The first explosion occurs on 16 December in Durban, followed by explosions in Johannesburg and Cape Town. The president general of the ANC, Chief Albert Luthuli is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize a week before the first explosion. Zindziswa is born to Nelson and Winnie Mandela.

FIFA suspends the Football Association of South Africa (FASA).FASA includes some Black players within its structure. African, Indian, and Coloured officials in the anti-apartheid South African Soccer Federation (SASF) form the anti-racist professional South African Soccer League (SASL). SABFA (the South African Bantu Football Association) launches a National Professional Soccer League (NPSL), which shuts down the following year.

The Port Elizabeth Bus Boycott commences.

1961 6 January - 12 January  
The United Nations Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjold, visits South Africa. He reports to the Security Council on 23 January.

1961 23 January  
Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjold, on implementation of Security Council resolution of 1 April 1960. He stated that in the course of his discussions with the Prime Minister of South Africa, "so far no mutually acceptable arrangement" had been found on racial policies in South Africa.

1961 27 January  
Justice Minister Erasmus tells the Assembly that during the recent disturbances (November-December 1962) in Pondoland, 4 769 Africans, 2 Europeans and 2 others had been taken into custody

1961 February  
Delegations of South Africa United Front visit capitals of Commonwealth States to lobby for expulsion of South Africa

1961 26 February   Announcement of the continuation of current defence relations with the United Kingdom.

1961 March  
The accused in the Treason trial are found not guilty, after a trial lasting four years.

The remaining 30 accused in the Treason Trial are acquitted of charges of treason

1961 March - April  
Debate on apartheid at the resumed 15th session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. African and Asian delegations press for sanctions against South Africa.The representative of UK says on 5 April that while the importance attached by UK to Article 2 (7) of the UN Charter remains undiminished, it regards apartheid as being now so exceptional as to be sui generis, and his delegation felt able to consider proposals on the question of its merits.The Special Political Committee recommends two draft resolutions: an African resolution calling for specific measures and another by 5 Asian countries asking all States to consider separate and collective action as was open to them. In the Plenary on 13 April, the key paragraph of the African draft was voted separately and received 42 votes in favour and 34 against, with 21 abstentions, and was thus not adopted. The sponsors then withdrew the resolution.The Asian draft - which condemned apartheid as a "reprehensible and repugnant to human dignity" - was adopted by 96 to 1, with 0 abstentions as resolution 1598 (XV). Only Portugal voted against it. The United Kingdom voted for a resolution against apartheid for the first time. (India, sponsor of this resolution, voted in favour of both drafts).

1961 2 March  
The Bishop of Johannesburg, Ambrose Reeves, resigns after having been deported from South Africa in September 1960 for his strong condemnation of the Government, particularly at the time of Sharpeville and the subsequent emergency. Reeves' action is vigorously supported by the Archbishop of Cape Town, Joost de Blank

1961 12 March  
The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions submits a memorandum to the UN General Assembly calling for economic sanctions against South Africa.

1961 12 March  
The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions submits a memorandum to the UN General Assembly calling for economic sanctions against South Africa.

1961 15 March  
Following ostrong opposition in the Conference of Commonwealth Prime Ministers, Dr. Verwoerd annunces the withdrawal of South Africa from the Commonwealth "in the interests of South Africa's honour and dignity".

Dr. Verwoerd announces the withdrawal of South Africa from the Commonwealth.This provokes a strong reaction amongst the English-speaking white population. Dismay is voiced by the latter and by leaders of the industrial community.Sections of the Afrikaaner population said the country was better off outside the Kafir Commonwealth. Albert Luthuli, former President of the banned ANC says in regard to the Commonwealth Prime Ministers' strong opposition to apartheid: "I am overjoyed".The Synod of 350 delegates of the Dutch Reformed Church endorses the Church's current policy of racial separation. The Synod expresses support for the Government's policy of apartheid and asks that its implementation be expedited. The Church states its conviction that its work would be handicapped if it allowed itself to be diverted from its proven way for the sake of world opinion.Professor A.S. Geyser, who queried whether Article 3 of the Church's principles, which discriminates between white and black, was in line with the Scriptures, was bitterly attacked. The Chairman of the Synod condemned his attitude as arrogant.

1961 25 March - 26 March  
All-in African Conference, with 1 400 delegates from 145 religious, cultural, peasant, intellectual and political bodies, is held in Pietermaritzburg. Conference calls for a national convention of elected representatives of all adult men and women, without regard to race, colour or creed. The Republic, it declares, "rests on force to perpetuate the tyranny of minority". If the Government ignores the demand for a national convention, the people are called upon to organise mass demonstrations on the eve of the proclamation of the Republic. Mr. Nelson Mandela is appointed secretary of the National Action Council.

1961 29 March  
Sisulu and other accused are found not guilty on a charge of High Treason, in the special court at Pretoria, and released.

Twenty-eight persons (22 Africans, 3 Indians, 2 Whites, 1 Coloured) on trial for high treason since 1956 are found not guilty and discharged. The three judges of the High Court unanimously say there is no evidence of communist infiltration into the African National Congress. "On the evidence presented and our findings, it is impossible for this court to come to the conclusion that the ANC had acquired or adopted a policy to overthrow the State by violence".Hours later the Government retaliates by renewing the ban on the ANC and PAC for another year, placing a nation-wide ban on all meetings, and breaking up the African conference in Pietermaritzburg.

The ‘Treason Trial' ends. The total cost of the four-year trial is estimated at R1 million. Twenty-eight people, including Albert Luthuli and Walter Sisulu, who have been on trial for high treason since 1956, are found not guilty and discharged. Hours later the Government retaliates by renewing the ban on the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress for another year.

1961 30 March  
African and Asian delegations at the UN press for sanctions against South Africa.

1961 April  
Conference of the Nationalist Organisations of the Portuguese Territories (CONCP) founded in Rabat.

1961 1 April  
Robben Island turned into a prison.

1961 5 April  
United Kingdom Government announces support for a UN General Assembly resolution against apartheid for the first time.

1961 6 April  
Renewal of the ban on the African National Congress and the PAC.

1961 13 April  
The UN General Assembly condemns South African racial discrimination as "reprehensible and repugnant to human dignity" by vote of 95-1.

1961 27 April  
Walter Sisulu and his home at Orlando West are searched and various documents are seized, in which blacks are instigated to strike on 29, 30 and 31 May 1961. A case in compliance with Section 2 (A) of the Act 8/1953 (Instigation) is made against him.

1961 3 May  
All police leave is cancelled in anticipation of expected strikes at the end of May. Defence legislation is amended to enable use of the armed forces for the suppression of internal disorder. Reorganise of the police so as to co-ordinate its command headquarters with that of the military. Nationalist Party (NP) wins three by-elections with a larger majority than in the 1958 general election.

1961 12 May  
The General Law Amendment Act provides for detention of people for twelve days without bail, and trial without jury in cases of murder and arson; also the proof of innocence rests on the accused.

1961 14 May  
South Africa signs an agreement with Great Britain in regard to guaranteed preferences on the British market

1961 19 May  
General Law Amendment Act No 39:Provides for twelve-day detention. Amended: • the Arms and Ammunition Act 28 of 1937 regarding the issuing and cancellation of firearm licences; •the 1955 Criminal Procedure Act regarding powers of the Attorney-General to prohibit release on bail or otherwise; and •the 1956 Riotous Assemblies Act.Commenced: 19 May 1961Sections 6 and 7 repealed by the Internal Security Act No 74 of 1982.

1961 29 May  
Nation-wide general strike. It is reported that only 10-15 % of the labour force joins the strike. In Johannesburg, however, there was high African absenteeism. More than 40 % of the Rand's huge labour force stays at home. Fifty % of the Asians are out at Durban and 25 % of the Cape Coloureds.A split develops within the African leadership at the last moment. Nelson Mandela and the ANC take the initiative in organising the strike, but leaders of the banned PAC call on non-Whites to ignore it.

1961 29 May - 31 May  
Nation-wide Stay-At-Home commences.

1961 30 May  
The Union of South Africa officially ceases to exist at midnight

1961 31 May  
South Africa is declared a republic, independent and outside the commonwealth. C.R. Swart, the former Governor-General, is sworn in as the first President of the Republic of South Africa.

South Africa formally withdraws from the Commonwealth and proclaims itself a Republic.

Country placed on a war footing to smash the nation-wide strike called to protest against the establishment of the so-called Republic of South Africa.

1961 4 June  
The Iraqi Foreign Minister, Hassim Jawad, announces that Iraq will not recognise the government of South Africa because of its apartheid policies.

1961 14 June  
South Africa signs an agreement with Great Britain in regard to guaranteed preferences on the British market.

1961 21 June  
South Africa:Signs multilateral protocol on international civil aviation.

1961 26 June  
South Africa:Signs International Labour Organisation Convention, no. 116, concerning the partial revision of conventions adopted.

While underground, Nelson Mandela writes a letter in which he states the famous words: "The struggle is my life. I will continue fighting for freedom until the end of my days. "

1961 27 June  
The government of Ghana imposes a total ban on the export of all Ghanian produce to South Africa and South West Africa, as a protest against apartheid.

1961 29 June  
During its plenary conference in Geneva, the International Labour Organisation adopts a Nigerian resolution condemning the racial policies of the South African government and calling for South Africa's withdrawal from the ILO, by 163 votes to nil, with 29 abstentions. The South African Government has no intention of acceding to this request

The International Labour Organisation votes 163 to 89 in favour of a resolution calling for South Africa's withdrawal from the Organisation.

1961 4 July  
A United Nations eight-man committee with instructions to investigate conditions in the Mandated Territory of South Africa, is refused permission to enter the Territory. The minister for External Affairs, Eric Louw announces that if members of the committee try to enter they will be detained and sent back and that this will involve the United Nations in an act of aggression.

The Sierra Leone government imposes a ban on all trade and commerce with South Africa, as a protest against its apartheid policies. Ports and airports will be closed to all South African ships and aircraft; no white South Africans will be allowed to enter Sierra Leone; those already in the country will not be granted re-entry visas.

1961 5 July  
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) announces it has entered into a stand-by agreement with South Africa under which South Africa may draw up to the equivalent of $75, 000,000 in a various currencies, during the next twelve months.

Indemnity Act No 61:With retrospective effect from 21 March 1960. This Act indemnifies the government, its officers and all other persons acting under their authority in respect of acts done, orders given or information provided in good faith for the prevention or suppression of internal disorder, the maintenance or restoration of good order, public safety or essential services, or the preservation of life or property in any part of the Republic.Commenced: 5 July 1961

1961 8 July - 10 July   Malmesbury Convention of Coloured leaders.

1961 15 July  
H.A. Fagan, former Chief Justice and Minister of Native Affairs, agrees to become leader of the National Union. Its founder, J. du P. (Japie) Basson will remain party chairman.

1961 22 July  
Sisulu, together with Moses Kotane and P.P.D. Nokwe, travel through the country to rally support.

1961 24 July  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement under article 18 of the Antarctic Treaty.

1961 August  
Sisulu visits Cape Town and organises for the extension to the ANC Youth League.

The Group Areas Development Board is replaced by the Department of Community Development.

1961 1 August  
The Prime Minister announces that there will be a general election on 18 October 1961. The necessary proclamation will be issued on 28 August 1961, nomination day 15 September 1961, and the House of Assembly will be dissolved.

1961 2 August  
A re-organisation of the Cabinet is announced by Dr. Verwoerd.

1961 4 August  
South Africa: Signs treaty with France amending the air agreement of 17 September 1954.

1961 15 August  
An electoral alliance is announced between the United Party (UP) and the National Union (NU) in Bloemfontein, in a form of a nine-point pact determining the basic objectives.

1961 26 August  
A.K. Ganyile, a Pondo leader and refugee in Basutoland is kidnapped with two companions by six South African policemen, taken across the border into South Africa, and imprisoned in the Transkei.

1961 September  
Government establishes a Department of Indian Affairs and recognised that "the Indians are a permanent part of the population of this country".

1961 1 September  
Establishment of the Department of Indian Affairs.

1961 18 September  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement on aviation.

1961 October  
Albert Luthuli is informed that he has been awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize for Peace for his “fight against racial discrimination” through non-violent means. Luthuli is the first African to win the prize.

1961 4 October  
Separate elections for the four Cape Coloured representative seats are held. They are won by Independents with the United Party support.

1961 6 October  
Sisulu is sentenced to R30-00 or 90 days imprisonment because he is not in possession of a reference book.

1961 8 October  
The Nationalist Party wins the general election and shows a gain of 10% in its popular vote. In addition, it increases its Parliamentary majority by three seats. The results are:Nationalist Party - 105 seatsUnited Party - 49 seatsProgressive Party - 1 seat. National Union - 1 seat. First case of sabotage on Government installations near Johannesburg.

1961 11 October  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty amending the Phyto Sanitary Convention of 1954.The Foreign Minister, E. Louw, defends South Africa's apartheid policy in the United Nations, against African criticism. On the same day the Assembly adopts a Liberian censure motion on South Africa, with sixty-seven in favour, one against, twenty abstaining, nine not participating in the vote (including the Britain and the United States) and three absent.

The General Assembly decides - by 67 votes to 1, with 20 abstentions - to censure the Foreign Minister of South Africa for his offensive speech in the General Assembly. Only South Africa votes against the censure.

1961 13 October  
The Minister of Justice issues the first house arrest order.

1961 17 October  
Sisulu is arrested on a charge that he does not own a reference book. Sisulu is confined to his house for 5 years.

1961 18 October  
The government increases its strength in the elections. The final results are: Nationalists 105, United Party 49, Progressive Party 1, and National Union 1.

General Election: The National Party increases its majority in Parliament and obtaina a majority of the total vote. Progressive Party is reduced from 11 seats to one. The seat is given to the party leader Helen Suzman.

1961 20 October  
The Minister of Justice bans all meetings to protest against arrest, trial or conviction of any person.

1961 23 October - 26 October  
The Special Political Committee in the United Nations, with South Africa participating, debates South Africa's racial policies.

1961 25 October  
South Africa signs treaty with Italy regarding air services.

1961 26 October  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty for protection of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations.

1961 28 October  
Sisulu attends a gathering in the form of a welcome party at the house of Lilian Ngoyi. He is, together with Lilian Ngoyi and Alfred Nzo, arrested and charged under inter alia section 9(1) of Act 44 of 1950. The case is later withdrawn because sufficient evidence could not be supplied to prove that the party was in fact a meeting.

1961 29 October  
Forty-five ANC leaders meet in Lobatsi, Bechuanaland, to plan increased political activity against the Government of South Africa.

1961 14 November  
The British Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, informs the House of Commons that responsibility for the conduct of Britain's relations with South Africa will be transferred from the Commonwealth Relations Secretary to the Foreign Secretary, from 1 December 1961. Sir John Maud will continue to hold the posts of Ambassador to South Africa and of High Commissioner.

1961 28 November  
The United Nations General Assembly adopts an eight nation resolution, by seventy-two votes to two, with twenty-seven abstentions, calling on all member states to take such separate and collective action, as is open to them to bring about the abandonment of South Africa's racial policies. It does not specifically call for sanctions.

1961 December  
Handbills are distributed by Umkhonto we Sizwe (the Spear of the Nation) announcing new methods to be adopted in the struggle for freedom and democracy.

1961 1 December  
South Africa signs an agreement with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

1961 5 December  
Albert Luthuli and his wife board a plane in Durban to be flown to Oslo via London to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for 1960. The government issues him with a special ten-day passport, with restrictions on his movements and public appearances.

1961 11 December  
Wearing a Chief's ceremonial garb, Albert Luthuli receives the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of King Olaf of Norway, many diplomats and other dignitaries, and is given a standing ovation. In his acceptance speech, Albert Luthuli declares: “I regard this as a tribute to Mother Africa, to all peoples, whatever their race, colour or creed”.

Albert Luthuli delivers his Nobel Peace Prize address entitled ‘Africa and Freedom' and pays tribute to the late Dag Hammarskjöld, “a distinguished world citizen and fighter for peace,” a previous recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. At the conclusion of his address, Albert Luthuli sings the liberation anthem Nkosi Sikel'I Afrika and all the assembly soon joins in singing or humming the anthem.

South Africa signs multilateral treaty extending the declaration on the provisional accession of Tunisia to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1961 12 December  
Verwoerd tells the Council of Coloured Affairs that it will be transformed into a coloured ‘Parliament' with a ‘Cabinet', initially of four members, within the framework of a ten-year plan for the development towards self-determination of the Cape Coloured population.

1961 16 December  
Umkhonto weSizwe (MK) is formed to "hit back by all means within our power in defence of our people, our future and our freedom".

Five bomb explosions occur in Johannesburg and five others at Port Elizabeth.

Handbills calling for sabotage are distributed in English and Zulu. During the night a series of explosions are set off, damaging a post office, several African affairs offices and electric power stations near Johannesburg and Port Elizabeth.

1961 18 December  
Three further attempts to sabotage buildings in and near Johannesburg are discovered.South Africa signs treaty with Sweden to further extend the period of validity of traffic rights granted to Scandinavian Airlines System.South Africa sgns treaty with Norway to further extend the period of validity of traffic rights.

1961 21 December  
As a result of investigations into the Port Elizabeth explosions, Security Police arrest and charge Robert H. Strachan with causing malicious damage to property.

1962  
The Programme of action: the South African Communist Party adopts “The Road to South African Freedom”.

Fietas, Johannesburg: In 1962 there are 177 shops in the area with two mosques, four churches, two cinemas, 4 Islamic schools, 1 Hindu school, 1 Tamil school/temple/hall, 1 Indian girls' school, 1 ‘coloured' junior school, 1 ‘coloured' college, 1 Indian junior school, a communal hall and a number of social clubs. The Queenspark Sports Grounds next to the cemetery on Krause Street is also considered part of Fietas. The residential stands in the area have an average of 4 cottages on them.

The Minister of Justice continues issuing a series of house arrest orders confining people to their homes for a period of five years.

Sonia Bunting is placed under house arrest.Florence Matomela is banned and restricted to Port Elizabeth, where she is subsequently sent to prison for five years for furthering aims of ANC. Winnie Mandela is banned under Suppression of Communism Act, and restricted to Orlando Township.After ANC is outlawed, Dorothy Nyembe becomes President of Natal Rural Areas Committee and organises anti-government demonstrations with rural women during the Natal Women's Revolt. Lillian Ngoyi is banned and confined to Orlando Township. Cissie Gool receives LLB degree from UCT and is admitted as an advocate to the Supreme Court.Ruth Mompati goes into exile and becomes secretary and head of the Women's Section of the ANC in Tanzania.

Anti-Indian Legislation: The Sabotage Bill is tabled.

Poqo uprisings in the Cape result in vicious killings, particularly of Whites.

Eleven fans die at Jeppe Station, Johannesburg, following Moroka Swallows and Orlando Pirates derby football match at Natalspruit. 10 000 spectators in Maseru, Lesotho (then Basutoland) watch the Whites-only Germiston Callies defeat the Black Pirates by 3 goals to1.Orlando Pirates Women's Football Club and Mother City Girls are among the first (short-lived) Black women's football teams.

Sabotage Act is introduced.

1962 January  
Nelson Mandela secretly leaves South Africa to attend a Pan African Freedom Movement conference in Addis Ababa. He travels to other countries to receive military training and then comes back into the country to continue operating underground.

Mandela is smuggled out of the country. He attends the Pan-African Freedom Conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia which is hosted by Tambo. He addresses the Conference and meets Emperor Haile Selassie. Mandela canvasses support in North and West African countries, meets Col. Boumedienne of Algeria, commander in chief of the army of National Liberation, and undergoes training in demolition and mortar firing. He meets Nyerere and Kaunda who later head their states, and Oginga Odinga, the opposition leader in Kenya. He flies to Britain where he meets Hugh Gaitskell and Jo Grimond, Labour and Liberal Party leaders. Winnie Mandela is banned for two years. Mandela returns to South Africa, and is met at the border and driven to Johannesburg. The Congress of Democrats is banned. Mandela visits Luthuli on his return to Johannesburg; he is disguised as a chauffeur.

1962 13 January  
Fietas, Johannesburg: A census is held determining that there are 177 shops in the area. Population:Indian – 4125‘Coloured' – 501Malay – 860Chinese – 59‘African' – unknown

1962 17 January  
The Department of Justice announces that the charges against A.K. Ganyile have been dropped, the government regrets the incident, Ganyile is released, returns to Basutoland and later claims damages against the Minister of Justice and the policemen concerned.Leaders of the South African National Convention Movement, a coloured opposition organisation, completely reject Dr Verwoerd's plan as offering them ‘sovereignty in no area but subservient in all'.

1962 21 January  
The President of the Newspaper Press Union of South Africa, M.V. Jooste, issues the draft of a voluntary Press Code, including proposals for the setting up of a three-man Board of Reference.

1962 23 January  
Dr Verwoerd, announces his plan for the granting of ‘self-rule' to the Transkei. It is to have its own Parliament and Cabinet, separate citizenship and control over agriculture, education, health, social services and roads with defence, foreign affairs and justice remaining in the hands of the central government in the meantime.

1962 31 January  
The government's proposals for self-government for the Transkei are submitted to the committee of twenty-seven chiefs and headmen appointed by the Transkeian Territory Authority to press its claims.South Africa signs treaty with Luxemburg relating to air services.

1962 1 February  
A statement entitled ‘We don't want crumbs' appears in New Age. In the statement Albert Luthuli unequivocally rejects the Government's homelands policy.

1962 7 February  
Walter Sisulu and Duma Nokwe go from house to house in Orlando, Johannesburg and rally support amongst the residents against the government's policy in respect of Bantu Urban Councils.

Beginning of International Solidarity Campaign.

1962 19 February  
The first part of the South African Press Commission's first report is tabled in parliament by the Minister of the Interior, De Klerk. The report, which has taken eleven years to draw up, consists of two volumes totaling 700 pages, with nineteen annexures running to 1 566 pages. It strongly recommends that the South African Press Association (SAPA) gives more say in its affairs to the Afrikaans-language press.

1962 20 February  
South Africa signs a treaty amending the statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

1962 22 February  
South Africa signs a parcel post agreement with Canada.

1962 12 March  
The Defence Minister, J.J. Fouche, outlines the basic principles of South Africa's defence policy and gives a detailed of measures being taken to build up the Defence Forces and to make South Africa self-supporting in military equipment.

1962 21 March  
The minister of finance, Dr.Eben Dönges, introduces a budget of national security with increased expenditure on defence.

1962 23 March  
The Minister of Water Affairs announces an ambitious scheme to harness the Orange River for power and irrigation at a cost of R450 million, spread over about thirty years.

1962 29 March  
The Minister of Defence J.J. Fouché discloses that South Africa is buying supersonic Mirage III jet fighters from France, and that South African forces are being equipped with French Alouette helicopters.

1962 6 April  
South Africa signs a multilateral agreement for the accession of Israel to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1962 30 April  
South Africa signs treaty with Germany extending the economic agreement of 28 August 1951.

1962 May  
Under a government sponsored Bill, which received its third reading in the House of Assembly on 8 February 1962, a Coloured Development Corporation with a share capital of R500 000 (£250 000 Sterling) is established to aid coloured businessmen in developing and enlarging their own industries in the townships reserved for them.

End of may, Victorio Carpio repudiates Pretoria statement.

1962 3 May  
South Africa signs a multilateral procés-verbal extending the declaration on the provisional accession of the Swiss Confederation to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1962 4 May  
The Transkeian Territory Authority approves the draft Constitution as a whole, after considerable controversy, mainly concerning the composition of the Legislative Assembly.

1962 6 May  
United Nations representatives of the committee to investigate the conditions in South West Africa, Victorio Carpio (Philippines) and Dr Martinez de Alva (Mexico), begin informal talks with Dr Verwoerd and South African officials in Pretoria. They subsequently visit South Africa and return to Pretoria.

1962 8 May  
R.H. Strachan is found guilty of conspiring to cause bomb explosions and is sentenced to three years' imprisonment.

1962 17 May  
Dr Jan Steytler, leader of the Progressive Party, launches a nationwide protest campaign against the General Laws Amendment Bill, published by the government on 12 May 1962 defining the crime of sabotage in the widest terms.

1962 23 May  
South Africa signs an amendment agreement with Great Britain on sugar for Swaziland.

1962 24 May  
A Bill replacing the Republic of South Africa (Temporary Provisions) Act, due to expire on 31 May 1962, is enacted and receives the Royal Assent. It is designed to regulate finally the operation of British law in relation to South Africa.

1962 26 May  
A joint statement is issued, agreed to by Dr Verwoerd, Victorio Carpio, Dr de Alva and the Foreign minister, Eric Low, indicating that no evidence has been found in SWA of genocide by South Africa, or of any excessive military occupation. The conditions there do not constitute a threat to world peace.

1962 28 May  
South Africa signs a convention with Great Britain on the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.

1962 June  
The General Laws Amendment Act (Sabotage Act) is passed.

1962 4 June  
South Africa signs agreement with Great Britain for the temporary suspension of the margin of preference on tin plate.

1962 11 June  
South Africa signs cultural agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany.

1962 12 June  
South Africa signs amendment to the co-operation agreement with the United States.

1962 20 June  
South Africa signs agreement with Japan on the safeguards of materials transferred to Japan of the International Atomic Energy Agency.The International Commission of Jurists in Geneva, issues a 2 000-word statement asserting that the ‘the Sabotage Bill' reduces the liberty of the subject to a degree ‘not surpassed by the most extreme dictatorship of the Left or Right'.

1962 23 June  
The African delegates and others walk out of the International Labour Conference in Geneva when delegates of the Government and employers of South Africa go to the rostrum to participate in the general debate on the Director-General\'s report.In 1961, the conference had asked the Governing Body to forward a request to the South African government to withdraw from the ILO in view of its apartheid policy. The Government ignored the request and sent its three delegations to the conference. The ILO Constitution has no provision for excluding a member.

1962 27 June  
Parliament passes the General Law Amendment Act – the ‘Sabotage Bill' – sponsored by the Minister of Justice, B.J. Vorster, defining sabotage in the widest terms and prescribing a minimum sentence of five years and a maximum of death. Its purpose is to combat communism.

General Law Amendment Act (Sabotage Act) No 76: Increases the State President's power to declare organisations unlawful. Further restrictions can be imposed in banning orders, restricting movement. Persons can now even be banned from social gatherings, including having more than one visitor at a time. The Minister is able to list banned persons in the Government Gazette (GG). This Act creates the offence of sabotage by providing that any person who commits any wrongful and wilful act whereby he/she injures, obstructs, tampers with or destroys the health or safety of the public, the maintenance of law and order, the supply of water, light, power, fuel or foodstuffs, sanitary, medical, or fire extinguishing services can be tried for sabotage (Horrell 1978: 443).Commenced: 27 June 1962.Section 16 repealed by the State of Emergency Act No 86 of 1995.

1962 July - September  
Seventy-five serious fires attributed to widespread arson are reported in Natal.

1962 10 July  
South Africa:Signs the International Wheat Agreement.

1962 23 July  
Ben Turok is sentenced to three years imprisonment for attempting to cause an explosion in the centre of Johannesburg in February.

1962 26 July  
South Africa signs multilateral recommendations under article IX of the Antarctic Treaty.

1962 30 July  
Under the provisions of the General Law Amendment Act of 1962 a list of 102 persons prohibited from attending gatherings is published in the Government Gazette. It includes Patrick Duncan, Albert Luthuli, Duma Nokwe, Ronald Segal, Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo and Benjamin Turok.

1962 1 August  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement for the accession of Portugal to the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade.

1962 3 August  
The United Nations Special Committee on South West Africa disowns the Pretoria statement.

1962 5 August  
Nelson Mandela, who went underground in 1961, is arrested near Durban. He is sentenced to five years' imprisonment on November 7, 1962; then tried again, while in prison in the "Rivonia Trial" and sentenced to life imprisonment.

1962 7 August  
The South African Congress of Democrats is banned by the Minister of Justice under the Suppression of Communism Act.

1962 8 August  
South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain, extending to South West Africa the Convention of 28 May 1962 on the avoidance of double taxation and the avoidance of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.

1962 15 August  
The Liquor Laws Amendment Bill, under which Africans are for the first time allowed to buy liquor freely, comes into effect. Introduced on 9 June 1961, given a second reading on 19 June 1961, its third on 24 June 1961 and subsequently approved by the senate, its long delay in implementation is attributed to the large number of applications for liquor licences received.

1962 16 August  
South Africa signs amendment with Great Britain on the Ottawa Trade Agreement of 20 August 1932.

1962 17 August  
The Defence Minister, J.J. Fouché, announces that the striking power of the Defence Force has been increased twenty-fold as compared with two years earlier, while that of the Navy is to be increased ten-fold in the next few years.

1962 24 August  
African delegations requests Secretary-General U Thant to help obtain the release of Nelson Mandela. In a statement, they condemn the arrest on 5 August and note that he was held under the Sabotage Act, which carries a possible death penalty.

1962 31 August   South Africa signs a visa agreement with Austria.

1962 7 September  
The South African Congress of Democrats is banned by the Minister of Justice under the Suppression of Communism Act.

1962 14 September   South Africa signs a visa agreement with Belgium.

1962 28 September   South Africa signs an International Coffee Agreement.

1962 October  
ANC conference in Botswana

End-October: The Minister of Justice continues issuing a series of house arrest orders confining people to their homes for a period of five years.

ANC Conference is held in Botswana. Delegates come from all over South Africa and from abroad.Vorster says that the biggest danger confronting South Africa is not communism, but liberalism. He warns the English press which continued to be the mouthpiece for the Congress Alliance. The Minister of Justice issues the first house arrest order under the new Sabotage Act against Mrs. Helen Joseph, national vice-president of the banned Congress of Democrats. The order is valid for five years. Minister of Justice Vorster issued an order banning until 30 April 1963 all meetings to protest against arrest, trial or conviction of any person. The order is understood to have been issued to counter demonstrations in connection with the trial of Nelson Mandela and the house arrest orders.

Albert Luthuli is elected rector by the students of Glasgow University in recognition of his “dignity and restraint” in “a potentially inflammatory situation”.

1962 13 October  
The first restrictions to house arrest under the Sabotage Act are imposed in Johannesburg on Helen Joseph.

1962 19 October  
The office of the Minister of Agricultural Economics and Marketing is rocked by an explosion in Pretoria.

1962 27 October - 28 October  
45 African (and one Indian) leaders from South Africa meet at Lobatsi, Bechuanaland, to make plans to step up political activity. They are said to have been warned that unless their efforts against the government are intensified, funds from African states will be cut off.

1962 6 November  
At its 17th session, the United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution on South Africa's racial policies, deploring the failure of the South African government to abandon its racial policies, and establishing a Special Committee to keep these under review. The resolution favours diplomatic and economic sanctions against South Africa and asks that the UN Security Council consider expelling South Africa from the Council.

1962 6 November  
The General Assembly requests Member States to take specific measures to bring about the abandonment of apartheid, including breaking of diplomatic, trade and transport relations. It also sets up a Special Committee to follow developments and report to the General Assembly and the Security Council. [Resolution 1761(XII)][From its session in 1962, the General Assembly combined the items on the treatment of Indians in South Africa and on apartheid into one item: "Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa”.]

1962 7 November   Mandela is sentenced to five years imprisonment.

1962 9 November  
The Minister of Justice states that there have been 23 attempts of sabotage from late September to date. Nearly 60 African suspects are reported to have been arrested.

1962 15 November  
Thirty-eight African and Asian delegations table a draft resolution in the Trusteeship Committee asking for an effective United Nations ‘presence' in South West Africa, and asking the General Assembly to reaffirm ‘the inalienable right of the people of South West Africa to independence and national sovereignty.' Uganda Prime Minister Milton Obote announces a boycott of South African goods.

1962 16 November  
A list of 437 persons said to have been office-bearers, officers, members or active supporters of the banned Communist Party of South Africa is published. Listed persons are banned from belonging to 36 specified organisations and ordered to cease membership of such organizations by 1 February 1963.

1962 21 November  
In an outbreak of violence at Paarl, Cape Province, two whites are beaten to death and seven blacks are shot during a march on a police station by about 100 blacks.

1962 27 November  
Seven people are killed in Paarl. Africans march on the police station to free prisoners arrested in recent killings. When the police open fire, there were disturbances in the town. The Minister of Justice appoints Mr. Justice J. H. Snyman to inquire into the causes of violence.

1962 29 November  
President Swart appoints a one-man commission to inquire into the riots at Paarl.

1962 - 1964 December - June  
In this period over 300 sentences are passed for such crimes as political murder, arson, acts of sabotage and bomb throwing, as well as for membership of banned organisation such as Poqo and the ANC. Forty death sentences are imposed in addition to numerous sentences of life imprisonment and lesser terms, at trials throughout the country.


1962 1 December  
South Africa signs a loan agreement with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development concerning the seventh Transport Project.

1962 - 1963 7 December - 13 March  
The Paarl Riots Commissioner, Justice J.H. Snyman hears evidence at Paarl and elsewhere. Detailed information on the nature and activities of the Poqo organisation is obtained. It is equated with the PAC.

1962 10 December  
Albert Luthuli and Dr. Martin Luther King Jnr issue a joint statement “Appeal for Action Against Apartheid”

1962 21 December  
The International Court of Justice at The Hague rules, by the narrow majority of eight votes to seven, that it has jurisdiction in the case brought by Ethiopia and Liberia alleging that South Africa has violated its mandate over South West Africa.Dr Verwoerd intimates that the government proposes to introduces legislation providing for the extension of the territorial sea limit for South Africa and South West Africa from three to six nautical miles and establishment of a contiguous fishing zone extending to twelve miles from the base line.

1963  
Sisulu's wife Albertina is placed under banning orders (remains so until 1983)

Police raid the secret headquarters of MK, arresting the leadership. This leads to the Rivonia Trial where the leaders of MK are charged with attempting to cause a violent revolution, and thus sentenced to life imprisonment.

Some ANC leaders - among them Oliver Tambo and Joe Slovo avoid arrest and leave the country. Other ANC members leave to undergo military training.

Fietas, Johannesburg: Harry, ‘the fat man', a tramp living in Fietas disappears. On inquiry from his family in Soweto it is found that he has died, but later it transpires that he is alive and well.

Dorothy Nyembe is arrested for leading the Natal Women's revolt where women refuse to fill cattle dipping tanks.

The United Arab Republic government informs the United Nations that it has banned South African ships from entering UAR ports, and that, while they will still be allowed to use the Suez Canal they will be denied all facilities there.The Rivonia Trial opens in a special court at Pretoria. Eleven men are charged with complicity in more than 200 acts of sabotage aimed at facilitating revolution and armed invasion of South Africa. The indictment is quashed on the grounds that the State has not provided sufficient details of the alleged offences, but a new indictment is prepared and the trial proceeds.

The Coloured Person's Education Act places control over 'coloured' education under the Department of Coloured Affairs. 'Coloured' schools are also compelled to register with the government. 'Coloured' education is made compulsory.

Miriam Makeba addresses the United Nations' Special Committee Against Apartheid, in New York. Sonia Bunting goes into exile and continues to work for the Communist Party. She becomes organiser of the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners.Frances Baard is detained and held for 12 months in solitary confinement.Dorothy Nyembe is arrested for furthering the aims of the ANC and is sentenced to three years imprisonment.

Albertina Sisulu is arrested.

Steve Biko is introduced to politics as a teenager, when one of his older brothers, Khaya, a student at Lovedale High School, is arrested as a suspected Poqo member and jailed for three months. The South African Police interrogate Steve Biko in connection with his brother's Pan Africanist activities, and Steve Biko is subsequently expelled from Lovedale. Steve Biko develops a strong antipathy toward White authority, and carries this attitude with him when he enters St Francis College at Marianhill in Natal, a liberal Catholic boarding school and one of the few remaining private high schools for Africans in South Africa.

The FIFA executive lifts the Football Association of South Africa's (FASA) suspension. FASA announces it will send an all-White team to the 1966 World Cup, and an all-Black team to the 1970 World Cup. FIFA president Stanley Rous gets FASA temporarily reinstated in 1963, but FASA is again suspended in 1964. It is expelled from FIFA in 1976.

International Labour Organisation (ILO) votes to expel South Africa.


1963 - 1964  
Repression under the 90 and 180-day detentions.

African students begin focussing their attention on the multi-racial National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) an outspoken anti-government organisation with a membership drawn heavily from White English-speaking universities, for want of a better vehicle to express their political aspirations.

1963 1 January  
Thousands of Commonwealth citizens resident in South Africa, mostly Britons, become technically aliens through failing to apply for permanent residence by 31 December 1962 under the Commonwealth Relations Act enacted on 15 June 1962.

1963 11 January  
Sisulu attends a secret meeting at the house of George Xarile together with F. Van Rensburg (a shift boss from Vlakfontein mine). It is understood that Van Rensburg made bombs for Sisulu - presumably from dynamite.

1963 18 January  
Parliament opens with the debate of ‘no confidence' moved by the Leader of opposition Sir de Villiers Graaff. The prime minister defends the government's Bantustan policy by attempting to establish the fact that it has been implicit in the National Party programme since it came to power in 1948.

1963 5 February  
A white family is savagely killed in their caravan whilst camping on the Bashee River in the Ingcobo area of the Transkei. Forty Africans are later arrested and twenty-two sentenced to death for the murders.

1963 8 February  
SA signs a favourable Nation Trade agreement with Spain.The government publishes the draft of the Bantu Laws Amendment Bill intended to remove most of the remaining rights of Africans in white areas, including the security of employment or residence.

1963 11 February  
The Defence Minister, J.J. Fouché, announces in the House of Assembly that he intends to increase the strength of the permanent army by fifty per cent.

1963 19 February  
The Minister of Defence announces the re-establishment, as of 1 April 1963 of the ‘Cape Corps' of Coloureds to be employed in non-combatant roles.

1963 20 February  
Walter Sisulu attends a secret ANC meeting of the Phomolang branch.

1963 22 February  
South Africa signs agreement with Australia on air pollution.

1963 23 February  
At the annual conference of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in Leopoldville, fifteen African states table a draft resolution requesting the United Nations Economic and Social Council to deprive SA of membership because of its policy of racial discrimination. The resolution is adopted by thirty votes, with Britain, France and Spain opposing it.

1963 25 February  
Potlako Leballo, claiming to be the leader of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), confirms in Maseru, Basutoland, that Poqo and the PAC are one and the same organisation and that its revolutionary council is discussing the timing and manner of an uprising to be launched in South Africa during 1963.

1963 27 February  
South Africa signs a treaty with the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland amending the trade agreement of 16 May 1960.

1963 2 March  
First meeting of the Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa (later renamed "Special Committee against Apartheid").

1963 4 March  
Sisulu is sentenced in the Johannesburg Regional Court, to 6 years imprisonment under section 3 (1) (A) Act 8/53. Sisulu appeals, but bail is refused.

Walter Sisulu, former Secretary-General of the African National Congress is convicted of having incited African workers to strike in protest against the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act of 1961, and having furthered the aims of the ANC. He is sentenced to six years' imprisonment.

1963 9 March   Sisulu is released on R6 000 bail.

1963 14 March  
The Publications and Entertainment Bill, which has been before a select Committee for nearly two years, passes its third reading in the House of Assembly by 60 votes to 40. The Minister of Interior is to appoint a Publications Control Board to control importation, distribution, exhibition, sale or possession of any publications deemed ‘undesirable'

1963 15 March  
The Defence Minister, J.J. Fouché, gives the Senate details of South Africa's defence programme and replies to statements made by Harold Wilson on the British Labour Party's attitude to arms supplies to South Africa.

1963 20 March  
Police obtain information that Sisulu is an office bearer of Umkhonto weSizwe (Spear of the Nation).

The Budget introduced by the Minister of Finance, Dr. T.E. Dönges, provides the record sum of R202 million for defence and internal security.

1963 21 March  
Justice Snyman, judge in the Cape division of the Supreme Court, produces an Interim Report of his inquiry into the Paarl riots. This develops into an investigation into the Poqo organization, operating from Basutoland in collusion with subversive groups in the Transkei and its involvement in the murders and terror in the Eastern Province and the Transkei. The report is immediately tabled in the house of Assembly by the Minister of Justice B.J. Vorster, who announces that he accepts the judge's findings and will act on them.

1963 25 March  
Potlako Leballo, claiming to be the leader of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), confirms in Maseru, Basutoland, that Poqo and the PAC are one and the same organisation and that its revolutionary council is discussing the timing and manner of an uprising to be launched in South Africa during 1963.

1963 26 March  
Sisulu attends an ANC party in Dube Pokaso. The party is held in aid of strengthening ANC funds

1963 1 April  
The Foreign Officer of the Philippines announces that it has instructed its Commerce Department, the National Marketing Corporation and the Bureau of Customs, to implement a boycott of all South African goods as well as to halt exports to South Africa.

1963 2 April  
First meeting of the Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa (later renamed "Special Committee against Apartheid").

1963 3 April  
Sisulu placed under 84 hours house arrest.

South Africa:Signs a treaty with Great Britain on the temporary suspension of the tariff preference on crude oil.

1963 6 April   South Africa signs a Parcel Post agreement with Japan.

1963 8 April  
South Africa signs an amendment to the constitution of the International Labour Organisation.

1963 14 April  
South Africa signs a treaty with Bechuanaland protectorate on radio-tele-communications and meteorological services at Maun.

1963 18 April  
The Foreign Minister states that the South African government is unable to assist the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid since its establishment is contrary to the provisions of the United Nations.

1963 19 April  
Security Police visit Sisulu's house and find that Sisulu has fled.

1963 20 April  
The Rand Daily Mail reports that Sisulu has fled to Bechuanaland.

South Africa signs the Olive Oil Agreement.

1963 22 April  
The Transvaler reports that Sisulu has not yet arrived in Bechuanaland. The Star, however, alleges that he has been seen in Bechuanaland.

1963 23 April  
Dr. Verwoerd, states in Parliament that if political refugees in the British Protectorates are allowed to organise revolution against South Africa then these territories must expect retaliation.

1963 24 April  
The Pretoria News alleges that Sisulu has arrived in Lorenco Marques, Mozambique, on the 24th of April 1963 according to a press report in the L.M. newspapers.

South Africa signs the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.The Minister of Justice introduces a General Laws Amendment Bill implementing Justice Snyman's recommendations establishing emergency courts to deal with cases arising from Poqo activities, and gives the Minister power to detain anyone without trial in solitary confinement for ninety days, and thereafter for further periods of ninety days, at the Minister's discretion. The Minister is also given powers to detain without trial anyone who has been convicted of an offence endangering the security of the state. Only Helen Suzman, representing the Progressive Party, opposes the Bill in toto.

1963 26 April  
At a meeting in Oslo, the Foreign Ministers of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and the Icelandic Ambassador call upon South Africa to change its racial policies and to cooperate with the United Nations.

1963 30 April  
Walter Sisulu is in Lobatse.

Algeria announces a total boycott of South Africa.Three listed white communists serving sentences of house of arrest, escape to Bechuanaland.

1963 May  
The security police begins 90-day arrests. A widespread purge of ‘subversive elements' is undertaken.

1963 1 May  
Prime Minister Vorster announces that Robert Sobukwe has been taken to Robben Island, where he will be detained indefinitely in terms of the General Laws Amendment Bill of 29 Apr.1963.

1963 2 May  
General Law Amendment Act No 37:Section 17, the ninety-day detention law, authorises any commissioned officer to detain - without a warrant - any person suspected of a political crime and to hold them for ninety days without access to a lawyer (Horrell 1978: 469). In practice people are often released after ninety days only to be re-detained on the same day for a further ninety-day period. The ‘Sobukwe clause' allows for a person convicted of political offences to be detained for a further twelve months. The Act also allows for further declaration of unlawful organisations. The State President can declare any organisation or group of persons which has come into existence since 7 April 1960 to be unlawful. This enables the government to extend to Umkhonto we Sizwe and Poqo the restrictions already in force on the ANC and the PAC (Horrell 1978: 416).Commenced: 2 May 1963, except ssctions 3, 9 & 14, which came into effect at different times.Sections 3-7 and 14-17 repealed by the Internal Security Act No 74 of 1982.

1963 7 May   South Africa signs agreement with Portugal.

1963 8 May  
Exchanges notes with Scandinavia amending the Air Agreements of December 1961The United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid publishes its first Interim Report, recording with satisfaction the number of countries that have broken off diplomatic and commercial relations with South Africa, but noting with regret that nearly 20 member states still maintain these.The British Ambassador in Pretoria and High Commissioner for the Protectorates, Sir John Maud, confirms that a distinction is made between ordinary political refugees and people who flee to the Protectorates to organize revolution. It is Britain's policy ‘to prevent action in any territory designed to foment violence in the Republic'

1963 16 May  
South Africa signs the Ocean Mail Contract with the Union Castle Company.

1963 24 May  
The Transkei Self-Government Bill is enacted, giving, for the first time, limited self-government to Africans in a defined area. It incorporates the draft Constitution for the Transkei, as finally approved by the Transkei Territorial Authority in December 1962.

1963 30 May  
Transkei Constitution Act No 48:Self-government granted to Transkei.Commenced: 30 May 1963Repealed by Sch 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act No 200 of 1993.

1963 5 June  
South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the release from the bound margin of preference of 10% ad valorem on certain preserved fruits.

Number of alleged Poqo members arrested is 3 246. (House of Assembly, June 12).

1963 25 June  
South Africa signs provisional air agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany.The final report by Justice Snyman on the Paarl Riots is submitted to Parliament. It analyses the main causes of the riots.

1963 26 June  
Sisulu speaks on "Freedom Radio" and urges the youth to join forces and continue the struggle to fight for freedom.

1963 27 June  
South Africa signs treaty with Bechuanaland Protectorate on postal services and insured parcels.

1963 28 June - 30 June  
The governing body of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) meets in Geneva to discuss emergency measures against South Africa and the problems its membership poses. It is resolved that South Africa should be excluded from ILO meetings.

1963 2 July  
Cameroon closes its sea and air ports to both Portugal and South Africa.

1963 3 July  
Extension of University Education Amendment Act No 67:Amended the 1959 Extension of University Education Act and the University College of Fort Hare Transfer Act No 64 of 1959.Commenced: 3 July 1963Repealed by section 21 of the Tertiary Education Act No 66 of 1988.

1963 4 July  
South Africa signs treaty with Swaziland on postal services including parcel post.

1963 6 July  
Robert John McBride is born in the Coloured section of Addington Hospital, Durban. His father Derrick Robert McBride and mother Doris are teachers at a Clairwood school. His maternal grandparents were Collin Campbell van Niekerk, a White Afrikaner, and Grace, a Coloured daughter of a Zulu-speaking mother and a Coloured father.Robert grows up in Wentworth, a suburb 11km from the city centre of Durban. Converted from a World War 2 military transit camp, Wentworth is flanked by the industrial area of Jacobs and an oil refinery, and is reserved for Coloured people.

1963 11 July  
Walter Sisulu is arrested and detained under Section 17 of Act No. 37 of 1963.

1963 12 July  
Hungary announces the breaking-off of trade relations with South Africa.The Security Police surrounds a house in Rivonia and arrests eighteen people, including Walter Sisulu, former Secretary-General of the banned African National Congress and Ahmed Kathrada, who had also gone ‘underground' from house arrests.

1963 13 July  
The government of India announces that it is cutting India's last remaining links with South Africa by refusing landing and passage facilities to South African aircraft.The Security police disclose the existence of an underground group the Yu Chi Chan, said to include people trained in Peking and Algeria for sabotage in South Africa.

1963 15 July  
Dr Verwoerd announces that the government has decided to withdraw from the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) owing to the hostility shown by African states

1963 16 July  
Ivory Coast closes sea and airports to South Africa and Portugal.

1963 18 July  
The United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid releases its second Interim Report recommending an effective embargo on the supply of arms and ammunition, and of petroleum.Harold Wolpe, a Johannesburg solicitor, and listed Communist, is arrested on the Bechuanaland border.

1963 22 July  
Ethiopia closes her airspace to South African aircraft.

1963 26 July  
The British High Commissioner for Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland issues the Prevention of Violence Abroad Proclamation, which makes it an offence for persons to conspire against, or incite, or instigate violence in South Africa or other neighbouring territories. It comes into immediate effect.

1963 30 July  
In the Geneva session of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, an Argentinian resolution states that South Africa shall not take part in the work of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) until conditions for constructive co-operation have been restored by a change of its racial policy. The resolution is adopted by six votes to two, with ten abstentions.Yugoslavia closes its consular office in Johannesburg.

1963 31 July - 6 August  
The United Nations Security Council debates the South African situation. The SA government reaffirms its decision not to participate in the debate arguing that discussions would be on matters it considers to fall solely within its domestic jurisdiction.

1963 August  
The Christian Institute of southern Africa, a non-racial interdenominational organisation, is founded under the directorship of Rev. C. F. Beyers Naudé.

1963 1 August - 30 September  
South Africa signs a multilateral treaty for the prolongation of the International Sugar Agreement.

1963 6 August  
Guinea announces that she has broken off diplomatic, commercial and cultural relations with South Africa and Portugal, and has banned the entry of their nationals into Guinea.

1963 7 August  
The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 181 calling upon all states to cease forthwith the sale and shipment of arms, ammunition and military vehicles to South Africa.South Africa is denied landing and over flying rights by the United Arab Republic as from this date.

1963 8 August  
South Africa signs an amendment to the sugar agreement of 3 June 1957 with Great Britain.

1963 10 August  
Dr K.G. Abrahams is arrested in the Gobabis area of South West Africa and is subsequently charged with being the chairman of the Yu Chi Chan Club (YCCC) aimed at overthrowing the government by revolution. A previous attempt to arrest him on 19 July 1963 was obstructed by the local community at Rehoboth, SWA. Conflicting accounts surround the circumstances of his arrest. He himself claims to have been abducted from Bechuanaland, where he had been travelling between Ghanzi and Lobatsi.

1963 11 August  
Harold Wolpe (arrested on the Bechuanaland border) and Arthur Goldreich (arrested in the Rivonia raid) escape from the Johannesburg Central Police station, ‘go to ground' and on 28 August emerge in Bechuanaland.


Arthur Goldreich, Harold Wolpe, Moosa Moolla and A. Jassat escape from prison and leave the country.

1963 19 August  
Dr Abrahams makes a habeas corpus application to the Cape Supreme Court and demands his return to Bechuanaland where he claims to have been already granted political asylum.Indonesia announces the severance of diplomatic and commercial relations with South Africa, and the closure of Indonesian ports to South African vessels.Sudan closes her sea and airports to South Africa and Portugal.The Abrahams case is discussed by Sir Hugh Stephenson, the new British Ambassador in Pretoria and High Commissioner for Bechuanaland and the Permanent Secretary of the South African Foreign Ministry, in the light of the request by the British Colonial Office for a full report.

1963 20 August  
The Israeli government informs the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid that it has taken all necessary steps to ensure that no arms, ammunition, or strategic materials may be exported from Israel to South Africa in any form, directly or indirectly.Mauritius closes her sea and airports to South Africa and Portugal.

1963 22 August  
South African Airways (SAA) announces the re-routing of its services to Europe via Luanda (Angola), Brazzaville, the Cape Verde Islands, and Las Palmas.

1963 28 August  
Goldreich and Wolpe are found to be in Francistown, Bechunaland, having flown there from Swaziland.

1963 30 August  
The Prime Minister announces, in a statement before the Supreme Court in Cape Town, that Dr Abrahams will be returned to Bechuanaland. He and his three companions, are returned to Ghanzi on 31 August 1963, and the charge of sabotage is withdrawn on 11 September 1963.

1963 31 August  
Libya closes her sea and airports to South Africa and Portugal and denies them over-flying rights.

1963 September  
South African Airways is excluded from flying over the African continent; the only exception is Portuguese territory.

1963 3 September  
Dr Verwoerd suggests that the three Protectorates might develop to independence under South Africa's guidance rather than under Britain's and offers to administer them as self-governing Bantustans.

1963 9 September  
At a meeting in Stockholm the Foreign Ministers of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden confirm that their countries neither permit, nor intend to permit any exports of arms to South Africa. Their ultimate aim is the guaranteeing of equal rights to all citizens

1963 12 September  
Chad closes its air space to South Africa and Portuguese aircraft, as well as to all other planes carrying goods or passengers to or from the two countries.

1963 14 September  
South Africa signs a multilateral Convention on Offences Committed on Board Aircraft.

1963 16 September  
The final report of the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid gives a detailed review of developments on South Africa's racial policies since 6 November 1962. It is unanimously approved and published on 18 September 1963.

1963 17 September  
Regulations incorporating new measures to prevent aircraft transporting ‘criminals or refugees' in or out of the three British High Commission Territories are published in the Government Gazette. Thirty-seven airports are designated as compulsory landing points (twelve for Basutoland, seventeen for Bechuanaland and eight for Swaziland).

1963 23 September  
The United Arab Republic Ministry of Economy announces that all economic ties with South Africa will be severed.At the World Health Organization's Regional Conference for Africa, in Geneva, 26 African delegates leave the opening session in protest against the presence of South African and Portuguese delegates. The Conference is left without a quorum and adjourned on 24 September 1963.

1963 27 September  
The Danish Foreign Minister states in the United Nations General Assembly that the Scandinavian Foreign Ministers have refused an invitation by Dr Verwoerd to visit South Africa to see for themselves the reality of the racial situation. Such a journey is not seen as furthering a solution to the South African problem in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter.

1963 30 September  
Tanganyika formally ends all imports and exports, direct and indirect, from and to South Africa.

1963 October  
Prominent leaders of the ANC and allied organisations charged in the Rivonia Trial. (Many of them had been arrested on the Rivonia farm).

1963 - 1964 October - June  
The Rivonia Trial is held and ends with Mandela, Mbeki, Sisulu, Goldberg, Kathrada, Mhlaba, Mlangeni and Motsoaledi being sentenced to life imprisonment.

1963 2 October  
Kuwait breaks off diplomatic relations with South Africa and all Kuwaiti air and seaports are closed to South African aircraft and vessels.

1963 9 October  
Walter Sisulu, Nelson Mandela, Govan Mbeki, Ahmed Kathrada, Rusty Bernstein, Dennis Goldberg, James Kantor, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi and Raymond Mhlaba (The Rivonia trialists) are charged with sabotage and attempting to overthrow the state violently.

In the Cape members of a breakaway group form the Non-European Unity Movement, Neville Alexander, Don Davis, Marcus Solomons, Elizabeth van der Heyden, Fikile Bam, Ian Leslie van den Heyden, Lionel Davis, Dorothy Alexander, Dulcie September, Doris van der Heyden and Gordon Hendricks are brought to trial in Cape Town.

1963 10 October  
An urgent resolution is considered by the United Nations Political Committee condemning the government of South Africa for its repression, requesting it to abandon the trial in progress and to grant unconditional release to all political prisoners and to all persons subjected to other restrictions for having opposed the policy of apartheid. It is approved, and the following day, 11 October 1963, passed by the General Assembly by 106 votes to one.

1963 11 October  
South Africa signs multilateral sugar agreement.

The General Assembly adopted resolution 1881(XVIII) requesting the Government of South Africa to abandon the Rivonia Trial of Nelson Mandela and other leaders, and forthwith to grant unconditional release to all political prisoners and to all persons imprisoned, interned or subjected to other restrictions for having opposed the policy of apartheid. The vote was 106 to 1, with only South Africa voting against.(This date was subsequently proclaimed the Day of Solidarity with South African Political Prisoners.)

1963 15 October  
The Netherlands Permanent Representative at the United Nations announces that his government has banned the export and transit to South Africa of weapons and munitions which could be used for the oppression of the non-white population.

1963 17 October  
The Rev. Dr. Arthur William Blaxall, an Anglican clergyman, is convicted on charges of aiding the activities of the PAC and the ANC. He pleaded guilty and does not appeal against the sentence. However, on instructions from Vorster he is released on parole the following day.

1963 21 October  
The Canadian Minister for External Affairs announces that the government has imposed an embargo on further sales or shipments of Canadian military equipment to South Africa.

1963 28 October  
The United Nations General Assembly Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee approves a Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in which South Africa's policy of apartheid is specifically condemned.

1963 November  
The Minister of Security announces that 543 people have been detained under the 90-day clause. Of these 151 have been released, 275 have been charged in court, 61 are due to be charged shortly, five have escaped and 51 are still being questioned.

1963 7 November  
South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the suspension of the margin of preference on crude sperm oil.

1963 8 November  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement on radio regulations.

1963 13 November  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the provisional accession of Yugoslavia to the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade.

1963 16 November  
South Africa signs treaty extending the declaration on the provisional accession of Argentina to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1963 18 November  
Eric H. Louw, Foreign Minister since January 1955, announces his intention to retire.

1963 20 November  
The first elections to the 45 seats for elected members of the Transkei Legislative Assembly take place.There are no political parties, the choice being between candidates supporting Chief Kaiser Matanzima and those supporting Paramount Chief Victor Polo Ndamase of the West Pondos, believed to favour multi-racialism. All adults are entitled to vote; voters comprise all Xhosa, not only in the Transkei, but throughout South Africa.

1963 21 November  
It is officially announced on Eric Louw's seventy-third birthday that the South African Ambassador in London, Dr. Hilgard Muller, will be sworn in as Foreign Minister on 9 January 1964.

1963 22 November  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty banning nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere.

1963 28 November  
South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the temporary suspension of the tariff preference on crude sperm oil enjoyed by South Africa,

1963 December  
Transkei granted self-government. In elections held earlier, opponents of Bantustan policy won a majority of the 45 elected seats. But they were outnumbered by 64 appointed Chiefs who became members of the assembly.

Zainab Asvat leads a women's march to Union Buildings to protest appointment of Indian National Council and Group Areas Act.

1963 2 December  
It is officially conceded that the majority of the members elected to the first Transkei Legislative Assembly support Chief Poto. The voting percentage in most areas is reported to be over 70% and the total number of voters to have exceeded 800 000.

1963 3 December  
The Rivonia Trial, concerning two charges of sabotage, one under the Suppression of Communism Act, and one under the General Law Amendment Act, begins before Justice de Wet. The Prosecutor, Dr Percy Yutar gives details of explosives to be used to commit acts of destruction, to be followed by guerrilla activity and military invasion.

1963 4 December  
The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution calling on the South African government to cease its repressive measures and calls on all states to embargo materials for arms manufacture.

The Security Council, in resolution 182(1963) calls upon all States "to cease forthwith the sale and shipment of equipment and materials for the manufacture and maintenance of arms and ammunition in South Africa". It requests the Secretary-General to establish a small group of experts to examine methods of resolving the situation in South Africa "through full, peaceful and orderly application of human rights and fundamental freedoms to all inhabitants of the territory as a whole, regardless of race, colour or creed, and to consider what part the United Nations might play in the achievement of this goal."

1963 6 December  
The Transkei Legislative Assembly meets for the first time in Umtata and elects Chief Kaiser Matanzima as Chief Minister by fifty-four votes to forty-nine for Chief Victor Poto, with two papers spoilt. Chief Matanzima forms a political party with the backing of the non-elective chiefs and their supporters; Chief Poto goes into opposition as the leader of the democratically elected members.

1963 10 December  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty on consent to marriage, minimum age for marriage and registration of marriages.

1963 11 December  
The first of the ‘Bantustans' comes into existence when the Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, De Wet Nel opens the Transkei Legislative Assembly at Umtata. Chief Kaiser Matanzima is installed as Chief Minister.

1963 12 December  
South Africa accepts Procès-verbal extending the provisional accession of Tunisia to the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade.

1963 15 December  
Walter Sisulu's appeal is dismissed by the Transvaal section of the Supreme Court. He must therefore serve his 6 year prison sentence.

1963 16 December  
The General Assembly appeals for assistance to families of persons persecuted by the South African Government for their opposition to apartheid. [Resolution 1978(XVIII)]

1963 23 December  
South Africa signs treaty with Southern Rhodesia on the removal of the operation of the 6 February 1964 trade agreement of 16 May 1960.South Africa signs treaty with Southern Rhodesia on the continuation of the extradition agreement of 19 November 1962.South Africa signs treaty on extradition (Northern Rhodesia) with Great Britain.It is announced in Pretoria that Dr. Carel de Wet, M.P. for Vanderbijlpark, Transvaal and grandson of General C.R.. de Wet, a leading Boer commander in the South African War of 1899-1902, has been appointed Ambassador to the United Kingdom.

1964  
Vuyisile Mini, W. Mkaba and Z. Khanyiga, all eastern Cape trade union leaders, are executed for killing a police informer.

African Self-Help Association is set up. Frances Baard is sentenced to five years under the Suppression of Communism Act for ANC activities.Hilda Bernstein escapes to Botswana, then London and becomes a member of the External Mission and Women's Section of the ANC

In the face of strong opposition by rank-and-file members (mostly White) to some of its more "radical" policies, the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) shifts rightwards, confining itself to symbolic multiracial activities and protests after-the-fact against government infringements on academic freedom. This marks the beginning a phase of deep frustration for the small Black membership, as virtually all channels for the expression of anti-apartheid sentiment are closed. The students allow themselves to be co-opted into the new non-risk style of NUSAS politics, since they are unable to adequately articulate their opposition to injustice.

Black Labour Act No 67:Consolidated the laws regulating the recruiting, employment, accommodation, feeding and health conditions of black labourers.Commenced: 1 January 1965Repealed by section 69 of the Black Community Development Act No. 4 of 1984.

Education Act No 2:This over-rides the South African apartheid schooling system and provides for black schooling and subsidies.Commenced: 1 April 1965

Robert McBride's sister Bronwyn is born.

Robert McBride's maternal grandfather, Collin Campbell "Sonny" van Niekerk (a White Afrikaner) dies. He was a bus driver in the rural village of Harding, southern Natal.

FASA's (Football Association of South Africa) suspension is re-imposed by the FIFA Congress. The Federation leadership is persecuted, arrested, or banned. Avalon Athletic win the SASL (South African Soccer League) double (League and Cup titles). Eric Sono dies in a car crash at the age of 27.The Pretoria Sundowns soccer team is revived.


1964 - 1970   All Pageview residents are issued with eviction orders.

1964 4 January  
In a New Year message, the South African Prime Minister, Dr Verwoerd, says it is justifiable for the whites to refuse to commit national suicide and to fight for self preservation.

1964 6 January  
South Africa signs treaty with France on the installation of a scientific space tracking station in South Africa.

1964 13 January  
The United Nations Secretary-General names four experts to examine the problem of apartheid in South Africa in accordance with the UN Security Council Resolution of 4 December 1963. They are: Sir Edward Asafu-Adjaye (Ghana); Josip Djerdja (Yugoslavia); Sir Hugh Foot (United Kingdom); and Alva Myrdal (Sweden).

1964 17 January  
Leader of the Opposition, Sir de Villiers Graaff, demands a judicial inquiry into the activities of the Broederbond, and demands the resignation of the Prime Minister from this society. Dr Verwoerd refuses to resign.

1964 24 January  
It is announced that efforts by Britain's Foreign Secretary, Mr Butler, and Glasgow University to obtain permission from the South African government for Albert Luthuli to leave Natal and be installed as Rector of Glasgow University have failed.

1964 27 January  
The appointment of the group of experts to examine the problem of apartheid, in terms of the United Nations Security Council resolution of 4 December 1963, is completed.

1964 30 January  
South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the suspension of the margin of preference on butter.

1964 4 February  
The International Court of Justice announces that in the South West African cases (Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa) the counter-memorial of South Africa has been filed. 20 June 1964 is fixed as the time limit for the filing of replies by Ethiopia and Liberia and 20 November 1964 for the filing of South Africa's rejoinder.The number of men required for military training in 1964 is to increase by 60%, i.e. from 10,368 to 16,537.

1964 5 February  
The South African government informs the United Nations Secretary-General that it is unable to agree to a visit by the group of experts, as it would be an interference in the internal affairs of the Republic.

1964 6 February  
Revd Robert Selby Taylor, Bishop of Grahamstown, is elected Archbishop of Cape Town and Metropolitan of the Province of South Africa, in succession to Dr Joost de Blank who recently returned to Britain on medical advice.

1964 7 February  
The Transkei opposition leader Paramount Chief Victor Poto, forms South Africa's first African political party - the Democratic Party. Its aims include the retention of the Transkei as an integral part of South Africa.

1964 8 February  
The leader of the South African opposition, Sir de Villiers Graaff, agrees with the government that the composition of the proposed United Nations Committee to Study Apartheid preclude any possibility of an objective or impartial inquiry and that the group should not be received in South Africa.

1964 15 February  
The governing body of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) meeting in Geneva, votes in favour of suspending South Africa from participation in its Annual General Conferences. The resolution is passed by thirty-two votes to fourteen with two abstentions.

1964 23 February  
A new weekly air service between Johannesburg and New York, with an intermediate stop at Rio de Janeiro is inaugurated in spite of the opposition of the UN Special Committee on Apartheid.

1964 28 February  
A Bill, presently before Parliament, provides for the establishment of a Coloured Representative Council comprising 30 elected and 16 nominated members. The State President will be able to confer power on the Council, to make laws for Coloureds in respect of finance, local government, education, community welfare and pensions.

1964 March  
The South African delegation walks out of the World Health Organization (WHO) having been deprived of its voting rights.

1964 5 March  
South Africa signs a multilateral declaration on the provisional accession of Iceland to the General Agreement on Tarrffs and Trade.

1964 7 March  
The Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, Dr Hertzog, confirms that the government's policy regarding television is unchanged. There is no question of television being introduced.

1964 9 March  
The United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid resumes its meetings and decides to draft an appeal to the Security Council and the General Assembly to ensure implementation of resolutions on South Africa adopted by them. They recommend that South Africa halt current trials of anti-apartheid leaders and refrain from executing persons already sentenced to death.

1964 11 March  
About 200 delegates from all parts of the world attend the Accra Conference for Solidarity with the Workers and People of South Africa.

1964 14 March  
The South African Government announces its withdrawal from the International Labour Organisation.

1964 20 March  
South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the elimination of the margin of preference of 10% ad valorem on boxwood.

1964 21 March  
The 1964-65 Budget provides for R210m on defence, an increase of R52m over the previous year. The Minister of Defence, Dr. Donges, admits it is a large increase but is confident the House will furnish ‘the wherewithal to discourage foreign aggression'.

1964 23 March  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty embodying results of the 1960-61 Tariff Conference pertaining to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1964 31 March  
South Africa signs treaty with Denmark, Norway and Sweden on the temporary amendment of 1958 air agreements.The United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid publishes a report recommending that the Security Council call on South Africa to refrain from executing people sentenced to death for political offences. to end political trials in process and grant amnesty to all political prisoners.

1964 17 April  
The Conference on Sanctions against South Africa ends in London by issuing the declaration that total economic sanctions are feasible and practicable, and calls for world action to end apartheid.

1964 18 April  
Dr N.E. Alexander and four others are found guilty of sabotage and are sentenced to ten years imprisonment. The judge finds that the accused participated in the activities of the National Liberation Front (NLF), a continuation of the Yu Chi Chan Club, whose aims was to further violence and revolution.South Africa signs agreement with France and a third party.

1964 20 April  
At the Rivonia Trial, Nelson Mandela, former leader of the banned ANC, blames the actions of the government for adoption of policies of violence by African leaders. He surveys the history and aims of the ANC and gives reasons why Umkhonto we Sizwe (the Spear of the Nation) was formed.The United Nations Group of Experts on Apartheid submits its report to the Secretary-General. It proposes a National Convention to set a new course for South Africa's future and envisages the removal of a mass of restrictive and discriminatory legislation.

The Group of Experts on South Africa presents its report to the Secretary-General, recommending that "all the people of South Africa should be brought into consultation and should thus be enabled to decide the future of their country at the national level." The Group was set up in pursuance of the Security Council resolution of 4 December 1963, with Mrs Alva Myrdal (Sweden) as Chairman. Sir Hugh Foot (United Kingdom) was Rapporteur.

The Group of Experts on South Africa presented its report to the Secretary-General. Indication of recommendations. Nelson Mandela addresses court at Rivonia trial.

1964 24 April  
The Prime Minister maintains that the country is economically so strong that it can withstand economic sanctions. The only vulnerable spot is oil supply.

1964 May  
Minister of Justice, John (B.J.) Vorster, serves Albert Luthuli with yet another five-year ban confining him to his home in Groutville.

1964 1 May  
SA sign treaty with Great Britain on the elimination of the margin of preference of 10 percent ad valorem on prepared or preserved groundnuts. President Kayibanda of Rwanda says the people and government condemn apartheid but think a realistic view should be taken of the probable effects of economic sanctions.

1964 6 May  
South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the temporary suspension of the margin of preference guaranteed to the UK on tin plate.The Bantu Laws Amendment Bill passes its third reading, giving the Minister of Bantu Administration the powers to declare prescribed areas in which the number of Africans to be employed could be determined; to override local authorities in African affairs and to redirect redundant labour to African Reserves. This comprehensive piece of apartheid legislation is an essential component of the overall plan for separate development.

1964 9 May  
Opening the first Legislative session of the Transkei Legislative Assembly, President Swart says that the Transkei now has an all-Westernised system of government. The Republic of South Africa will continue to assist the Transkei and will train its successors in office.

1964 16 May  
The Commission of Inquiry into the South African Press tables the second part of its report, severely criticising the reporting on South African affairs by foreign correspondents, or local correspondents working for foreign news agencies, who show an antagonism towards Afrikaners and the government. The Commission recommends the setting up of a press council to control newspapers and correspondents.

1964 23 May  
Albert Luthuli's first five year ban expires but he is immediately served with a new and stricter order.

1964 30 May  
The leader of the Basutoland National Party, Chief Leabua Jonathan, indicates that Basutoland is so economically dependent on South Africa that the imposition of economic sanctions is not feasible.

1964 3 June  
South Africa signs a treaty with Southern Rhodesia on the continuation of the workmen's compensation agreement of 11 October 1958.

1964 5 June  
Dr Verwoerd says that the government has no intention of trying to incorporate Bechuanaland, Basutoland or Swaziland into South Africa.A resolution to expel South Africa from the Universal Postal Union is approved by the Union's congress in Vienna, by 58 votes to 30, with 26 abstentions.

1964 9 June  
Dr Verwoerd announces the appointment of a one-man commission of enquiry, consisting of a Judge of Appeal, to investigate all secret organisations likely to influence unlawfully the State, the people, or the administration of justice. The inquiry is to be held in secret.

The UNO Security Council - in resolution 190 - urges the South African Government to end the Rivonia Trial and grant an amnesty to all persons imprisoned or restricted for having opposed the policy of apartheid.

1964 12 June  
At the conclusion of the Rivonia Trial eight of the accused are sentenced to life imprisonment. The central figure in the trial is Nelson Mandela who argues that he was driven to acts of sabotage by the frustration of all legitimate means of political protest. His argument is rejected by the Judge. The State has not charged the accused with High Treason, and Mr Justice de Wet accordingly decides not to impose the supreme penalty.

Nelson Mandela and other accused, except Rusty Bernstein, are sentenced to life imprisonment at the Rivonia Trial. Dennis Goldberg is held in Pretoria

In a statement issued following the imposition of life sentences on Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and six others after the Rivonia Trial, Albert Luthuli declares: “The African National Congress never abandoned its method of militant, non-violent struggle…However, in the face of the uncompromising White refusal to abandon a policy which denies the African and other oppressed South Africans their rightful heritage freedom - no one can blame brave, just men for seeking justice by use of violent methods; nor could they be blamed if they tried to create an organised force in order to establish ultimately peace and racial harmony”.

1964 13 June  
In terms of a new General Laws Amendment Bill, the death penalty is extended to people who have undergone sabotage training within South Africa; the Minister of Justice is again empowered to detain people for indefinite periods after they have served prison sentences; and the twelve-day ‘jail without bail' law of 1962 is renewed.At the Rand Criminal Sessions three Africans are imprisoned for twelve years and one for eight years on a charge of sabotage.

1964 15 June  
The United Nations Security Council, taking into account the recommendations and conclusions of its Group of Experts, condemns the apartheid policies of the government of South Africa and the legislation supporting those policies.

1964 16 June  
Rev Joost de Blank presents a petition to the Secretary-General, on behalf of the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners (sponsored by the Anti-Apartheid Movement in London). The petition was signed by 91,691 persons in 28 countries. The World Campaign informed the Secretary-General that the demand for the release of South African political prisoners has been supported by organisations with a membership of over 258 million.

1964 19 June  

Sabotage groups blast three pylons, one in the Transvaal and two on the Cape Flats.Parliament ends its session after 103 days and the passing of 100 bills.


1964 22 June  
South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the introduction of a system of levies for certain cereals and related products.

1964 24 June  
General Law Amendment Act No 80:Amended the 1963 General Law Amendment Act so that the Minister of Justice can extend the operation of the Sobukwe clause in individual cases. Sobukwe was thus imprisoned until 1969. This clause was re-enacted in amended form in 1976.Commenced: 24 June 1964Repealed by the Corruption Act No 94 of 1992.

1964 July  
The police make many arrests throughout the country under the provisions of the General Laws Amendment Act.

1964 6 July  
Mr. Mahomed Suliman Bhana, who had been active in the TIYC and is outspoken against apartheid policies, is served a banning order restricting him from attending any political or social gatherings, from entering any location and from leaving the Magisterial District of Johannesburg.

1964 21 July  
The United Nations Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of South Africa expresses very serious concern at the reported arrest of Abraham Fischer, defence attorney in the Rivonia Trial.

1964 24 July  
A time bomb placed in the main concourse of the Johannesburg railway station explodes during the evening rush hour, causing extensive injuries. Frederick John Harris is later tried and sentenced to death for this offence.

Bomb explodes at Johannesburg station, killing a white woman. (John Harris later convicted and hanged.)

1964 29 July  
Dr Verwoerd issues a statement making it clear that the government will not yield to outside pressure to reduce the sentences in the Rivonia Trial.

1964 31 July  
The Minister of Justice, B.J. Vorster, states at a Nationalist Party meeting that he is not prepared to lift the 90 day detention clause because of activity in five places in Africa where saboteurs are being trained for sabotage in South Africa and because of the regrouping of Communists since the Rivonia Trial.

1964 August  
Winnie and Albertina Sisulu are given permission to visit Robben Island, but are forbidden to travel together as they are both banned.

1964 4 August  
Cabinet changes follow the retirement of Paul Sauer, Minister of Lands, Forestry and Public Works. Jan F.W. Haak becomes Minister of Planning and of Mines: the three portfolios previously held by Paul Sauer are allocated to the following Ministers in addition to their existing portfolios: Lands, D.C.M. Uys; Forestry, WA. Maree and Public Works, P.W. Botha.

1964 13 August  
South Africa signs a Sugar Agreement with Great Britain (South Africa, Great Britain, Swaziland).

1964 15 August  
Minister of Defence, Fouche, announces that private enterprise will be responsible for the manufacture of aircraft for the South African Air Force. Jet trainers, to replace the SAAF's Harvards will be the first aircraft to be made locally.

1964 18 August  
South Africa: Signs second declaration on the extension of the standstill provisions Article XVI:4 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1964 22 August  
A spokesman at the Police Headquarters in Pretoria states that the strength of the South African Police Reserve has reached 17 554 and that reservists are attached to almost every police station in South Africa.

1964 24 August   South Africa signs a treaty with Malawi on double taxation.

1964 28 August  

Transkei Authorities Act No 6:Sets in place mechanisms for the recognition of the Transkei government.
Commenced: 28 August 1964Repealed by the Transkei Authorities Act No 4 of 1965


1964 15 September  
South Africa signs agreement with Portugal on postal services (for Mozambique).South Africa signs a treaty with Northern Rhodesia on postal services.South Africa signs a treaty with Malawi on postal services.

1964 19 September  
The Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, De Wet Nel, says that ‘Tswanaland', a number of African reserves skirting the border with Bechuanaland, will be the next Bantustan to be granted self-government.

1964 24 September  
South African ordinance workshops produce the first Belgian F.N. rifle, which is now ready to go into production.

1964 7 October  
It is announced in Rawalpindi that the government of Pakistan has decided to ban all exports from Pakistan to South Africa and has issued instructions to Pakistani shipping companies not to enter South African ports. Landing and passage facilities have already been refused to South African aircraft.South Africa signs multilateral agreement accepting the constitution of the Universal Postal Union.

1964 9 October  
The demand to the United Nations by four Caprivi chiefs and officials of the newly-formed Caprivi African National Union, for the withdrawal of South Africa and the right to self-determination, is reported. The United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid, at the special meeting, urgently demands that South Africa refrain from executing three leaders of the ANC, sentenced to death in March 1964. The appeals of the three - V. Mini, W. Khayinga and Z. Mkaba - against their sentences, are rejected by the Supreme Court.

1964 10 October  
The United Party leader, Sir de Villiers Graaff, tells the Free State Congress that the Party rejects the idea of one man, one vote and will retain white leadership over all South Africa.

1964 13 October  
South Africa signs agreement with Portugal (for Angola) with regard to rivers of mutual interest and the Kunene River Scheme.South Africa signs an agreement with Portugal (for Mozambique) providing for the extension of cooling facilities for citrus fruit.South Africa signs treaty with Portugal (for Mozambique) on railway matters.South Africa signs an economic agreement with Portugal.

1964 16 October  
South Africa signs a treaty with Southern Rhodesia on air transport.

1964 23 October  
South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain for the continuation of the trade agreement of 16 May 1960.

1964 26 October  
The United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid decides to issue an appeal to member states and organisations to assist families of persons persecuted by the government for their opposition to the policies of apartheid.

1964 30 October  
UN accepts multilateral procès-verbal extending the declaration of 13 November 1962 on the provisional accession of the United Arab Republic to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1964 6 November  
Shock and profound indignation is expressed by the Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid, at its emergency meeting over the execution of the three ANC leaders in Port Elizabeth.

Vuyisile Mini, Zinakile Mkaba and Wilson Khayinga, three prominent trade union leaders from the Eastern Cape, are executed.

1964 11 November  
South Africa signs an agreement with Greece on the reciprocal exemption from taxes on income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft.

1964 20 November  
The trial of Abram Fischer, Q.C., and thirteen others, charged with being members of the banned Communist Party, begins.

1964 25 November  
In a by-election at Edenvale, near Johannesburg in which the Broederbond is the main issue, the National Party's candidate Dr. Piet Koornhof, general secretary of the Broederbond since 1962, retains the seat for the National Party with an increased majority of nearly 1 000.

1964 26 November  
The Prime Minister, Dr Verwoerd, welcomes the British Labour government's announcement that the supply of the sixteen Buccaneer aircraft is being sanctioned. Immediate action concerning the Simonstown Agreement has been avoided.

1964 28 November  
Dr Verwoerd enters into a dispute with the British Prime Minister, Harold Wilson over the contract to supply Buccaneer aircraft, and threatens to abrogate the Simonstown Agreement if the planes are not supplied.

1964 30 November  
South Africa signs trade agreement with Southern Rhodesia.

1964 1 December  
South Africa signs multilateral customs agreement on the welfare of seafarers.

1964 5 December  
The Minister of Justice, B.J. Vorster, announces the suspension, from 11 January 1965, of the clause in the General Law Amendment Act providing for detention for ninety days. All detainees will have to be released or charged in court by that date.

1964 10 December  
It is announced that the Prime Minister's Economic Advisory Council has accepted a five-year plan designed to give South Africa an annual economic growth rate of five and a half per cent.

1964 12 December  
Conclusion of Rivonia Trial. Sisulu, Mandela, Mbeki, Kathrada, Mhlaba, Mlangeni & Motsoaledi sentenced to life imprisonment in the Pretoria Supreme Court for: • Sabotage• Conspiracy to sabotage and• Furtherance of the aims of a prohibited organisation (The Communist Party of South Africa and the ANC).

1964 21 December  
South Africa s igns treaty with Great Britain on the supply of military equipment to South Africa.

1964 30 December  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty [1955(xix)] establishing the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

1965  

Whites in Zimbabwe rebel against the British government.

Transkeian Police Act No 5:Provides for a national policing service and the various powers vested in it.Commenced: 6 January 1967

The Indian Education Act is passed, placing Indian education under the control of the Department of Indian Affairs. In 1976, the SA Indian Council took over certain educational functions. Indian education was also made compulsory.

Moroka Swallows win their first national championship (SASL - South African Soccer League).

Leeds United winger Albert Hurry-Hurry Johanneson becomes the first Black South African (indeed the first Black ever) to play in an English FA Cup final (against Liverpool).


1965 20 January  
It is reported in London that the British government will not issue a permit for the export of the ground-to-air missiles South Africa requires.

1965 22 January  
Parliament opens with debate on a motion of ‘no confidence' in the government in which the opposition attacks the policy of separate development, (the Bantustan policy) an the grounds that the creation of independent states could offer an entree for communism inside the Republic.

1965 25 January  
Abram Fischer, Q.C., standing trial under the Suppression of Communism Act, fails to arrive in court, forfeits his bail and disappears. Letters are read in court enumerating the reasons for his action and making a bitter attack on government policy. A warrant of arrest is issued.

1965 30 January  
Minister of Justice B.J. Vorster, tells Parliament that 1 095 people have been detained under the ninety-day clause during the eighteen months imprisonment without trial, since law has been in operation.

1965 5 February  
The Prime Minister, speaking in the House of Assembly, states that territorial separation is not the essential part of the apartheid policy -political separation is. He will not hesitate to use force to ensure white domination in the ‘white man's own area'.

1965 12 February  
A proclamation applies a section of the Group Areas Act to all public places of recreation, including sporting events, theatres and concerts so that such places in white areas arenot for use by non-whites and vice versa.

1965 13 February  
The unofficial Dutch mission, under Professor W.G. de Gaay Fortman, coming to South Africa to discuss apartheid, is cancelled. The tour will no longer be undertaken because the government has refused permission for the mission to meet Dr. Albert Luthuli.

1965 25 February  
Archbishop Owen McCann of Cape Town becomes South Africa's first Cardinal when he is invested by Pope Paul in St Peter's Basilica.

1965 26 February  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, South Africa and the United States for the application of safeguards.

1965 4 March  
Prime Minister H.F. Verwoerd,discloses that the restriction on Seretse Khama, now Prime Minister of Bechuanaland, visiting South Africa has been lifted and friendly relations with Bechuanaland are now desired.

1965 6 March  
Justice D.H. Botha, the Commissioner appointed to inquire into the activities of secret societies - the Broederbond, the Freemasons and the Sons of England - is unable to make any finding against any of these organisations.

1965 15 March  
The prolonged hearing of the dispute over the constitutional position of South West Africa is resumed by the International Court of Justice at The Hague. Extensive evidence is led on behalf of South Africa.

1965 18 March  
The Director-General of the South African Atomic Energy Board, announces in Pretoria that South Africa's first nuclear reactor has ‘gone critical'.

1965 24 March  
Provincial Council elections show a sharp swing to the government side and shock the opposition UP. Although provincial, the campaigns are conducted on national, and particularly racial, issues.

1965 30 March  
The proposal is made that members of the International Court of Justice should make a personal visit to South West Africa, South Africa, Liberia, Ethiopia, and elsewhere in Africa as the Court might wish. The invitation is rejected.

1965 30 March  
The Indians Education Bill is passed, providing for the transfer of the control of education of Indians from the Provincial Councils to the Indian Affairs Department of the central government, despite opposition from the UP.

1965 2 April  
Twelve people are found guilty of charges brought under the Suppression of Communism Act, for being members of the Communist Party, taking part in its activities and furthering its aims. On 13 April they are sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging from one to five years.

1965 4 April  
Units of the SADF are being equipped with a rifle made completely in South Africa. It is the R1-7.62 mm rifle, developed from the Belgian FN rifle, with improvements.

1965 4 April  
Units of the SADF are being equipped with a rifle made completely in South Africa. It is the R1-7.62 mm rifle, developed from the Belgian FN rifle, with improvements.

1965 6 April  
The International Court of Justice at The Hague hears the arguments of Ethiopia and Liberia in the South West Africa cases presented by E.A. Gross of the New York Bar. It is alleged that South Africa has infringed its League of Nations Mandate by applying its racial policies in the territory.

1965 7 April  
The United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid meets and is informed of the executions in South Africa of W. Bongco and F.J. Harris for acts arising from their opposition to apartheid.

1965 9 April  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement on the facilitation of international maritime traffic.

1965 13 April  
South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the temporary waiver from 1 July 1964 to 5 May 1965 of the margin of preference on white maize.

1965 22 April  
South Africa signs an agreement with Swaziland on air services.

1965 24 April  
The Minister of Bantu Administration and Development formally opens the Transkei Assembly Session, giving a preview of the more important legislation to be introduced. Bills include one to establish a separate Transkei flag and one to reorganize the Regional, Tribal and Community Authorities and consolidate existing legislation.

1965 29 April  
South Africa signs treaty with Denmark, Norway and Sweden on the temporary amendment of the air agreements of 1958.

1965 4 May  
Units of the SADF are being equipped with a rifle made completely in South Africa. It is the R1-7.62 mm rifle, developed from the Belgian FN rifle, with improvements.

1965 7 May  
The Deputy Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, M.C. Botha, announces in Parliament that Local Authorities must issue permits to householders who wish to have more than one servant sleeping on their premises. This is construed as a move to keep the suburbs White at night.

1965 8 May  
The opposition leader Sir de Villiers Graaff, speaking in the Legislative Assembly, claims that the number of Africans in white areas will continue to increase indefinitely if the country's rate of economic development is maintained. Chief Leabua Jonathan, leader of the Basutoland National Party which is to form the Protectorate's first government, tells political refugees that they are welcome to stay provided they do not use Basutoland as a base for operations against South Africa.

1965 12 May  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement amending the international sanitary regulations - WHO regulation no. 4.

1965 13 May  
The Official Secrets Act Amendment Bill is passed. It is designed to prevent the publication of information which would hamper or nullify the operations of the security police.

1965 15 May  
South Africa signs treaty with Portugal concerning SAA and TAP on air pooling.

1965 18 May  
The Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Bill lays down that the four white Members of Parliament elected to represent Coloureds will sit for fixed five-year terms and will no longer be elected eight days before the White Parliamentary elections. The effect is to prolong the terms of the present M.P.s for Coloureds and postpone a new election for Coloured voters who might elect Progressive Party members.

1965 19 May  
A Commission is appointed to inquire into an experiment involving twelve gold mines in which African miners have been employed.

1965 21 May  
The Minister of Defence states that South Africa has already made progress in building up her own military power and is almost independent in the provision of small arms.

1965 22 May  
Minister of Defence Fouché announces that R12m. had been spent on the defence radar screen in the Transvaal.

1965 25 May  
South Africa signs agreement with Belgium on reciprocity regarding admission to medical practice.

1965 3 June  
President Kaunda of Zambia says that an £8 million air base is being built by South Africa in the Caprivi Strip and accuses South Africa of warmongering. The Minister of Transport, B.J. Schoeman, replies that the air strip being constructed at Katimo Mulilo, is intended only for administrative purposes when roads in the Caprivi Strip are impassable.

1965 5 June  
The Constitution Amendment Bill of South Africa provides for an increase in the number of members of Parliament from 160 to 170.

1965 7 June  
The Police Amendment Bill, passed unopposed, empowers the police to search without a warrant any person or premises within one mile of South Africa's borders and to seize anything found. It is designed to combat the infiltration of saboteurs from other parts of Africa.

1965 10 June  
South Africa signs agreement with Southern Rhodesia for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.

1965 15 June  
South Africa signs a multilateral agreement on arbitration for a global commercial communications system.The Constitution Amendment Bill, published on 5 March 1965, but amended by a Select Committee, provides that the number of Parliamentary seats will be increased by ten, and that the ‘loading' and ‘unloading' of constituencies should be applied on a country-wide instead of a provincial basis.

1965 19 June  
The government has instructed its Ambassador to The Hague to inform the Dutch government of its displeasure over a grant of 100 000 Guilders being made to the Defence and Aid Fund for assistance to the victims of apartheid. This is seen as interference in the domestic affairs of South Africa.

1965 22 June  
The Suppression of Communism Amendment Bill authorising the Minister of Justice to prohibit the publication of statements or writings of those furthering or defending the aims of Communism.

1965 25 June  
The Criminal Procedure Amendment Bill is enacted. Among its provisions, this Bill empowers the Attorney General to order the Court not to give bail to defendants and to arrest and detain, for up to six months before a trial, any state witness who might be open to intimidation, or be considered likely to abscond. The General Bar Council of South Africa criticises the Bill as a grave interference with the rule of law and the administration of justice.

Criminal Procedure Amendment Act No 96 (180-Day Detention Law): Provided for 180-day detention and re-detention thereafter. The Attorney-General was empowered to order the detention of persons likely to give evidence for the state in any criminal proceedings relating to certain political or common-law offences. Unlike the ninety-day provision, this did not specify interrogation as part of the detention. Detainees could be held for six months in solitary confinement and only state officials were permitted access to them. No court had the jurisdiction to order the release of prisoners or to rule on the validity of the regulations under the Act.Commenced: 25 June 1965Repealed by section 344 of the Criminal Procedure Act No. 51 of 1977 except for ss 319(3) and 384.

1965 1 July  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty for the extension of the International Wheat Agreement 1962.The police raid the editorial offices of the Rand Daily Mail in Johannesburg and confiscate documents relating to a series of articles on prison conditions written by Harold Strachan.

1965 3 July  
A restriction order is served on Harold Strachan of Durban in terms of the Suppression of Communism Act. He has already been imprisoned for three years for conspiring to cause explosions.South Africa appoints ambassadors, R.H. Coaton to Argentina, J.C.H. Maree to Australia, A.A.M. Hamilton to Spain.

1965 5 July  
South Africa's first atomic reactor, Safari I, is opened by the Prime Minister at Pelindaba outside Pretoria. Nuclear power will be used for peaceful purposes only.

1965 8 July  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement on transit trade of land-locked states.

1965 10 July  
The Netherlands Foreign Minister Dr Luns says at The Hague that the Dutch government's gift of £20 000 Sterling to the Defence and Aid Fund is pledged to an organisation legally active in South Africa for many years, and is part of their international care and responsibility role.

1965 5 August  
South Africa's first atomic reactor, Safari I, is opened by the Prime Minister at Pelindaba outside Pretoria. Nuclear power will be used for peaceful purposes only.

1965 8 August  
Following the findings of the Viljoen Commission into the employment of African labour in twelve gold mines, the experiment is terminated. The Minister of Mines, J.W. Haak, says the government has decided that the colour-bar in the mining industry should be withdrawn.

1965 20 August  
The Transkei Chief Minister, Chief Kaiser Matanzima, tells an election rally in the Umzimkulu District that the Transkei has been given self-government so that people can rule themselves according to their customs. He promises that European-owned farms will soon be bought by the South African government and distributed to the people.

1965 24 August  
South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the temporary waiver from 5 May 1965 to 7 January 1966 of the margin of preference on flat white maize.

1965 4 September  
Dr Verwoerd clearly indicates that no Maoris will be acceptable in any New Zealand rugby team visiting South Africa in future. There is a strong reaction in New Zealand to this declaration of policy.

1965 10 September  
Regulations covering the detention of 180-days detainees held as witnesses, are published in the Government Gazette.

1965 21 September  
The leader of the opposition United Party presents the party's Race Federation Programme to delegates to the Natal Congress.

1965 13 October  
William Rowntree is nominated as the new American ambassador to South Africa to replace J.C. Salterwaite, due to leave South Africa on 18 November 1965.

1965 14 October  
South Africa signs treaty with France on air pooling, concerning SAA and UTA.

1965 19 October  
New electoral divisions are defined and plans are open for inspection. 160 electoral divisions are provided for the House of Assembly - an increase of ten - and in addition there will be six for South West Africa and four for Cape Coloured voters.

1965 27 October  
The Prime Minister opens a new international radio service, ‘The Voice of South Africa', intended to counter the hostile propaganda beamed to the Republic from foreign sources.

1965 1 November  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement on the prolongation of the International Sugar Agreement.

1965 2 November  
Members of the Basutoland Congress Party demand the incorporation into Basutoland of ‘Congo Territory', a large area of the Orange Free State, Natal and Eastern Cape Province.

1965 3 November  
Following a decision of the Johannesburg Bar Council the name of Abram Fischer is struck off the roll of advocates.

1965 6 November  
A R500,000 grant offered to the proposed new Afrikaans University in Johannesburg by the Johannesburg City Council, is accepted by the University Committee.

1965 9 November  
Establishment by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Programme for the Education and Training Abroad of South Africans.

1965 11 November  
On the eve of the Rhodesian Declaration of Independence, South Africa's Prime Minister announces that South Africa will continue to maintain normal friendly relations with both Britain and Rhodesia, adopting an official neutral position. Abram Fischer, Q.C. is re-arrested in Johannesburg.

1965 13 November  
The Archbishop of Cape Town, the Most Reverend Robert Selby Taylor, says in his charge to the Synod of the Church of the Province of South Africa, constituted in Cape Town, that barriers erected to keep races apart are creating in the minds of many a serious conflict

1965 17 November  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement further extending the international wheat agreement of 1962.

1965 14 December  
UNO Accepts Procès-verbal extending the declaration of 13 November 1962 on he provisional accession of Yugoslavia to the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade.Also accepts Procès-verbal extending the declaration of 5 March 1966 on the provisional accession of Iceland to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1965 15 December  
The United Nations General Assembly, in its twentieth session, passes a resolution strongly condemning the apartheid policies and calling for economic and diplomatic sanctions against South Africa.

The General Assembly requests the Secretary-General to establish a United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa to provide humanitarian assistance to persons persecuted under discriminatory and repressive legislation in South Africa and to their dependants.

1965 20 December  
A re-organisation of the South African Defence Force replaces the General Staff with a body to be known as the ‘Supreme Command' with the Commandant-General as Chairman and the Executive Commanders as members.

1965 31 December  
The government's attitude to Rhodesia's unilateral declaration of independence is defined by the Prime Minister, Dr Verwoerd, when he says that South Africa will not be coerced into any form of boycott.

1966  
From Marianhill, Steve Biko enters the Natal University's non-White medical school, familiarly known as Wentworth. A vastly talented political analyst, he is soon elected to the Students' Representative (SRC) and through the SRC he is drawn into National Union of South African students (NUSAS) activities.

Education Act No 9:Enacted various schooling mechanisms.Commenced: 6 January 1967

Phyllis Naidoo is banned. She is arrested for ten days for breaking her banning order. She leaves for Lesotho where she becomes a victim of a parcel bombDorothy Nyembe is released and banned for five years. She is restricted to the magisterial district of Durban

Phyllis Naidoo decides to study law.

Tabata, nephew of the Tembu Chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo, dies. It was this latter chief to whom Henry Mandela entrusted his young son, Nelson Mandela.

Kaiser Dalunonga Matanzima, a relative of Nelson Mandela, becomes Chief Minister of the apartheid 'bantustan' homeland of Transkei.

The anti-racist SASL (South African Soccer League) folds due to lack of playing grounds.

1966 1 January  
In a New Year message, Prime Minister Verwoerd emphasises that South African policy is one of non-interference in the issues between Rhodesia and the United Kingdom. Regular relations will be maintained with both parties.

1966 28 January  
The Prime Minister states that detention under the 180-day clause of the Criminal Procedure Amendment Act has been applied in the case of 23 people, all of whom were required as witnesses in criminal cases, including those against Abram Fischer and Fred Carneson.

1966 1 February  
All South African refugees are to report to the Basutoland police for documentation or face deportation to South Africa. A closer check is to be kept on political asylum figures.

1966 4 February  
Abram Fischer is committed for trial by a Pretoria magistrate. He pleads not guilty to all allegations.

1966 7 February  
The Suppression of Communism Amendment Bill provides for the extension by a further year the power of the Minister of Justice to detain prisoners convicted under the Suppression of Communism Act for further periods after the expiry of their sentences. This power is applied in the case of Robert Sobukwe and his detention will be extended.

1966 25 February  
Seven Africans are detained in the Transkei on an allegation of conspiracy to commit murder. Five are opposition members of the Legislative Council and the plot concerns the possible assassination of the Prime Minister, Chief Kaiser Matanzima.

1966 March  
Phyllis Naidoo is banned and restricted. No reason is given for these restrictions despite requests.

1966 18 March  
The Defence and Aid Fund is banned as an unlawful organisation under the Suppression of Communism Act. It is an autonomous South African body providing legal aid for persons accused of political offences and support for the families of political prisoners. The fund's office in Cape Town, East London, Johannesburg and Port Elizabeth are searched by police, as well as the homes of its office bearers, including that of the author, Alan Paton.

Defence and Aid Fund is declared an unlawful organisation in South Africa.

1966 23 March  
Abram Fischer goes on trial in the Pretoria Supreme Court facing various charges of illegal activity, including membership of the Communist Party, conspiring to commit sabotage and to providing training for guerrilla warfare.

1966 28 March  
The trial of Fred Carneson, a listed communist and former editor of New Age opens before the Supreme Court in Cape Town, the charges being sabotage and contravention of the Suppression of Communism Act on three counts. On 25 May he is sentenced to a total of five years and nine months' imprisonment.

1966 29 March   South Africa signs treaty with Zambia on postal services.

1966 30 March  
Six political parties participate in the General Elections, with 356 candidates contesting 166 seats. The result is a sweeping victory for the National Party, who have a majority of 82 seats over the combined opposition. United Party members decline from 49 to 39 and the Progressive Party duly obtain one seat.

1966 1 April  
An official list is published of 44 people who have left South Africa and whose writings will not be allowed under the Suppression of Communism Act.

1966 6 April  
The Chairman of the opposition Democratic Party in the Transkei, KM. Gunzana, is elected leader to succeed Paramount Chief Victor Poto who is to retire.South Africa signs agreement with Italy on the postal administration between South Africa and Italy on the exchange of money orders.

1966 9 April  
Following the victory of the National Party in the General Election, Dr Verwoerd forms a new government.

1966 20 April  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement on the further extension of the International Wheat Agreement, 1962.

1966 29 April  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the partial revision of radio regulations.South Africa signs treaty with Denmark, Norway and Sweden on the extension of the period of validity of traffic rights at Zurich in respect of South African territory granted to SAS by the 1958 agreement.

1966 4 May  
The court finds Abram Fischer guilty on all 15 counts of the indictment, including alleged sabotage, Communist Party membership and being a contact between the South African Communist Party and its overseas committee in London.

1966 5 May  
South Africa signs treaty with the Federal Republic of Germany on postal services.

1966 6 May  
Presidents Joaquim Chissano and Nelson Mandela sign an agreement to allow South African farmers to settle and farm in Mozambique.

1966 9 May  
Abram Fischer is sentenced to life imprisonment on the charge of conspiracy with the ANC and Umkhonto we Sizwe to commit sabotage; and to twenty-four years' imprisonment on six counts concerning Communist Party membership.

1966 10 May  
South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain for the release from the bound margin of preference on raw coffee.

1966 11 May  
The President of the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS), Ian Robertson, receives a banning order under the Suppression of Communism Act.

1966 14 May  
The government grants an amnesty in celebration of the fifth anniversary of the Republic. Over 30 000 prisoners stand to benefit.

1966 20 May  
After the State President assents to the Transkei Flag Bill, the new flag of the Transkei: ochre-red, white and green is hoisted in the capital Umtata for the first time.

1966 31 May  
The Republic celebrates its fifth anniversary with a massive military demonstration in Pretoria. A crowd of more than 500 000 sees nearly 20 000 troops and 200 aircraft take part in the proceedings.

1966 4 June  
Senator Robert Kennedy arrives in South Africa as the guest of NUSAS. He speaks at several universities, meets ex-Chief Albert Luthuli, banned leader of the ANC, but at no time does any member of the government meet him and official hostility is evident.

1966 8 June  
South Africa officially refuses an invitation to send representatives to an international seminar on apartheid, to be held in Brazil, in August and September 1966. The government sees the seminar simply as part of the political campaign waged against South Africa at the United Nations.

1966 22 June  
A spokesman for the World Council of Churches says in Geneva that the government has refused permission for Bishop Zulu to attend the world conference on ‘Church and Society' in July. The Anglican Prelate was to have been one of the eight conference presidents.

1966 30 June  
Transkeian Authorities Amendment Act No 7:Amended the list of authoritative bodies in the homeland.Commenced: 30 June 1966

1966 July  
Steve Biko attends the annual National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) Congress as an observer.

1966 7 July  
South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the temporary waiver of the margin of preference on flat white maize.

1966 17 July  
The latest list of banned people totals 936 in three categories: 467 listed communists, 515 banned under the Suppression of Communism and Riotous Assembly Acts and three banned only under the Riotous Assemblies Acts. Of the names there are 49 that are listed both as communists and as banned.

1966 18 July  
The International Court of Justice at The Hague rejects the complaints by Ethiopia and Liberia against South Africa, in which they allege there are breaches of duties as the mandatory power to South West Africa. The President of the Court, Sir Percy Spender of Australia, decides the issue with his casting vote. The government welcomes this decision: the South West African National Union and SWAPO reject the decision out of hand.

1966 20 July  
South Africa ccepts the accession of Yugoslavia to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.South Africa signs a parcel post agreement with the Netherlands.

1966 29 July  
Addressing the Senate, President Swart announces that legislation is to be introduced by the government to prohibit interference by one population group in the political affairs or institutions of another population group. It is aimed at thwarting Progressive Party plans to counter the October elections of the four Coloured People's representatives in the Assembly. On another issue he makes it clear that no proposal to leave the United Nations is at present being contemplated by the government.

1966 6 August  
The Universities Amendment Act and the Extension of University Education Amendment Act give the Minister of Education Arts and Science complete control over student life in South African universities.

1966 12 August  
Under the Suppression of Communism Amendment Bill tabled in Parliament, any attorney or advocate who has committed an offence under the Act at any time is liable to be struck off the roll. Other clauses give the Minister of Justice powers to cut listed people off from contact with any organization he chooses to specify. The Bill is rejected outright by the Progressive Party member Helen Suzman.

1966 17 August  
South Africa accepts the accession of Switzerland to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1966 22 August  
South Africa signs an agreement with the Union Castle Co. on ocean-freight.

1966 23 August  
The South African Minister of Posts and Telegraphs complains that Radio Tanzania's broadcasts from Dar-es-Salaam are interfering with broadcasts in South Africa.

1966 23 August - 4 September  
An International Seminar on Apartheid in Brazil is organised by the UN Division of Human Rights, the Special Committee against Apartheid and the Government of Brazil. It is the first of scores of conferences and seminars on apartheid organised or co-sponsored by the United Nations.

1966 6 September  
Verwoerd is murdered in parliament and is succeeded by Prime Minister Vorster.

The Prime Minister, Dr H.F. Verwoerd, is fatally stabbed in the House of Assembly by Demitrio Tsafendas, a messenger who had been serving the Press Gallery. Dr T.E. Donges, the Minister of Finance, temporarily takes over the duties of Prime Minister.South Africa signs a treaty with Botswana on air transport between Bechuanaland National Airways (BNA) and South African Railways and Harbours.

1966 8 September  
South Africa signs a guarantee agreement with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

1966 10 September  
Dr Verwoerd is buried in Hero's Acre, Pretoria. A mile-long cortege is watched on its three-mile journey by a crowd of some 250 000 people.

1966 12 September  
The Minister of Defence, Botha, announces in Cape Town that the posts of Secretary for Defence and Commandant-General of the Defence Force are to be combined under one head.

1966 13 September  
The Parliamentary caucus of the National Party unanimously elects B.J. Vorster, Minister of Justice, as its new leader. He automatically becomes Prime Minister, promises to uphold Dr Verwoerd's policies and will temporarily retain the Cabinet Portfolio of Police.

1966 14 September  
Justice van Wyk of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court is appointed as a one-man Commission to inquire into all aspects of the assassination.

1966 27 September  
The United Nations General Assembly votes by 114 votes to two (South Africa and Portugal), with three abstentions (Britain, France and Malawi) to terminate the mandate and to declare the administration of South West Africa to be the responsibility of the United Nations. The government views this Resolution as illegal and unconstitutional, and proposes to ignore it.

1966 October - 17 October  
Tsafendas is brought to trial before the Judge-President of the Cape Province.

1966 5 October  
A new Afrikaans-medium university is established in Johannesburg, the Rand Afrikaans University (in 2005 this is renamed the University of Johannesburg).

1966 13 October  
The General Laws Amendment Bill of 1966 is published. The Bill entitles police officers to detain people for up to fourteen days if they are suspected of offences against security.

1966 21 October  
D. Tsafendas, accused of assassinating Dr. Verwoerd in the House of Assembly, is committed to detention in prison at the State President's pleasure.

1966 26 October  
The General Assembly decided - in resolution 2142A (XXI) to proclaim 21 March as the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Many delegations had proposed this date as it is the anniversary of the Sharpeville massacre of 1960.

Group Areas Act No 36:While in theory this was not discriminatory legislation, it was implemented in a way that was advantageous to whites (Dugard 1978: 82).Commenced: 26 October 1966Repealed by s 48 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991.

1966 1 November  
The United Nations General Assembly adopts a fifty-four nation resolution by 114 to 2 against (South Africa and Portugal) with three abstentions (Malawi, France and Great Britain) calling for the establishment of a fourteen-member ad hoc Committee to recommend practical means for the administration of South West Africa. The Assembly also decides that South Africa's Mandate over SWA is terminated.

1966 3 November  
The government announces that President Swart will retire on 31 May 1967.

1966 4 November  
Industrial Conciliation Further Amendment Act No 61: Strikes are prohibited and lock-outs may not be done for any purpose unconnected with the employee/employer relationship (Horrell 1978: 279).Commenced: 4 November 1966Repealed by Labour Relations Act No 66 of 1995.

General Law Amendment Act No 62: Designed in response to guerrilla activities on the northern borders of the then South West Africa (Dugard 1978: 116). Section 22(1) was amended to provide for the detention of suspected ‘terrorists' for up to fourteen days for purposes of interrogation. The Commissioner of Police could apply to a judge to have the detention order renewed. This was essentially a forerunner of the 1967 Terrorism Act.Commenced: 4 November 1966Sections 3-6 & 22 repealed by the Internal Security Act No 74 of 1982

1966 11 November  
South Africa signs multilateral agreement on telecommunications and treaties tabled on 21 October 1965.

1966 14 November  
South Africa signs treaty with Portugal (for Angola) on air transport.

1966 17 November  
South Africa accepts procès-verbal extending the declaration on the provisional accession of the United Arab Republic to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

1966 25 November  
The new British Ambassador to South Africa, Sir John Nicholls, presents his credentials to the State President

1966 28 November  
The Bantu Administration Minister MC. Botha, announces measures leading to the creation of South Africa's second ‘homeland' in the Northern Transvaal.

1966 29 November   South Africa signs a treaty with Malawi on postal services.

1966 30 November   South Africa signs a multilateral treaty on the safety of life at sea.

1966 14 December  
South Africa signs a multilateral treaty on load lines.

The Minister of Agricultural Technical Services, J.J. Fouche, claims that South Africa is strong enough to withstand sanctions for at least three years.

1966 20 December  
The United Nations General Assembly passes a draft Resolution, by 87 votes to one (Portugal) and 12 abstentions, indicating that the situation in South Africa constitutes a threat to international peace and that universally applied mandatory economic sanctions are the only means of achieving a peaceful solution.

1966 28 December  
The Lesotho government announces it will deport 8 South Africans, whom it describes as a danger to peace.

1967  
MK begins a joint campaign with ZAPU, a people's army fighting for the liberation of Zimbabwe. They aimed to find a route into South Africa by first crossing the Zambezi River from Zambia and into Zimbabwe, then marching across Zimbabwe through Wankie Game Reserve, and crossing the Limpopo River into South Africa.

The formation of the University Christian Movement (UCM).

Environmental Planning Act No 88:Places restrictions on the number of blacks who may be employed in the manufacturing industry in the larger industrial areas.Assent gained: 19 June 1967; commencement date not found

The National Education Policy Act setting out the principles of Christian National Education (CNE) for white schools, is promulgated.

Sarah Carneson is imprisoned for breach of her banning order.

1967 1 January   South Africa signs a multilateral Sugar Agreement of 1958.

1967 10 January - 11 January  
B.J. Vorster and Chief Jonathan of Lesotho meet in Cape Town. A joint statement emphasizes their belief in peaceful co-existence. Economic aid and technical assistance are also proposed.

1967 11 January  
The projected North Sotho ‘nation' in the Northern Transvaal province is to run its own affairs of state. Matters passing to its control include education, finance, justice, public works, agriculture, forestry and community development.

1967 18 January  
A report prepared by UNESCO, published in Paris, states that the policy of apartheid ‘is not only an inadmissible answer to the racial and group conflict, but is itself the major cause of racial and group conflict there'. The report is based essentially on official government publications and reports (relating to discriminatory practices) from scientific and research institutions within and outside South Africa.The Lesotho government invites all South African political refugees to make formal application to leave the country, to indicate proposed dates of departure and countries of choice. Transit rights through South Africa will be arranged.

1967 19 January  
The National Party Parliamentary caucus nominates Dr T.E. Dönges, Minister of Finance since 1958, as candidate for the Presidency, on a second ballot. The United Party opposition nominates Major Piet van der Byl.

1967 24 January  
Prime Minister B.J. Vorster announces in Cape Town that Dr Dönges, nominated as the government's candidate for the Presidency, has tendered his resignation as Minister of Finance. His portfolio is to be taken over by Dr Diederichs. Mr J.W. Haak becomes Minister of Economic Affairs and Dr Carel de Wet, South African Ambassador in London will take over the portfolio of Mines and Planning.

1967 27 January  
The head of the South African Defence Force, Commandant General Hiemstra, announces the successful conclusion of Anglo-South African talks on aspects of the Simonstown naval agreement for the defence of sea routes around southern Africa.

1967 7 February  
A bill is published, which requires every Coloured male between the ages of 18-24 to register for selective service in training camps. It is passed in Committee on 8 March and approved 9 March 1967.

1967 8 February  
A spokesman for the Royal Navy announces that the British Command at Simonstown Naval Base will close on 12 April 1967. South Africa will in future assume greater responsibility for the defence of the sea route around the Cape.

1967 15 February  
Suppression of Communism Further Amendment Bill is approved by 106 votes to 40 at its third reading. It is made retrospective to 27 June 1962.

1967 18 February  
The government drops two Bills which were designed to enforce racial segregation on university campuses.

1967 22 February  
The Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, discloses that South Africa's northern borders are protected by a radar complex constituting an early warning system and that her coasts will be covered by the Decca navigational system costing R6m.

1967 28 February  
The electoral college elects T.E. Dönges as the next State President by 163 votes to fifty-two, cast for Major van der Byl.

1967 2 March  
The Population Registration Amendment Bill, with reference to racial legislation concerning the Coloured population, is published. The President is empowered to define, by proclamation, the ethnic and other groups into which Coloured persons and Blacks may be classified.

1967 3 March  
An official announcement by the government of Lesotho indicates that preparations for anti-South African political refugees to be flown from Lesotho across South Africa to other African states to the north have reached an advanced stage.

1967 4 March  
Dr. Theophilus Ebenhaezer Dönges, is elected South Africa's second State President and will assume office on Republic Day, 31 May 1967.

1967 6 March   The Commission on Human Rights deplores the actions of the South African Government as "contrary to international law and international morality".

1967 8 March  
Suppression of Communism Act No 24:Prohibits certain persons from making or receiving donations for the benefit of certain organisations; prohibits others from practising as advocates, attorneys, notaries and conveyances, and extends the grounds for deporting people from the Republic.Commenced: 8 March 1967Repealed by section 73 of the Internal Security Act 74 of 1982.

1967 13 March  
Discussions are conducted with Malawi on the occasion of a visit to South Africa by three Malawian Cabinet ministers.South Africa signs treaties with Denmark, Sweden and Norway regarding the extension of the period of validity of the traffic rights at Zurich in respect of South African territory granted to SAS.South Africa signs trade agreement with Malawi.South Africa signs treaty with Lesotho on the amendment of the insured parcel agreement of 27 June 1963 and 1 July 1963.

1967 27 March - 31 March  
The project of a dam across the Zambezi River at Cahora Bassa in Mozambique, involving the construction of a hydro-electric power station, is discussed at talks with the South African government in Lisbon.

1967 31 March  
A government spokesman in Gaborone, indicates that Botswana intends to curb the activities of 200 South African political refugees.

1967 8 April  
The government publishes a Bill entitled the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages (Amendment) Bill. In effect, marriage between a white South African man and a ‘non-white' woman, even if they were married abroad, will not be recognised in South Africa.

1967 19 April  
The Minister of Defence announces in Paris that he has signed an agreement for the purchase of French submarines of the Daphne class, their cost being the equivalent of GB£12 million.

Prime Minister B.J. Vorster declares at the opening of the Sixth Session of the Transkei Legislative Assembly that the government will assist blacks in their development and will transfer more functions and responsibilities to the government of the Transkei as the latter becomes able to handle them efficiently.

1967 26 April  
A draft resolution on South West Africa is submitted to a special session of the United Nations General Assembly by 56 countries. It declares that obstruction to its proposals by South Africa will constitute a flagrant defiance of the authority of the United Nations and requests the Security Council to take action on its enforcement.

1967 May   President Banda of Malawi visits South Africa.

1967 3 May  
An official announcement by the government of Lesotho indicates that preparations for anti-South African political refugees to be flown from Lesotho across South Africa to other African states to the north have reached an advanced stage.South Africa signs a multilateral Convention on the International Hydrographic Organisation.

1967 15 May  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the extension of the International Wheat Agreement.

1967 19 May  
The United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution establishing an 11-member United Nations Council for South West Africa to administer the Territory and to enter immediately into contact with South Africa to lay down procedures for its transfer. The resolution is supported by 85 votes, two against (Portugal and South Africa) and 30 abstentions, including the USSR, the United States, Great Britain and France.

1967 31 May  
Senator J.F. Naudê becomes Acting State President, following the incapacitation of Dr T.E. Donges. He is sworn in on 1 June 1967.

1967 6 June   The Physical Planning and Utilization of Resources Bill is enacted.

1967 9 June  
The Defence Amendment Bill, designed to make military service compulsory for practically all white young men, is passed with the support of the opposition.

1967 14 June  
South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.

1967 21 June  
The General Laws Amendment Bill or ‘Terrorism Bill' which makes terrorism a separate offence to be equated with treason is gazetted. Under its terms terrorism is defined as including acts committed with intent to endanger the maintenance of law and order and conspiracy or incitement to this end. It is made retrospective to 27 June 1962.

1967 22 June   South Africa:Signs treaty with Norway on a scientific project.

1967 27 June  
Terrorism Act No 83: According to Horrell (1978: 473), this Act signals the beginning of the struggle against ‘Red arms' as opposed to purely ‘Red ideology'. It authorises indefinite detention without trial on the authority of any policeman of (or above) the rank of lieutenant colonel. The definition of terrorism is very broad and includes most criminal acts. No time limit is specified for detention; it may be continued until detainees give satisfactorily replies to all questions. Fortnightly visits by magistrates are provided for ‘if circumstances permit'. No other visitors are permitted. The Act is made operative retrospectively to 27 June 1962 and also applies to South West Africa retrospectively (Horrell 1978: 445). It differs from the 90-day and 180-day detention laws in that the public is not entitled to information relating to the identity and number of people detained under the Terrorism Act (Dugard 1978: 118).Commenced: 27 June 1962All sections except section 7 repealed by section 33 of the Internal Security and Intimidation Amendment Act 138 of 1991.

1967 27 June  
Terrorism Act No 83: According to Horrell (1978: 473), this Act signals the beginning of the struggle against ‘Red arms' as opposed to purely ‘Red ideology'. It authorises indefinite detention without trial on the authority of any policeman of (or above) the rank of lieutenant colonel. The definition of terrorism is very broad and includes most criminal acts. No time limit is specified for detention; it may be continued until detainees give satisfactorily replies to all questions. Fortnightly visits by magistrates are provided for ‘if circumstances permit'. No other visitors are permitted. The Act is made operative retrospectively to 27 June 1962 and also applies to South West Africa retrospectively (Horrell 1978: 445). It differs from the 90-day and 180-day detention laws in that the public is not entitled to information relating to the identity and number of people detained under the Terrorism Act (Dugard 1978: 118).Commenced: 27 June 1962All sections except section 7 repealed by section 33 of the Internal Security and Intimidation Amendment Act 138 of 1991.

1967 July  
37 Africans are charged in Pretoria under the Terrorism Act. The State alleges that the accused engaged in terrorist activity in South West Africa between June 1962 and May 1967. Defence contends that the Terrorist Act cannot apply to South West Africa, which is mandated territory but this argument is rejected by the court.The Portuguese Foreign Minister, Dr A.F. Nogueira visits South Africa for talks with B.J. Vorster concerning regional co-operation.

Steve Biko participates in the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) Congress as a Wentworth Delegate. The congress sees bitter reactions from Black students when Rhodes University, the host institution, prohibits mixed accommodation and eating facilities at the conference site. A group of Black students (led by Steve Biko) begins to seriously analyse their political predicament in National Union of South African Students (NUSAS)

1967 17 July  
South Africa extends its treaty with the United States on the civil uses of atomic energy of 8 July 1957.

1967 21 July  
Chief Albert Luthuli, Nobel Peace Prize winner and former President of the banned ANC is killed under suspicious circumstances while walking along a railway bridge. He was taking his routine and familiar walk near his home in Groutville.

1967 23 July  
3 000 people gather in the church at Groutville to attend Luthuli's memorial service and to see Mrs Nokukhanya Luthuli unveil the memorial stone which has been erected on his grave.

1967 24 July  
Fietas, Johannesburg: Mr. Mahomed Suliman Bhana is released and given a remission of ten days for good behaviour.

1967 26 July  
South Africa signs a treaty with Italy on the amendment of the air agreement of the 21 May 1956.

1967 30 July  
Dr Raymond Hoffenberg of Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town and senior lecturer at the University of Cape Town Medical School, is banned under the Suppression of Communism Act. No explanation is given. The order leads to immediate protests by University staff and students.

1967 30 July - 31 July  
The 'Luthuli Combat Detachment', comprising ZAPU and ANC guerillas, crosses the Zambesi into Rhodesia at the start of the Wankie and Sipolilo conflict that last until late 1968.

1967 1 August  
South Africa signs a treaty with Malawi relating to the employment and documentation of Malawi nationals in South Africa.

1967 4 August  
The Defence Amendment Act comes into force, under which every young white male will be liable for military service. The amendments are based on making all medically fit citizens, except for those who join the permanent force, the South African police, the railways or prison services, liable for military training. Expenditure on citizen forces and commando training will increase by almost R1m in 1968 to an estimated figure of about R30m.

1967 11 August  
Vorster says in Koffiefontein, Orange Free State, that the restrictions imposed on Dr Hoffenberg are because of his promotion of the aims and objects of communism.

1967 13 August  
Umkhonto and ZAPU guerillas engage Rhodesian forces in Wankie (now Hwange) Game Reserve, near border of Zambia and Botswana.

1967 18 August  
ANC and ZAPU announced military alliance.

1967 September  
B.J. Vorster became Prime Minister and launches his "outward policy”.

1967 1 September  
Labour Laws Amendment Act No 4:Amends South African labour laws for Transkei.Commenced: 1 September 1967

1967 8 September  
It is officially disclosed that South African police are in Rhodesia actively helping in the fight against nationalist guerrillas. This follows an attempt by several hundred guerrillas to invade South and South West Africa from Zambia, at the urging of the Liberation Committee of the OAU in Kampala in July 1967.Prime Minister B.J.. Vorster announces the arrest of a fully trained KGB agent, Yuri N. Loginov, in Johannesburg, while on a special mission to South Africa. His arrest arouses widespread interest among Western intelligence services.

1967 10 September  
At the opening of the Malawi Congress Party (MCP) annual congress at Mzuzu, President Banda announces that formal diplomatic relations will be established between Malawi and South Africa at legation level by 1 January 1968.Speaking at a special news conference the Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, welcomes the participation of the South African Police in Rhodesian anti-terrorist operations.

1967 23 September  
Addressing a National Party rally at Volksrust, the Prime Minister, B.J. Vorster says that South Africa's fight against foreign-trained terrorists will continue in any area where South Africa is allowed to fight. He defends South Africa's decision to send police to Rhodesia.

1967 27 September  
South Africa signs treaty with Lesotho on air services.

1967 October  
Helen Joseph, placed under house arrest for five years in 1962, is similarly restricted for a further five years.

1967 6 October  
A Bill is introduced into the Lesotho parliament providing for the extradition of fugitives from the Republic of South Africa.

1967 8 October  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space.

1967 17 October  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the conservation of Atlantic tunas (with final act and resolution adopted by the conference of plenipotentiaries).

1967 21 October  
Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, arrives in Pretoria by military aircraft, accompanied by his Minister of Law and Order, D. Lardner-Burke, for talks with Vorster. Rhodesian constitutional questions and Rhodesia's relationship with Britain are discussed.

1967 25 October  
South Africa signs amendment to multilateral treaty on the safety of life at sea.

1967 November  
The Chairman of the Resources and Planning Council visits Malawi and endorses President Banda's plan to build a new capital in Lilongwe. To this end South Africa agrees to provide finance for the first building phase.

1967 8 November  
South Africa signs treaty with Austria on the state of the Commonwealth War Cemetery at Klagenfurt.

1967 13 November   South Africa signs treaty with Belgium on air services.

1967 15 November  
South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on consular privileges.

1967 17 November  
The Malawian Ministry of External Affairs announces that the first Malawi Chargé d'Affaires in South Africa will be P. Richardson. He will take up his post on 11 December 1967 and present his credentials the following day.

1967 21 November  
South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the temporary suspension of the margin of preference on tin plate.

1967 December  
Dr Christiaan Barnard makes medical history by transplanting the first human heart into a man dying of a terminal heart ailment.

1967 3 December  
The Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, announces a reshuffle of senior defence force posts to increase the efficiency of the country's Defence Department, the Defence Production Board and the Defence Organisation. Consequently Lieutenant-General C.A. Fraser, at present Chief of the Army, becomes Joint Commander, Combat Forces, in which capacity he will take command in times of war or emergency, of the fighting formations of Army and Air Force elements.

1967 11 December  
J.F. Wenzel presents his credentials to President Banda as South Africa's first Chargé d'Affaires and head of legation in Malawi.

1967 13 December  
At the 21st session of the United Nations, South Africa's apartheid policies are condemned as ‘a crime against humanity'.

1967 14 December   Britain continues its ban on arms supplies to South Africa.

1967 30 December  
The Foreign Minister, Dr Hilgard Muller apologises to Zambia for the actions of the 5 members of the South African police detained on the Victoria Falls Bridge by the Zambian authorities on 29 December 1967. They are released on 12 January 1968.

1967 31 December  
Prime Minister B. J. Vorster warns that the government will re-assess the Simonstown agreement during 1968. This reaction follows the British government's decision to maintain the South African arms embargo.

1968  
Attempts at opening the “Eastern Front” in Zimbabwe are made, after fierce encounters; ANC-ZAPU units are forced to withdraw to Zambian territory.

Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Act No 50:The Coloured Persons Representative Council is formed with 40 elected members and 20 nominated members. It has legislative powers to make laws affecting Coloureds on finance, local government, education, community welfare and pensions, rural settlements and agriculture. No bill can be introduced without the approval of the Minister of Coloured Relations, nor could a bill be passed without the approval of the white Cabinet (Dugard 1978: 98).Assent gained: 27 March 1968; commencement date not foundRepealed by section 101(1) of the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act No 110 of 1983.


Prohibition of Political Interference Act No 51:Prohibited non-racial political parties (sections 1 & 2) and foreign financing of political parties (section 3). The Act was later renamed the ‘Prohibition of Foreign Financing of Political Parties Act' by the 1985 Constitutional Affairs Amendment Act. Sections 1 and 2 relating to the ban on non-racial political parties repealed by the same Act (No 104) of 1985.Section 3 repealed by Abolition of Restrictions on Free Political Activity Act No 206 of 1993.


Sarah Carneson goes into exile in the UK where she works for the Trade Union Movement. Florence Matomela is released from prison and banned.Dorothy Nyembe is arrested again, detained and tortured

1968 3 January  

The State President-elect, Dr Theophilus Ebenaeser Dönges, dies after a long illness.

The Conservative Party agrees with the Republican and National parties to accept the principle of coalition at this stage, with the ultimate aim of amalgamation.


1968 30 January  
South Africa signs a modification to the annexure of the air agreement of 19 October 1959 with Switzerland.

1968 1 February  
J.J Fouché is nominated and unanimously elected President following the death of Dr T.E. Dönges.

1968 4 February  
The Prime Minister of Lesotho, Chief Jonathan, is reported to be prepared to co-operate with the South African government.

1968 7 February - 8 February  
Fouchë, the newly-elected President, resigns from the Cabinet and institutes changes in the government. D.C.H. Uys becomes the newly designated Minister of Agriculture and of Water Affairs and M.C.G.J. van Rensburg takes over the Posts and Telegraphs portfolio.

1968 9 February  
Mr. Justice Ludorf, presiding judge in the Pretoria terrorist trial, imposes sentences on the 30 accused of conspiring to overthrow the South West Africa administration. All are sentenced to imprisonment, 19 to life, 9 to twenty years, and 2 to five years.

1968 15 February  
The International Olympics Committee (IOC) decides to re-admit South Africa to the Olympic Games. The government has made five relevant concessions and the country is expected to participate in the Mexico City Olympics late in 1968.

1968 16 February  
The Commission, headed by S.L. Muller, appointed to study political interference and representation of population groups publishes its report. Its recommendations, which feature in subsequent legislation, are debated in the House of Assembly in late February and early March 1968.

1968 22 February  
The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Bill is adopted despite the opposition of the United and Progressive Parties.

1968 26 February  
The South African Indian Council Bill, dealing with affairs of the Indian people in South Africa, is passed with the support of the Opposition. It establishes the Council as a statutory body with 25 nominated members. No Indian ‘homeland' is to be established.

1968 28 February  
The Ivory Coast Foreign Minister urges African nations to seek dialogue with South Africa.

1968 12 March  
P.W. Botha, the Minister of Defence, reports to the Senate on the progress of the Arms Industry and defines the main aims of South Africa's defence policy.

1968 14 March  
The United Nations Security Council censures South Africa for its flagrant defiance of Council Resolution 245 (1968) calling for the freeing of the dependents in the South West Africa ‘Terrorism' trial and demands that South Africa release and repatriate them.

1968 20 March  
South Africa signs agreement with France relating to the certificates of airworthiness for imported aircraft.

1968 21 March  
South Africa signs treaty with Malawi on air transport.

1968 26 March  
Three Bills dealing with the future of the Coloured population are introduced: the Prohibition of Improper Interference Bill; the Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Bill, and the Representative Council Amendment Bill. All are adopted during 1968.

South African Indian Council Act No 31:Establishes a Council consisting of 25 members appointed by the Minister of Indian Affairs. The number was increased to 30 members, of whom 15 were appointed by the Minister and 15 indirectly through electoral colleges in the provinces (Dugard 1978: 100). Unlike the Coloured Persons Representative Council, the South African Indian Council was not granted legislative powers.Commenced: 26 March 1968Repealed by section 23 of the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act No 110 of 1983.

1968 27 March  
South Africa signs agreement with France with regard to the launching of the eole balloons.

Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act No 21:Invalidates any marriage entered into outside South Africa between a male citizen and a woman of another racial group (Dugard 1978: 69).Commenced: 27 March 1968 Repealed by the Immorality and Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act No 72 of 1985.

1968 28 March  
Raymond Hoffenberg leaves South Africa on an exit permit, without possibility of return, to take up a research and consultant's post in London offered to him by the British Medical Council. Later, on 23 April 1968, Prime Minister Vorster reiterates that he fully agrees with the restrictions placed upon him in South Africa.

1968 3 April  
Prime Minister B.J. Vorster announces that the 5 ‘non-White' University Colleges - those of Fort Hare, Zululand and the North, of the Western Cape and of Durban-Westville - will be released from their association with the University of South Africa,. They will be called universities and will, subject to certain conditions, be free to provide for their own teaching and conduct of examinations.

1968 5 April  
The Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, tells the House of Assembly that countries aiding and inciting terrorism and guerrilla warfare against South Africa could provoke retaliation against them. This is interpreted as a warning to Zambia that ‘terrorist' bases there could be attacked by South Africa.The United Nations Council for South West Africa leaves New York for London on its way to SWA, in an attempt to discharge the functions and responsibilities entrusted to it by the Assembly.

1968 8 April  
The Minister of Finance states that South Africa is not bound to any particular market and will therefore sell its gold wherever it is to its best long-term interest.

1968 10 April  
J.J Fouché is inducted as President in Cape Town.

1968 18 April  
The United Nations Council for South West Africa decides to return to New York from Dar-es-Salaam following problems over the chartering of aircraft and the denial of landing clearance in South West Africa.

1968 22 April - 13 May  
The International Conference on Human Rights is held in Teheran. A resolution is adopted condemning the South African government for its apartheid policy.

1968 30 April  
The bill establishing five universities for Blacks, releasing their association with the University of South Africa, comes into force.

1968 May  
South Africa appoints a military attaché to the South African Legation in Malawi.

1968 4 May  
In terms of the Armaments Development and Production Bill, the Armaments Development and Production Corporation of South Africa (ARMSCOR) will take over and expand the undertakings of the Armaments Board, establish new undertakings, and assist other companies in the production of armaments.

1968 8 May  
The South African government decides to finance the first phase of the construction of a new railway line between Southern Malawi and Mozambique. The contract for the construction is awarded to a South African consortium.

1968 20 May  
South Africa signs agreement with France relating to the certificates of airworthiness for imported aircraft.

1968 21 May  
The Coloured Persons Representative Council Amendment Bill is adopted after is final reading in the Senate, with the support of the Opposition. It provides for the enlargement of the existing Council, to one of 40 elected and 20 nominated members, giving it a limited measure of jurisdiction over Coloured affairs (education, pensions and local government). Its budget is set at about R50 million per annum.The Prohibition of Improper Interference Bill passes it final stages in Parliament, against the votes of the Opposition. It prohibits multiracial membership of political parties, participation in the affairs of political parties belonging to one racial group by members of another group or acceptance by political parties of funds from abroadThe Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Bill is passed, which extends the term of office of white representatives for Coloured affairs until 1971 and provides that such representation will then end.

1968 1 June  
The government announces, in a White Paper, plans to reorganize the administration of South West Africa which will give Pretoria considerably more authority over the affairs of the Territory. The White Paper stresses the complete legality of the proposed new arrangement.

1968 5 June  
South Africa signs multilateral treaty on wheat trade.

1968 17 June  
The United Nations General Assembly proclaims that South West Africa shall henceforth be known as ‘Namibia' and condemns South Africa for its refusal to withdraw from the territory.

1968 26 June  
Following official meetings held in Sweden (15-19 June) and later in Britain, the United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid appeals for factual and statistical information to be given about countries still supplying arms to South Africa, and proposes that freedom fighters in South Africa be recognised as prisoners-of-war under the Geneva Convention.

1968 28 June  
South Africa signs an amendment to the air transport agreement of 23 May 1947 with the United States.

1968 July  
At the Annual NUSAS (National Union of South African Students) Congress, Steve Biko and some of his fellow medical students begin to draw Black students into a candid discussion on their second-class role within the union. Later, Biko begins to actively promote the idea of an all-Black university movement at a University Christian Movement (UCM) meeting in Stutterheim.

1968 1 July  
South Africa:Signs multilateral treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.

1968 3 July  
Dangerous Weapons Act No 71: Prohibits the possession of weapons which could cause bodily injury if used in an assault. The Minister of Justice is empowered to prohibit the possession, manufacture or supply of such objects. Commenced: 3 July 1968Presently in force(as amended by the Dangerous Weapons Amendment Act No 156 of 1993).

1968 4 July - 19 July  
At a meeting of the World Council of Churches in Sweden, the Revd A.H. Zulu, Bishop of Zululand and Swaziland, Church of the Province of South Africa (Anglican) is elected as one of the presidents.

1968 9 July - 15 July  
University Christian Movement (UCM) Second Annual Conference is held at Stutterheim, attended by 150 students (very few of whom were White) also by faculty members and chaplains.

1968 11 July  
South Africa ratifies a treaty with Switzerland on the avoidance of double taxation with respect to taxes on income.

1968 17 July  
The Minister of Health, Dr A. Hertzog, says there can be no exception to the government's policy of differential salaries for the various race groups.

1968 18 July  
The Minister of Finance attacks the United States and other former ‘gold pool' countries for attempting to reduce the monetary role of gold.

1968 23 July  
The new French ambassador to South Africa, Baron Philippe de Luze, presents his credentials to President Fouché.

1968 9 August  
Prime Minister Vorster reorganizes his cabinet in order to strengthen the ‘verligte' enlightened elements in the government. Four new cabinet ministers are appointed: Community Development and Public Works (Blaar Coetzee); Interior and Police (S.L. Muller); Water Affairs and Forestry (S.P. Botha), Information, Social Welfare, Pensions and Immigration (C.P. Mulder).

1968 12 August  
Over 5 000 soldiers supported by tanks, armoured cars and air force units begin manoeuvres in an exercise code named Operation Subasa designed to test the ability of South African Defence Force to deal with terrorist activities.

1968 14 August  
Widespread student protests are held against the banning by the government of the appointment of an African lecturer, A. Mafeje, to a post in the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town. Prime Minister Vorster subsequently threatens to take action against student protests if the University authorities do not do so in reasonable time.

1968 16 August  
Prime Minister Vorster says that the number of diplomats from African and Asian countries can be expected to increase as South Africa's policies become better understood. His task is to ensure that southern Africa remains free from the threat of communism.

1968 20 August  
A special conference of National Party office-bearers in Pretoria endorses Prime Minister Vorster's policies concerning the admission of black diplomats, cooperation between English and Afrikaans speaking South Africans and sport, in which racial segregation will be maintained.

1968 September  
The Minister of National Education, Senator Jan de Klerk, announces the appointment of a Commission of Inquiry into Universities in the Republic, under the chairmanship of Justice J. van Wyk de Vries, with the mission of investigating all aspects of university life.

1968 4 September  
South Africa signs an extradition agreement with Swaziland.

1968 9 September  
A new nationalist party in Dar-es-Salaam, the National Liberation Front of South Africa (NALFSA), is formed to direct the freedom struggle inside South Africa. It applies for recognition by the OAU's African Liberation Committee.

1968 17 September  
Prime Minister Vorster criticises the decision to include a coloured cricketer, Basil d'Oliveira, in the British MCC team to tour South Africa in 1968. South African sports policy does not permit this, and the MCC is asked to cancel the tour.

1968 22 September  
A Commission of the South African Council of Churches publishes a report condemning apartheid as a false faith hostile to Christian belief.

1968 24 September  
South Africa signs a multilateral treaty on the authentic trilingual text of the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

1968 25 September  
The appeal of the 31 members of SWAPO against their conviction for acts of terrorism is to be heard by the full bench of the 11 judges of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in Bloemfontein. International concern is based on the argument that South Africa lacks jurisdiction over Namibia following the United Nations decision in 1966 to revoke its mandate over the territory.

1968 8 October  
South Africa signs a multilateral treaty on the principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space.

1968 9 October  
Defence Minister Botha announces that a missile base for experimental tests and launchings is to be established on the Zululand coast about 150 miles north of Durban. This site will be of great strategic importance for the defence of the sub-continent.

1968 12 October  
The Secretary-General of the Supreme African Sports Council, J.G. Ganga, says he will admit White South Africans to the African Games provided that competitions in South Africa are held without racial discrimination.

1968 21 October  
An open letter is released by 12 leading clergymen from the Church of the Province of South Africa and other Protestant churches indicating that it is impossible for all political utterances from the pulpit to cease.South Africa signs an agreement with Japan on the double taxation on income derived from the exploitation of ships or aircraft in international traffic.

1968 22 October  
South Africa signs a treaty with Greece concerning the graves of members of the armed forces of the Commonwealth in Greek territory.

1968 23 October  
Following his victory at the general elections in which his party, the Transkei National Independent Party (TNIP) won twenty-eight of the forty-five seats, Chief Kaiser Matanzima reorganizes the Transkei cabinet.

1968 27 October  
The Minister of Police, S.L. Muller, speaking at a National Party meeting, warns that several hundred South African born Black ‘terrorists' will try to infiltrate the country, and that at least 2 000 have been trained by liberation movements. Guerrilla activity is still taking place in the Caprivi Strip and 46 Africans in the area have been detained.

1968 14 November   The Ciskei ‘homeland' is established.

1968 21 November  
South Africa signs a treaty with Canada on the Canadian Pension Plan.

1968 26 November  
South Africa signs amendments to the multilateral treaty on safety of life at sea, 1960.

1968 December  
During the Christmas recess, a meeting takes place at Marianhill, and is attended by about 30 members of Black University Students' Representative Councils. When analysing the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) experience within this group, Steve Biko finds an encouraging receptiveness to his idea of an all-Black organisation. The name South African Students' Organisation (SASO) is chosen and plans are laid for a formal inaugural conference.

1968 2 December  
The 23rd Assembly of the United Nations passes a resolution condemning the apartheid policies of the South African government on virtually identical terms to that adopted at the 22nd session.

The General Assembly requests all States and organisations "to suspend cultural, educational, sporting and other exchanges with the racist regime and with organisations or institutions in South Africa which practice apartheid”.

1968 12 December  
The Tswana Territorial Authority is established.South Africa signs an International Sugar Agreement.

1968 14 December  
A move to expel South Africa from UNCTAD (The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) is defeated in the United Nations General Assembly.

1968 17 December  
The first rocket to be wholly developed and manufactured in South Africa is successfully launched from the new rocket launching range at St. Lucia Bay on the east coast. The Minister of Defence asserts that the rockets are defensive not offensive weapons.

1968 21 December  
A three-month campaign to register coloured voters ends with only approximately half of the total of 700 000 qualified voters registering.

1969  
Representatives of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) and the American Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights under Law arrive in South Africa to investigate recent legislation that seems to contravene basic principles of law and to create a trend of increasing state power over the individual without giving access to courts to seek redress. Meetings are held with senior officials of the Ministries of Justice, of the Police and of the Interior.

Barney Pityana and 21 other students are expelled from the University of Fort Hare. The University of the North Students Representative Council holds a strike to offer solidarity to the expelled students.

The Black South African student Organization (SASO) is formed.

Umkhonto we Sizwe, the ANC's military wing, is officially opened to women members. Winnie Mandela is detained under the Terrorism Act and held in Solitary confinement for 17 months. Dorothy Nyembe and ten others are charged under the Suppression of Communism Act and found guilty of harbouring members of MK. She is sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment.Frances Baard is released, banned and restricted to Mabopane near Pretoria. Mamphela Ramphele is involved in student politics at the University of Natal Medical School. She joins SASO under leadership of Steve Biko.

Shanthivathie Naidoo is detained

The Apartheid regime cancels a match between White champions Highlands Park and Orlando Pirates in Mbabane. The racist Football Association of South Africa's (FASA) reputation and international standing is seriously damaged as FIFA had sanctioned the match. The South African Soccer Federation forms a six-team professional league.


1969 - 1970  
The establishment of the additional five areas that will function as Cabinets is announced. They are Basutho ha Bozwa (Southern Sotho); Lebowa Territorial Authority (North Sotho); Venda Territorial Authority; Machangana Territorial Authority (Shangana, Tsonga); Zulu Territorial Authority.

1969 January  
International Conference of Solidarity with the Peoples of Southern Africa and the Portuguese Colonies in Khartoum, organised by AAPSO and WPC.Only liberation movements friendly to Soviet Union were invited.

1969 3 January  
The Conservative Party agrees with the Republican and National parties to accept the principle of coalition at this stage, with the ultimate aim of amalgamation.

1969 21 January  
South Africa signs a treaty with Portugal (for Angola) on the first phase development of the water resources of the Cunene River Basin

1969 1 February - 21 June  
During the Parliamentary session the government introduces 129 Bills. These include measures intended to safeguard internal security. They arouse widespread objections from the Opposition and the legal profession.

1969 2 February   Eduardo Mondlane assassinated.

1969 3 February  
The Leader of the Opposition introduces a no-confidence motion, that the government policy of separate development has failed and he proposes the establishment of separate nation-states in a federal system, in which the white population group would retain its leadership.

1969 7 February  
The Prime Minister announces that white entrepreneurs will be given long-standing contracts in the ‘homelands' to speed up economic development.

1969 11 February  
Four former National Party members join the newly formed Herstigte Nasionale Party.

1969 12 February  
The South Africa Act Amendment Bill, repealing the provisions of the South Africa Act of 1909 for the possible incorporation into South Africa of Rhodesia and the former High Commission Territories (Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland), is passed with the approval of the Opposition at its second reading.

1969 18 February  
John Vorster formally opens a new submarine cable between Cape Town and Lisbon.

1969 22 February  
The 15th Annual Conference of the Trade Union Council of South Africa (TUCSA) alters its constitution in such a way as to debar Africans from membership.

1969 23 February  
A new weekly air service between Johannesburg and New York, with an intermediate stop at Rio de Janeiro, is inaugurated in spite of the opposition of the UN Special Committee on Apartheid.

1969 28 February  
Minister of Justice Pelser says 42 persons are under house arrest in terms of the Suppression of Communism Act, eight of the orders being renewed for a further five years.

1969 March  
Helen Suzman introduces a private members' motion on the subject of capital punishment asking for a commission of inquiry to examine the efficacy of the death penalty. No other Members of Parliament support the motion.

1969 4 March  
The Prime Minister declares in the Senate that the National Party will exercise its power to put into practice, as far as possible, the separation of the races.

1969 10 March  
The Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, meets John Vorster for talks of a confidential nature.

1969 18 March  
Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, attends the launching in France of the first of three Daphne class submarines being built for the South African Navy.

1969 26 March  
Ten African men and one woman receive prison sentences of from five to twenty years in the Pietermaritzburg Supreme Court.South Africa signs an air transport agreement with Austria.

1969 April  
Mandela's letter to the Minister of Justice demands the release of poltical prisoners.

John Vorster says members of the South African Police Force will remain on Rhodesia's borders as long as this is necessary in South Africa's own security interests.A petition, bearing over 10 000 signatures, to restore academic freedom to universities is sent to the government.

1969 1 April  
Public Service Amendment Act No 86:Establishes the Bureau of State Security (BOSS) (Horrell 1978: 449).Commenced: 1 April 1969 Repealed by section 37 of the Public Service Act No 111 of 1984.

1969 8 April  
South Africa ratifies extradition treaty with Botswana.

1969 9 April  
The Abolition of Juries Bill, providing for the ending of trial by jury comes into force.

1969 10 April - 16 April  
A nation-wide student campaign is conducted to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Extension of University Education Act which enforces racial segregation on universities.

1969 16 April  
The 5th Summit Conference of East and Central African States in Lusaka adopts a Manifesto on Southern Africa.

The Fifth Summit Conference of East and Central African States in Lusaka adopts a Manifesto on southern Africa.

1969 23 April  
The Prime Minister announces to the House of Assembly that the government held discussions with other nations to fill the power vacuum in the Indian Ocean after Britain's proposed withdrawal in 1970.

1969 24 April  
Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, submits a White Paper to Parliament providing for a 5 year defence plan, with an estimated expenditure of R1 647 000 000 (about GB£1,000,000,000).

1969 30 April  
Separate acts give five University Colleges for Blacks full university status although the Central government retains tight control.

1969 May  
The Morogoro conference called for an all-round struggle. Both armed struggle and mass political struggle must, it says, be used to defeat the enemy. But the armed struggle and the revival of mass struggle depends on building ANC underground structures within the country.

24 Africans appear in the Grahamstown Supreme Court on charges relating to sabotage. Twelve of the alleged Poqo members are acquitted, and twelve receive prison sentences.

A seven-day ANC consultative conference is held in Morogoro, Tanzania. The main aim is to bring about a qualitative change in the organisational content of movement in keeping with the new situation: namely a Revolutionary People's War.An inaugural conference is held of the South African Students Organisation (SASO) at Turfloop University.

Winnie Mandela is arrested with 21 others and detained for five months. She is interrogated and tortured. A group of British anti-apartheid activists plan to rescue Mandela from Robben Island. Bureau of State Security (BOSS) later infiltrates the group and the plan is aborted.

1969 5 May  
P.W. Botha, the Minister of Defence, announces that an air-to-air projectile has been perfected by South Africa

1969 13 May  
The Minister of Justice announces that the former Pan-Africanist Congress leader, Robert M. Sobukwe, has been released from detention. He is permitted to live in Kimberley, subject to restrictions. Being banned under the Suppression of Communism Act, he may not be quoted.

1969 15 May - 17 June  
The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dr Hilgard Muller Visits Portugal, and says that Portuguese and South African forces stand as a bulwark against the domination of the African continent by foreign powers.

1969 16 May  
For purposes of intense security legislation the South African Bureau of State Security is established (later referred to as BOSS).The Publications and Entertainments Amendment Bill gives the Publications Control Board powers to prohibit subsequent editions of any South African periodical if its contents are deemed to be undesirable.

1969 30 May  
Statistics of police action during the year 1 July 1967 - 30 June 1968 include 47 370 cases involving the safety of the state and good order; 45 230 persons have been prosecuted for such crimes or offences.

1969 31 May  
South Africa rectifies exchange of notes with France to air services treaty dated 31 January 1966.

1969 4 June - 10 June  
The Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, accompanied by General Hiemstra, Lieutenant-General J.P. Verster, Chief of the Air Force and Lieutenant-General W.P. Louw, Chief of the Army, visits France. He denies that the visit involves the purchase of arms.

1969 5 June  
A Bill is tabled in Parliament banning henceforth any merger between newspapers published in South Africa, unless authorised by the relevant ministry. The government can veto the acquisition of a newspaper, or the majority interests in a newspaper, by anyone not possessing South African nationality, or by a group controlled by non-South Africans.

1969 12 June  
The leader of the Labour Party appeals to the voters to reject apartheid regulations.

1969 23 June  
24 Africans from the Graaff-Reinet district appear in the Grahamstown Supreme Court on charges under the Sabotage Act. They are alleged to have conspired or incited others to kill Whites or police in the Graaff-Reinet district of the Cape Province between January 1966 and January 1967.

1969 27 June  
A Bill on Separation of Races is passed, which includes the provision that no person could be classified White if one of his parents is classified Coloured. It prohibits the hearing of third-party objections to race classification and empowers the Secretary for the Interior to change a person's race classification.

1969 30 June  
A Bill affecting state security called the General Laws Amendment Bill is passed, despite rejection by the Opposition and severe criticism by the Bar and a number of judges. It contains far-reaching provisions and restrictions affecting the administration of justice and the disclosure of evidence. Security matters are now defined as including any matter relating to the Bureau of State Security (BOSS), and its relationship with any person. The government denies it is creating a dictatorial and despotic institution but this radical measure is seen as having far-reaching implications for the independence of the judiciary.

1969 July   South African Students Organisation (SASO) is launched

1969 - 1970 July - February  
A number of groups of Africans are tried for subversive activities. The group includes Winnie Mandela.

1969 1 July  
In preparation for the Council's taking-over the responsibilities, the Department of Coloured Affairs is replaced by the Department of Coloured Relations.

The constitution of the South African Students' Organisation (SASO) is adopted at the inaugural conference and Steve Biko is elected president. Other leading party members include: Barney Pityana,Harry Nengwekhulu, Hendrick Musi, Petrus Machaka, Manana Kgware, Aubrey Mokoape, J Goolam and Strini Moodley. Though the new organisation is committed to a philosophy of Black Consciousness, it does not reject the liberalism of National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) right away.

1969 3 July  
Twelve Africans on trial at the Supreme Court in Grahamstown, accused of having conspired to take over a town and kill Whites are acquitted on the charge, but are given prison sentences ranging from seven to one year's Imprisonment for being members of the illegal organization, Poqo. Twelve others are acquitted.

1969 10 July  
The lengthy and expensive trial of Laurence Gandar and Benjamin Pogrund, of the Rand Daily Mail, on charges under the Prisons Act ends with both being found guilty but receiving light sentences. The press wins a moral victory, but the trial discourages editors from publishing reports on prison conditions.

1969 1 August  
The Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, M.C. Botha, outlines the government's homelands policy, in Pretoria. He declares that Whites are trustees of the Blacks, but this trusteeship is not permanent, and he forsees the establishment of autonomous nations, coexisting peacefully on the basis of a practical interdependence.

1969 6 August  
South Africa signs the Agreement on Rescue and Return of Astronauts and Space Objects.

1969 9 August  
The French Minister of State for National Defence confirms the continued supply of French arms to South Africa, except for anti-guerrilla equipment.

1969 12 August  
The United Nations Security Council's resolution calls on South Africa to withdraw its administration from Namibia immediately, and, in any case, before 4 October 1969. South Africa is condemned for refusing to comply with previous United Nations resolutions.

1969 23 August  
An alleged Soviet spy, Y.N. Loginov, who was arrested in 1967, is handed over to a non-communist country, West Germany.The Republican Party issues its election manifesto which does not oppose separate development but demands increased services to combat crime.

1969 2 September  
P.W. Botha, the Minister of Defence, announces the establishment of a third naval base at Saldana Bay, about 80 miles north of Cape Town.

1969 5 September  
John Vorster appoints a Commission of Inquiry under Justice HJ. Potgieter, of The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court to investigate South Africa's security network, and to hear objections to its security legislation. Terms of reference include threats of conventional war, guerrilla war, terrorism and internal subversion; recommendations are to be submitted concerning the effectiveness of security and amendment to legislation.

1969 10 September  
9 Africans are charged in the Pretoria Supreme Court with taking part in terrorist activities between 1966 and 1968 in the Elandsfontein district, Transvaal.

1969 16 September  
The Prime Minister announces that a general election will be held in April 1970.

1969 19 September  
Four agreements are signed in Lisbon connected with the construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique, the main one being between the governments of South Africa and Portugal.

1969 24 September  
At the first election of Coloured Persons' Representative Council, the anti-Apartheid Labour Party gains a majority of 40 elective seats.South Africa ratifies a multilateral treaty on the rescue and return of astronauts and the return of objects launched into outer space.

1969 30 September  
The final results of the Coloured Persons' Representative Council election are announced. The Labour Party gains a large majority of seats: Labour Party 26, Federal Party 11, Republican Party 1, National People's Party 1, Conservative Party 0, Independents 1. Percentage poll 48.75%.

1969 October  
All known ‘verkramptes' (ultra-conservatives) are expelled from the National Party, including Dr A. Hertzog, Jaap Marais, W.T. Marais and Louis Stofberg.Over 2 000 ‘verkrampte' delegates gather in Pretoria to form a new party under the leadership of Dr Hertzog. Launched as Die Herstigte Nasionale Party (HNP) its programme emphasises ‘exclusive Afrikaner nationalism and true Christian principles'.

1969 2 October  
South Africa formally rejects a United Nations Security Council resolution calling upon it to give independence to Namibia and to withdraw its administration from that territory before October.

1969 7 October  
The government announces the 20 nominated members of the Coloured Persons' Representative Council for the four provinces. These include 13 defeated candidates - all are supporters of separate development; thus the government ensures that the defeated Federal Party will command a majority in the new Council. All other contesting parties condemn the government's action.

1969 9 October  
P.W. Botha announces the location of the first missile base for experimental tests.

1969 16 October  
The United Party declares that it will oppose the National Party's policy and will moot a certain measure of self-government for the urban black.

1969 19 October  
The Progressive Party decides to fight the election in opposition to the government's policy of separate development.

1969 21 October  
South Africa signs amendments to a multilateral treaty for the safety of life at sea (passed in 1960).

1969 26 October  
The United Nations Committee on Non-Self-Governing Territories adopts a resolution drawing the attention of the Security Council to the deteriorating situation in Namibia following Pretoria's refusal to relinquish its hold over the mandated territory. The resolution is passed by 96 votes to two, with 6 abstentions (Britain, France, Australia, Botswana, Malawi and Ivory Coast).

1969 31 October  
The 24th General Assembly meeting of the United Nations condemns South Africa for its persistent refusal to withdraw from Namibia.

1969 November  
The Attorney-General of the Transvaal prosecutes Dr Hertzog and Jaap Marais under the Commissions Act of 1947 for allegations made concerning the finance allocated to BOSS.

1969 20 November  
The first session of the Coloured Persons' Representative Council is officially opened in Bellville and immediately takes up the question of equal pay for Coloureds for equal work.

The General Assembly - in resolution 2505 (XXIV) - welcomed the Lusaka Manifesto on southern Africa and recommended it to the attention of all states and peoples.

1969 21 November  
South Africa votes against the lengthy resolutions regarding Southern Rhodesia's independence, passed by the 24th General Assembly of the United Nations.The General Assembly of the United Nations condemns South Africa for its collaboration with Portugal and Southern Rhodesia and for the intervention of its forces against the peoples of Angola and Mozambique; and for its apartheid policies.

1969 29 November  
South Africa: Signs multilateral treaty on the intervention on the high seas in cases of oil pollution casualties.

1969 1 December  
The trial begins at the Supreme Court in Pretoria of 22 Africans, including Winnie Mandela, accused of pro-Communist and subversive activities, of instigating guerrilla warfare and of organising Africans in Communist countries. Winnie Mandela refuses to enter a plea. A British subject, Philip Gording, held incommunicado in prison since May 1969, appears as a state witness. He is given immunity from prosecution and is released on 8 December 1969.

1969 11 December  
South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland sign a new customs agreement in Pretoria, to come into operation on 1 March 1970.

1969 30 December  
The International Monetary Fund announces that it will agree to purchase gold from South Africa subject to certain conditions. The price of $35 per oz. is agreed upon.



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