From left: "Evergreen Tree" (1961), "Obaltan" (1961), "Hate But Once More" (1968), "A Devilish Homicide" (1965)
From a commercial standpoint, the 1960s stand out as an era of unprecedented strength. With television still in its infancy, moviegoing formed the primary means of entertainment for young and old alike, with the average Korean watching more than five films per year by 1966. This decade also saw the emergence of a new generation of directors, who as a group would produce some of Korea's most diverse and exciting films.
Of course, 1960s filmmaking was profoundly influenced by the political and social environment of the time. One of the defining events of this era was a series of student-led protests on April 19, 1960 which toppled the authoritarian government of Syngman Rhee. The movement's success profoundly influenced the attitudes and perceptions of younger Koreans, who had grown up during and just after the war. After April 19, for the space of a little over a year, Korean society enjoyed a much greater freedom of expression, during which films such as Kim Ki-young's The Housemaid and Yu Hyun-mok's Obaltan were shot. Nonetheless in May 1961 a military coup led to the accession of dictator Park Chung-hee, who would lead the country until his assassination in 1979.
The military government introduced disruptive and authoritarian reforms which severely impacted the film industry. The first manifestation of this control came in the Motion Picture Law of 1962, which sought to introduce massive consolidation and a strong emphasis on commercial filmmaking. After passage of the law, film companies were required to own their own studios and equipment, have a minimum number of actors and directors under contract, and to produce a minimum of 15 films per year. That year, the number of film companies dwindled from 71 to 16, and soon after only 4 officially registered companies remained. Major revisions in the law would follow almost every subsequent year, making for chaos in the filmmaking community.
Directors of this era worked in an industry marked by frenzied activity. The Motion Picture Law allowed film companies to import one foreign feature for every three local movies produced, so directors were under tremendous pressure to work quickly. Movies were shot in a matter of weeks, and more popular filmmakers often turned out 6 to 8 films per year. Kim Soo-yong shot 10 features in 1967 alone, including his masterpiece Mist. Once completed, movies faced a strict government censorship board, which would often ban or delay films based on either political/social content (Yu Hyun-mok's Obaltan), alleged pro-communist sympathies (Lee Man-hee's Seven Women Prisoners, for which he was briefly arrested), or sexuality (Shin Sang-ok's Eunuch).
Most directors produced a striking range of genres throughout their careers, in order to meet the voracious demands of both audiences and film companies. War films, family comedies, youth-oriented dramas, and action movies were staples of the time. Korea's first animated feature Hong Kil-dong appeared in 1967. Literary adaptations such as Mist and Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train were encouraged by the government through a point system, which awarded the producers of selected films the right to import foreign movies. Nonetheless, melodrama remained probably the most popular and influential genre of the time, often impacting works of every other genre.
Reviewed below: The Housemaid (1960) -- The Coachman (1961) -- The Marines Who Never Returned (1963) -- Barefooted Youth (1964) -- Red Muffler (1964) -- The Evil Stairs (1964) -- The Starting Point (1965) -- A Seaside Village (1965) -- The Student Boarder (1966) -- Space Monster, Wangmagwi (1967) -- Mist (1967) -- Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train (1967) -- Golden Iron Man (1968).
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Source: The History of Korean Cinema (1988), Lee Young-il and Choi Young-chol.
These are some reviews of the features released from the 1960s that have generated discussion and interest among film critics and/or the general public. They are listed in the order of their release.
A consensus pick as one of the top three Korean films of all time, Kim Ki-young's masterpiece The Housemaid occupies a place all its own within Golden Age Korean cinema. A domestic thriller that builds in intensity right up until its startling resolution, the film doubles as a manic tour-de-force and a cutting satire of the aspirations and values of modern society.
Based on a contemporary news story, the film focuses on a traditional four-member family which has just moved into a two-story home. The husband Dong-shik teaches music to women factory workers, while his wife spends her days at home at the sewing machine, trying to earn enough money to cover the family bills. One day she breaks down from overwork, and Dong-shik asks one of his students to find him a housemaid. However, the maid they hire acts in strange and unpredictable ways, spying on Dong-shik and catching rats with her bare hands. Soon an incident occurs which motivates her to plot a dreadful revenge, and the Confucian order of the household comes crashing down at the hands of the surreptitious housemaid.
Asian cinema, and melodrama in particular, tends to portray the family as the most basic building block of society. Kim's somewhat twisted cinematic vision focuses on how the supposedly stable family unit comes apart under pressure. The two-story home in which Kim sets his film acts as a symbol for Korea's modernizing middle class, yet behind the placid surface we see darker, more primitive elements penetrating into the family's space: construction workers intruding on their daily lives, rats running amok, and the housemaid herself, wreaking havoc with envy and sexual forthrightness.
With inspired editing and a restless camera (not to mention that famous bottle of rat poison), Kim gradually heightens the sense of tension and claustrophobia, creating scenes of startling intensity. The performance he draws out of young actress Lee Eun-shim as the housemaid (on the left in the photo) is unlike anything else shot in Korea in that decade, or indeed ever since. Sadly, her brilliant acting may have ended her career -- it's said that viewers' reactions to her were so strong (audiences reportedly screamed "Kill the bitch!" during screenings) that producers were unwilling to cast her in subsequent films. As for the rest of the cast, Kim Jin-gyu brings a slightly aristocratic air to the role of Dong-shik, while Joo Jeung-nyeo plays the wife with a bland but stubborn determination to preserve appearances at all cost. The children excel in their roles too, including future star Ahn Sung-ki as the young son.
Though it debuted in 1960 as a box-office hit, The Housemaid was never given proper recognition until a retrospective of Kim Ki-young's work in 1997 at the Pusan International Film Festival. Since then, the film has gradually made its way to retrospective screenings around the world, drawing forth surprised and passionate responses from audiences wherever it goes. One hopes that with time, it will escape from the still overlooked confines of 1960s Korean cinema to become recognized as a world classic. (Darcy Paquet)
The Housemaid ("Hanyeo"). Written and directed by Kim Ki-young. Starring Lee Eun-shim, Kim Jin-gyu, Joo Jeung-nyeo, Eom Aeng-ran, Ko Sun-ae, Kang Seok-jae, Ahn Sung-ki. Cinematography by Kim Deok-jin. Produced by Korean Literature Films, Ltd. 90 min, 35mm, b&w. Released on November 3, 1960.
A single father with two sons and two daughters makes a living by operating a horse-drawn cart. However, in a city that is modernizing after the destruction of the Korean War, automobiles are making such carts obsolete, and he struggles to make ends meet.
The family's younger generation is also experiencing difficulties. The eldest son hopes to pass the bar exam to become a lawyer, but he has flunked twice already and is feeling pessimistic about his third try. The eldest daughter, who is mute, is married to an abusive husband. The younger daughter tries to move up in life by posing as a rich university student, while the youngest son has a penchant for petty theft.
At its heart, Kang Dae-jin's The Coachman ("Mabu") is a drama told with warmth and sympathy about a family trying to lift its way out of poverty and into the middle class. The challenges they face would have been familiar to many of its viewers in 1961, from the cruel and dismissive attitude of the upper classes to the pressure to pay back debts. The character of the father, played by the iconic Kim Seung-ho, also represents the situation faced by many older residents of the time, in not being able to cope with the quickly changing face of Korean society. Tellingly (and in patriarchal fashion), all hopes for the family's future are placed on the eldest son.
Perhaps the film's biggest strength is to highlight the frustration of having motivation and hard work matter much less than connections and money. The film walks a fine line between optimism and pessimism, but in its darker moments it offers a harsh critique of the economic foundations of society. Hope comes in the form of human generosity, whether from the understanding son of the family's creditor or the middle-aged housemaid who becomes romantically involved with the father. (A date that the older couple takes to a movie theater to see Chunhyang-jeon is one of the film's most fondly-remembered scenes)
The Coachman was the first Korean film to win a major overseas award, taking home the Silver Bear (Special Jury Prize) from the 1961 Berlin International Film Festival. It has since become recognized as one of the classics of Golden Age Korean cinema. Although somewhat overshadowed by the achievements of its contemporaries The Housemaid (1960) and Obaltan (1961), The Coachman remains a crowd-pleaser and a touching portrait of a society in transition. (Darcy Paquet)
The Coachman ("Mabu"). Directed by Kang Dae-jin. Screenplay by Im Hui-jae. Starring Kim Seung-ho, Shin Young-gyun, Hwang Jeong-soon, Jo Mi-ryeong, Hwang Hae, Eom Aeng-ran, Kim Hee-gap, Joo Seon-tae, Jang Hyeok. Cinematography by Lee Moon-baek. Produced by Hwaseong Film Co. 95 min, 35mm, b&w. Rating received on February 15, 1961.
As part of its ongoing mission to promote the cinematic treasures of South Korea's past, the 10th Pusan International Film Festival in 2005 held a retrospective on the work of Lee Man-hee. After the Korean War, Lee became actively involved in the film industry, debuting as a director with Panorama of Life (1961). Before passing away 30 years ago, Lee had produced a significant library of directorial works, some of which are considered classics of Korean cinema, such as the lost Late Autumn (1966) and the film I decided to revisit here as preparation for my attendance at Pusan, The Marines Who Never Returned.
This variation on an often trekked genre follows a platoon of South Korean marines who will eventually be commanded to hold back an advancing infantry of Chinese troops. The story begins, however, with a battle fought against North Korean soldiers in the ruins of a city street where both sides witness the orphaning of a young girl named Young-hui. The South Koreans quickly swoop in to save her from the crossfire. They will eventually become a collective of foster fathers for this young girl, or, as the subtitles refer to her, their "mascot." As they leave the battlefield victorious, Jeong-ik (Choi Mu-ryung - Red Muffler, North and South) discovers that lying amongst the dead masses of villagers killed by the North Koreans is his very own sister. The young girl informs Jeong-ik that it was Young-ja's brother who killed Jeong-ik's sister. Young-hui will later inform the platoon that Young-ja himself is not a North Korean communist, but a marine like them, explaining this just before Young-ja happens to join up with this very platoon. Young-ja's arrival underscores the divisions that existed within some Korean families concerning their loyalties during the war, an angle explored in future Korean films about the war, such as Kang Je-gyu's Taegukgi, and the resolution between Jeong-ik and Young-ja is a key element of the early part of the film.
Young-ja's arrival also underscores an argument by David Scott Diffrient, laid out in his contribution to the book South Korean Golden Age Melodrama: Gender, Genre, and National Cinema, that the South Korean war films of the Golden Age (1955-1972) were "Un-Gendering Genre" (162) by consciously adopting "...the emotional excess typically associated with melodrama and the woman's film" (151). Coincidences like Young-ja just so happening to be assigned to the same platoon as the man whose sister his brother killed are a staple of melodrama. Equally demonstrative of Diffrient's thesis, the platoon is commanded by a man fluid in his expression of gender, a man who shows a motherly concern when leading his men towards eminent death along with a requisite fatherly sternness when dispensing orders. Young-hui also underscores how the woman's film exists within the Korean Golden Age war film by being the platoon's mascot. For what is the intent of a mascot, from the Fighting Irish to the Red Devils, but to represent a mass mindset. In this case, the collective is just as much represented by this little girl as they are by associations with the military. Also, as Diffrient points out, Young-hui is afforded the task of naming these men. She even goes so far as to name one "Sissy" and instruct the men to step beyond their gendered assignments and be kind to "Sissy."
Still, Diffrient's argument is that the South Korean war film is a mixture of genres, so the masculine prerogatives of war films remain. The marines take offense to a bar of Korean hostesses that is off-limits to Korean men, solely to be used by United Nations soldiers. After playfully, yet not so playfully, damaging the establishment with the pretext of paying for each item they damage, the prostitutes at the bar come around and allow these marines access to their commodified bodies. Although this scene can also be interpreted as a point of 'cultural resistance' since the marines are seeking access to bodies denied them by 'colonial' forces that they, as Korean men, feel "entitled" to, this is still a masculine and national conceit that requires women to subjugate their bodies for the men of the nation. In spite of all that, there is cultural resistance in this scene that does not rely on subjugating women, such as that exhibited by the marine played by the famous comic actor Ku Bong-seo (Obuja, School Excursion). This marine playfully uses the colonizer's language, and subversive descriptions of the colonizer's violence, to fool away the United Nations soldiers who arrive bearing gifts for the prostitutes, or, as they are called in English here, "The Sexy".
Underscoring the dialogue regarding the horrors of war, Lee also demonstrates this visually through slow panning of the rows of bodies of dead villagers in the beginning of the film rhymed with the many dead soldiers in the foxholes near the end. Such allows for interpretations of an anti-war sentiment. But as Jonathan Rosenbaum relayed in Movie Wars, Sam Fuller, a director who is similar to South Korean directors of the Golden Age in that he also experienced a war firsthand, felt even Full Metal Jacket was, as Rosenbaum paraphrased, "...another goddamn recruiting film" (70). Concerning The Marines Who Never Returned, the camaraderie and bonding amongst the uniformed men, such as the goofy dance scene in the tent or the king-of-the-mountain game, is just as compelling as the humanist sentiments within the dialogue. So, it might be more accurate to say that every war film is vulnerable to being a pro- AND anti-war film. (Consider the fact that The New Yorker called Saving Private Ryan the war film "to end all wars" yet the Bush II administration went on to prove such proclamations false.) Regardless of Lee's intent here, the shadow will accompany that which is focused on by the light. We are left with the simultaneous understanding of both the horrors of war and the attraction to war, which is why it is not ironic for such films to find appreciative fans on opposite sides of the political spectrum. (Adam Hartzell)
The Marines Who Never Returned ("Doraoji anneun haebyeong"). Directed by Lee Man-hee. Screenplay by Jang Guk-jin. Starring Jang Dong-hwi, Choi Mu-ryong, Koo Bong-seo, Lee Dae-yeop, Jeon Kye-hyun, Kang Mi-ae, Jeon Young-seon, Kim Woon-ha. Cinematography by Seo Jeong-min. Produced by Daewon Film Company. 110 min, 35mm, b&w. Rating received on April 11, 1963. Winner of Best Director, Best Sound, Best Cinematography at 3rd Grand Bell Awards.
So-called "adolescent films" first gained widespread popularity in Korea during the 1960s, and of these, Kim Ki-deok's Barefooted Youth is the best known. Doo-soo lives in a poor neighborhood and makes his living doing odd jobs for a local gang. One day he comes across some thugs harassing two young women, and he intervenes, saving the women but getting himself injured in the process. Later when one of the women, an ambassador's daughter named Johanna, comes to thank him in person, the two strike up a friendship that will eventually lead them into trouble.
Barefooted Youth features an enjoyable mix of humor and drama in highlighting the vast gap between Doo-soo's lower class world and the aristocratic circles inhabited by Johanna. For audiences of the 1960s, the film highlights not only Korea's stark class divisions, but also the generation gap that was opening ever wider in that time period, with increasingly wild youth and ever more alarmed parents. The film features an interesting mix of optimism -- highlighted by the younger generation's willingness to fight and overcome barriers -- and pessimism marked by economic struggles and the harsh social dictates of the era.
Although the events portrayed in the film hardly seem controversial to contemporary audiences, at the time it was made, it struggled to get a release. Rumor has it that after extensive trouble at the censorship board, President Park Chung-hee himself watched the film's final edit and approved it for release. That it ran into so much trouble, even with the very forced resolution at the end, is an indication of the constraints placed on Korean filmmakers of that day.
Thanks in part to the huge commercial success of this film, actor Shin Sung-il and actress Eom Aeng-ran became recognized as the most famous screen couple of that era. They hold a record for appearing in the most number of films together, and their marriage in the mid-sixties provided one of the decade's biggest off-screen news stories. They remain well-known figures to this day, due to Shin Sung-il's (failed) attempts to enter politics and Eom Aeng-ran's appearances as a motivational speaker.
Looking back now, Barefooted Youth stands out as a representative film of its generation -- a funny and sincere portrait of the energy and idealism of youth. Though perhaps naive in parts and overly melodramatic at its end, the movie remains instructive, and a pleasure to watch. (Darcy Paquet)
Barefooted Youth ("Maenbal-ui cheongchun"). Directed by Kim Ki-deok. Screenplay by Suh Yoon-sung. Starring Shin Sung-il (Doo-soo), Eom Aeng-ran (Johanna), Twist Kim (Big Mouth), Kim Mi-hye (Kyung-wook), Lee Yeh-chun (Dal-yi), Yoon Il-bong (Deok-tae), Park Jae-hee (Ok-ju), Jeon Kye-hyun (Eun-hye). Cinematography by Byun In-jip. Produced by Keuk Dong Entertainment. 116 min, 35mm, b&w. Rating received on February 29, 1964.
A batch of rookie jet-fighter pilots arrive at Kangreung Air Force Base in 1952, near the end of the Korean War. They introduce themselves to their new commander by their nicknames: Mr. Nice Guy, Pebble, Sissy, Construction Worker ("because I am rude, like those that work at construction sites"), but they don't get much attention after that. The focus quickly falls on Bae Tae-bong (Choi Moo-ryong, The Aimless Bullet), a handsome fellow with a slight rebellious streak. Bae gets into trouble on his first sortie by strafing unauthorized targets, but redeems himself on the next by bringing in his jet without landing gear.
Major "Wild Boar" Na Gwan-jung (Shin Young-gyun, The Coachman), a swarthy, jovial man with Elvis sideburns, takes his team out drinking. At the bar they meet Jee-sun (Choi Eun-hee, The Houseguest and My Mother), a pretty girl with tragedy written all over her. Major Na tries to order Jee-sun around like a big brother, and Bae is immediately interested in her. A flashback shows how Na and Lieutenant Noh Do-sun found the orphaned Jee-sun walking in the snow to Kangreung, where she hoped to find work. They adopted her, and Noh, in love at first sight, married her after a whirlwind wartime courtship, then died in action. Na isn't interested in Jee-sun romantically -- he prefers the voluptuous madam of the bar (Yun In-ja) -- but he's looking for a good man who will take care of her, so she won't have to become a bar girl. Lieutenant Bae fills the bill. He too is smitten with Jee-sun's pretty face and modest demeanor, but should a red-scarf flying ace, a man who lives and dies in the sky, marry in wartime? Major Na has no doubt. The Captain, on the other hand, wants Jee-sun to keep herself pure in her husband's memory, like a mother who keeps a dead child's room just as he left it.
"I own your lives now," the Captain tells his rookies at the beginning of the film. Yep, that's right: Red Muffler is a sort of Korean precursor of Top Gun, a recruiting film for the Air Force. Red Muffler is much better, though. The aerial photography is breathtaking, the acting is more than competent, and there's even a musical number: as the rookies ride in the back of a truck to the airfield for their first mission, Major Na tells them to calm their nerves with a song. One begins to sing the Red Muffler song, with karaoke-like reverb added to his voice. First his fellows, then an invisible band join in, until they sound like the Red Army Chorus.
Red Muffler was directed by Shin Sang-ok in 1964, in the early years of the Park Jeong-hee dictatorship. Shin was a well-established if somewhat scandalous figure in Korean cinema, with films to his credit in a range of genres, from historical epics (Eunuch) to contemporary melodrama (The Houseguest and My Mother) and feel-good family films (Romance Papa). After the Park regime shut down his production company in 1977, Shin and his wife Choi Eun-hee were spirited away to North Korea, along with several reels of Red Muffler. A video transfer survived, however, and the current print was pieced together from video and film elements. Having made several "propaganda" films for Kim Jong-il, Shin got out of North Korea in 1986 and moved to Hollywood, where he worked as executive producer of Disney's Three Ninjas series before returning to Korea, where he died in 2006.
Red Muffler is propaganda as surely as any film Shin would later make for Kim Jong-il, but like Top Gun it's less political than technological propaganda. It isn't a historical celebration of the war, for the Republic of Korea had no F-86 jets in 1952. Nor, except for a reference to a bridge that the Americans had failed to destroy, would you guess the extent of foreign involvement in this war. It gave me a chill when the pilots casually decided to use napalm on a target; the US used napalm fairly indiscriminately in Korea, as it would later in Vietnam. Shin shows a gush of flame on the ground, but no screaming children.
Anti-communism is almost entirely muted in Red Muffler. "Red" is mentioned only in connection with the pilots' red scarves. The enemy forces are scurrying, faceless figures like the enemy in a video game. But then, Lieutenants Noh and Bae are almost interchangeable: when Noh is shot down, Bae pops up to take his place in Jee-sun's life. Major Na is the most vital, interesting character in the film, but maybe I only feel that way because I'm low-class myself. Both Jee-sun and Lieutenant Bae are from the North, but no one seems to mind. Bae even speaks movingly to Jee-sun of the sorrow he felt at bombing his home village, where the enemy was stockpiling supplies and weapons: he knows he hurt and killed people he knew. Given the fratricidal realities of the Korean War, Red Muffler is remarkably conciliatory.
Red Muffler is a rousing, old-fashioned blood-and-thunder war movie, a celebration of air war itself rather than a struggle against any specific enemy: full of soaring jets, explosions, pretty girls, a madam with a heart of gold, stout-hearted fighter pilots who face death in the air, and an old mother who arrives at Kangreung just in time to learn of her son's death in action. Stunned at first, she rallies and exhorts the weeping men around her to be brave. Even an old war-hater like me couldn't resist Red Muffler. (Duncan Mitchel)
Red Muffler ("Ppalgan mahura"). Directed by Shin Sang-ok. Screenplay by Kim Kang-yun. Starring Shin Young-gyun, Choi Eun-hee, Choi Moo-ryong, Han Eun-jin, Yun In-ja, Namgung Won, Kim Hee-gap, Lee Dae-yeop, Park Am. Cinematography by Kim Jong-rae. Produced by Shin Film. 100 min, 35mm, color. Rating received on March 27, 1964. Estimated admissions: 150,000. Winner of Best Supporting Actress (Yun In-ja), Best Actor (Shin Young-gyun) and Best Cinematography at 4th Grand Bell Awards. Winner of Best Actor (Shin Young-gyun), Best Editing (Yang Seung-gwan), Best Director at 11th Asia Pacific Film Festival.
Although he doesn't receive nearly as much attention as Shin Sang-ok, Yu Hyun-mok, or Kim Ki-young, director Lee Man-hee has produced a body of work that places him among the decade's most important filmmakers. He is recognized especially as a master of thriller and action films, although it is his works in other genres that have received the most attention: groundbreaking war film The Marines Who Never Returned (1963), melodrama Late Autumn (1966, which many critics consider to be one of the best Korean movies ever -- unfortunately, not a single print or negative of the film survives), and his final effort, road movie The Road to Sampo (1975). Lee died while in post-production on this last film at the age of 45, robbing Korean cinema of a unique talent.
The most prominent writers of Korean film history have shown little respect for the action and thriller genres; hence Lee's achievements in this sphere have been somewhat overlooked. Nonetheless, The Evil Stairs is one of Korea's most accomplished psychological thrillers, next to Kim Ki-young's The Housemaid.
Set in a gothic-looking two story hospital, the film focuses on an ambitious doctor who stands on the verge of becoming chief surgeon by marrying the hospital owner's daughter. However, a clandestine affair the doctor is having with one of the nurses puts his plans in jeopardy. When she becomes jealous and events start spinning out of control, he turns to drastic measures to cover up the affair.
With its striking setting and superbly executed black-and-white cinematography, The Evil Stairs remains a gripping and even frightening experience for contemporary viewers. Actor Kim Jin-gyu as the doctor and Moon Jeong-sook (one of Lee's favorite actresses) as the nurse both excel in their roles, completely convincing in their depictions of betrayal, revenge, and guilt-induced paranoia. Adding to the mood is a striking score with dissonant music from East European composers like Bartok and Penderecki.
Although certain elements of the plot may feel overly familiar to fans of the genre (i.e., Diabolique), Lee's smooth direction provides for a tense and enjoyable watch. As scholars and critics of Korean cinema go about the process of rediscovering overlooked genre films of the past, The Evil Stairs is likely to remain one of the more interesting items to be unearthed. (Darcy Paquet)
The Evil Stairs ("Ma-ui gyedan"). Directed by Lee Man-hee. Screenplay by Lee Jong-taek (credited as "Jo Eung-taek"). Starring Kim Jin-gyu (Dr. Hyun), Moon Jeong-sook (Nam Jin-sook), Bang Seong-ja (Jeong-ja), Jeong Ae-ran, Choi Nam-hyun, Yu Gye-seon. Cinematography by Seo Jeong-min. Produced by Seki Production. 108 min, 35mm, b&w. Rating received on July 10, 1964.
In the book that accompanied the retrospective of Lee Man-hee's films at the 10th PIFF in 2005, Lee Man-hee: The Poet of Night, film scholar Cho Young-jung wrote that the film Late Autumn "marked a turning point" for Lee. "Pre-Late Autumn works adhered to popular codes, whereas post-Late Autumn works, though in the same genre as their predecessors, showed a much more experimental and individualistic style" (29). The two opening sequences of Lee's The Starting Point underscore these individual experiments quite well. For 18 minutes we have no dialogue. (This would be the second time Lee began without dialogue, starting off with 20 minutes of dialogue-less images in The Pursuer in 1964, a method that received accolades from critics.) And the ending mountain chase and fight scenes equally underscore Lee's adventurous style, with awkward camera angles expertly representing the tension and dis-equilibrium such chases and fights cause the characters we are watching.
The film begins with our Robber (Shin Sung-il - Barefooted Youth, The Student Boarder) stealing the necessary papers, but he is unfortunately found out by whom he is stealing from. A long chase ensues where the Robber and the Robbed-From crawl down flights of stairs, ending with the unintentional crushing of the Robbed-From. After the credit-less credits, (the only existing print is without credits superimposed where they would have been when originally released), we continue dialogue-less as we move on to the looks and look-aways that are the negotiation between john and prostitute that establish the profession of our female lead (Moon Hee - The Guests Who Arrived on the Last Train, School Excursion). The Prostitute will become the Robber's companion on a hiking trip to Mt. Seorak to get away while things cool down regarding the murder. While there, the Prostitute must deal with the prejudices held towards her when a doctor on the trip violates doctor/patient confidentiality by blabbing about her profession to the other couples on holiday. Also, unbeknownst to the Robber, his gang was sending him out to the mountains to off him as the coolest of cooling down tactics.
The latter matter is what provides logic to the mountain chase scenes. Known for using live ammunition for his war films, Lee continued pushing the danger zone with an adventurous shooting style on the sides of mountains for this film. What cinematographer Seo Jeong-min mustered together from these awkward and life-threatening conditions and Kim Hee-su's edited together of these images presents a stressful time on the mountain for the audience as well. These scenes are not "exciting" based on today's hyper-spectacle terms, just as the "jokes" told in the dialogue require quotations around that word for the modern day audience, but they provide their own variation on suspense and The Starting Point was well received by audiences in 1967.
Film scholar Lee Young-il, in an essay included as part of the Lee Man-hee book mentioned previously, argued that "Lee sympathized with his heroes and heroines, people who are denied the fulfillment of their intrinsic longings - the poor, prostitutes, liars, criminals, vagabonds" (19). Lee Young-il believes Lee was projecting himself onto his main characters. And since Lee Young-il was a long-time friend of Lee's, providing defense for Lee's artistry and patriotism in court when The Seven Female POWs was confined by the Anti-Communism Law and providing defense for Lee's soul at his funeral by delivering a eulogy, we can trust what Lee Young-il argues. Lee's sympathy for these devils had him traversing the mountains with them, creating beauty out of the chaos that was their marginalized lives. (Adam Hartzell)
The Starting Point ("Wonjeom"). Directed by Lee Man-hee. Screenplay by Kim Ji-heon. Starring Shin Sung-il, Moon Hee. Cinematography by Seo Jeong-min. Produced by Seki Productions. 97 min, 35mm, b&w. Rating received on June 1, 1965.
As a metaphor for orgasm, the ebb and flow of the ocean's tide is a nice equal-opportunity metaphor. The rushing of the tide, the crashing against the rocks of the shore, these images definitely work in representing aspects of the male experience. And my women friends have told me the metaphor describes their particulars as well. (Still, on the male side, that rush to the tide might occasionally come much too soon, followed by the obligatory "Uhm, sorry 'bout that" to one's partner whose tide has yet to come in.) Since censorship prohibited Kim Soo-yong's film A Seaside Village from showing sex more graphically, the tide serves in its place. There's nothing new about this, and the tide's ebb and flow will be used from here to eternity afterwards. Still, A Seaside Village presents a surprising openness and progressive view of sexuality considering the time and society in which it was made. We even have a mock lesbian make-out session that most of the widows actively encourage by hooting and hollering Korean 'You go, girlfriend!' equivalents. After this scene, when the film pans across a long line of women lying in the laps of one another, rubbing each other's bare calves, I can't help but humor the interpretation that there's more going on here than just friendship. And then there is the ritual of pulling in the fishing nets that all the women and remaining men of the village rush towards. This symbolizes the community working together to help each other, but it also represents what has evolved into a sanctioned public display of sexuality for this village. The women's excitement about this ritual is centered not on the community aspect, but the sexual aspect. Hoping to cop a feel or be felt up by the person they position themselves next to along the rope.
The film begins with the fishermen preparing for a trip out to sea. A few characters mention having had "bad dreams" the night before, taking them as premonitions that something bad will happen on this trip. A pregnant wife tells her husband not to go because of her dream and Sang-soo (Shin Young-gyun - in hundreds of films from A Widow and The Coachman of the early 60's to Sad San Francisco and Divorce of the late 70's) himself decides not to take part in this trip because of his own bad dream the night before. As this boat leaves the harbor, the newlywed Hae-soon (Ko Eun-ah - Burning Youth, Sorrowful Youth) prays at the altar of the Dragon God, wishing all a safe journey, while hinting that perhaps she had a bad dream as well.
And something bad does indeed happen. A storm out at sea results in the death of a few fisherman, particularly for the concerns of the narrative, the husband of the pregnant woman (who will attack the penis-symbol decorations of the Dragon God's temple in retaliation for her husband's death) and Hae-soon's husband, making her a widow after roughly 10 days of marriage. From his earlier reactions to catching the newlyweds in bed together in his efforts to hurry her husband up for the ill-fated trip, we realize that Sang-soo has his predatory eye on Hae-soon. The early part of the film involves him stalking her and eventually raping her and Hae-soon, sadly, relenting and falling in love with him. Although feeling tied to her mother-in-law (Hwang Jeong-soon, known for often playing "the perfect mother" and recognized by the Korean version of Premiere magazine as one of South Korea's top actresses - The Coachman, The Daughters of Kim's Pharmacy), Hae-soon receives permission from her to marry Sang-soo, and is encouraged to leave for the mainland. We follow the couple as they travel from one working man's gig (quarryman, lumberjack) to another, having to leave each one due to incidents that arise because of other men and their inability to control themselves around Hae-soon's beauty.
Although tragedy happens throughout this film, surprisingly, it isn't a tragic film. And, surprisingly for the time when this film was produced, there's quite a bit of feminism thrown in. One can even argue that, for once, it is not the woman who is punished here but the men who utilize patriarchal prerogatives of violence that are punished. But to really lay that argument out, I'd have to ruin the ending.
What I can say is that the portrayal of widows in this seaside village is the exception from the rules demanded by Korean Confucian gender norms. Whereas, as Soyoung Kim notes, commenting on Shin Sang-ok's film The Houseguest and My Mother, "The gossip and gazes of the neighbors are presented as a mode of surveillance that functions to safeguard Confucian norms", the gossip and gazes of this town of multiple mimangin (widows, or, more specifically, women who did not die along with their husbands) supports a more liberating community for these women, actually encouraging sexual liaisons with other men in the village regardless of whether or not such is sanctioned through marriage. Such a complete 180 degree turn here towards these widows is significant when one considers the social discourse after the Korean War concerning war widows. Jinsoo An argues that war widows were often lumped together with prostitutes as examples of the "morally corrupt" ap'ure kol ('modern women') who were juxtaposed against "the virtuous mother." (Both quotes are from their respective chapters in the book South Korean Golden Age Melodrama: Gender, Genre, and National Cinema.) It appears the dangerous profession of a fisherman was not tied up with the nationalism of the dangerous job of a soldier, so these widows of fisherman were offered much more freedom and sympathy to carry on their lives afterwards without being reeled in by the tight lines of Confucian gender norms.
Although I have only seen close to 20 South Korean films from the 1960's, A Seaside Village is definitely up there with my favorites, Mist and A Barefooted Youth, making me even more curious as to what other entertaining surprises from the 1960's await me. (Adam Hartzell)
A Seaside Village ("Gaet-maeul"). Directed by Kim Soo-yong. Screenplay by Shin Bong-seung. Starring Ko Eun-ah, Shin Young-gyun, Lee Min-ja, Hwang Jeong-soon, Jeon Kye-hyun, Lee Nak-hoon, Jo Yong-soo, Kim Jeong-wook. Cinematography by Jeon Jo-myung. Produced by Daeyang Film. 91 min, 35mm, b&w. Rating received on November 19, 1965. Winner of Best Supporting Actress, Best Cinematography, Best Editing at the 5th Grand Bell Awards.
One of the crazier features to emerge from the 1960s is The Student Boarder, a kitschy, overblown melodrama about a jilted lover fixated on revenge. The ever-popular Shin Sung-il plays Min-gu, a sarcastic accordion player who moves into a boarding house across the street from his former lover. The object of his vengeance, played by Kim Ji-mi, is a former Miss Korea pageant winner who abandoned her fiance and married the chairman of a business conglomerate. When one night she hears an accordion across the street playing "The Student Boarder" -- a song frequently performed by her old beau -- she realizes that the new life she has built for herself is about to shatter into pieces.
Not a director much geared towards restraint, Jeong Jin-woo gives us a full-throated tale of love and revenge in gorgeous, gaudy black-and-white imagery. The melodramatic excesses of our lead couple, from Shin Sung-il's sneering, monotonous-toned voice to Kim Ji-mi's weeping theatrics, is nicely balanced by an interesting collection of minor characters whose lonely ambitions echo that of our hero. Actress Jeon Kye-hyun stands out in particular for her portrayal of a woman who goes out each night to seek the man who murdered her husband, drinking herself into oblivion when she fails to find anything. Another character played by Kim Hee-gap hopes desperately to find his lost son, all the while enduring the taunts of his second wife, who would prefer that the son never showed up.
Cinematographer Yu Jae-hyung infuses the film with inventive energy, his camera peering from behind flower arrangements and rushing forward into oncoming cars. It's this combination of striking imagery and the way the movie skirts the line between high drama and farce that makes it still appealing -- though admittedly, perhaps only for viewers of a certain personality type! Sadly, the soundtrack appears to be damaged in a couple short segments of the film's surviving negative, but at least it remains in complete form -- unlike many other films of this decade.
In the sixties, The Student Boarder was invited to screen in one section of the Venice Film Festival. The film must surely have made an impression on those who saw it, but 35 years later it is only vaguely recollected in Korea and unknown abroad. Though no model of refinement, Jeong Jin-woo's cinema is charged with energy and creativity, and is likely to resonate in new and interesting ways with contemporary audiences, in the rare chances they get to see it. (Darcy Paquet)
The Student Boarder ("Hasuk-saeng"). Directed by Jeong Jin-woo. Screenplay by Shin Bong-seung. Starring Shin Sung-il (Kang Min-gu), Kim Ji-mi (Hwang Jae-sook), Choi Nam-hyun (Mr. Woo), Jeon Kye-hyun (Yang Soo-hee), Kim Hee-gap (Mr. Song), Jeon Yang-ja (Myung-hee), Yoon Il-bong (Mr. Oh). Cinematography by Yu Jae-hyung. Produced by Seki Communications. 104 min, 35mm, b&w. Rating received on June 30, 1966. Presented at the 27th Venice International Film Festival.
The story of Space Monster Wangmagwi begins when a group of aliens initiate an invasion of Earth. They release an enormous, nearly indestructible creature in the middle of Seoul and wait as the monster makes short work of the city. The air force is called in, but they can do little in such a heavily populated area. One of the air force pilots, Oh Jeong-hwan (Nam Kung-won) was supposed to be married on the day Wangmagwi crashes down in the center of Seoul. He calls his fiance, Ahn Hee (Kim Hye-kyeong) who insists upon waiting for him in the nearly deserted wedding hall right in the monster's path of destruction. By the time she and her mother decide to flee the building, it is too late and the bride, in full wedding dress, is captured and carried in the palm of the monster's hand as it destroys the city.
Browsing through several internet sites devoted to 'kaiju', it is easy to find references to Space Monster, Wangmagwi, but they reveal that almost nothing is known about this giant, alien monster. Unlike neighboring Japan which was churning out monster movies regularly beginning with Godzilla in 1954, Korea is not known for science fiction films featuring creatures rampaging through the streets. However, that does not mean they did not exist. The first was probably in 1962 when Pulgasari made his appearance. Two decades later, the film would be remade in North Korea by famed, kidnapped director Shin Sang-ok. Wangmagwi was next, opening in theaters in the summer of 1967 and was followed just two months later by the original version of Yonggary in Yonggary, Monster From The Deep. The 1970's saw two more giant monster movies, the infamous APE, co-produced with a US production company, and Horror Of The Crocodile, a Korean film featuring a giant reptile in Thailand. The 1980's produced Flying Monsters which boasted a half-dozen different behemoths out to destroy humanity. But by the late 80's and early 90's, only children's films like Young-gu and Princess Zzu Zzu, a movie based loosely on the British film Gorgo, contained giant beasts until 1999 when Shim Hyeong-rae updated Yonggary and then began work on D-Wars.
It has been written that Wangmagwi is a giant gorilla, but this is an inaccurate description perhaps inspired by the creature's upright stance and large mammalian ears. Instead, Wangmagwi skin is more reptilian, looking vaguely like the suit used in The Creature From The Black Lagoon. It has large fangs protruding from its upper and lower jaws, huge claws on its hands and feet, and a control box sticking out of the upper-central portion of its back which the aliens use to manipulate their monster. It also has a vent-like opening in the center of its forehead which spews forth a liquid that bursts into flame after being in contact with air a short amount of time.
In most films of this style, there are characters, perhaps with some connection or personal interest in the monster, working feverishly to see the menace destroyed. This is not the case here. Ahn Hee spends much of the film unconscious in the monster's hand. When she is awake, she spends her time modestly covering her bodice with her wedding veil (because the monster was leering at her chest) or bemoaning, almost comically considering her plight, the fact that she may never be married. The air force pilot who holds her heart, or any of the other military for that matter, have nothing to do until the end of the movie. They do spend a lot of time flying around, but at an altitude where they are not annoying the monster. Nor do we see anyone else making detailed plans on how to kill the destructive alien.
In fact, the only other character of note is a streetwise, homeless boy nicknamed 'Squirrel' (Jeon Sang-cheol). Cornered on a rooftop by the creature, Squirrel does the only thing he can think of. He leaps from the roof onto the monster's arm and scurries up to its shoulder before it can kill him. From there, he makes his way into Wangmagwi's huge ears where he begins an internal assault with a paring knife.
Aside from these three and Ahn Hee's mother, the other characters in the film are simply used to extend the movie. Most were well-known comedians or television personalities who are given short skits to perform as they encounter the monster. Unfortunately, this means that the monster is what takes up the movie's running time as it wanders around the city. We see far too much of it which was not a very good idea on the part of director, Kwak Hyeok-jin. It's not necessarily because the monster suit is not realistic (the understatement of the year). Instead, the problem is that Wangmagwi has no purpose or mission that must be accomplished except to destroy buildings. Godzilla or Gamera were usually given other monsters to fight, the Rodans wanted to build a nest, Mothra had the mission of protecting the Earth. Wangmagwi just walks about the city. When that is in flaming ruins, it moves on to the countryside where the military can make a stand.
Some parallels can perhaps be drawn between Wangmagwi's burning of Seoul during its southward march and the advance of communist forces during the Korean War, however that is about as far as the comparison can be taken. Rather than trying to assign it deeper meaning, I, and the appreciative audience who caught it at a screening at the Korean Film Archive, were content to just enjoy the film. Now if only some DVD company would buy the rights to this and the other Korean monster movies and release them as a 'Korean Kaiju Collection'... (Tom Giammarco)
Space Monster, Wangmagwi ("Ujugoe-in Wangmagwi"). Directed by Kwon Hyeok-jin. Screenplay by Byeon Ha-yeong. Starring Nam Kung-won, Kim Hye-kyeong, Jeon Sang-cheol, Kim Hee-gap, Park Am, Han Eun-jin. Cinematography by Ham Chang-yong. Produced by Seki Production. 84 min, 35mm, b&w. Rating received on June 30, 1967. Total admissions: 50,000.
An atmospheric and finely-crafted work by a talented filmmaker, Mist has taken its place as one of the highlights of 1960s Korean cinema. Based on a 1964 novel by Kim Seung-ok titled Trip to Mujin, Kim Soo-yong's film tells the story of a middle-class office worker in Seoul named Gi-joon who takes a trip to his rural hometown Mujin. As he revisits the place of his youth, familiar locations and people trigger flashbacks of his troubled past. At the same time, he meets a beautiful young schoolteacher who yearns to escape from her confined life in Mujin. As the two grow closer, Gi-joon also feels a yearning for escape from his wife, whom he married for money, and from the dreariness of modern life.
A resonant and intimate portrait of its young heroes, Mist stands out among the decade's work for its aesthetic achievement. Kim experiments with sound and montage to give the film a self-consciously modernist feel. The story remains within Gi-joon's perspective, but the flashbacks and structure of the plot have a stream-of-consciousness element to it as well. As the story progresses, the past and present selves of Gi-joon start to carry out a dialogue, and he starts to look at his life again from a new perspective.
Like the fog which envelops our hero's hometown, Mist provides no clear-cut answers to the questions it raises. We see that Gi-joon has struggled throughout his life to become a modernized and successful human being, but now that he has reached his goals, he questions exactly what he has accomplished. The aspirations and personality of the schoolteacher strongly echo that of our main character, but she too is left without any clear direction in life.
Despite its muted, somewhat pessimistic tone, Mist is compassionate in its portrayal of people who cast off tradition to look for new paths. The generation of Koreans that this film originally spoke to were known for new ideas and their pursuit of personal fulfillment. But in setting off on roads that their parents would never have considered, they were certain to encounter the same uncertainties faced by the characters in this film. In depicting two small figures set within the larger, uncaring space of society, Kim Soo-yong has captured a timeless aspect of modern life. (Darcy Paquet)
Mist ("Angae"). Directed by Kim Soo-yong. Screenplay by Kim Seung-ok. Starring Shin Sung-il, Yoon Jung-hee, Lee Nak-hoon, Kim Jung-chul, Joo Jeung-nyeo, Lee Bin-hwa. Cinematography by Jang Seok-joon. Produced by Tae Chang Enterprises, Ltd. 77 min, 35mm, b&w. Rating received on October 19, 1967. Winner of Best Director at the 14th Asia-Pacific Film Festival.
Yu Hyun-mok, described by some as the most intellectual filmmaker of Korea's Golden Age, adapted Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train from a noted short story by Hong Seong-won. As the title obliquely suggests, this film concentrates on a group of people who have trouble adjusting to mainstream society. From a woman running away from her previous life, to a man with a terminal disease, to a pop artist misunderstood by his contemporaries, the film looks on with sympathy and compassionate humor on a set of people who, for whatever reason, just don't fit in.
Yu presents his group of characters in an objective fashion, without focusing too closely on any one person. The characters are linked together in various ways, with their relationships all affected by issues of money. Although we get a sense of their similarities, various walls go up between the members of the group, sometimes with tragic consequences.
An accomplished filmmaker, Yu is very particular about his mise-en-scene, with each scene carefully composed with regard to objects and color. Inanimate objects such as faucets or calendars often take on a meaning of their own, giving us clues about our characters' inner states. On a purely visual level, the film is also quite surprising in the beauty it draws from everyday settings.
Among the large cast is featured two of the most popular stars of the era, both members of the famous "troika" of actresses who first appeared in 1966. The part of Bo-young, a woman who moves in with a stranger and gradually falls in love with him, is played by Moon Hee, a beautiful and much sought-after actress. The first scene of the film, when Bo-young appears in the darkness and follows a man home, is one of its most memorable. The other troika member is Nam Jung-im in the role of Se-jung, who is tormented by issues of inheritence and family money. (The final troika member, Yoon Jung-hee, doesn't appear here but plays the young schoolteacher in Mist).
In an interview, the director noted of this feature, "I thought it rather interesting to present a theme characterized by a repeated process of loss and the restoration of humanity through each of the three main characters. They are people who are one step behind others in society; they are the passengers who hurry gasping onto the last train." At certain points in our lives we can all empathize with that image, however much we may differ with the characters in this film. (Darcy Paquet)
Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train ("Makcha-ro on sonnim-deul"). Directed by Yu Hyun-mok. Screenplay by Lee Sang-hyun, Lee Eun-sung. Starring Moon Hee, Lee Soon-jae, Sung Hoon, Kim Sung-ok, Nam Jeong-im, An In-sook, Han Chan-ju. Cinematography by Min Jeong-shik. Produced by Dong Yang Films Co., Inc. 104 min, 35mm, color. Rating received on December 14, 1967. Presented at the 6th Panama International Film Festival.
In the summer of 2005, the Korean Film Archive hosted a retrospective of early Korean animation that included some of the earliest films, like Hopi And Chadol Bawi (1967), Heungbu And Nolbu (1967), War Of The Monsters (1972) and half a dozen others. Among these films was Korea's first science fiction animation, Golden Iron Man.
Golden Iron Man was based on a comic strip that appeared regularly in the Chosun Boy's Journal. His adventures occurred in deep space somewhere in the land of dreams and he was often joined by a six-year-old boy nicknamed Tricksy (a near translation of his name) and the boy's bear friend, possibly a toy, simply named 'Little Bear.'
The opening of the film is quite promising with some sophisticated, highly-stylized animation accompanying the credits with beatnik bongo music sometimes associated with spy or science fiction films of the late 1950's/early 1960's. However, most of the film does not follow the lead of the inspired beginning and instead sets about appealing to the youngest members of the audience.
In the story, Tricksy and his animal friends arrive at a field and proceed to harvest star dust by lassoing the celestial objects, hauling them down to Earth and shaking their powder into large sacks. But they soon run into trouble when Little Bear proves unable to control a star and both he and Tricksy are whisked away into outer space. Not particularly disturbed by this turn of events, the pair frolic among the celestial bodies until they are discovered by the rabbits of the moon and invited back to their palace for a banquet in which the Golden Iron Man (henceforth GIM) will be the guest of honor. Unfortunately, the festivities are interrupted by the news that Satan has struck again. Tricksy begs to be allowed to accompany the hero and, because one is never too young to battle Satan and his minions, GIM agrees.
An Jin-soo, in the book South Korean Golden Age Of Melodrama, wrote a chapter on Christianity in Korean films and explained that a "remarkable growth of Korean Protestantism came in the 1960s and 1970s, when membership nearly doubled each decade..." An went on to say that the influence of this growing religion spilled over into the melodramas of the time. Watching The Golden Iron Man, it becomes obvious that religion did not limit its influence there, but spread into children's films as well. Besides the name of the villain and the horns coming off his cowl, we get clues as to how deep the religious imagery runs when GIM flies into the light to recharge and is surrounded by a glowing halo that implies an angelic origin or the Pieta-like pose taken by Ji-young, the daughter of the brilliant scientist Dr Han, after her father is shot.
The first twenty minutes of the movie contain many homages to Walt Disney films such as a brief appearance of the White Rabbit from the Alice In Wonderland (1951) or of the mice, Gus and Jacques, from Cinderella (1950). Satan himself is modelled after Malicifent, the memorable witch from Sleeping Beauty (1959). When Satan is introduced, he looks exactly like Malicifent, but as the movie progresses, the image changes slightly so the character is more distinct. Of course, Malicifent is clearly a woman but the character of Satan is meant to be a man. This leads to some confusion for young Tricksy when he first hears a gravelly male voice coming from the elegant, shapely form. "What's the matter with that lady?" the incredulous tot asks his mentor. "Satan's no lady," replies GIM. "Satan is a woman-like man."
Credits should be given where credit is due and in this case it should go to Satan's giant robot. This creation was the first robot to appear in a Korean film but robots would go on to dominate Korean animation for the next three decades. The robot is particularly interesting, not in its design which is a fairly standard form for an early mechanical being, but because of the way its self-repair system is handled. Whenever the robot is destroyed, it is able to pull all its pieces back together in a way that will remind modern viewers of an early version of the T-1000 from Terminator 2 (1991). Although it is not explained in the film, this process of rebuilding itself apparently requires the use of some of the robot's enormous mass because during the course of the film the robot size changes from an imposing 60 meters or more to a more manageable 8 meters.
Director Park Yeong-il first made a name for himself by being among the team that created the first Korean animated story that was not an advertisement. That work was the Grasshopper And The Ant, a five-minute short that was released in 1961. He later worked on the special effects in Kim Ki-young's World War ll drama, The Sea Knows in 1961 and then went to make a public service animation called I Am Water. He made his first full-length animation in 1968, Son Oh-gong, which is based on a Chinese legend of a monkey prince. The Golden Iron Man was his next work but he would follow it up with only one more film, a 1969 animated version of Treasure Island. (Tom Giammarco)
Golden Iron Man ("Hwanggeum-cheolin"). Directed by Park Yeong-il. Screenplay by Lee Jeong-shil. Cinematography by Park Seong-geun. Direction of animation by Han Seok-gyu Produced by Seki Production. 64 min, 35mm, color. Released on July 25, 1968.
Other Films from 1960-1969
1960 -- Mr. Park (Kang Dae-jin); Obaltan (Yu Hyun-mok); A Returned Man (Kim Soo-yong); Romance Papa (Shin Sang-ok); -- 1961 -- Chunhyang-jeon (Hong Seong-ki); The Evergreen (Shin Sang-ok); Five Marines (Kim Ki-deok); The Houseguest and My Mother (Shin Sang-ok); Jang Hee-bin (Jung Chang-hwa); Seong Chunhyang (Shin Sang-ok); Yeonsangun (Shin Sang-ok); -- 1962 -- A Bonanza (Jung Chang-hwa); Farewell Duman River (Im Kwon-taek); Maengjin-sa's Happy Day (Lee Yong-min); -- 1963 -- The Daughters of Pharmacist Kim (Yu Hyun-mok); Koryojang (Kim Ki-young); Rice (Shin Sang-ok); Ttosun-i (Park Sang-ho); -- 1964 -- Confession of the Flesh (Jo Geung-ha); Deaf Samryong-i (Shin Sang-ok); -- 1965 -- A Devilish Homicide (Lee Yong-min); It's My Money (Lee Sang-eon); Min-myeon-euri (Choi Eun-hee); North and South (Kim Ki-duk);
1966 -- Cho-woo (Jeong Jin-woo); Cho-yeon (Jeong Jin-woo); Dangerous Youth (Chung Chang-hwa); I Am the King (Im Kwon-taek); -- 1967 -- Confession of an Actress (Kim Soo-yong); Dream (Shin Sang-ok); Grand Evil Master Yonggary (Kim Ki-deok); The Phantom Queen (Shin Sang-ok); Three Henpecked Generations (Yu Hyun-mok); Way to Home (Lee Man-hee); -- 1968 -- Arirang (Yu Hyun-mok); Descendents of Cain (Yu Hyun-mok); Eunuch (Shin Sang-ok); Hate But Once More (Jung So-young); Yo-hwa Jang Hee-bin (Im Kwon-taek); -- 1969 -- Elegy of Ren (Kim Ki-young); I Would Like To Be a Human (Yu Hyun-mok); Jar-Making Old Man (Choi Ha-won); School Excursion (Yu Hyun-mok); The Thousand-Year Fox (Shin Sang-ok); Women of the Yi Dynasty (Shin Sang-ok);