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History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications
from the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network

Cable Timeline: 1951-2000
by Bill Glover
 

Click on the Route links to see cable samples, the Company or Operator links for full descriptions, the ship name links to see descriptions or images. Atlantic cables and their connecting systems are highlighted.
Year  Route  Manufacturer  Company or Operator  Cable Ships  Notes 
1951 Dover - Audresselles Câbles de Lyon GPO ? System 23 nm.
1951 Tradomari Niigata - Maura Sado, Japan ? Japanese Government ? System 48.7 km. 2 pair, telephone cable insulated with parragutta. Cable laid across Toyogo Straits in 1943 recovered and used for this cable
1951 Mori - Muroran, Japan ? Japanese Government ? 8 pair, polyethylene insulated telephone cable. First use of such material in Japan
1952 Seaford - Veules les Roses ? GPO ? 2 cables laid.
1952 USA - Bahamas - Grand Turk - Dominican Republic - Puerto Rico Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Monarch (4) All repeaters were based on land. Pan American Airways maintained the system.
1953 Recife - St Vincent, Cape Verde Islands ? Italcable Monarch (4)  
1954 Sicily - Malta Submarine Cables Ltd C&W on behalf of NATO Ariel System 61 nm. Taken over by the Italian PTT and named MED 1
1954 Aberdeen, Scotland - Bergen, Norway Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Monarch (4) System 307 nm. New type of repeater suitable for deeper water was used for the first time.
1954 Lowestoft - Scheveningen Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Ariel - Iris (2) - Poolster Two cables laid each with 4 repeaters
1955 MED 1: Italy - Malta Submarine Cables Ltd Italian PTT ? System 54 nm.
1956 Den Helder, Holland - Esbjerg, Denmark Câbles de Lyon, Cable: - La Compagnie Industrielle Des Telephones, Repeaters French PTT Ampere (3) System 210 nm.
1956 Thisted, Denmark - Kristiansand, Norway Submarine Cables Ltd Norwegian PTT Ocean Layer System 81 nm.
1956 TAT 1: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Oban, Scotland: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia Submarine Cables Ltd 3534 nm- Simplex Wire & Cable Co 350 nm of shore ends - Southern United Telephone Co 80 nm GPO - AT&T - COTC Monarch (4) System 1442, 1442 nm. Consisted of a pair of cables: one for eastward transmissions and one for westward. Clyde puffer Glenaray laid Oban shore ends.
36 telephone circuits.
WFS 1978
1956 Cape Canaveral - Puerto Rico Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Monarch (4) Same system as TAT 1
1956 Port Angeles, Washington State - Ketchikan - Skagway, Alaska Simplex Wire & Cable Co Alaskan Communication System - AT&T Albert J. Myer - Basil O. Lenoir System 750, 750 + 346 nm. Same system as TAT 1 Port Angeles - Ketchikan. Single cable Ketchikan - Skagway. WFS 1977
1956 Sicily - Pantellaria - Tunisia Submarine Cables Ltd C&W on behalf of NATO Iris (2) System 64 + 23 nm. Taken over by the Italian PTT and named MED 2
1956 Qelibia - Bou Ficha (Tunisian coastal cable) Câbles de Lyon French PTT Ampere (3) System 59 nm.
1956 Qelibia - Pantellaria (Tunisian coastal cable) Câbles de Lyon French PTT Ampere (3) System 23 nm.
1957 France - Algeria Câbles de Lyon French PTT Ampere (3) - Alsace - Emile Baudot System 478 nm. WFS 1994
1957 Thule, Greenland - Cape Dyer, Baffin Island Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Albert J. Myer System 720, 720 nm. Same as TAT 1. Considerable problems were caused at Cape Dyer by grounding icebergs. The landing was bypassed in 1964 by Albert J. Myer.
1957 HAW 1: Point Arena, California - Hanauma Bay, Oahu, Hawaii Submarine Cables Ltd 2030 nm - Simplex Wire & Cable Co - 2380 nm. AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co Monarch (4) - Ocean Layer System 2204, 2204 nm. Same as TAT 1. WFS 1989. Used for scientific research.
1958 Civitavecchia, Italy - Golfo Aranci, Sardinia Pirelli Italian PTT Salernum System 130 nm. WFS 1993
1958 England - Jersey Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO Monarch (4) System 134 nm.
1958 Dumpton Gap, England - Middlekerke, Belgium Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Belgian PTT Iris (2) System 76 nm, 3 repeaters
1958 Marseille, France - Bizerta, Tunisia ? French PTT   System 1000 nm. WFS 1993
1959 TAT 2: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Penmarch, France Submarine Cables Ltd 1900 nm - Simplex Wire & Cable Co 600 nm - Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke 1000 nm - Cables de Lyon 1000 nm. AT&T - French PTT - German PTT

Monarch (4) - Ocean Layer - John W. Mackay - Ampere (3)

Ocean Layer caught fire while laying its section of the cable and became a total loss.

System 2250, 2250 nm. As with TAT 1, two cables were laid.
48 voice circuits.
WFS 1982
1959 TAT 2: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia Submarine Cables Ltd AT&T - French PTT - German PTT Monarch (4) - Ocean Layer - John W. Mackay - Ampere (3) System 326 nm. WFS 1982
1960 Marske by the Sea, England - Gothenburg, Sweden Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 538 nm GPO - Swedish PTT Monarch (4) - Ariel laid shore ends System 509 nm.
1960 Mielno, Poland - Bornholm - Avedöre, Denmark Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke Great Northern Telegraph Co Nordenham - C.E. Krarup (2) - Edouard Suenson  
1960 FLORICO: West Palm Beach, Florida - San Juan, Puerto Rico Simplex Wire & Cable Co 1200 nm. - Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 715 nm - Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke AT&T - Radio Corporation of Puerto Rico Monarch (4) System 1130 + 1130 nm. Twin cable system as TAT 1. WFS 1984
1960 Baffin Island - White Bay, Newfoundland Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Monarch (4) System 1020, 1020 nm. Same as TAT 1.
1960 Frederiksdal - Prinz Christian Sund (Greenland) Câbles de Lyon ? Edouard Suenson System 60 nm.
1961 CANTAT A: Oban, Scotland - Hampden, Newfoundland Submarine Cables Ltd C&W - COTC Monarch (4) System 2072 nm. Ariel laid UK shore ends. Albert J. Myer Hampden shore ends.
80 voice circuits.
WFS 1986
1961 CANTAT B: Corner Brook, Newfoundland - Grosses Roches, Canada Submarine Cables Ltd - Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd supplied 65 nm of cable laid overland. COTC Alert (4) System 400 nm. Hadsund laid shore ends. WFS 1986
1961 SCOTICE: Gairloch, Scotland - Torshavn, Faroe Islands - Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd. GPO - Great Northern Telegraph Co - Danish PTT Alert (4) - John W. Mackay System 284 + 401 nm.
1961 ICECAN: Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland - Frederiksdal, Greenland - Hampden, Newfoundland Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke Great Northern Telegraph Co - COTC Neptun (3) - Edouard Suenson System 829 + 887 nm
1961 Manahawkin, NJ, USA - Devonshire Bay, Bermuda Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W - AT&T Alert (4) - Retriever (5) System 750 nm. Retriever (5) laid the USA and Bermuda shore ends. WFS 1990
1961 USA - US Virgin Islands ? AT&T - ITT ?  
1961 Holland - Denmark ? ? ?  
1962 Wales - Isle of Man Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Ariel System 61 nm.
1962 England - Wales Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Alert (4) System 65 nm
1962 France - Algeria II Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 540 nm.
1962 MED 2: Sicily - Canea, Crete Câbles de Lyon 276 nm. - Pirelli 190 nm. C&W on behalf of NATO ? System 466 nm. Taken over by the Italian PTT
1962 Sicily - Sardinia Pirelli Italian PTT Salernum System 218 nm
1963 COMPAC: Auckland, New Zealand - Sydney, Australia: Auckland - Suva, Fiji - Keawaula, Oahu - Port Alberni, Canada Submarine Cables Ltd 5860 nm - Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2800 nm. GPO - AOTC - COTC - NZ PO Monarch (4) - Mercury System 8234 nm. WFS 1984
1963 COMPAC: Port Alberni - Vancouver Submarine Cables Ltd COTC Cable Restorer System 83 nm. WFS 1984
1963 TAT 3: Tuckerton, New Jersey - Widemouth Bay, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd AT&T - GPO Alert (4) - Long Lines System 3518 nm. WFS 1986
1963 Eastern Test Range 1 Grand Turk - Ramsey Air Force Base, Puerto Rico - Coolidge Air Force Facility, Antigua Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke USAF Neptun (3) - Omega System 336 + 377 nm. Omega laid all shore ends.
1963 Florida, USA - Kingston, Jamaica Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 553 nm. - Western Electric 322 nm. JITL - AT&T Alert (4) System 875 nm. WFS 1992
1963 Kingston, Jamaica - Fort Sherman, Panama Canal Zone Western Electric AT&T - ITT - Central America Cables & Radio Inc. Alert (4) System 621 nm. WFS 1998
1963 Winterton, England - Esbjerg, Denmark Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Danish PTT Monarch (4) - Peter Faber (2) System 291 nm This cable and the two German cables below were laid at the same time.
1963 Winterton, England - Borkum - Leer, Germany No 1 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - German PTT Monarch (4) - Peter Faber (2) System 251 nm
1963 Winterton, England - Borkum - Leer, Germany No 2 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - German PTT Monarch (4) - Poolster (2) System 251 nm
1964 England - Holland 1 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO Dutch - PTT Alert (4) - Poolster (2) System 103 nm.
1964 Philippines - Vietnam Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 696 nm. Known as "Wet Wash A"
1964 TPC 1: Makaha, Oahu - Midway Island - Wake Island - Tanguisson Point, Guam - Ninomiya, Japan Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2047 nm - Ocean Cable Co - Western Electric AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co - KDD Long Lines System 5282 nm. WFS 1990. Used for scientific research.
1964 TPC 1: Tanguisson Point, Guam - Philippines Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 1495 nm AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co - KDD Long Lines System 1468 nm. WFS 1990. Used for scientific research.
1964 HAW 2: San Luis Obispo, California - Makaha, Hawaii Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd - Ocean Cable Co - Western Electric AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co Long Lines System 2400 nm. WFS February 1992. Used for scientific research.
1964 HAW 2: Hanauma Bay - Makaha, Hawaii ? AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co Long Lines System 49 nm. Provided a link between HAW 1 and 2. WFS April 1987.
1964 SEACOM 1: Singapore - Kota Kinabalu, Sabah - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2410 nm. Submarine Cables Ltd. 4700 nm. AOTC - Malay Telecom Mercury - Monarch (4) System 865 + 1100 nm. WFS 1986.
1964 SEACOM 2: Hong Kong - Tumon Bay, Guam - Madang, Papua New Guinea - Cairns, Australia See above AOTC - Malay Telecom Mercury - Monarch (4) System 2060 + 1391 + 1616 nm. WFS 1986.
1964 Vero Beach, Florida - St Thomas, US Virgin Islands Western Electric AT&T Long Lines System 1179 nm. WFS 1989
1965 St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Maiquetia, Venezuela Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd AT&T Alert (4) System 545 nm. WFS 1987
1965 TAT 4: Tuckerton, New Jersey - St Hilaire de Riez, France Western Electric 1375 nm. - Câbles de Lyon 1125 nm. - Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke 1200 nm. AT&T - French PTT Long Lines - Marcel Bayard System 3600 nm. Marcel Bayard laid the French shore ends. WFS 1987
1965 PENCAN 1: Spain - Canaries Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE John W. Mackay System 754 nm. Cable Restorer surveyed the route.
1966 Hawaii - Johnston Island Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 769 nm. Known as "Wet Wash C"
1966 Cannes, France - Ile Rousse, Corsica Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 109 nm. WFS 1993
1966 Gulf of Mexico Simplex Wire & Cable Co Gulf Coast Telephone Co   System 150 nm. Network now involves 500 nm of cable.
1966 British Virgin Islands - Bermuda Submarine Cables Ltd C&W (West Indies) Ltd Mercury System 894 nm
1966 Eastern Test Range No 2 Grand Turk Island - San Salvador - Grand Bahama - Cape Kennedy Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd USAF John W. Mackay System 285 + 275 + 203 nm.
1967 Vietnam Coastal Cables Da Nang - Qui Nhon: Qui Nhon - Nha Trang: Qui Nhon - Cam Rahn Bay: Nha Trang - Vung Tau: Cam Rahn Bay - Vung Tau Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 202 + 122 + 144 + 290 + 206 nm. Omega laid all shore ends.
1967 Vung Tau, Vietnam - Ban Sattahip, Thailand Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 607 nm. Omega laid all shore ends.
1967 Kristiansand, Norway - Thisted, Denmark Submarine Cables Ltd Norwegian PTT Monarch (4) System 79 nm.
1967 Nykobling, Denmark - Ronne, Bornholm Submarine Cables Ltd Danish PTT Alert (4) - Peter Faber (2) System 104 nm.

1967

Canet, France - Tetouan, Morocco

Câbles de Lyon

French PTT - Martelca

Marcel Bayard

System 759 nm. WFS 1993

1968 Jacksonville Beach, Florida - St Thomas, US Virgin Islands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd AT&T Long Lines System 1302 nm. WFS 1993
1968 Magens Bay, US Virgin Is - Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Western Electric AT&T Long Lines System 386 nm. WFS 1993
1968 Covehithe, England - Katwijk, Holland 2 Submarine Cables Ltd GPO - Dutch PTT Alert (4) System 110 nm.
1968 Tuckerton Bridge, England - St Helier, Jersey Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Monarch (4) System 137 nm
1968 Scarborough, England - Kristiansand, Norway Submarine Cables Ltd GPO - Norwegian PTT Monarch (4) System 385 nm.
1968 MARTEL: Marseille, France - Tel Aviv, Israel Câbles de Lyon ITC Marcel Bayard System 1833 nm. WFS 1993
1968 Denmark - Bornholm Submarine Cables Ltd Danish PTT ? System 105 nm.
1968 Inverary - Loch Gair, Scotland ? GPO Alert (4)  
1969 JASC: Japan - Siberia Ocean Cable Co.
(US Underseas Cable Corporation supplied transistorised repeaters)
Great Northern Telegraph Co - KDD KDD Maru System 477 nm. WFS June 1996. Used for earthquake research.
1969 Uchiura Bay Ocean Cable Co NTT Tsugaru Maru System 19 nm. Amakusa Maru buried the cable
1969 SAT 1: Melkbosstrand, Cape Town - Ascension - Sal, Cape Verde Islands - Santa Cruz, Tenerife - Sesimbra, Portugal Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd South Atlantic Cable Corp - CPRM Mercury - Monarch - John W. Mackay System 2594 + 1698 + 861 + 739 nm. WFS 1993
1969 Sesimbra, Portugal - Goonhilly, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - CPRM Alert (4) System 951 nm. WFS 1992
1969 Italy - Sardinia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 135 nm.
1969 Sicily - Libya Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 306 nm.
1969 Civitavecchia, Italy - Golfo d’Aranci, Sardinia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT John W. Mackay  
1969 MED 3 Italy - Greece Submarine Cables Ltd OTE Alert (4) System 285 nm.
1969 Barcelona, Spain - Pisa, Italy Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd AT&T John W. Mackay System 450 nm. WFS 1995
1969 France - Tunisia Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 466 nm.
1969 Germany - Sweden Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd German PTT John W. Mackay System 121 nm.
1970 TAT 5: Green Hill, Rhode Island - Conil, Spain Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 1220 nm. - Câbles de Lyon 630 nm. - Western Electric 1620 nm. AT&T - CTNE - CPRM - Italcable Long Lines System 3461 nm. WFS 1993
1970 MAT 1 Spain - Italy Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd AT&T - CTNE - CPRM - Italcable John W. Mackay System 990 nm. Extension to TAT 5
1970 Goonhilly, England - Algorta, Spain Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Spanish PTT Alert (4) System 477 nm.
1970 St Raphael - St Tropez Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 15 nm.
1970 France - Lebanon Câbles de Lyon French PTT - Lebanon PTT Marcel Bayard System 1844 nm.
1970 Kirkwall, Scotland - Lerwick, Shetlands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO Alert (4) System 108 nm.
1971 Italy - Egypt Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 908 nm.
1971 Italy - Albania Telettra Italian PTT - Telettra ? System 159 km.
1971 Lerwick, Shetland Islands - Thorshavn, Faroe Islands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Danish PTT John W. Mackay System 235 nm
1971 CANBER: Canada - Bermuda Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W - COTC Mercury System 825 nm
1971 Jamaica - Cayman Islands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W (West Indies) Ltd Mercury System 350 nm
1971 TRANSCAN 1: Gran Canaria - Fuerteventura - Lanzarote Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE John W. Mackay System 217 nm.
1971 Winterton,England - Fedderwarden, Germany Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - German PTT Alert (4) System 285 nm.
1971 Taiwan - Okinawa Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 363 nm.
1971 PENCAN 2: Spain - Gran Canaria Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE John W. Mackay System 760 nm.
1972 Aldeburgh, England - Domburg, Holland No 7 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Dutch PTT Alert (4) System 83 nm.
1972 Broadstairs, England - Ostende, Belgium Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Belgian PTT Alert (4) System 64 nm.

1972

Tuckerton Bridge, England - St Peter Port, Guernsey

Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd, Southampton

GPO

Alert (4)

System 89 nm. Loading from 11-17 March 1972

1972 Italy - Algeria Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT Mercury System 598 nm.
1972 France - Morocco 2 Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 1035 nm.
1972 France - Algeria 2 Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 441 nm.
1972 Egypt - Lebanon Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 375 nm.
1972 CAM 1: Sesimbra, Portugal - Porto Novo, Madeira Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton CPRM John W. Mackay System 616 nm. Loading from 10-26 April 1972. Laying including sailing from and to port from 8-24 May 1972. WFS 1993 and now used for scientific research
1972 PENBAL 1: Barcelona, Spain - Palma, Majorca Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE Mercury System 183 nm. WFS 1994
1972 PENCAN 2 Extension: Santa Cruz de Tenerife - Las Palmas Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE John W. Mackay System 60 nm. WFS 1996
1972 West Palm Beach, Florida, - Brandie Point, Bahamas - Goodman Bay, New Providence, Bahamas Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton AT&T Alert (4) System 73 + 149 nm. Loading took 5 days from 14-19 August 1972. Laying land based section from 25 August - 13 September 1972. Laying submarine cable from 13-25 September 1972. WFS 1999
1972 Miura - Ninomiya, Japan ? ? KDD Maru Experimental system
1972 Kume Jima - Okinawa Ocean Cable Co NTT ? System 62 nm.
1972-3 AFAR system: Azores Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd US Military ? AFAR - American Forces Acoustic Range
1973 Aomori - Hakodate Ocean Cable Co NTT ? System 30 nm.
1973 Miura - Iboraki Ocean Cable Co NTT ? System 249 nm.
1973 Scarborough, England - Thisted, Denmark Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO - Danish PTT Alert (4) System 381 nm. LAY 1, 12 - 18 March: LAY 2, 26 March - 13 April; LAY 3, 22 April - 4 May 1973
1973 BRACAN 1:Brazil - Gran Canaria Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE - Empresa Brasileira de Telecommunicacoes Mercury System 2634 nm.
1973 St Maarten - St Thomas - Curacao Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton All America Cables & Radio - ITT Communications Inc. Virgin Islands -Antelcom John W. Mackay System 697 nm. Loading from 5-18 February 1973
1973 France - Morocco 2 Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard  
1974 CANTAT 2: Beaver Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada - Widemouth Bay, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO - COTC Mercury - Alert (4) Ariel - John Cabot System 2800 nm. Ariel laid UK shore ends John Cabot laid Canadian shore ends. Whilst burying the cable to the SW of Ireland the manned submersible Pisces III became stranded on the sea bed for several days. The crew were recovered safely. LOADING CABLE All dates 1973 LOAD 8, Shore end John Cabot 15-19 May; LOAD 2, Main lay Mercury 11-23 June; LOAD 7, Shore end John Cabot 25 June - 1 July; LOAD 3, Main lay Mercury 4-17 July; LOAD 4, Main lay Mercury 20 August - 1 September; LOAD 5, Main lay aboard Mercury 1-5 October; LOAD 6, Main lay Mercury 9-21 November. LAYING CABLE All dates 1973 LAY 3, Mercury 18 July - 1 August; LAY 5, Mercury 10 October - 7 November; LAY 6, Mercury 21 November - 12 December. Laying times include sailing to and from port. WFS 1992
1974 ARIANE: Marseille, France - Heraklion, Greece Câbles de Lyon Helltelca Marcel Bayard System 1343 nm. WFS 1997
1974 APHRODITE 1: Heraklion, Greece - Larnaca, Cyprus Câbles de Lyon OTE Marcel Bayard System 520 nm. WFS 1998
1974 ADONIS: Larnaca, Cyprus - Beirut, Lebanon Câbles de Lyon OTE Marcel Bayard System 118 nm. WFS 1998
1974 Rome, Italy - Cagliari, Sardinia 3 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 301 nm. Loading cable 24 February - 5 March 1974. Laying from 11-31 March 1974. WFS 1998
1974 BARO: Barcelona, Spain - Rome, Italy Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton Italian PTT Mercury System 513 nm. Loading cable 4-16 February 1974. WFS 1998
1974 HAW 3: San Luis Obispo, California - Makaha, Hawaii Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 1600 nm. - ITT (San Diego) - Ocean Cable Co AT&T Long Lines - KDD Maru System 2379 nm. WFS June 1993.
1974 TPC 2: Hawaii - Guam - Okinawa Ocean Cable Co - ITT (San Diego) AT&T - KDD Long Lines System 5030 nm. KDD Maru laid the shore ends at Guam and Okinawa. WFS April 1994. Used for earthquake research.
1974 Mori - Muroran No 2 Ocean Cable Co NTT ?  
1975 Kagoshima - Okinawa Ocean Cable Co NTT ?  
1975 ECSC: Reihohu, Japan - Nanhui, China Ocean Cable Co KDD KDD Maru Ssystem 560 km. WFS 1997.
1975 Sydney - Auckland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd AOTC - NZPO Mercury  
1975 TELPAL: Italy - Israel Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton Italian PTT John W. Mackay - Alert (4) System 1470 nm. 1974.
LOADING; LOAD 1, John W. Mackay 21-30 October; LOAD 2, Alert (4) 19-26 November; LOAD 3, John W. Mackay; LOAD 5, John W. Mackay?
LAYING; LAY 1 John W. Mackay 8-16 November; LAY 3, John W. Mackay 30 December 1974 - 13 January 1975; LAY 5, John W. Mackay 31 January - 15 February 1975
1975 Rome - Palermo Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 251 nm.
1975 Goonhilly, England - Sopelana, Spain 2 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO - Spanish PTT Mercury System 466 nm. LOAD 1, 17-23 March; LOAD 2, 10-15 April; LAY 2 16-21 April 1975
1975 Germany - Sweden Ocean Cable Co - Nippon Electric German PTT - Swedish PTT Salernum  
1975 Broadstairs, England - Domburg, Holland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO - Dutch PTT Alert (4) System 83 nm. Loading 11-15 September. Laying 16-22 September 1974
1975 AEGEUS: Greece - Crete Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton Main cable; STC Greenwich Shore ends Greek PTT John W. Mackay System 184 nm. Loading 7-10 May. Laying 31 May - 12 June 1975
1975 St Raphael - La Foux Câbles de Lyon French PTT Vercors System 19 nm.
1975 ANIBAL: Canet, France - Bizerta, Tunisia Câbles de Lyon French PTT Vercors System 509 nm. WFS 1998
1975 Algeria - Majorca Câbles de Lyon ? Marcel Bayard System 181 nm.
1976 TASMAN 1: Australia - New Zealand Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton AOTC - NZPO Mercury System 1258 nm. Loading 7-23 July; Laying 31 August - 9 October 1975. WFS July 2001
1976 APNG: Cairns, Australia - Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton AOTC John W. Mackay System 485 nm. Loading 2-11 December 1975. This was the last cable expedition for CS John W. Mackay
1976 TAT 6: Green Hill, Rhode Island - St Hilaire de Riez, France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2400 nm. - Simplex Wire & Cable Co 95 nm. - Câbles de Lyon 1200 nm. Various Long Lines System 3600 nm. Vercors laid all shore ends. WFS 1994
1976 Eastbourne, England - Courseulles, France Câbles de Lyon GPO - French PTT Vercors System 108 nm.
1976 MARPAL: France - Italy Câbles de Lyon French PTT - Italian PTT Vercors System 371 nm.
1976 Italy - Turkey Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT Mercury System 1085 nm.
1976 Calvi - Ile Rousse (France) Câbles de Lyon French PTT ? System 11 nm. WFS 1993
1977 Rome - Palermo Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton and Greenwich Italian PTT Mercury System 251 nm Loading Mercury at Greenwich 19-24 February; Loading Mercury at Southampton 25-28 February 1977
1977 Vancouver - Hawaii ? ? Long Lines  
1977 California - Hawaii ? ? Long Lines  
1977 OLU(HO): Okinawa, Japan - Luzon, Philippines Cable from Ocean Cable Company. Repeaters from NEC and Fujitsu. Laid by KDD KDD - ETPI KDD Maru System 749 nm. Okiwana shore ends laid by Denko Maru - Luzon shore ends by Recorder (3). WFS June 1997. Used for oceanographic research.
1977 (O)LUHO: Currimao, Luzon, Philippines - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong STC. Laid by Cable & Wireless C&W - ETPI Mercury System 475 nm. Recorder (3) laid all shore ends. WFS June 1997
1977 AMITIE: France - Tetuan Câbles de Lyon French PTT Vercors System 821 nm.
1977 ANTINEA: Casablanca, Morocco - Dakar, Senegal Câbles de Lyon France Cables & Radio Vercors System 1460 nm.
1977 FRATERNITE: Dakar - Abidjan, Ivory Coast Câbles de Lyon France Cables & Radio Vercors System 1415 nm.
1977 Bastia, Corsica - La Seyne sur Mer, France Câbles de Lyon French PTT Vercors System 181 nm. WFS 1995
1977 England - Belgium Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO Alert (4) System 56 nm. Loading Alert 30 May - 5 June 1977
1977 PENBAL 2: Spain - Majorca Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton CTNE Mercury System 169 nm. Loading Mercury 30 March - 8 April; Laying Mercury 9-22 April 1977
1978 OKITAI: Okinawa - Toucheng, Taiwan ? ? KDD Maru System 650 km. WFS 1997. Used for oceanographic research.
1978 England - France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - French PTT ? System 60 nm.
1978 Morocco - France Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors  
1978 Barcelona - Majorca ? Spanish PTT Mercury  
1978 ASEAN: Philippines - Singapore Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ASEAN Countries Cable Venture System 1534 nm. MV Cap Villano laid the shore ends. WFS June 1997
1978 COLUMBUS 1: Camuri, Venezuela - Agüimes, Canary Islands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton CTNE Mercury. Retriever (5) and Recorder (3) carried out route surveys System 3240 nm. LOADING LOAD 1, Mercury 11-19 October 1976; LOAD 4, Mercury 29 April - 6 May 1977; LOAD 5, Mercury 8-18 June 1977. LAYING LAY 4, Mercury 8-28 May 1977; LAY 5 Mercury 26 June - 13 July 1977. WFS 1997
1978 PENCAN 3 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE Cable Venture System 743 nm.
1979 Genoa, Italy - Cabrer de Mar, Spain Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT - Spanish PTT ? System 389 nm. WFS 1996
1979 Kuantan - Kuching ? Malay Telecom KDD Maru System 1358 km. WFS November 1995
1979 USA - Guatemala ? ? Long Lines  
1979 England - Holland No 10 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? ? System 119 nm.
1979 Genoa, Italy - Sassari, Sardinia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT ? System 272 nm.
1979 France - Libya Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 842 nm.
1979 Tripoli - Benghazi   Libyan PTT Cable Venture System 370 nm.
1979 TAGIDE 1: Penmarch, France - Sesimbra, Portugal Câbles de Lyon - Alcatel manufactured the repeaters CPRM - France Telecom Vercors System 790 nm. WFS 2000
1980 JKC: Hamada, Japan - Pusan, Korea ? ? KDD Maru System 285 km. WFS 1997. Used for oceanographic research.
1980 TAILU: Taipei, Taiwan - Luzon, Philippines Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ETPI Cable Venture System 557 nm. WFS June 1997.
1980 TAIGU: Taipei, Taiwan - Tanguisson Point, Guam ? AT&T ? WFS 1995.
1980 PALMYRA: Greece - Syria ? ? Vercors System 646 nm.
1980 Magens Bay, St Thomas, US Virgin Is - Maiqueta, Venezuela ? AT&T Long Lines System 1037 km. WFS 1996
1980 Magens Bay, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Fortaleza, Brazil ? AT&T ? System 4178 km. WFS 1997
1980 England - Spain No 3 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? ? System 429 nm.
1980 England - Denmark No 3 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton BT Alert (4) System 301 nm. Loading 10-14 April 1980
1980 Ivory Coast - Nigeria Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 604 nm.
1980 France - Algeria 4 Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 442 nm.
1980 ASEAN: Ancol, Indonesia - Singapore   ASEAN Countries Kuroshio Maru - Chosui Maru laid the shore ends System 572 nm.
1981 IOCOM: Madras, India - Penang, Malaya Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd VSNL Cable Venture System 1353 nm. Recorder laid the shore ends at Penang. Inaugurated 24 December 1981. WFS 2003.
1981 TIMOR: China Sea Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 165 nm.
1981 ARTEMIS: France - Greece 2 Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 1053 nm.
1982 ATLANTIS Section 1: Recife, Brazil - Dakar, Senegal Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd TELESENEGAL - EMBRATEL Cable Venture System 1855 nm. LOAD 1, Loading Cable Venture 15 October - 2 November 1981. WFS 2000
1982 ATLANTIS Section 2: Dakar, Senegal - Burgau, Portugal Câbles de Lyon - Alcatel manufactured the repeaters CPRM - TELESENEGAL Vercors System 1570 nm. WFS 2000
1982 APOLLO: Greece - Cyprus Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? Cable Venture System 638 nm.
1982 HAW 4: USA - Hawaii ? ? ?  
1982 England - Jersey Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT ? System 109 nm.
1982 Sicily - Sardinia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT ? System 247 nm. WFS 1998
1983 ATLAS: Burgau, Portugal - Arzila, Morocco Câbles de Lyon - Alcatel CPRM - MATELCA Vercors System 193 nm. WFS 1999

1983

ASEAN: Singapore - Malaysia - Thailand

Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd

ASEAN Countries

KDD Maru - Kuroshio Maru

System 920 nm. Kaiko Maru laid the shore ends. WFS April 1998.

1983 TAT 7: Tuckerton, New Jersey - Porthcurno, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2700 nm. 2400 lightweight non armoured and 300 nm armoured cable - Cables de Lyon 690 nm - Western Electric 677 repeaters and 24 equalisers AT&T - France Telecom - BT Alert (4) - Vercors - Long Lines - Monarch (5) System 3286 nm. 4000 voice circuits. Alert (4) carried out the route survey. Monarch (5) laid the UK shore ends. Vercors laid 110 nm armoured cable with 20 repeaters and one equaliser from previously laid US shore end and 190 nm armoured cable with 36 repeaters and one equaliser over UK shelf. Long Lines laid remaining cable in four sessions. WFS 1994
1983 Vero Beach, Florida - St Thomas, US Virgin Islands ? AT&T ? System 2074 km. WFS 1997
1983 Denmark - Holland ? ? Vercors System 123 nm.
1983 MERIDIAN: Belgium - Spain Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 735 nm.
1983 DIDON: France - Tunisia Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 498 nm.
1983 Northern Island - Scotland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO ? System 26 nm.
1983 Kitasaki - Oroshima ? NTT ? First repeaterless fibre optic cable laid in Japanese waters
1984 ANZCAN: Auckland, New Zealand - Norfolk Island Fujitsu AOTC - COTC - NZPO Mercury System 720 nm. Mercury laid the Auckland shore ends, MV Chantik those at Norfolk Island. WFS November 1997
1984 ANZCAN: Sydney, Australia - Norfolk Island - Suva, Fiji - Hawaii - Vancouver, Canada Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton 7448 nm. AOTC - COTC - NZPO Cable Venture - Mercury System 7300 nm.CS Retriever (5) laid the Fiji shore ends. LOADING LOAD 1, Cable Venture 6-11 and 19-26 October 1982; LOAD 2, Mercury 22 November - 2 December 1982; LOAD 5, Transferred from Freighter Brookness at Noumea, Vanuatu 4-30 October 1983; LOAD 7, Cable Venture 14 - 23 January 1984; Spare cable Pacific Guardian 15-16 November 1984. LAYING LAY 2, Mercury 6-28 January 1983; LAY 5, Cable Venture 31 October - 24 November 1983. Canada - Hawaii section WFS November 1997, Fiji - Norfolk Island, March 2001, the rest of the cable May 2002.
1984 CAYMAN - CAYMAN BRAC Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W (West Indies) Ltd Cable Venture System 130 nm.
1984 Okinawa - Ninomiya ? ? KDD Maru  
1984 Medan, Indonesia - Penang, Malaysia ? ? ? WFS 1997.
1984 MESING: Indonesia - Singapore Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 346 nm.
1984 France - Morocco Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 34 nm.
1984 Antibes, France - Port Grimaud ASN French PTT Raymond Croze System 80 km
1984 England - Holland No 11 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? ? System 84 nm.
1985 SHT: Katong, Singapore - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton ? Cable Venture System 1500 nm. LOAD 1, Cable Venture 26 July - 9 August 1984; LOAD 2, Cable Venture 23 October - 5 November 1984. WFS January 2000
1985 SHT: Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong - Toucheng, Taiwan Fujitsu ? Cable Venture System 720 nm. WFS April 1999.
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment A: Singapore - Indonesia Submarcom, Calais ? Vercors System 641 km. Loading shore ends Vercors 19-23 December 1984. WFS June 1999
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment B: Indonesia - Sri Lanka Fujitsu ? Cable Venture System 2638 km. WFS June 1999
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment C: Sri Lanka - Djibouti Submarcom ? Vercors System 4326 km. WFS June 1999.
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment D: Djibouti - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton ? Cable Venture System 1443 km. Loading Cable Venture 28 February - 9 March 1985. WFS 1999
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment E: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia - Suez, Egypt Submarcom ? Vercors System 1293 km. WFS 1999
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment F: Suez - Alexandria, Egypt Siemens ?   System 390 km. Landline. WFS 1999
1986 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment G: Alexandria, Egypt - Palermo, Italy Submarcom ? Vercors System 1908 km. WFS 1999
1986 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment H: Palermo, Italy - La Seyne sur Mer, France Submarcom ? Vercors System 946 km. The complete cable came into service in 1986. WFS 1999
1986 UAE-PAKISTAN Fujitsu Etilsat Cable Venture System 620 nm. MV Al Amin laid the Karachi shore ends
1986 Marseille, France -Ajaccio, Corsica 3 Câbles de Lyon - Alcatel-CIT French PTT Vercors System 400 nm. WFS 1998
1986 OPTICAN: Tenerife - Gran Canaria Tyco Telefonica ? System 107 km. WFS 2000

1986

AIS 1: Perth, Australia - Ancol, Indonesia - Singapore

Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton

?

Cable Venture

System 2517 nm. LOADING Load 1 (B) Cable Venture 11 November - 28 November 1985; Load 1 (A) Freighter Tarpon Santiago 24 November - 8 December 1985; Load 2 (A) Freighter Taeping 24 - 29 January 1986. LAYING Cable Venture 3 - 23 February 1986. Australia - Indonesia WFS July 1999. Indonesia - Singapore October 1999

1987 Broadstairs, England - Ostende, Belgium 5 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton BT - Belgacom Alert (4) System 58 nm. First commercial fibre optic cable. Load Alert 15-19 April 1986; Laying 26 April - 6 May 1986. WFS January 2005
1987 UAE-INDIA: Fujairah, UAE- Mumbai, India Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd VSNL (Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd.) Cable Venture System 1380 nm. MV Galaxa laid Bombay shore end. Inaugurated 10 November 1987
1987 TPC 3: Makaha, Oahu, Hawaii - Tanguisson Point, Guam - Chikura, Japan Ocean Cable Co KDD - AT&T KDD Maru System 9161 km. KDD Maru laid Japanese shore ends. WFS October 2003
1988 Taiwan Domestic ? IDTC ? System 87 km.
1988 Holyhead, Wales - Portmarnock, Ireland 1 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT - Eircom ? System 130 km unrepeatered
1988 Scarborough, England - Blaabjerg, Denmark 4 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton BT - Tele Danmark (TDC) Alert System 640 km. Loading Alert 6 - 12 June 1988. WFS September 2004
1988 Hornsudde, Sweden - Fridtorp, Gotland ? Telia K/F Wartena System 92 km.
1988 ROMSAR: Pomezia, Italy - Golfo Aranci, Sardinia Pirelli - ASN Telecom Italia Raymond Croze System 267 km.
1988 TAT 8: Tuckerton, New Jersey - Widemouth Bay, England - Penmarch, France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 870 km - ALCATEL 360 km AT&T - BT - France Telecom Vercors System 6705 km. Vercors laid French Continental shelf section 360 km of which 254 km was buried. First fibre optic Atlantic cable. In connection with this cable CS Alert carried out plough trial 1 - 11 July 1986.
40,000 voice circuits.
WFS 2002
1988 West Palm Beach, Florida - Cojimar, Cuba ? AT&T - CATT ? System 327 nm. This cable was constructed from the shore end of Florico 1 and recovered parts of TAT 3. WFS 2001
1988 England - North Sea Platforms STC Submarine Systems BT ? System 142 km. WFS 2005
1989 UK-NETHERLANDS 12: Aldeburgh, England - Domburg, Netherlands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd MCL - BT - KPN Flexservice III - Sir Eric Sharp System 155 km. FO repeaterless. WFS January 2005
1989 PTAT 1: Manasquan, USA - Devonshire, Bermuda - Ballinspittle, Ireland - Brean, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton - 4100 nm C&W - Sprint Cable Venture - Mercury System 4060 nm. Cable Protector laid USA shore ends - Forth Explorer UK shore ends - Northern, Bermuda shore ends.
LOADING Load 5, Cable Venture 17 - 19 May 1989; Post lay burial of R5, Cable Protector with Cirrus ROV
1989 HJK: Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong - Chikura, Japan - Cheju, Korea Fujitsu KDD - NHK - KT Cable Venture System 4584 km. Kommander Subsea laid Hong Kong shore ends. WFS June 2004.
1989 HAW 4: Point Arena, California - Makaha, Oahu, Hawaii AT&T SSI AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co Vercors System 4238 km. WFS February 2004
1989 PENBAL 3: Cabrera de Mar - Molina, Spain ? Telefonica ? System 297 km.
1989 PENCAN 4: Spain - Canary Islands AT&T SSI Telefonica Vercors System 1470 km. Vercors laid 148 km of which 60 km was buried
1989 SARSIC: Golfo Aranci, Sardinia - Palermo, Sicily ASN 280 km. Pirelli 230 km Telecom Italia Raymond Croze System 508 km.
1989 UK-FRANCE 3: Brighton, England - Dieppe, France Câbles de Lyon MCL - BT - France Telecom Alert (4) System 155 km. FO repeaterless
1989 Dartmouth, England - Lancresse Bay, Guernsey 7 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT - C&W Guernsey ? System 124 km.
1989 Portpatrick, Scotland - Donaghadee, N Ireland ? BT ? System 35 km.
1989 Denmark - Bornholm ? Tele Danmark ? System 150 km.
1989 Hillerod, Denmark - Helinsborg, Sweden 15 ? Tele Danmark - Telia ? System 15 km.
1989 CARAC: Bermuda - Tortola 2 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W (West Indies Ltd) Mercury System 1692 km. Cable Protector laid Tortola shore end
1989 Chikura - Ninomiya ? KDD KDD Maru System 194 km.
1989 Taiwan Domestic ? CHT-LDM ? System 104 km.
? England - France - Germany ?   ? System 474 km.
1990 Genoa, Italy - Golfo Aranci, Sardinia ? Telecom Italia ? System 440 km.
1990 Genoa - Pisa ? Telecom Italia   System 143 km.
1990 Lametia T - Messina - S. Agata - Palermo ? Telecom Italia   System 108 + 112 + 116 km.
1990 Capri - Massalubrense ? Telecom Italia   System 15 km.
1990 Cetara - Majori - Vettica ? Telecom Italia   System 16 + 16 km.
1990 Piombino - Elba ? Telecom Italia   System 11 km.
1990 Procida - Bacoli ? Telecom Italia   System 10 km.
1990 Millom, England - Douglas Isle Of Man Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT - Manx Telecom Flexservice III System 155 km unrepeatered
1990 Korea Domestic ? KT ? System 144 km.
1990 Japan Domestic ? NTT ? System 300 km.
1990 Japan Domestic ? IDC ? System 119 km.
1990 HON TAI 2: Cape D'Aguilar, Hong Kong - Fangshan, Taiwan Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 730 km. ? Northern Installer System 735 km. WFS June 2003
1990 GPT:Tanguisson Point, Guam - Infanta, Philippines - Fangshan, Taiwan ? ? ? System 3749 km. WFS April 2003.
1990 NORTH PACIFIC CABLE: Pacific City, Oregon - Miura, Japan: Pacific City, Oregon - Seward, Alaska Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 5670 km. - Ocean Cable Co ? Cable Venture - Northern Installer - Kuroshio Maru System 9531 km. Cable Protector buried 200 km of cable. WFS 2004
1990 Kuantan - Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia ? TM Kuroshio Maru System 1489 km. WFS March 2004
1990 Almeira, Spain - Mellilla Alcatel Telefonica Vercors System 195 km. 127 km of this cable was buried
1990 Almeira - Roquetas, Spain Alcatel Telefonica Vercors System 23 km.
1990 TRANSCAN 2: Canary Islands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 235 km. Telefonica Vercors System 238 km.
1990 FLORICO 2: West Palm Beach, USA - San Juan, Puerto Rico ? AT&T ? System 1877 km. WFS January 2004
1990 TCS 1: San Juan, Puerto Rico - Baranquilla, Colombia - Santo Domingo, Dominican R - Kingston, Jamaica ? AT&T - MCI - Sprint ? System 2593 km. WFS January 2004
1990 Oteranga Bay - Fighting Bay, Cook Strait, New Zealand ? Transpower NZ Ltd ? System 2 repeaterless cables laid each of 42 km.
1991 Cook Strait 4, 5 and 6: Oteranga Bay - Fighting Bay ? Transpower NZ Ltd ? 3 350kV DC power cables each 42 km in length.
1991 PENBAL 4: Ibiza - Mallorca - Valencia, Spain Alcatel Telefonica Vercors System 317 km of which 190 km was buried
1991 EMOS 1: Palermo, Italy - Lechaina, Greece - Marmaris, Turkey - Tel Aviv, Israel Alcatel, France 2881 km. Telecom Italia - OTE - Turk Telecom - Bazeq Vercors System 3100 km.
1991 UK-FRANCE 4: Bay Hill, England - Dunkerque, France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT - MCL - France Telecom ? System 93 km. FO repeaterless. WFS January 2006
1991 UK-BELGIUM 6: St Margarets Bay, England - Veume, Belgium 6 Pirelli BT - Belgacom ? System 100 km. WFS January 2006. This and the system above used the same beach manhole in UK.
1991 UK-GERMANY 5: Winterton, England - Germany Fujitsu MCL - BT - German PTT Northern Installer System 482 km. 459 km. ploughed. FO with repeaters. WFS January 2006
1991 Hillerod, Denmark - Helinsborg, Sweden 16 ? Tele Danmark - Telia ? System 15 km.
1991 Gedebak Odde, Denmark - Mielno, Poland 2 ? Polish Telecom - Tele Danmark ? System 110 km.
1991 MAT 2: Palermo, Italy - Malaga, Spain Pirelli - AT&T Telecom Italia - Telefonica Vercors System 1860 km of which 104 km was buried
1991 MAT 2: Palma, Majorca - Malaga, Spain Alcatel - AT&T Telecom Italia - Telefonica Vercors System 135 km of which 52 km was buried
1991 Ajaccio, Corsica - Golfo Aranci, Sardinia Pirelli Telecom Italia Raymond Croze System 190 km.
1991 Vettica - Praiano - Positano, Italy ? Telecom Italia ? System 12 + 14 km.
1991 Procida - Ischia: Vietra - Cetara, Italy ? Telecom Italia ? System 12 + 8 km.
1991 Pisa - Grosseto - Civitaecchia - Pomezia - Formia - Naples - Salerno - Scalea - Lametia T, Italy Pirelli Telecom Italia Vercors System 149 + 129 + 125 + 142 + 62 + 140 + 163 + 131 km. Vercors laid Pisa - Grosseto; Naples - Salerno and Salerno -Scalea sections
1991-94 Genoa - Pisa ? Telecom Italia ? System 13, 13, 13 km. Three cables laid in 1991, 1992 and 1994.
1991 UK - Spain 4 Alcatel BT - Telefonica ? System 832 km. WFS January 2005
1991 PENBAL 4: Spain Alcatel Telefonica ? System 155 + 162 km.
1991 Taiwan Domestic ASN 153 + 9 km. CHT-LDM ? System 149 km.

1991

Point Halswell - Eastborne, Wellington Harbour, New Zealand

?

TNZ

?

System repeaterless fibre optic 7 km.

1991 APOCS Canada Domestic STC Newfoundland Telephone - Maritime Telegraph and Telephone Discovery System 22 + 55 + 180 km
1991 TAT 9: Manahawkin, USA - Pennant Point, Canada - Goonhilly, England - St Hilaire de Riez, France - Conil, Spain STC 4410 km. - AT&T SSI - Alcatel (Submarcom) AT&T - BT - France Telecom - Telefonica - Teleglobe Vercors System 8910 km. Vercors laid 429 km of which 226 km was buried.
80,000 voice circuits.
WFS January 2004
1992 BS: Brunei - Singapore Ocean Cable Co ? Northern Installer System 1545 km. Ploughed 1018 km. WFS September 2003
1992 BMP: Brunei - Malaysia - Philippines Ocean Cable Co ? Northern Installer System 1504 km. Ploughed 205 km. WFS March 2004.
1992 TPC 4: Manchester, California - Port Alberni, British Columbia, Canada - Chikura, Japan Ocean Cable Co AT&T - KDD - Teleglobe Long Lines - KDD Maru - Global Sentinel - Ocean Link System 9843 km. First fibre optic cable between USA and Japan. WFS July 2004.
1992 TAT 10: Greenhill, USA - Norden, Germany - Terschelling - Alkmaar, Holland AT&T SSI - STC 169 + 155 km. AT&T - DTAG - KPN Global Link - Seaspread - Flexservice III System 7354 km. WFS July 2003
1992 Chikura - Miyazaki ? ? KDD Maru - Ocean Link System 1055 km.
1992 UAE - Iran Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? ? System 170 km.
1992 Taiwan Domestic ASN 185 + 30 + 15 + 70 km. CHT-LDM ? System 276 km.
1992 Indonesia Domestic: Surabaya - Benjarmasin ? PT Telkom Kuroshio Maru System 387 km.
1992 TASMAN 2: Sydney, Australia - Auckland, New Zealand Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd TNZ Vercors System 2225 km of which 55 km was buried
1992 EURAFRICA: St Hilaire, France - Sesimbra, Portugal - Funchal, Madeira - Casablanca, Morocco Alcatel - Cables de Lyon France Cable et Radio - Marconi -ONPT Vercors 1584 km. - Northern Installer 1501 km. System 3279 km. 165 km was buried
1992 Ajorring, Denmark - Arendal, Norway 5 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Tele Danmark - Norway PTT ? System 130 km.
1992 Phisted, Denmark - Kristiansand, Norway 6 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Tele Danmark - Norway PTT ? System 120 km.
1992 Denmark - Germany 1 ? DTAG - Tele Danmark ? System 293 km.
1992 EESF 2: Tallin, Estonia - Helsinki, Finland ? Telecom Finland - Estonian Telephone ? 98 km.
1992 LANIS: England - IOM - N Ireland - Scotland NKT C&W Seaspread System 300 km all buried.
1992 TAINO CARIB: San Juan - Isla Verda, Puerto Rico - St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Tortola, Br Virgin Islands AT&T SSI AT&T - C&W Mercury System 182 km.
1992 Cannes - Ile Rousses, France ASN French PTT Raymond Croze System 195 km.
1993 Albertslund, Denmark - Kingisepp, Russia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd TeleDanmark - Great Northern Telegraph Co Dock Express 20 System 1250 km. At the end of WWI & WWII large amounts of munitions, including Mustard Gas, were dumped on the seabed along the route of the cable and so a toxic decontamination crew was carried aboard the CS during laying
1993 Gedser, Denmark - Ribnitz, Germany 2 ? DTAG - Tele Danmark ? System 45 km.
1993 Burg, Germany - Trelleborg, Sweden 4 Siemens Telia - DTAG Pleijel System 205 km.
1993 Ribnitz, Germany - Ystad, Sweden 5 Siemens Telia - DTAG Pleijel System 162 km.
1993 SFS 4: Turku, Finland - Norrtãlje, Sweden - Mariehamn, Finland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Telia - Sonera Pleijel - Telepaatti System 254 km.
1993 Brean, England - Swansea, Wales Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Mercury Communications Galatea System 97 km.
1993 Cabrera de Mar, Spain - Marsella, France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Telefonica - Telecom France ? System 386 km. WFS 2004
1993 PENCAN 5: Spain - Gran Canaria - Tenerife Alcatel 1460 km. Telefonica ? System 1560 km.
1993 Catania - R. Calabria: Catania - Locri - Catanzaro ? Telecom Italia ? System 108, 170 + 127 km.
1993 TURCYOS: Turkish Domestic Alcatel CYTA ? System 110 km.
1993 PACRIM EAST: Keawaula, Hawaii - Takapuna, New Zealand ASN 7730 km - TCC AT&T - TNZ Vercors System 7855 km. 148 km was buried
1993 APC: Katong, Singapore - Cherating, Malaysia - Cape D'Aguilar, Hong Kong - Toucheng, Taiwan - Miura - Miyazaki, Japan Ocean Cable Co IDC - KDDI - Singtel Cable Venture 2950 km. - Cable Innovator - Ocean Link System 7516 km.

1993

TAT 11: USA - England - France

AT&T SSI - STC 5286 km. - ALCATEL

AT&T - C&W - France Telecom

Galatea

System 12 km.UK shore end The whole cable was buried. WFS July 2003

1993 TAT 11: USA - England - France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Dock Express 20 System 153 km. US shelf. 144 km ploughed.
1993 TAT 11: USA - England - France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Flexservice III System 597 km. UK shelf. 194 km ploughed
1993 TAT 11: USA - England - France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Flexservice III System 535 km. French shelf. 223 km ploughed.
1993 TAT 11: USA - England - France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Flexservice III System 2736 km. Main lay
1993 TAT 11: USA - England - France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Mercury System 3041 km. Main lay
1993 C-J FOSC: Nanhui, China - Miyazaki, Japan ? KDD - CT Ocean Link System 1252 km.
1993 Thailand Domestic ASN ? ? System 1300 km.
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 1: Singapore - Indonesia Alcatel Submarcom ? Vercors - Skandi Hav System 1040 km. Skandi Hav assisted Vercors during the laying of various sections
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 Indonesia - Sri Lanka - India Alcatel Submarcom 4205 km. - STC Submarine Systems 1260 km. ? Vercors System 5465 km.
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 2.4, 2.5 India - Djibouti STC Submarine Systems   Cable Venture System 3665 km.
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 3 Djibouti - Saudi Arabia - Suez AT&T SSI ? Global Sentinel System 2760 km.
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 4 Suez - Alexandria Alcatel Cable ?   System 2 land cables 400 km and 470 km.
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 5 Egypt - Italy - Tunisia - Algeria - France Alcatel Submarcom ? Vercors System 3660 km.
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 6 Egypt - Cyprus AT&T SSI ? Global Sentinel System 600km.
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 7 Egypt - Turkey AT&T SSI ? Global Sentinel System 690 km.
1993 SAT 2: Melkbosstrand, South Africa - El Medano, Tenerife - Funchal, Madeira - Sesimbra, Portugal Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd - ALCATEL SUBMARCOM Telkom SA - Telefonica - Marconi Vercors - Sovereign System 9500 km. 57 km buried. Vercors laid 5765 km.
1993 HAW 5: San Luis Obispo, California - Keawaula, Hawaii AT&T SSI - Tyco Simplex Wire & Cable Co AT&T Global Sentinel System 4775 km. WFS July 2005
1993 GEORGIA North & South: Canadian Domestic linking Vancouver Island, Lulu Island and Galiano Island to the mainland ? TCI ? System 162 km.
1993 Cyprus - Israel AT&T SSI ? ? System repeaterless 268 km. 2 fibre pairs
1994 TURMEOS ASN 1100 km Turkcom   System ?
1994 Hawaii Inter Island System ? GTE Hawaiian Telephone Company ? System 480 km.
1994 AMERICAS 1 North: Vero Beach, Florida - St Thomas, US Virgin Islands Tyco AT&T ? System 2102 km
1994 AMERICAS 1 South: St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Macqueripe, Trinidad & Tobago - Camuri, Venezuela - Fortaleza, Brazil ASN Australia 1519 km - Tyco AT&T - Embratel - CANTV - TSTT Global Link System 6014 km
1994 COLUMBUS II: Palermo, Sicily - Funchal, Madeira - Gran Canaria - St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - West Palm Beach, Florida - Cancun, Mexico Alcatel Submarcom 2628 km. - AT&T SSI - Pirelli AT&T - Telefonica - Marconi - Telecom Italia - Telmex Vercors - Skandi Hav System 12300 km of which 193 km was buried. Vercors laid 4717 km.
1994 CANTAT 3: Nova Scotia, Canada - Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland - Tjornuvik, Faroes - Redcar, England - Blaabjerg, Denmark - Sylt, Germany ASN 7500 km. Teleglobe - Iceland Telecom - BT - Tele Danmark - DTAG ? System 7104 km.
1994 UNISUR: Florianopolis, Brazil - Maldonado, Uruguay - Las Toninas, Argentina ASN Australia 1700 km. Embratel Dock Express 20 System 1716 km. 90% of the cable was buried
1994 Goonhilly, England - St Ouens Bay, Jersey 8 ASN BT - Jersey Telecoms ? System 237 km.
1994 Saints Bay, Guernsey - Greve de Lecq, Jersey 4 ASN C&W Guernsey - Jersey Telecoms ? System 37 km.
1994 CELTIC: England - Ireland ASN BT - Eircom ? System 275 km.
1994 MT: Kuantan, Malaysia - Songkhla - Phetchaburi - Sri Racha, Thailand ? TM - CAT ? System 1378 km.
1994 EESF 3: Helsinki, Finland - Meremõisa, Estonia ? Telecom Finland - Estonian Telephone ? System 104 km. Plus 68 km landline.
1994 SFS 5: Edsboviken, Sweden - Eurajokilahti, Finland NKT Telia - Telecom Finland Pleijel System 237 km. Plus 26 km landline. WFS June 2005
1994 LV-SE 1: Ventspils, Latvia - Nynãshamn, Sweden ? Lattelcom - C&W - Telecom Finland ? System 304 km.
1994 BOTNIA: Umeå, Sweden - Vaasa, Finland NKT Telia Pleijel System 93 km.
1994 Tenerife - Gomera - Las Palmas ? Telefonica ? System 222 km.
1994 RJK: Nakhodka, Russia - Naoetsu, Japan - Pusan, Korea ASN 496 + 416 km. - Ocean Cable Co Segments B2-3 KDD - Rosstelecom Kuroshio Maru - Maersk Recorder System 1762 km. Kuroshio Maru laid 150 km. Maersk Recorder laid 473 km
1994 Korea Domestic ASN 165 km. KT ? System 150 km.
1994 Mestre, Italy - Umag Croatia ? Telecom Italia - HPT ? System 230 km
1994 Trapani, Italy - Kelibia, Tunisia ? Telecom Italia - Tunisie Telecom ? System 209 km.
1994 Estepona, Spain - Tetuan, Morocco STC Submarine Systems Telefonica Vercors System 113 km.
1995 APHRODITE: Cyprus - Greece ASN OTE Skandi Hav System 868 km.
1995 KYNIRAS STC Submarine Systems CYTA Skandi Hav System 154 km.
1995 Aden - Djibouti ASN Yemen PT - Djibouti PT Skandi Hav System 266 km.
1995 CADMOS: Beirut, Lebanon - Pentaskhinos, Cyprus ? CYTA ? System 230 km. 2 fibre pairs
1995 Catania, Italy - Malta ? Telecom Italia - Maltacom ? System 234 km.
1995 PENBAL 5: Gavá - Ses Covetes, Spain ? Telefonica ? System 309 km
1995 Mallorca - Menorca ASN Telefonica ? System 112 km
1995 Italy - Monaco ? Telecom Italia - Monaco Telecom ? System 157 km.
1995 Kãrdia, Estonia - Stavanãs, Sweden ASN Sweden 295 km. Telia Pleijel System 240 km.
1995 RIOJA S1: Cazoña, Spain - Porthcurno, England ASN Telefonica - BT ? System 939 km.
1995 RIOJA 2B/3B: Santander, Spain - Goonhilly, England - Veume, Belgium - Alkmaar, Holland ASN Telefonica - BT - Belgacom - KPN Discovery - Nexus System 1737 km.
1995 ODIN Segment 1: Maade, Denmark - Alkmaar, Holland: ASN KPN - Tele Danmark Nexus System 468 km.
1995 ODIN Segment 2: Blaabjerg, Denmark - Kristiansand, Norway ? Tele Danmark - Telenor ? System 302 km.
1995 ODIN Segment 3: Kristiansand, Norway - Lysekil, Sweden ASN Telenor - Telia Nexus System 220 km.
1995 CKC: Qingdao, China - Taean, Korea ASN KT - CT Flexservice III System 549 km. WFS June 2005.
1995 Japan Domestic ? KDDI ? System 174 km.
1995 Malaysia Domestic: Mersing - Kuching - Miri - Labuan - Bintulu - Kota Kinabalu ASN 84 + 259 km. TM ? System 2342 km.
1995 T-V-H: Vietnam - Hong Kong Fujitsu ? Global Mariner System km including entry below
1995 T-V-H: Thailand - Vietnam ASN 3400 km. ? Global Mariner  
1995 Indonesia Domestic: Java - Bali ASN 55 + 3 km. PT Telkom ? System 55 km.
1995-96 TAT 12/13: Rhode Island, USA - Porthcurno, England - Penmarch, France - Shirley, New York ASN 4160 km TAT 12 - 2173 km TAT 13 AT&T - BT - France Telecom Vercors - Nexus - Sovereign System 6321 km. TAT 12 Vercors laid 385 km of which 298 km was buried. TAT 13 Vercors laid 2183 km of which 128 km was buried
1995 ARIANE 2: France - Greece ASN ? Vercors System 2312 km. 562 km was buried
1995 La Seyne sur Mer, France - Ajaccio, Corsica ASN France Telecom Raymond Croze System 312 km.
1995 Corsica - Sardinia ASN France Telecom ? System 160 km.
1995 BASS STRAIT: Sandy Point, VA, Australia - Boat Harbour, Tasmania ASN ?   System 241 km.
1995 ITUR E1: Palermo, Italy - Istanbul, Turkey - Odessa, Ukraine -Novorossijsk, Russia Pirelli - AT&T Telecom Italia - Turk Telekom - Rostelecom - Ukrtec Vercors - Dock Express 20 System 1497 km of which 170 km was buried.
1995 ITUR E2, E3, E4: Palermo, Italy - Istanbul, Turkey - Odessa, Ukraine -Novorossijsk, Russia ASN Telecom Italia - Turk Telekom - Rostelecom - Ukrtec Vercors - Dock Express 20 System 1336 km of which 193 km was buried.
1995 ECFS: Eastern Caribbean Fibre System: British Virgin Islands - Anguilla - St. Martin - St. Kitts - Antigua - Montserrat - Guadeloupe - Dominica - Martinique - St. Lucia - Barbados - St. Vincent - Grenada. ASN 1714 km. C&W - BET - TSTT - France Telecom - AT&T Mercury System 1729 km. MV Bahama Sky laid the shore ends at Tortola, Guadelope, St Lucia and Trinidad.
1995 CANUS: Canada - USA ? Teleglobe ? System 1360 km.
1995 PACRIM WEST: Tumon Bay, Guam - Sydney, Australia ASN 7080 km. AT&T ? System 7062 km. WFS March 2005
1995 UNISUR: Brazil - Uruguay - Argentina ? Embratel - Telecom Argentina ? System
1996 BUGIO: Sesimbra - Carcavelos, Portugal ASN Marconi Vercors System 73 km unrepeatered.
1996 ADRIA 1: Croatia - Albania - Greece ASN OTE - DTAG ? System 468 km.
1996 CJFS: Caymans - Jamaica ASN C&W - Jatel ? System 870 km.
1996 ROMSAR 2: Civitavecchia, Italy - Sassari, Sardinia ? Telecom Italia ? System 380 km.
1996 TAGIDE 2: France - Portugal ASN France Telecom - Marconi Vercors System 1586 km. Later integrated into SEA ME WE 3
1996 Novorossiysk - Sochi, Russia ASN Rosstelcom Vercors System 145 km.
1996 KAFOS: Turkey - Rumania - Bulgaria ASN ? Vercors System 284 + 44 + 196 km.
1996 Australia - Indonesia ? ? Cable Innovator System
1996 Malaysia Domestic: Mersing - Kuantan - Kota Kinabalu ? TM ? System 1799 km.
1996 Malaysia Domestic: Langkawi - Kuala Perlis: Bayan Lepos - Pulau Jerejak - Seberang Jaya ? TM ? System 34 + 17 km.
1996 Indonesian Domestic: Ancol - Surabaya ASN 730 km. Indosat   System 713 km.
1996 Thailand Domestic ? JSTC ? 616 km.
1996 TPC 5: San Luis Obispo, USA - Keawaula, Hawaii - Tumon Bay, Guam - Myazaki, Japan - Ninomiya, Japan - Bandon, USA - San Luis Obispo, USA Ocean Cable Co Segments T2, I, J - Hitachi Cable Ltd 6700 km AT&T - KDDI Cable Innovator System 24953 km
1996 Palau Inter Island System ? ? ? ?
1996 BARSAV: Cabrera de Mar, Spain - Savona, Italy ASN Telefonica - Telecom Italia ? System 760 km.
1997 ALETAR: Egypt - Syria ASN ARENTO - STE Vercors System 760 km.
1997 BERYTAR: Syria - Lebanon ASN ? Vercors System 241 km.
1997 ANTILLAS 1: Santo Domingo - Punta Cana, Dominican R - Miramar - Isla Verde, Puerto Rico ? AT&T ? System 650 km.
1997 Rio - Fortaleza: Brazil Domestic ? Embratel ? System 1694 + 861 km.
1997 BAHAMAS 2: USA - Bahamas ? AT&T - Batelco ? System 470 km.
1997 BUS 1: St David's, Bermuda - Tuckerton, USA ? Tycom - Tele Bermuda ? System 1352 km.
1997 C-1: St Thomas - St Croix, US Virgin Islands ? AT&T ? System 111 km.
1997 Hawaii Island Fibre Network ? GST - AT&T ? System 529 km.

1997

FLAG: USA - United Kingdom - Spain - Italy -Egypt - Saudi Arabia - UAE - Mumbai, India - Penang, Malaysia - Satun - Songkhla, Thailand - South Lantau, Hong Kong - Nanhui, China - Koeje, Korea - Miura - Ninomiya, Japan

ASN 22000 km. - Ocean Cable Co: Hong Kong - China - Korea - Japan: India - UAE sections.

FLAG

Flexservice III - Cable Innovator

System USA - UK - France 14500 km. India - Japan 11500

1997 FLAG: SEGMENT E: Alexandria - Port Said, Egypt SEGMENT X1: Alexandria - Port Said - Suez, Egypt SEGMENT F1: Suez - BU7 SEGMENT F2: BU7 - BU2 SEGMENT F3: BU7 - Aqaba, Jordan SEGMENT F4: BU2 - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia SEGMENT G: BU2 - BU3 SEGMENT H: BU3 - Fujairah SEGMENT J: BU3 - Mumbai, India SEGMENT K : Mumbai - BU4     Raymond Croze Raymond Croze laid Segment F3 BU7 to Aqaba, Jordan
1997 APCN: Pusan, Korea - Miyazaki, Japan - Toucheng, Taiwan - Batangas, Philippines - South Lantau, Hong Kong Mersing, Malaysia - Changi, Singapore - Phetchaburi, Thailand ASN 5234 km - Ocean Cable Co Segments B1-4, B17 ? Global Sentinel - System 12083 km: Global Sentinel laid the Taiwan - Malaysia section. Burial work carried out using Sea Plow 7
1997 JASURAUS: Ancol, Indonesia - Port Headland, Australia ASN 2809 km. Optus - Telstra ? System 2795 km.
1997 GEMINI: Manasquan, USA - Porthcurno, England - Oxwich Bay, England - Charlestown RI, USA ASN 12115 km Gemini SCSL Cable Venture - Cabe Innovator - Agile System 12600 km. Landing points at either end are linked by landline or cable.
1997 MTC: Guam - Rota - Tinian - Saipan, Marianas Islands ASN Portland, Oregon MTC MV Kendrick System 240 km.
1997 Korea Domestic: Cheju- Koheung ? KT ? System 154 km.
1997 UK - Holland 14 ? C&W - BT - KPN ? System 206 nm.
1997 ULYSSES: England - France - Holland ASN BT - France Telecom - KPN Fresnel System 250 km.
1997 Otranto, Italy - Corfu ? Telecom Italia - OTE ? System 163 km.
1997 BALTICA: Segment 1: Kolobrzeg, Poland - Dueodde, Bornholm ? Polish Telecom - Tele Danmark ? System 105 km.
1997 BALTICA: Segment 2: Dueodde, Bornholm - Ystad, Sweden ? Telia - Tele Danmark ? System 102 km.
1997 BALTICA: Segment 3: Dueodde, Bornholm - Gedser, - Denmark ? Telia - Tele Danmark ? System 230 km.
1997 BCS East-West: Sventoji, Lithuania - Sandviken, Sweden Ericsson Cables Telia Pleijel System 218 km.
1998 DANICA South: Bjãrred, Sweden - Copenhagen, Denmark Ericsson Cables Telia Pleijel System 20 km
1998 DANICA North: Barseback, Sweden - Tuborg, Denmark Ericsson Cables Telia Pleijel System 25 km.
1998 BCS NORTH Phase 1: Nauvo - Mariehamn, Finland - Stavsnds, Sweden Ericsson Cables Telia Pleijel System 296 km.
1998 Palermo - Rome: Rome - Sardinia ? Telecom Italia ? System 445, 300 km.
1998 Bari, Italy - Durres, Albania ? Telecom Italia ? System 240 km.
1998 Anacapri - Ischia: Mazara - Pantellaria: Milazzo - Vulcano ? Telecom Italia ? System 34, 108, 37 km.
1998 JIH (Japan Information Highway): Okinawa - Miyazaki - Kochi - Shima - Toyohashi - Ninomiya - Chikura - Ibaraki - Sendai - Ishikan - Akita - Niigata - Naoetsu - Matsutou - Kumihama - Hamada - Fukuoka - Miyazaki Ocean Cable Co - Hitachi Cable Ltd KDDI Cable Innovator - Nexus - Pacific Link - Oceanic Link System 10000 km.
1998 FOG: Fujairah - Qatar - Bahrain - Kuwait ? Etisalat ? System 1300 km.
1998 SB-UP-BJM: Indonesia Domestic: Surabaya, Java - Ujung Pandang, Celebes Islands - Banjarmasin, Borneo - Surabaya, Java ? PT Telkom ? System 1927 km.
1998 AC 1(Atlantic Crossing 1): Brookhaven, USA - Whitesands, England - Beverwijk, Holland - Westerland, Germany - Brookhaven, USA Tyco SSI Global Crossing ? System 14000 km.
1998 AZORES RING: S. Miguel - Terceira - Graciosa - S Jorge - Faial - Pico - S. Maria - S. Miguel Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke Marconi Teneo System 1100 km unrepeatered.
1998 SAGRES: Sesimbra - Lagos, Portugal ASN 320 km. Marconi Teneo System 320 km.
1998 Venezuela Domestic Festoon: ASN 1194 km CANTV ? System 193 + 204 + 73 + 125 + 121 + 158 + 76 110 + 77 km.
1999 Sochi - Poti, Georgia ASN Great Northern Telegraph Co Raymond Croze System 270 km.
1999 LFON: Libyan Fibre Optic Network ASN GPTC ? System 80 + 54 + 146 + 104 + 198 + 236 + 125 + 213 + 138 + 186 + 161 km.
1999 CIRCE North: Lowestoft, England - Zandvoort, Holland ASN Viatel ? System 361 km.
1999 CIRCE South: Pevensey Bay, England - Cayeux sur Mer, France ASN Viatel ? System 115 km.
1999 Concerto 1: Sizewell, England - Zandfoort, Holland - Zeebrugge, Belgium - Thorpeness, England ? Interoute/Flute Ltd ? System 550 km.
1999 England - Germany 6 ASN BT - DTAG - C&W ? System 560 km.
1999 England - Belgium ASN Global Crossing ? System 130 km.
1999 Marsala - Favignana - Marittimo       System 16 + 25 km.
1999 Corfu - Montenegro ? OTE - PTT Montenegro   System 350 km.
1999 STORE BÃLT: Korsõr, Denmark - Nyborg, Denmark Ericsson Cables Telia Pleijel System 30 km.
1999 LEV: Mazara, Italy - Yeroskipos, Cyprus - Tel Aviv, Israel ASN MED 1 ? System 2620 km.
1999 COLUMBUS 3: Hollywood, Florida - Ponta Delgada, Azores - Lisbon, Portugal - Conil, Spain - Sicily, Italy ASN - TYCO - Pirelli Telecom Italia - Telefonica - Marconi - AT&T ? System 9900 km.
1999 NDTN: Philippines Domestic ? ? ? System 1400 km.
1999 DFON: Philippines Domestic ? ? ? System 2506 km.
1999 Indonesia Domestic System: Surabaya - Banjarmasin - Ujungpandang Ocean Cable Co ? ? System
1999 TRANSCAN 3: Gran Canaria ASN 200 km. Telefonica ? System 210 km.
1999 ALASKA UNITED: Seattle, USA - Whittier, Alaska: Whittier - Valdez - Fairbanks, Alaska: Seattle - Juneau via branching unit. ? ? Global Sentinel System 1745 nm of submarine cable and 294 nm of landline.
1999 NORTHSTAR: Nedonna Beach, Oregon - Juneau - Whiitier - Valdez, Alaska ASN 3360 km WCI Cable Maersk Fighter - Fu Lai System 3352 km including land lines
1999 Alonso de Ojeda: Willemstad, Curacao - Oranjestad, Aruba ASN 120 km. Antelecom ? System 128 km.
1999 Americo Vespucci: Willemstad, Curacao - Bonaire ASN 85 km. Antelecom ? System 84 km.
1999 PANAM: Magens Bay, St Thomas - Old Mill, St Croix, US Virgin Islands - Baby Beach, Aruba - Punto Fijo, Venezuela - Barranquilla, Colombia - Colon - Panama City, Panama - Punta Carnera, Ecuador - Lurin, Peru - Arica, Chile ASN 2800 km. AT&T - C&W Cable Innovator System 2857 + 4410 km.
1999 Rio - Sao Paulo: Brazil Domestic ? Embratel ? System 453 km.
1999 PACIFIC CROSSING 1: Harbour Point, Washington State - Grover Beach, California - Shima - Ajigaura, Japan - Harbour Point, Washington State Ocean Cable Co Global Crossing ? System 21000 km.
1999 Tenerife - Gran Canaria ? Telefonica ? System 110 km.
1999 G-P: Tanguisson Point, Guam - Batangas, Philippines Hitachi Cable Ltd ? ? System 3600 km
1999 SEA ME WE 3: (Countries in alphabetical order) Australia, Belgium, Brunei, PR China, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Morocco, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Vietnam. ASN - AT&T SSI - Pirelli - KDD-SCS - TYCO BT - DTAG - Tele Danmark Agile - Cable Installer - Maersk Defender - Maersk Fighter - Fresnel - Fu Lai - Nexus - Leon Thevinin - Vercors - Raymond Croze System 40000 km.
1999 SEA ME WE 3: Segment S1: Kojei, Korea - Okinawa - Nanhui, China - Toucheng - Fangshan, Taiwan - Shantou, China - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong Fujitsu Segment S1 4600 km See above Vercors System 4600 km. Vercors laid 2500 km of which 320 km was buried
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S2: Shantou, China - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong - Taipa, Macau - Batangas, Philippines - Tungku, Brunei - Danang, Vietnam - Mersing, Malaysia - Tuas, Singapore Alcatel See above Vercors System 6125 km. Vercors laid 2130 km of China - Singapore section of which 227 km was buried
1999 SEA ME WE 3:SEGMENT S3: Tuas, Singapore - Ancol, Indonesia - Perth Western Australia Fujitsu See above Fresnel - Vercors System 4757 km. Fresnel laid Singapore - Jakarta section 1300 km of which 1000 km was buried. Vercors laid Australia - Jakarta 3400 km of which 55 km was buried
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S4 Tuas, Singapore - Medan, Indonesia - Penang, Malaysia - Satun, Thailand - Pyapon, Myanamar - Mt Lavinia, Sri Lanka - Cochin - Mumbai, India KDD SCS TM - CAT - VSNL Vercors System 5248 km. Vercors laid all of this section, 532 km buried
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S5 Mumbai, India - Karachi, Pakistan - Muscat - Oman - Fujairah - Djibouti KDD SCS VSNL - Etisalat - Vercors System 2293 km.
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S6 Djibouti - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia - Suez, Egypt TYCO SSI STID - Telcom Egypt Fresnel - Raymond Croze System 4200 km. Fresnel laid 2668 km and Raymond Croze 1450 km. 168 km buried.
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S7 Suez - Alexandria, Egypt See above Telecom Egypt Land lines System ? km.
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S8 Alexandria, Egypt - Marmaris, Turkey - Yeroskipos, Cyprus - Chaina, Greece - Mazara, Italy - Tetuan, Morocco - Sesimbra, Portugal Alcatel Telecom Italia - OTE - Turk Telecom - Marconi - Telecom Egypt -IAM Fresnel System 5300 km Fresnel laid 3191 km. 331 km buried.
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S9 Penmarch, France - Sesimbra, Portugal See above France Telecom - Marconi See above System 1600 km.
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT 10 Penmarch, France - Goonhilly, England - Ostende, Belgium - Norden, Germany See above BT - DTAG - Tele Danmark See above System 1258 km.
1999 TAMPNETT 1: Karstø, Norway to OSP Draupner - Sleipner Ericsson Statoil ? System 250 km. 24 fibre pairs. OSP = Offshore Platform (Gas or Oil rig)
? TAMPNETT 2: Kollsnes, Norway to OSP Troll - Kvitebjørn - Gulfaks - Snorre: Via BU to Oseberg - Heimdal - Grane - Sleipner ? Statoil ? OSP = Offshore Platform (Gas or Oil rig)
1999 NORTH SEA COM: Lowestoft, England to OSP Murdoch - Valhall - Ekofisk - Ula - Draupner Alcatel, Norway Originally owned by Enitel and then TeliaSonera ? System 800 km. 12 fibre pairs. OSP = Offshore Platform (Gas or Oil rig)
2000 SAC: USA - Brazil - Argentina - Chile - Peru - Colombia - Panama ASN 18000 km Global Crossing ? System
2000 AMERICAS 2: USA - US Virgin Islands - Puerto Rico - Martinique - Curacao - Venezuela - Trinidad - French Guiana - Brazil ASN - TYCO AT&T - C&W - France Telecom - Embratel Cable Installer - Agile - Fresnel System 8300 km. Fresnel laid 2100 km
2000 MAYA 1: Hollywood, Florida - Cancun, Mexico - Puerto Cortez, Honduras - Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands - Puerto Limon, Costa Rica - Maria Chiqoita, Panama - Tolu, Colombia ASN 4500 km AT&T - TELMEX - HONDUTEL   System 4400 km
2000 Mazara, Italy - Tripoli, Libya ? Telecom Italia - Libya P&T ? System 1170 km.
2000 SOLAS: Kilmore Quay, Ireland - Oxwich Bay, Porthcurno, England ? C&W - Eircom Wave Sentinel System 140 km.
2000 SIRIUS: England - N Ireland - Ireland ? NTL ?  
2000 TANGERINE: Broadstairs, England - Ostende, Belgium ? Level 3 ? System 112 km.
2000 England - Holland - Denmark ASN ? ?  
2000 Whitesands Bay, England - Ballygrangans - Ballinesker, Ireland - Crooklets, England ASN 267 km. Global Crossing Wave Sentinel System 495 km. MV Seaworker laid the shore ends
2000 Havelet Bay, Guernsey - Greve de Lecq, Jersey: Archirondel, Jersey - St Remy des Landes, France ? CIEG ?  
2000 PEC: Dumpton Gap, England - Bredene, Belgium ? ? ? System 117 km.
2000 Peel, IOM - Ballyhornan, N Ireland ? BT ? System 59 km.
2000 SCANDINAVIAN RING NORTH: Helsingõr, Denmark - Helsingborg, Sweden Ericsson Cables Telia Pleijel System 5 km.
2000 SCANDINAVIAN RING SOUTH: Dragõr, Denmark - Brunkeflostrand, Sweden Ericsson Cables Telia Pleijel System 17 km.
2000 FEHRMARN BÃLT: Puttgarden, Germany - Rõdbyhavn, Denmark Ericsson Cables Telia Pleijel System 20 km.
2000 PENCAN 6: El Medano - Conil, Spain ? Telefonica ? System 1854 km.
2000 BS-FOCS (Black Sea Fibre Optic Cable System): Varna, Bulgaria - Odessa, Ukraine - Novorossijsk Russia ASN 1300 km - Tyco SSI BTC, Bulgaria - CyTA, Cyprus - UKRETELECOM, Ukraine - Westelcom, Russia - OTE, Greece - Armentel, Armenia. Later joined by Deutsch Telekom - AT&T, USA - KDD, Japan - CT, Croatia Cable Innovator - Maersk Fighter System 1300 km.
2000 BCS NORTH Phase 2: Nauvo - Helsinki - Kotka, Finland - Sosnovy, Russia Ericsson Cables Telia Pleijel System 550 km.
2000 ATLANTIS 2: Las Toninas, Argentina - Rio da Janeiro - Fortaleza, Brazil - Dakar, Senegal - Praia, Cape Verde Islands - El Medano, Gran Canaria - Funchal, Madeira - Conil, Spain - Lisbon, Portugal ASN 8500 km. - Pirelli - Fujitsu Marconi - Telefonica - Embratel - Telecom Argentina - Cape Verde Telecom - Telefonica de Argentina - Sonatel Raymond Croze - Fresnel - Vercors - Teneo - Teliri - Maersk Defender System 13000 km. Raymond Croze laid 880 km. Fresnel laid 285 km.
2000 ATLANTICA 1: USA - Bermuda - Brazil - Venezuela ASN 22500 km. Globe Net ?  
2000 MAC: USA - US Virgin Islands - Bermuda ASN 6000 km - Global Crosssing Fresnel System 7500 km. Fresnel laid 3147 km. 171 km buried
2000 PAC 1: Grover Beach, California - Tijuana - Mazatlan, Mexico - Amadour, Panama - Puerto Viejo, Venezuela - St Croix, US Virgin Islands ? Global Crossing Agile System 9500 km.
2000 SOUTHERN CROSS: Brookvale, Australia - Suva, Fiji - Kahe Point, Oahu - Hillsboro, USA: Alexandria, Australia - Whennapaui, New Zealand: Takapuna, New Zealand - Spencer Beach, Hawaii - Morro Bay, USA ASN All of the cable and some repeaters. - Fujitsu manufactured the remaining repeaters SCCL - Fintel - TNZ Cable Innovator laid 13761 km - Nexus laid 3306 km - Vercors laid 3318 km Total system including land based cables 30500 km. Submarine cable 28900 km. Australia, New Zealand and USA landing sites are linked by land line. Hawaii landings by submarine cable.
2000 SOUTHERN CROSS: SEGMENT A: Alexandria, Australia - Whenuapai, New Zealand SEGMENT B: Whenuapai - Takapuna, New Zealand SEGMENT C: Takapuna - Spencer Beach, Hawaii SEGMENT D: Spencer Beach - Morro Bay, California SEGMENT E: Morro Bay - Hillsboro, Oregon SEGMENT F1: Nedonna Beach, Oregon - Kahe Point, Oahu SEGMENT: F2 Hillsboro - Nedonna Beach SEGMENT G1: Kahe Point - Suva, Fiji SEGMENT G2: Suva - Brrokvale, Australia SEGMENT H: Brookvale - Alexandria, Australia See above See above See above Segments B, E, F2 and H are land based networks.
2000 JAPAN - US CABLE: Manchester Morro Bay, California - Makaha, Hawaii - Shima South - Maruyama - Kitaibaraki, Japan - Manchester, California ASN 21000 km. - Ocean Cable Co AT&T - KDDI - NTTWN Subaru System 22000 km. Subaru laid 920 km.
2000 PANGEA: Sweden - Estonia - Finland ASN Pangea ? System 487 km.
2000 PANGEA: England - Holland - Denmark ASN Pangea Pleijel System 942 km.

Copyright © 2006 FTL Design

Last revised: 28 September, 2007

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