Philippines History, Culture, Civilization and Technology, Filipino


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Philippine Civilization, Culture and Technology


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Table of Contents

  • The Art of War
  • People of the Sea
  • Jewelry, Metal work and Mining
  • Pottery
  • Agriculture and Livestock
  • Architecture
  • Sculpture
  • Textiles
  • Other Industries
  • Mathematics, Astronomy and Calendric Science
  • Writing and education



  • The Art of War


    When the Spanish began to colonize the Philippine islands the culture and technology was by no means that far behind most other areas of the world. Indeed, in many areas the Filipinos were quite advanced considering the timeline of the history of science. The metal smith, Panday Piray of Pampanga, was so skilled at weapons making and other types of metal working that the Spanish entrusted him with opening the first Spanish artillery foundry in the country. The Spanish found that the Filipinos made their own small arquebuses, or portable cannons, usually made of bronze. Larger cannons made of iron and resembling culverins provided heavier firepower. The iron cannon at Raha Soliman's house was about 17 feet long and was made from clay and wax moulds.

    The most fearsome weapon though was the famed lantaka, or swivel gun. Unlike the Spanish cannons these guns were placed on flexible swivels that allowed the gunner to quickly track a moving target. The lantakas of the Moros gave the Spanish so much trouble that they always included native ships, like the karakoa, equipped with lantakas to counter the Moro weapons. The most impressive lantakas had two revolving barrels. These were eventually exported to South America, and may have become the precursor of the Gatling gun.

    Piray started a tradition of high quality metal casting that lasted for centuries in many parts of the Philippines. Many individuals with surnames like Piray, Viray, etc., may have ancestors who were members of the guilds of smiths who followed the Piray lineage. The metal work involving authentic native swords was also of the highest quality. Unfortunately, this fell into disuse among most of the lowlanders of the North. However, the Muslims and animists of the South continued to make very fine kampilans, krisses, etc., that can take many years of work to complete. Sword makers were also astrologers who waited for auspicious conjunctions of planets before proceeding with each elaborate phase of the sword making ritual. The passage of the sword from the maker to the owner was a very mystical ceremony, replete with all types of supernatural beliefs. A well-made kampilan or kris is really one of the finest pieces of handicraft that can be found anywhere. In the North, they also had the kampilan, and another excellent weapon known as the bararao.

    In addition to weapons, the Filipinos made good armor for use in the battlefield. The Moros in particular had armor that covered the entire body from the top of the head to the toes. Fortresses known as kuta or kota, and moog were built to protect large communities. These fortresses were protected with the cannons mentioned above. Governor Sande noted that when he asked local Filipinos to contribute their bronze cannons for use against the Moros, he received the equivalent of 400 quintals of bronze (about 21 tons) from an area with a radius of about eight leagues (24 miles). However, the large powerful cannons were more scarce. The fort at Tondo had less arnaments that an average Spanish warship. The problem was the big weapons often required the same complex, lengthy ritualistic procedure in manufacture as swords like the kampilan and the kris. Also, even small firearms were seen as status symbols for datus and rahas and thus, were generally too expensive for the ordinary warrior. However, the main disadvantage suffered by the Filipinos was that their guns were too often turned against themselves in service of "his Catholic majesty."

    Although contemporary paintings exist of some Filipino forts, few remains exist. Strangely, in the far eastern corner of Ifugao Province remains of a very ancient fortress have been discovered. The fort had stone walls that averaged several meters in width and about two to three times the width in height. At first it was thought that these were the remains of an unknown Spanish fortress, but advanced dating methods and analysis of the tools, utensils and other artifacts showed that the most likely dating was about 2,000 B.C.

    Some of the weaponry concocted by the Filipino was quite unusual. For instance, one weapon was the prototype of the modern yoyo, and it returned to is owner after being flung at an opponent.

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    People of the Sea


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    The Filipinos, particularly the Bisayans, impressed the Spanish with their navigational skills. Some Filipinos used a type of compass similar to that found among the people of Borneo and the Chinese, although most had no need for such devices. They used sailing techniques native to the ancient Malayo-Polynesian people. Some of the fishermen and traders in the Bisayas, Mindanao, Sulu and other areas of the Philippines can still navigate long distances over open water without modern instruments. The Philippine ships were of excellent quality and continued to be of great use to the Spaniards who included armed Karakao, or korkoa, and other vessels not only in expeditions against rebellious or resistant Filipinos, but also against intruding Dutch and British forces. The karakao was a rowed vessel with small rowing canoes placed under each outrigger. It's name is related to the korokoro of Indonesia, the kolik and kurakura of Malaysia, the kelakela of Tikopia, kel or gel of Anuda, and the kel of Pak. Some of the larger rowed vessels held up to a hundred rowers on each side besides a contigent of armed troops. Generally the larger vessels held at least one lantaka at the front of the vessel with an additional one sometimes placed at the stern.

    The Philippine sailing ships, or praos, shown in La Perouse's drawings had double sails that seemed to rise well over a hundred feet from the surface of the water. Despite their large size these canoes also had double outriggers. Some larger sailing vessels mentioned by Antonio De Morga and others did not use outriggers. All the commentators agreed that the Filipinos had first contact were engaged in long-range trading with their Asian neighbors. The various kingdoms of the islands ranged as far West as the Maldives on the southwest coast of India and as far north as Japan. A more controversial issue is whether the Filipinos had regular contact with the peoples of Western Micronesia. The earliest Spaniards commented on how peoples from both regions would regularly be blown from one region to another. Occasionally if they were skilled navigators they could possibly make their way back, while ordinary fishermen and the like probably had to settle in their new home. Whether regular contacts once existed is a difficult question, but Western Micronesia is one the only area in Oceania that had rice crops at European contact. They also chewed betel nut, and fermented coconut sap into wine, which is called tuba as in the Philippines. An interesting connection between the Philippines and the Southeast is the uncanny resemblance of complex body tatoos among the Bisayans and the Maori of New Zealand (Aotearoa). However, we will leave this for a further future link in our webpage.

    Legazpi describes one of the "Moro" pilots captured from Butuan:

    "...a most experienced man who had much knowledge, not only of matters concerning these Filipinas Islands, but those of Maluco, Borney, Malaca, Jaba, India, and China, where he had had much experience in navigation and trade." (Blair and Robertson, Vol. II, p. 116.)

    The Kapampangans were said to have continued their trade with Batavia until the start of the galleon trade compelled the Spanish to take control of all commerce. Indeed, at one point Filipinos were not even allowed to go out of their villages to trade.

    The Philippines was also an active trading center itself before the coming of the Spanish. Pigafetta mentions that merchants and ambassadors from all the surrounding areas came to pay tribute to the king of Cebu for the purpose of trade. Indeed, while Magellan's crew were with the king a representative from Siam was paying tribute. Legazpi wrote how merchants from Luzon and Mindoro had come to Cebu for trade, and that they had mentioned how Chinese merchants regularly came to the north for the same purpose.

    The Barangay

    The word, barangay, usually means to modern Filipinos the basic social unit into which communities are divided. However, the barangay is also the name of an oceanic vessel that was used for trade, and also apparently for migration. At Butuan in Northern Mindanao, a spectacular find of barangay vessels was made in the mid-seventies. One of these ships dated back to the 4th century, the oldest find of its kind in the Austronesian region. Some of these boats were associated with T'ang Dynasty pottery, the oldest to be found in the Philippines to date. In the same area, skeletons were found with burial artifacts including wooden coffins and various trade items.

    Fishing

    The Filipinos were skilled in all types of fishing and fisheries. In the south, the basnig, a Viking-like ship, was and is the vessel of choice among the Bisayans for ocean fishing. The salambao is a type of raft that utilizes a large fishing net which is lowered into the water via a type of lever made of two criss-crossed poles. Night fishing was accomplished with the help of candles similar to the copal of Mexico. These candles were made from a particular type of resin. Fish corrals, like the ones still used today, were also employed by the ancient Filipino. However, the area in which the Filipino most astonished Westerners was in their advanced aquaculture:

    "To the early Spaniards, the pisciculture of the Filipinos was regarded almost as a new art, so much more advanced it was than fish breeding methods in Europe." (Commercial Progress in the Philippine Islands, Antonio M. Regidor and J. Warren T. Mason, 1905)

    Many have looked to Japan for an explanation for these advanced methods. The roe was transplanted to safe pens for incubation and to guard the small fry from predators. Only when sufficiently mature to fend for themselves were they released back into the wild. These days this method is practiced by fisheries throughout the world. Before the Spanish came, the Filipinos also only used large mesh nets when fishing in rivers, lakes or in the sea. This ecologically sound practice protected the young ensuring future good catches. However, the competition brought by the Spaniards resulted in the use of such small mesh nets that the Spanish themselves eventually had to regulate the nets to prevent the destruction of the fisheries.

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    Jewelry, Metal Work and Mining

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    Mines dating back to at least 1,000 B.C. have been found in the Philippines. When the Spanish arrived the Filipinos worked various mines of gold, silver, copper and iron. They also seemed to have worked in brass using tin that was likely imported from the Malay Peninsula. The iron work in particular was said to be of very high quality in some cases, and occassionaly in some areas, even better than that found in Europe.

    When the Spanish arrived, the Philippines was so gilded with gold that most of the gold mines had been neglected. According to De Morga:

    "... the natives proceed more slowly in this ,and content themselves with what they already possess in jewls and gold ingots handed down from antiquity and inherited from their ancestors. This is considerable, for he must be poor and wrethced who has no gold chains, calombigas, and earrings."

    However, things seem to already diminished from Pigafetta's time:

    "On the island [Butuan] where the king came to the ship, pieces of gold as large as walnuts or eggs are to be found, by sifting the earth. All the dishes of the king are of gold, and his whole house is very well set up."

    Pigafetta goes on to describe the huge gold ornaments, gold dagger handles, tooth plating and even gold that was used to decorate the outside of houses! On the gold work of the Filipinos is this description of the people of Mindoro:

    "...they possess great skill in mixing it [gold] with other metals. They give it an outside appearance so natural and perfect, and so fine a ring, that unless it is melted they can deceive all men, even the best of silversmiths."

    Apparently, even foreigners desired Filipino gold products. Recent discoveries show that gold jewelry of Philippine origin was found in Egypt near the beginning of the era. These finds are mentioned in Laszlo Legeza's "Tantric elements in pre-Hispanic Philippines Gold Art," (Arts of Asia, Jul-Aug 1988, p. 131) along a discussion of Philippine Tantric art. Some outstanding examples of Philippine jewelry, which included necklaces, belts, armlets and rings placed around the waist, are showcased in J. T. Peralta's "Prehistoric gold ornaments from the Central Bank of the Philippines," Arts of Asia 1981, no.4, p.54.

    The Filipinos also made jewelry of carnelian, agate and other precious stones, and of course, they were known for their coveted pearl industry.

    The Filipinos made metal implements like the sumpak of carabao horn and silver, a sort of fire piston, and the kalikot, of ebony and silver, for pounding betel nuts into powder. Excellent gongs were made of various metals. These gongs were often used as clocks, and Dampier and other visitors to the Moro kingdom tell of the regular sounding of the gongs to mark the hours of day and night. So far no evidence exists, that I am aware of, that the Filipinos possessed the copper water clocks of the Moluccas or Bali.

    Metal vessels were made and some interesting copper vessels have been found in the Itogon-Bua area of Mountain province. Sacred drums were also sometimes cast in metal. For some reason, Filipinos rarely seemed to have made agricultural tools from metal. They had quite an array of hammers, chisels, mullers and the like but usually made of stone or wood. Possibly iron, copper and brass were too valuable for use as weapons, and ceremonial gongs, drums, vessels and the like.

    In discussing metal work, it is interesting to note that discoveries made at Ban Chiang in Thailand included the earliest dates for bronze found anywhere in the world. While these dating have been challenged by specialists in other fields, the original testers, Western and Thai, stand by their datings. This, along iron finds much older than the previous estimated start of the SE Asian Iron Age, have radically changed views of this region.

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    Pottery


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    The ancient Filipino engaged in pottery making from very ancient times. Many of the important pottery traditions that spread into the Oceania region had their counterparts in the Philippines including the well-known Lapita culture. This quote from Wilhelm Solheim illustrates the matter:

    "I hypothesize that the Sa-huynh Kalanay and Lapita pottery traditions had a common origin somewhere in the Palawan-Sarawak-Sulu Sea-Sulawesi area and that it was at this point in time and space that a second and main stage in the spread of the Austronesian languages began."

    The finds at Ayub Cave in South Cotabato again verified the great pottery tradition of the Philippines. In terms of quantity and quality, these artifacts have no match in Southeast Asia for such an early time period.

    One interesting question is whether or not the Philippines ever developed an export industry for pottery. Generally it is known that the Thais had developed quite a flourishing industry, which is sometimes considered unique in SE Asia. However, it is well-documented that the Philippines was in fact a major destination of pottery buyers from the islands of Japan at least. Japanese texts mention trading expeditions to the island of Rusun (Luzon) going well back before the Spanish period. What they sought were the highly-prized Rusun and Namban jars. In fact, these jars were far more precious than gold to the Japanese because of their ability to act as tea canisters. Japanese texts were very specific about these jars being made in Luzon. The Tokiko, for example,

    calls the Rusun and Namban jars, Ru-sun tsukuru or Lu-sung ch'i (Chinese), which means simply "made in Luzon." The only question is whether the pottery makers were Filipinos trained in the Chinese art, or local Japanese or Chinese, or a combination of both.

    In the Tokiko it mentions that all Rusun jars had this marking spiral known as the rokuru (wheel mark). Those familar with Philippine ethnography will know that this spiral is commonly used by many of the Philippine tribes.

    The following symbols were used to identify which kiln was used to make the jar: imbe gif identified "Imbe" jars, bizen gif meant jars coming from Bizen kiln, and chaire gif mark three times meant a canister from the same oven. A jar with this mark is said to be made of Namban clay. This marking corresponds to the syllable la pamp gif in Pampanga; tagba gif Tagbanua for ka ("Chinese Pottery," Field Museum of Natural History-Anth., vol.xii, Jul.1912)

    Of course, the symbol for la can also be the same as that for lu, and so this might correspond to the symbol said to stand for Lu in Rusun-no kokuji (Luzon national writing). According to the Tokiko, certain types of Rusun jars were distinguished by this character. De Morga mentions that Japanese traders were still coming in large numbers for these jars during his time, and that they were willing to spend great sums for them. Apparently work on these jars continued in the North, possibly among the unconquered Igorots, for De Morga had no knowledge of such current production. Later, the knowledge may have again trickled down to Vigan, where a flourishing industry of Burnay jar manufacture survives to this day. Although the Japanese described very high quality jars coming from the Philippines, not all were of elegant nature. In fact, De Morga had some disdain for some of the jars that the Japanese were buying, so they could have been similar to the well-known balanga and other jars in use today. These jars are generally handed down as heirlooms and are noted for their qualities in enhancing the fermentation process. Possibly one of the Japanese uses for the Rusun jars was fermentation of products like Kombucha and Umeboshi plums. Indeed a Japanese acquaintance stated that their family in rural Japan used old Rusun jars for exactly this purpose up to this day.

    Another interesting type of pottery was the "dragon jar." Although these jars shown certain Chinese or Japanese influence, no kiln from China or elsewhere has yet been discovered that produced these jars (to the author's knowledge). Indeed, no true samples of these jars have even been found in China! However, even many of the humblest tribal families possessed at least one of these jars in some areas of the Philippines. These are very fine works and are a tribute to the makers, who likely resided in the Philippines, if not Filipinos themselves. It should be noted that the Japanese were very careful about classification of pottery. Even in foreign countries like Korea, they were careful to distinguish the differences between indigenous Korean and imported Chinese-school pottery made in Korea. In the case of the Rusun and Namban jars, they distinctly classified them as local manufactures.

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    Agriculture and Livestock


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    The Filipinos were great agriculturists. A report during the time of Legazpi noted:

    "...it [Luzon] has a great abundance of rice, fowls, and wine, as well as great numbers of buffaloes, deer, wild boar and goats; it also produces great quantities of cotton and colored clothes, wax, and honey; and date palms abound." (Blair and Roberson, vol.xxxiii, p.207.)

    Another early report on the Bisayas noted that: "rice, cotton, great numbers of swine and fowls, wax, and honey are produced in great abundance. (Ibid, vol.V, p. 83)." Leyte was said to produce two rice crops a year, and Pedro Chirino commented on the great rice and cotton harvests that were sufficient to feed and cloth the people.

    The Filipinos practiced a form of duck culture around Pateros and Tagig in Rizal that resembled that of the Chinese. This included methods of artificial incubation of eggs, and the tradition was carried on until modern times. Indeed, this is quite an advanced science which requires intimate knowledge of every phase of a duck's life.

    Rice Terraces

    Nowhere in the world can one find agricultural wonders like the rice terraces. Although dates on the terraces vary, modern dating tends to verify Beyer's contention that they were started by at least 1,000 B.C. Certainly, one can safely dismiss theories that they were only started during Spanish times (by Spaniards perhaps?!).

    The construction of these terraces is something that surpasses comprehension. Check out this link: The Rice Terraces of the Philippines, for more information on these marvels. Also, for big, panoramic pictures of Banaue and Bontok, click the respective interactive text.button


    Architecture

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    The houses of chiefs and other ruler's in the Philippines was said to be impressive:

    "They are built upon trees and thick arigues, with many rooms and comforts. They are well constructed of timber and planks, and are strong and large. They are furnished and supplied with all that is necessary , and are much finer and more substantial than the others." (Blair and Roberson, vol.xvi, p.84)

    As stated earlier, the early Filipinos even went as far as to decorate their houses with gold. However, the Spanish soon put a halt to this practice. As is the case in Borneo, the use of timber in architecture has left few remains of even the most grand Raja's palaces. Only people in some of the far northern islands like the Ivatans build stone typhoon proof houses because of their geographical situation along the typhoon belt. However, everywhere in the Philippines all houses, stone or wood, chief or commoner, used thatch for roofs.

    The stone walls, canals, dams and reservoirs of the Igorots can also be considered as type of architecture, or at least stone engineering. The amount of stones used by the Igorots in their hydraulic engineering works is estimated to far exceed in bulk those used in building the Pyramids or the Great Wall of China. Many of these walls and canals are thousands of years old and have withstood countless typhoons and the effects of Sun, wind and time.

    One of the last examples of native wooden bridges met a natural end some time ago, but a photo of it is still available in Masferre's works. button


    Sculpture

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    The Filipinos were said to be excellent wood carvers, and most of their sculpture was in wood. The carvings consisted mainly of small anitos for the household, or for mostly small religious structures known as simbahan. In some cases, fine carvings like the sarimanok were to be found. Unfortunately, wood carvings like wood architecture rarely survives the march of time. As many of the native arts suffered due to colonization, it is impossible to determine what level the lowlanders reached in these arts. The gold Butuan Tara statue may be an example of indigenous Buddhist art from period long forgotten. We should remember, though, that even the great monuments of Borobodur in Java were unknown to the inhabitants when they were rediscovered, and the natives were surprised to learn that Buddhism had ever been practiced there. Other Hindu and Buddhist statues of Avalokesvara and Ganesa have also been recovered in the Philippines.

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    Textiles


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    The textile industry is one in which the Philippines has long acted as an exporter. The early Spanish noted that the Filipinos knew had to raise, spin and weave cotton and silk. Lace-making and embroidery were widely practiced often with superb results. Besides cotton, abaca fiber and banana leaf fiber was also used. The native silk was known as pina. The woven works of the Philippines, particularly from the Muslims and animists of the South are now receiving long overdue attention from the international community.

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    Other Industries


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    Other Pre-Spanish Filipino industries included the manufacture of liquors and vinegars like tuba, basi, etc., the production of hides for export to Japan, export of edible bird's nests from Northern Palawan to China, the raising and trade of civet cats, the manufacture of gunpowder, the making of wax for export to China, and the making of cotton stockings for export.

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    Mathematics, Astronomy and Calendric Science

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    There is insufficent space to go into details here since no written traditions exist, and one must piece together details like a detective. The Filipinos had a rather sophisticated system of counting and weights and measurement. They used a decimal counting system, but also systems based on other numbers. They had names for various types of numbers much larger than the myriad used in Europe until fairly modern times. They also used mnenomic aids like the runo counters of the Ifugao in making mathematical calculations. Sometimes, shells or pebbles were stacked in heaps or used with boards like the Sungka to aid in calculations.

    The Filipinos were avid astronomers and astrologers. The Ifugao, for example, were said to possess the world's most perfect calender (See Beyer, Otley, "Ifugaos using world's most perfect calender." Philippine Free Press, 26 July 1924.) There is much evidence that the Filipino knew the difference between the tropical year, as determined by the Sun's declination, and the sidereal year, as determined by the helical rising of stars. The Igorots of Sagada used stone calenders to mark the Sun's declination in a manner similar to some great ancient monuments of the world. The declination fix is known as gadagad. The movement of the planets was well known among many tribes as was the helical rising and setting of the stars. The stars were also used as clocks at night, while the Sun was used during the day. In addition to using the rising and setting of the stars as a night clock, the Aetas and others used the Southern Cross like one would use a modern timepiece, while the Ifugao used Monliwotan (The Winder), or the Big Dipper.

    Also, the star rising when he Sun vanished was known as the Pauwit star and it was used just like the Sun during the day in telling time. There is even a legend of how the Pauwit star takes the place of the Sun. The ancient Filipinos also knew that the time given by the Sun and stars changed when one moved east or west, or even north and south, just like the Micronesians and other Oceanic peoples. The Igorot chants, for example, always give the solar time according to place, and the Micronesian navigators knew that the difference in rising time between two stars with different declinations was different at varying latitudes.

    This is a complicated area and more will be added to this section in the future.

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    Writing and education

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    The literacy of the Filipinos astonished the Spanish. Morga states about the native script: "Almost all the natives, both men and women, write in this language. There are very few who do not write it excellently and correctly." This was very different than the situation in Europe were the it was mostly the elite that were literate. The writing was done on palm-leaves with a pen with an iron point. It was only later they adopted the European quill, although eventually everyone began using the Filipino method of iron points again.

    It may be that there were at least two types of script used in the Philippines -- one for the commoner and one for the elite. The commoner script was highly successful in that the masses were able to learn and use it quickly. The evidence of a more sophisticated script comes in the finding of the Laguna Copper Plate Grant. This script was similar to Kawi of Indonesia and could represent many more sounds.

    Yet another script found in the islands is the that of the Eskaya tribe. There is an article in the September 1991 issue of Mabuhay magazine that discussed this tribe and their forgotten script.

    According to the article, the Eskaya, who live on the island of Bohol, speak a language unrelated to the Boholano or Cebuano dialects. They use a script, which is described as logographic, having 46 symbols representing sound syllables rather than alphabets. The symbols are based on parts of the human anatomy. The article states that the script was similar to that of the Phoenicians, which would actually make it logo-syllabic rather than logographic. The use of 46 syllables shows that it was a rather sophisticated language.

    The article claims that the script and some documents in this language had been preserved by Mariano Datahan from a Spanish edict that all writing in the language should be burned. They were passed on to Fabian Baha, the present leader of the tribe(as of 1991) in 1947. Today, the Eskaya continue to teach the children their script and traditions. In fact, the article claims that scholars and linguists are also studying the Eskaya language and script in hopes of obtaining clues as to the ancestor of the modern Bisayan languages. The Eskaya claim to have come originally from Western Sumatra, from whence they sailed to Bohol in 677 AD. They claim that Sikatuna and Dagohoy were also from the Eskaya tribe. They have many legends concerning their own culture hero who is known as Tamblot. As of 1991, there were 130 families of Eskaya living in Bohol.


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    References


    BENITEZ, Conrado, History of the Philippines,, 1929, Boston.
    BLAIR, Emma Helen and James Roberson Alexander, The Philippine Islands 1493-1895, 55 vol., 1973, Manila.
    DIZON, Eusebio, "Maguidanao prehistory: Focus on the archaeology of the anthropomorphic potteries at Pinol, Maitum, South Cotabato, Mindanao, Philippines," National Museum Papers, vol. 4, No. 1, 1993, Manila.
    ESPINAS, Phoebe T. "The Folk Astronomy of the Ayta of San Marcelino," National Museum Papers, vol. 4, no.1, 1993.
    FRANCISCO, Juan R.., Indian culture in the Philippines : views and reviews : fourth Sri Lanka Endowment Fund lecture delivered at the University of Malaya on Friday, October 18, 1985, Kuala Lumpur, 1985.
    __,Tagalogs at the Spanish contact, IN Philippine Historical Committee - The beginnings of Christianity in the Philippines, 1965.
    LAKTAW, P.S., Diccionario Tagalog-Hispano, 1914, Manila.
    LEGEZA, Laszlo, ?Tantric Elements in pre-Hispanic Philippines Gold Art,? Arts of Asia, July-Aug. 1988, pp.129-136.
    MANANSALA, Paul, ?Indian Influences in the Philippines,? Modern Review, 1987, Calcutta.
    __ The Naga Race, 1994, Firma KLM Ltd., Calcutta.
    __,"Stairway to the skies," Philippine News, Dec. 4-10, 1991.
    __,"Sungka Mathematics of the Philippines," Indian Journal of History of Science, 30(1), 1995.
    __, "Trekking in Skyland," Philippine Pacific Examiner, Jan. 1-15, 1995.
    NOCEDA, J. de & P. de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la Tagala, 1860, Manila.
    PATERNO, Pedro A., El Cristianismo en la antigua civilization tagalog; contestacion al M.R.P. Fr. R. Martinez Virgil de la Orden de predicadored obispo de Oviedo, 1892, Madrid.
    __,La familia tagalog en la historia univeral?, Madrid, 1983.
    __,El individuo Tagalog y su arte, en la exposicion historica-america,, 1893, Madrid.
    PERALTA, J.T., ?Prehistoric gold ornaments from the Central Bank of the Philippines,? Arts of Asia 1981, no.4, p.54.
    RIZAL, Jose, The Indolence of the Filipinos, Derbyshire's translation, 1913, Manila.
    SAN JOSE, Fr. Blancas de, Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, 1610?, Bataan.
    SARKAR, H.B., Some Contribution of India to the Ancient Civilization of Indonesia & Malaysia, Calcutta, 1970.
    SCOTT, W.H, "Sixteenth-Century Tagalog technology from the 'Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala of Pedro de San Buenaventura," in GAVA,, Band 17, pp. 523-35, Berlin.
    SOLHEIM, Wilhelm, "The Nusantao Hypothesis: The Origin and Spread of the Austronesian Speakers," Asian Perspectives,, xxvi, 1984-85, Honolulu.
    __,"Philippine prehistory," In G. Casal et al. (eds.) The People and Art of the Philippines, Museum of Cultural History, University of California, Los Angeles, pp 17-83.
    PARDO DE TAVERA, T.H., "History of the Philippines," IN Census of the Philippines, 1903, vol 1.
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