Akron - Canton Area Cooks and Chefs Association

ACF Chapter OH051

Founded 1976

 

INTERNATIONAL VOCABULARY AND GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY

INDIAN VOCABULARY

(Tam=Tamil)

A

 

Aab ghosh (Tam)

Lamb boiled in milk

Aam, am

Mango

Aam choor, aam chur

Dried mango (or powder)

Aam papar

Dried mango sheets

Aata. Ata. Atta

Whole wheat flour

Achar, achchar

Pickle

Adrak, adruk

Ginger, green

Ahtoo koottee (Tam)

Lamb, sheep

Ajmoda

Celery

Aja (i) n, ajvini

Ajowan

Akoori, ekuri

Scramble eggs, (parsi), spiced with ginger & coriander

Alebele

Pancakes (goa) & coconut filling

Aloo, alu

Potato

Aloo chat

Potato slices

Aloo-ki-tikiya

Potato patties

Am

Mango

Am(a)la

Emblic myrobalan

Amb halad

Zedoary

Amchoor, amchur

Dried mango (or powder)

Amphulia

Baked mango with rice

Amyli

Dried tamarind

Anar

Pomegranate

Anardana

Pomegranate seeds

Anda

Eggs

Anda ki kai

Egg curry

Annanas

Pineapple

Anvalli

Emblic myrobalan

Appam, appum

Rice flour pancake (southern India)

Arachee, i (Tam)

Rice

Arbi, arvi

Yam

Ardakh

green ginger

Arhar dal

Pigeon pea

Arnar

Pomegranate

Arv

Peach

At(t)a

Whole wheat flour

 

 

B

 

Bacha

Calamus

Badam

Almond

Badami, roghan Josh

Rich lamb & almond dish

Badhak, budhuk

Duck

Baghar

Spices cooked in hot oil then added to meat dishes

Baida

Eggs

Baigan

Brinjal, aubergine

Baison, besan

Chick pea flour

Bajre

Millet flour

Bakarknani

Thin, crisp bread

Bakra

Goat

Balushahi

Doughnuts, sugar coated

Banarsi rai

Black mustard

Bandakoi (Tam)

Okra

Bandh gobi

Cabbage

Barakalinjan

Greater galangal

Barfi

Condensed milk sweet with silver leaf

Baris

Ground lentil lumps

Barisaunf

Fennel & lentil

Basmati

Superior type of long grain rice

Bath, buth

Rich (western & southern India)

Bathak

Duck

Beebeek

Coconut cake

Behada

Beleric myrobalan

Be(h)ndi(kai)

Okra

Belatee byngun

Tomato

Besan

Chick pea flour

Betel

Chewing nut, Areca catechu, commonly with leaf of Piper betle, spices, seeds & lime

Beveca

Rice pudding, coconut flavored

Bhaji

Greens, vegetables

Bhajia, bhajya

Fritter, spiced

Bhapa doi

Bengali sweet steamed yoghurt

Bharta

Pur�e

Bhatura

Punjab fried bread using eggs & baking powder

Bhindi

Okra

Bhoota

Corn

Bhugia

Vegetable, spiced

Bhujiya

Vegetable fritters

Bhuna, I

Fried

Bhuna gosht

Dry curry (beef or lamb)

Bhurta

Pur�e

Bhustrina

Lemon grass

Bindaloo

Vindaloo

Biriani, biryani

Rice pilau, rich & yellow with twice as much meat as rice

Bommalde machee

Bombay duck

Boortha

Pur�e

Boti kabab

Marinated meat kebab

Brinjal, brinjal

Aubergine

Buckra

Lamb, sheep

Budhuk

Duck

Buffado

Cabbage, potato dish

Bundi

Small Jalebis

Burra budhuk

Goose

Burra nimbu

Lemon

Burra teetur

Guinea fowl, partridge

Burruf

Ice

Byngun

Aubergine

 

 

C

 

Cachumbar

Salad; spiced (chilli) onion salad

Chai

Tea

Chan(n)a dal

Chick peas

Chandan

Sandalwood

Chap(p)ati

Circular unleavened bread

Chasnidarh

Sweet & sour

Chat

Snacks

Chat Masala

Hot spice mixture

Chatni

Chutney

Chaval

Rice

Chawal

Rice

Cheenee

Sugar

Cheeregum (Tam)

Cumin seed

Cheena

(Lentil)chick peas

Cheroonjee

Chironji

Chhoti elachi

Cardamom

Chinaconee (Tam)

Shrimp

Chinch

Tamarind

Chrironji

Chrionji nut (almond substitue)

Cholum (Tam)

Maize, Indian corn

Chota butter

Quail

Chota ginga

Shrimp

Chota hazri

Early light breakfast (Anglo-Indian)

Chota peg

Short drink (Anglo-Indian)

Chuckeray (Tam)

(Palm) sugar

Chukunda

Beetroot

Choona

White lime paste

Churbee

Dripping, fat

Comlong

Vegetable marrow

Copra kana

Rice cooked in coconut milk

Cuddalay (Tam)

Chick pea

Cus-cus

Poppy

 

 

D

 

Dahi

Curds, yoghurt

Dahi bath

Rice & yoghurt (western & southern India)

Da(h)l

Pulses(s), from �split� = dal

Dal bath

Rice & lentils (western & southern India)

Da(-)chini

Cinnamon, cassia

Dalim

Pomegranate

Dam

Dum

Darchini

Cinnamon

Degh

Pot, casserole

Degi mirich

Mild red chilli

Dhai

Curds, yoghurt

Dhall cheen

Cinnamon, cassia

Dhan(y)ia, dhuniah

Coriander (seed)

Dhania patta�, dhania sabz

Coriander leaf

Dhansak

Meat & vegetable casserole (Parsi)

Dhokla

pulse & rice batter

Dhum

Dum

Dhuniah

Coriander

Dhup

Indian Juniper

Dhye (Tam)

Curds (tyre), yoghurt

Diliya dosa

Oat pancake

Do pyaza

Meat & fried onions dish

Dosa

Lentil & rice pancake bread

Dubbul roti

European bread

Dudh pera

Barfi balls

D(h)um

Steaming between two fires

 

 

E

 

Eelachie, elaichi

Cardamon

Eeral (Tam)

Liver

Ekuri

Scrambled eggs (Parsi), spiced with ginger & coriander

Ela(i)chi

Cardamon

Elam (Tam)

Cardamon

 

 

F

 

Falsa

Blackberry Juice

Faluda

Tapioca milk

Firni

Ground rice pudding

Foogath, Fugath

Vegetable savoury with masala

 

 

G

 

Gagar, Gagur, Gajjar

Carrot

Gandhmul

Zedoary

Garam

Hot

Garam Masala

Spice mixture (See Spice Mixtures)

Gart gobee

Cabbage, cauliflower

Ghai ka gosht

Beef

Ghandhtrina

Lemon grass

Ghee

Clarified butter

Ghol

Buttermilk

Ghuchhi

Black mushrooms

Ghurmasalah (Tam)

Ggaram masala

Ghurm Mussala, Masala

Mixed spices

Ginga

Prawn

Ginga patia

Prawns, Parsi style

Gingelly

Sesame

Ginikori (Tam)

Guinea fowl

Gobee, Gobi

Cabbage, cauliflower

Gobi mhaans

Cauliflower & meat

Golgappas

Fried wafers with chick peas

(Gol) Mirich

Black pepper

Gooda

Marrow

Goor

Jaggery (palm sugar)

Goorda

Kidney

Gosh(t)

Meat

Gosht do pyaza

Meat & onions

Gosht ka salun

Deccan meat curry

Goshtaba

Kashmiri lamb & curd meat

Gram

Chick pea

Guda

Marrow

Gudumba

Spiced mango drink

Gulub Jaman, Jamun

Small batter balls in syrup

Guranthor alu

Sweet potato

Gurda

Kidney

 

 

H

 

Haldee, I

Turmeric

Halva, Halwa

Vegetable or fruit sweet

Hara dhania

Coriander leaves

Hari mirchi

Green chilies

Hasina kebab

Lamb kebab

Hazri

Breakfast

Heeng

Asafoetida

Hing(u)

Asafetida

Hirda

Chebulic myrobalan

Hisa(a)b

Bill (account)

Hoopoo (Tam)

Salt

Huddi

Bone

Huldee,ie

Turmeric

Hur(r-an ka gosht

Venison

 

 

I

 

Illaichi

Cardamom

Imi(a)li

Tamarind

Imlee

Tamarind

Indad

Goan pork curry

Ingee (Tam)

Ginger

 

 

J

 

Jaffatry

Mace

Jaggerty

Palm sugar

Jaiphal, Jaiphul

Nutmeg

Jal

Water

Jalebis

Fried batter spirals in syrup

Jal Jeera

Cumin, tamarind & mint drink

Japatri(Tam)

Mace

Jathikkai

Nutmeg

Juphull

Nutmeg

Javanee

Ajowan

Javatri, Jawatrie

Mace

Jeeb

Tongue

Jeera(ka)

Cumin (seed)

Jeera pani

Cumin, tamarind & mint drink

Jellabie

Fried batter twirls in syrup

Jethi madh, madhuka, mithi lakdi

Liquorice

Jhinga

Prawns

Jira

Cumin

Jowari

Barley

 

 

K

 

Kaafi

Coffee

Kabab

1 Roast meat

2 Skewered meat/vegetables

3 Fried mince patties

Kabacheene

Allspice

Kaboothur

Pigeon

Kab(u)I channa

Chick peas

Kachori

Stuffed pastry ball, spiced lentil or potato

Kachumbar

Salad

Ka(r)chur(a)

Zedoary

Kadhinim(b)

Curry leaves

Kadoo,u

Pumpkin

Kaduhennai (Tam)

Mustard oil

Kafi(i)

Coffee

Kahwa

Sweet tea, coffee

Kaju

Cashew nuts

Kakadi

Cucumber

Kala

Black

Kala chan

Small black chick pea

Kala mirchi

Black pepper

Kala zeera, zira

Black cumin

Kala zeera, zira, Kalajira

Nigella

Kaleja, I

Liver

Kali Mirchi, mirich

Black pepper (corns)

Kalkal

Semolina-coconut milk cake

Kalonji

Black cumin, nigella

Kama-i-anguzza (Afghan)

Carrot pickle

Karavhat (Tam)

Salt fish

Karbooza

Melon

Kardai

Safflower

Karhai

Wide deep frying bowl similar to wok

Karhi

Chick pea flour & buttermilk dish

 

 

Kari (Tam)

Tamil spiced sauce, curry (Origin of the English word �curry�

Karipatta(r, kari phulia

Curry leaves

Karudari (Tam)

Partridge

Karuvapadai (Tam)

Cinnamon

Karuvepila (Tam)

Curry leaves

Kasakasa (Tam)

Poppy seed

Kasta

Crisp, crusty

Kasumb(h)a

Safflower

Kathal

Jackfruit

Katnim

Curry leaf

Katori

Individual metal bowl

Kat(t)ha

The characteristic red (catechu) paste with betle leaves

Kayla

Plantains

Kedra

Screwpine

Keema

Minced meat

Keeray (Tam)

Greens

Kekra

Crab

Kela

Banana, plantain

Keora, I

Screwpine

Kervai

Stuffed banana balls

Kesar

Saffron

Kesram

Saffron

Ket(u)ki

Screwpine

Kevara

Screwpine

Kewara

Screwpine

Kewda

Screwpine

Keya

Screwpine

Khara

Abbreviation for meat prepared with bruised whole spices

Khara  masala

Mixed whole spices (see Spice Mixtures)

Khargosh

Hare, rabbit

Kharnub

Carob

Khawa

Sweet tea, coffee

Kheema

Minced meat, raw or cooked

Kheer, ir

Creamed rice (with gold and silver leaf � vark)

Kheera, ira

Cucumber

Khesa

Saffron

Khewa

Coffee

Khi(t)chhari

See kitcheri

Kho(i)a,ya

Thick condensed milk

Khumb(i)

Mushrooms

Khus(h)-khus(h)

Poppy seeds

Kimcea

Brown mustard

Kismis

Raisins, Sultanas

Kitchelly pullum (Tam)

Orange

Kitcheri,(e)e

Jumble, mixture; especially rich and lentils; origin of English �kedgeree�

kitcheri unda

Scrambled eggs

Kitha neem

Curry leaves

Kochikai (Tam)

Fresh red chili

Koela

Charcoal

Kofta(h), kooftah, koaftah

Meatball, croquette

Kokam, kokum

Kokum

Kookarch, urh

Chicken

Koosumbha

Safflower

Korma

Curd based curry

Kothamilee (Tam)

Coriander

Kothimbir

Coriander

Kotimear

Coriander

Kotimil

Coriander

Krishna

Long pepper

Krishnajiraka

Nigella (Krishna, Sanskrit, lit. dark, black)

Kuddoo

Pumpkin

Kuddo (Tam)

Black mustard

Kulanjan

Greater galangal

Kulfi

Indian ice cream with nuts

Kulkuls

Semolina & coconut milk cake

kulmie darchini

Cinnamon

Kungumappa (Tam)

Saffron

Kurdi

Safflower

Kurghosh

Hare, rabbit

Kulleachi Kari

Crab curry

Kurva teil

Mustard oil

Kus-kus

Poppy seeds

Kusum

Safflower

Kutta

Sour, acrid

 

 

L

 

laddoo

Sweet, fried chick pea flour balls in syrup

Lal mirchi,ee, mirich

Chillies (red)

Lao(o)ng, laung, lavang

Clove

Lavungam (Tam)

Clove

Las(s)an, lashuna, lassoon, lus(s)on

 

Garlic

Latkhan

Annatto

Lob(h)ia dal

Black-eyed peas

Lombia

Black-eyed peas

Long

Clove

Luchchi

Bengal white flour bread like puri

 

 

M

 

mach(ch)(1)i

Fish

Madhuka

Mastic

Madhurika

Fennel

Madoo (Tam)

Beef

Madrasi

Of Madras

Makhan

Butter

Malai

Cream from boiled milk

Malpua

Pancakes in syrup

Marakkari (Tam)

Vegetables

Masala(h)

Ground mixed spices

Masoor, ur

Red lentil

Mat(t)an

Lamb, mutton

Mathulam param (Tam)

Pomegranate

Mattar

Peas

Mayti

Fenugreek

Meen(Tam)

Fish

Meetha pilau

Lamb pilau

Methee,i

Fenugreek

Mhaans

Meat

Milagutannir (Tam)

Pepper water, origin of �mulligatawny�

Min

Fish

Mirchi

Chilli

Misht nim, mintha neem

Curry leaf

Mithi lakdi

Mastic

Mog(h)lai

Mogul (style)

Molee

1 South Indian dish based on coconut milk & 2 radishes

Moloo (Tam)

Black pepper

Mo(o)lo(o)ga(h) (Tam)

Chilli

Moong, mung

Yellow lentil, mung bean

Mooraba

Preserve, jam

Moorg(h)ee

Fowl (chicken)

Moorhabi

(Wild) Duck

Moosa

Lentil (variety)

Mootay molee

South Indian egg curry

Muchlee

Fish

Mulligatawny

Anglo-Indian hot meat soup

Munjal (Tam)

Turmeric

Murg(h)

Chicken

Murghabi

Duck

Murg(h) massalam

Spiced whole chicken casserole

Mussor

Lentil (variety)

Mutter

Peas

Mydah

White flour

Myhee

Fish

 

 

N

 

Na(a)n

A puffy Punjai leavened bread baked in tandoor

Nagkesar, nagkeser

Cassia buds

Nareul, nareal

Coconut

Nargisi, Nariyel

Indian �scotch egg�

Narujekm narutek

Coconut

Narrangee

Orange

Nar(r ul

Coconut

Neemuch

Salt

Neemuch muchlee

Salt fish

Nethali

Dried fish

Nimboo, nimbu

Lime or lemon

 

 

O

 

ooloonthoo (Tam)

Lentil

Oorukai (Tam)

Pickle

Oothappam

South Indian rice & lentil flour pancake

 

 

P

 

Pa(a)n

Leaf or betel pepper (Piper betle) filled with areca nuts (�betle nuts�) lime & spices

Pa(h)l

Extremely hot curry

Pakora, I

Spiced fritter or batter

Palak

Spinach

Palandu

Onion

Panch

Five

Panch phora

Five spice seeds powdered

Panch, puran

Five seeds

Paneer, ir

Curd cheese

Pani

Water

Papar

Pappadum

Papaya, papeeta, papita

papaya

Pappadum, poppadum, puppadum

Round crispy spice wafer of chick pea flour about 25cm (10in) diameter (South India) round tray for kneading bread

Paratha

Flaky wholemeal bread cooked with ghee

Parval

Small green marrow-like vegetable

patrani

Banana leaves

Patta (r

Leaf, curry leaf

Pe(e)az, piaz, pyaz

Onion

Perunka(m) (Tam)

Asafoetida

Phal

Fruit

Phaluda

Tapioca Milk

Phari rai

Brown mustard

Phirni

Ground rice pudding

Phulgobi, phoulgobee

Cauliflower

Pilau, pollau, pullau

Rice cooked in ghee then water, often with a specified vegetable or meat ingredient

Pip(p)al, pipel, pippli

Long pepper

Pista(ch)

Pistachios

Podina, pudina

Mint

Poori

Deep fried wholemeal �bread�

Pootheena, puthina (Tam)

Mint

Pulee, puli (Tam

Tamarind

Purpoo (Tam)

Lentil

 

 

R

 

Rai

Mustard (seed)

Raita

Vegetable (cucumber or onion) yoghurt salad

Rajma

Red kidney beans

Raktapurka

Kokum

Rampe

Screwpine

Rasam

Tamarind soup, pepper water

Rasgollahs

Flour balls in syrup

Roghan josh

Spiced lamb dish, rich and red

Roti

Bread

 

 

S

 

Sabz(i)

Vegetables

Sabz mirich

Green chilli

Sadah

Mutton

Saf(e)d

White

Safed chandan

Sandalwood

Sag(h)

Spinach, cress

Sambal, ol sumbol

Side dish, sauce, condiment

Sambar

Spiced lentils & vegetables

Same

Green beans

Samo(o)sa

Triangular pastry stuffed with spicey minced meat or vegetables, deep fried

Sarota

Betel nut cutter

Saunf

Anise

Savia

Deep fried, sweet besan �vermicelli�

Sayoo

Apple

Seek

1 rolls of minced meat, 2 skewer

Seena

Ribs

Seer

One kilogram (2.2 lb)

Seetful

Allspice

Sendri

Annatto

Sera

Lemon grass

Sev

Deep fried spiced besan �vermicelli�

Shahi zafran

Saffron (stigma tip)

Shalgam

Turnip

Shami

shaped spiced mince with lentils fried in ghee, chillies, mint & onions

Sharbat, Shurbut

Fruit drink

Sheek

Same as Seek

Shoorva

Soup

Shukur

(Brown) sugar

Shur

Indian juniper

Sompf

Anise

Sonf

Fennel

Sont(h)

Dried ginger

Soojee, suji

Semolina

Sooka, sookhe

Dried

Sooka Mirchi

Dried red chillies

Soorthee

Lentil (type)

Soowar ka gosht

Pork

Soti (Tam)

Zedoary

Souf

Aniseed

Suara

Anise

Sufaid

White

Saufaid Zeera

White cumin

Sulgum

Turnip

Supari

Mixture of seeds & spices for chewing � see Spice Mixtures

Surva

Indian dill

 

 

T

 

Taaza

Green

Taiphal

Nutmeg

Taipmal

Nutmeg

Tali

Fried

Tamatar

Tomato

Tandal

Cauliflower stalks

Tandoor

Clay oven

Tandoori

Of Tandoor

Tarka

Baghar

Tavitri

Maci

Teesri

Mussels, clams

Teetur

Partridge, game bird

Tejpat (tar)

Cassia leaf

Thainga

Coconut

Thuckaley (Tam)

Tomato

Thurkajee

Vegetables

Tick keah, tikia, tikka(h)

Diced meat barbecued, sometimes served on hot iron plates (sizzlers)

Til (l)

Sesame

Tisrya

Mussels, clams

Tithar

Partridge, game bird

Toor, tur

Lentil (type)

Tyre (Tam)

Curds

 

 

U

 

Udru�k

Green Ginger

Uduth

Lentil (type)

Unda(h)(y)

Eggs

Ur(e)d, urhad

black pea, also yellow lentil

Urulaikkirangu (Tam)

Potato

 

 

V

 

Vacha

Calamus

Vadees

Baris

Var(a)k

Gold & Silver Leaf

Vellai-milahu (Tam)

Allspice

Vendhyam (Tam)

Anise

Vellaypoondoo (Tam)

Garlic

Vellum

Jaggery

Venthium

Fenugreek

Vindaloo,u

Very hot Portuguese (Goa)curry

Vungium (Tam), vunguim

Onion

 

 

Y

 

Yakhni

Meat stock for cooking rice � see Spice Mixtures

Yamani

Ajowan

Yellumshikai (Tam)

Lemon or lime

 

 

Z

 

Za(a)fra(a)n

Saffron

Zeera, zira

Cumin

Zuffron

Saffron

 

 

 

SOUTH EAST ASIAN VOCABULARY

B = Burmese                                        P = Philippine

I =  Indonesian                                      S = Sinhalese

L = Lao                                                 T = Thai

M = Malaysian

 

A

 

S

Abba

Black mustard

I

Abon daging

Shredded meat

M

Acar

Vinegar

M

Acar Kuning

Pickled vegetables

P

Achuete

Annatto

I

Adas

Fennel

I

Ajam

Chicken

M

Alba

Fenugreek

I

Aliah

Green ginger

S

Amu miris

Green chilli

M,I

Asam

Tamarind

I

Asam babi goreng

Fried pork with tamarind

I

Asam djawa

Tamarind

I

Asinam

Raw vegetable salad

I

Atjar

Pickles

M

Ayam

Chicken

M

Ayam kichup

Spice chicken

 

 

 

 

B

 

L

Bai mak nao

Lemon grass

T

Bai toey

Screwpine

T,M,I

Bamee

Noodles

T,M,I

Bamee goreng

Fried noodles

M,I

Bawang merah

Onion

M,I

Bawang Goreng

Fried Onion

M,I

Bawang puteh, putih

Garlic

M

Beehoon

Chinese vermicelli

I

Begedel

Patties

M

Bene

Sesame

M

Bijan

Sesame

M

Biji sawi

Mustard seed

I

Blachan

Shrimp paste, block

I

Blatjan

Blachan

M

Buah pala

Nutmeg

M

Buah pelaga

Cardamom, candlenut

I

Bumbu ketjap

Spice soy sauce

I

Buncis

Beans

M

Bunga chingkek, bunga c(h)ingkeh

Cloves

M,I

Bunga lawang

Star anise

 

 

 

 

C

 

M

Cabai hijan

Green chilli

I

Cengkeh

Cloves

M

Chabai

Chillies

M

Char

Fried

S

Cheeregum

Cumin

M

Chilli

Chilli

B

Chyet-thon-phew

Garlic

I

Cumi-cumi

Squid

 

 

 

 

D

 

I

Dadar

Omlette

M,I

Daun Bawang

Spring onion

M

Daun Kari

Curry leaves

M,I

Daun Kes(s)om

Mint

M,I

Daun Ketumbar

Coriander leaf

M,I

Daun pandan

Screwpine

M

Daun pudina

Mint

I

Daun sala(a)m

Curry leaves

M

Daun seladri

Celery

I

Dendeng ragi

Crisp fried meat

I

Djahe

Green ginger

I

Djeruk nipis

Citrus fruit

I

Djeruk perut

Citrus leaves

I

Djinten

Cumin seeds

 

 

 

 

E

 

S

Enasal

Cardamom

S

Enduru

Dill

 

 

 

 

F

 

T

Fan taeng

Stuffed marrow

B

Fa nwin

Turmeric

T

Forng tawhu

Dried bean curd

 

 

 

 

G

 

I

Gado-gado

Cooked salad with peanut sauce

T

Gahn plu

Cloves

M

Gaju

Cashew nut

T

Gajup

Water chestnut

S

Gammiris

Black pepper

B

Gin

Ginger

T

Grawahn

Cardamom

M

Gulai ayam

Chicken curry

M

Gulai daging lembu

Beef curry

M

Gulai Ikan

Fish curry

M

Gulai kambing

Mutton curry

I

Gula jawa

Palm sugar

M

Gula melaka

Palm sugar or sago pudding

I

Gule

Curry

 

 

 

 

H

 

M

Halia

Green Ginger

T

Hang kathi

Thin coconut milk

I

Hati

Liver

T

Hed hunu

Cloud ear fungus

M

Hijan

Sesame seed

T

Horapa

Basil

T

hua horm

Onion

T

Hua kathi

Thick coconut milk

 

 

 

 

I

 

M

Ikan ayer

Tuna

I

Ikan bandeng

Baked fish

I,M

Ikan bilis

Dried fish

I

Ikan Bumbu santan

Fish dried with coconut milk & spices

I

Ikan kacang

Fish with peanut sauce

I

Ikan panggang

Grilled fish

S

Inguru

Ginger

S

Ingurupiyati

Lesser galangal

M

Itek

Duck

 

 

 

 

J

 

I

Jahe

Green ginger

T

Jang

Highly seasoned grilled pork or beef

T

Jathikkai

Nutmeg

S

Jeera

Cumin

M

Jintan manis

Fennel

M

Jintal puteh

Cumin seed

I

Jinten

Cumin seed

 

 

 

 

K

 

M

Kachang hijan

Green gram

M

Kachang tanah

Peanut

T

Kaeng

A dish with gravy

T

Kaeng phet

Curry

T

Kaeng phet kai

Chicken curry

T

Kah

Greater galangal

S

Kaha

Turmeric

I

Kaju manis

Cinnamon

T

Kamin

Turmeric

 

Kao pot ping

Barbecued corn ears

T

Kapi

Blachan

I

Kapulaga

Cardamom

S

Karabu

Cloves

S

Karapincha

Curry leaves

P

Kari-kari

Oxtail stew with annatto

M

Karupillay

Curry leaves

I

Katjang hidjan

Green gram

I

Katjang tanah

Peanut

M,I

Kayu manis

Cinnamon

I

Kecap manis

Sweet soy sauces

M

Kelapa

Coconut

M,I

Kemangi selaseh

Basil

M, I

Kemiri

Candlenut

I

Kencur

Lesser galangal

I

Kentjur

Lesser galangal, zedoary

I

Kentimun

Cucumber

I

Ketjap (manis)

Dark soy sauce

M, I

Ketumbar

Coriander seed

M

Ketupat

Pressed rice cakes

T, L

Kha

Greater galangal

T

Khao kluk kapi

Rice with shrimp paste

T

Khao suey

Steamed rice

P

Kinchay

Coriander

T

K(h)ing

Green ginger

S

Kottamalli

Coriander

S

Kottamilli kolle

Coriander leaves

T

Kluey chap

Deep fried green bananas

T

Krachai

Lesser galangal

T

Krathiem

Garlic

T

Kravan

Cardamom

T

Krung keing

Curry paste

I

Krupuk (udang)

Pawn cracker

M,I

Kuali (or Kwali)

Wok

M

Kunchor

Lesser galangal, zedoary

T

Kung

Prawn

T

Kung haeng

Dried Prawns

M,I

Kunjit

Turmeric

I

Kunyit

Turmeric

I

Kuping djamu

Cloud ear fungus

M

Kuping tikus

Cloud ear fungus

S

Kurundu

Cinnamon

M

Kway teow

Rice noodles

 

 

 

 

L

 

M,I

Lada

Pepper

M

Lada hitam

Black pepper

M

Laksa

Chinese vermicelli

M

Languas, lenguas

Greater galangal

I

Laos

Greater galangal powder

I

Lember

Filled rice balls

B

Ley-nyin-bwint

Cloves

M

Limau kestum

Lime

M

Limau nipis

Citrus fruit

M

Limau purut

Citrus leaves

I

Lombok

Fresh red chilli

I

Lonbokhijan

Green chilli

T

Look jun

nutmeg

T

Luk nau

Meat balls

 

 

 

 

M

 

S

Maduru

Fennel

M

Mah tai

Water chestnut

L

Mak phet kunsi

Fresh red chilli

T

Makahm

Tamarind

T

Makrut

Citrus fruit

T

Makrut bai

Citrus leaves

L

Mal kham

Tamarind

S

Malu miris

Mild fresh chilli

I

Manis djangan

Cinnamon

T

Ma now

Lime

T

Ma row

Lime

I,M,T

Mee

Noodles

I

Mee goreng

Fried noodles

T

Mee krob

Crisp noodles

S

Meenchi

Mint

I

Merica hitam

Black pepper

I

Meritja

Pepper

T

Mu wan

Sweet pork

 

 

 

 

N

 

T

Nam plu

Fish sauce

T

Nam prik

�Hot� sauce

B

Nannambin

Coriander leaves

B

Nannamzee

Coriander seed

I

Nasi kuning lengkap

Yellow festival rice

M

Nasi kunyit

Yellow rice

I

Nasi goreng

Fried rice

I

Nasi gurih

Coconut rice

I

Nasi pitih

White rice

I

Nasi uduk

Rice in coconut milk with spices

B

Nga-youk-kaum

Black pepper

B

Nil thee

Fresh red chilli

T

Nil thee sein

Green chilli

T

Nor my

Bamboo shoots

T

Nua tang

Sweet mince

 

 

 

 

O

 

T

Op cherry

Cinnamon

M

Otak otak

�hot� kedgeree

 

 

 

 

P

 

I

Pacari

Pineapple & coconut chutney

T

Pakah

Deep fried lirna beans

1

Pak ehi bal

Coriander leaf

T

Pak clii famng

Celery

T

Pak clii met

Coriander seed

T

Pak ehi ralik

Coriander root

L

Pak horn ho

Mint

I

Pala

Nutmeg

I

Pandang

screwpine

I

Pange

Sour stew

I

Pange ikan

Fish stew

I

Panggang

Barbecued or grilled

I

Petis

Shrimp paste

L

Phak horn porn

Coriander

L

Phak si

Dill

B

Phalaiee

Cardamom

L

Phik noi

Black pepper

I

Pilus

Sweet potato rissoles

I

Pindang telur

Eggs in soy sauce

F

Pipian

Chicken and pork with annatto

I

Pisang

Banana

T

Pla

Fish

I

Plasroi

Dried fish

T

Plattod

Fish with tamarind

T

Prik chee pha. prik ki fa

Red chilli

T

Prik ki nu

Chilli

T

Prik ki tai

Pepper

B

Pyi-naw-thein

Curry leaf

 

 

R

S

Rampe

Screwpine

S

Rathu miris

Fresh red chilli

M

Rebong

Bamboo shoot

I

Rebung

Bamboo shoot

I

Rempah

Meat and coconut balls, or rempeh

M

Rempeh

Mixture of spices and flavorings

I

Rempeyck

Crackers and fritters

M

Roti jala

Lacy pancakes

I

Rudjak

Ritual dish of fruit, vegetables, fish sauce, chilli and sugar

 

 

S

S

Sadikka

Nutmeg

I

Sajur

Vegetable broth

I

Sajur lemeng

Vegetable curry

I

Sambal                                                condiment

 

Basic seasoning of chilli, garlic and shrimp paste; chutney-like

I

Sainbal go�ng

Ihed with chilli

B

Samouk-saba

Fennel

B

Santan kental

Coconut milk

M, I

Satay, sate

Kebabs with a curry sauce

 

Satay bumbu

Spicy satay

 

Satay manis

Sweet satay

 

Satay udang

Skewered grilled prawns

I

Saus kecang

Peanut sauce

I

Sayer

Stir fried vegetables

I

Selamat makan

Bon appetit!

M

Selaseh

Basil

I

sel(e)dri

Celery

I

Semur daging

Beef in soy sauce

 

Sera (S) Serai (M)

Lemon grass

I

Sere(h)

Lemon grass

I

Serundeng

Mixed garnish of peanuts, coconut and spices dry Fried

B

Sheingho

Asafoetida

 

Siyambala

Tamarind

T

Som ma kham

Tamarind

I

Soon

Chinese vermicelli

M

Sothi

Coconut milk soup

I

Soto

Soup

M

Sotong

Squid

S

Su(du)duru

Cumin

S

Sudulunu

Garlic

 

 

T

I

Talu

Soya bean curd

I

Tahu poug

Bean curd omelette

T

Takrai

Lemon grass

M

Tangeh

Beansprouts

I

Taoge

Beansprouts

I

Tauko ikan

Fish in bean sauce

M

Tauku

Soya bean curd

M

Tauyu

Soy sauce (dark)

T

Taw hu

Soy bean curd

M

Telo dardeh

Omelette with chilli

M

Telor

Eggs

I

Telor berwarna

Marbled eggs

I

Terung

Egg plant

I

Terung loteh

Egg plant and prawn soup

S

Thala

Sesame

B

Thit-ja-boh-gauk

Cinnamon

T

Thua khiaw

Green gram

T

Thua lisong

Peanuts

T

Thua ngork

Bean sprouts

T

Thua thorng

Green gram

I

Tjab�

Chilli

I

Tiabe djawa

Cubeb

I

Tjengkeh

Cloves

T

Tom yam

Spiced Soup

T

Ton horm

Spring onions

T

Tord mun kung

Fried prawn balls

I

Trasi

Blachan

I

Tumis

Stir fried vegetables

 

 

U

P

Ukoy

Shrimps and sweet potato fritters

S

Uluhaal

Fenugreek

I

Urap

Vegetables cooked with chilli,  coconut and garlic

M,I

Utang kering

Dried pawns

 

 

W

I

Wajan

Wok

S

Wasa-vasi

Mace

I

Wijen

Sesame seed

T

Wun sen

Chinese vermicelli

 

 

Y

T

Yam

Salad

T

Yira

Cumin or fennel

 

 

Z

M

Zedoary

Lesser galangal

 

CHINESE VOCABULARY

A

 

Ajinmoto

MSG - monosodium glutamate

 

 

B

 

Bahk gwoah

Ginko nut

Bahk ghok

Star anise

Bak choy

Chinese green cabbage

Ban sai si

Peking salad (with anise-pepper)

Bo ping

Peking pancakes

Buck ging ngap

Peking duck

 

 

C

 

Ch�ao

Stir fry

Chao gwoo

Straw mushroom, a delicacy

Ch�ao mien

Boiled noodles, stir fried with meat & vegetables

Ch�ao tan

Fried rice

Cha-ts�ai

Salted vegetables, quite hot

Ch�au-yau

Soy sauce

Cha yeh den, cha yip dahn

Hard-boiled eggs simmered in aniseed water, tea eggs (marbled eggs)

Cheong yow

Soya

Cheung, chiang

Ginger

Chi(h) mah

Sesame

Chiu yim ha

Prawns in spiced salt

Choong

Onions

Chuan-chiao, chun-chiu, chun-tsin                                                                    anise-pepper

Anise-pepper

 

 

D

 

Dahn min

Egg Noodles

Dao foo

Bean curd

Ding heung                                                                    clove

Clove

Doong gwoo

Dried mushrooms, a delicacy

Dow see

Salted black beans

Dung shung

Bamboo shoot

 

 

F

 

Fa-chiu, faah-jiu, faah-jew

Anise-pepper

Fan chiew

Chilli

Fooh jook

Dried bean curd

Fu yu

Soy bean cake

Fu-yung

Omelette often filled with meat or vegetables

 

 

G

 

Gom pei

Dried tangerine peel

 

 

H

 

Ha

Shrimp

Hak chi(h) mah

Black sesame

Hao-yu

Oyster sauce

Heung lo fun, heung new fun, heung neu fun

Chinese Five Spices, also wu hsang fen

Hoang-tchi

Safflower

Ho fun

Rice noodles

Hoisin cheung

Hoisin sauce

Ho Ian dow, ho Ian dau

Snow peas - ordan (mangetout)

Hsang tsai

Coriander

Hsia

Shrimp/prawn

Hsiao

Fresh salted meat

Hsia-su

Prawn crackers

Hsiang su ya

Succulent duck

Hsien-mi

Fresh rice

Hsun dan

Boiled eggs marinated in soy sauce

Hua-chan

Steamed rolls

Hua-chiao, hus jiao

Anise-pepper

Hua chiao yen

Roasted anise-pepper & salt

Hui chou

A hotpot

Hun-fun

Stuffed pie with fluffy edges

Hung liu

Chinese Five Spices

 

 

For words beginning with �j� see under �ch�

 

 

K

 

Kai choy

Chinese cabbage

Kaoliang-chiang

Galangal

Kim chiam

Lily buds

Kung po ha

Peking prawns in a hot sauce

 

 

L

 

La chiang

Hot chilli sauce

Lao ch�ou

Soy sauce

Lap cheong

Dried pork sausages

Leong-goo

Tree mushroom

Lien ngow

Lotus root

Lob bahk

Giant white radish

Lung hsia

Lobster

 

 

M

 

Mantou

Steamed raised bread

Ma tai

Water chestnut

Ma yu

Sesame oil

Ma yung bao

Sweet steamed bun

Mei�chien

MSG-monosodium glutamate

Mi fun

Rice vermicelli

 

 

N

 

Ngap

Duck

Ngau

Beef

Ngung heung (fun)

Chinese Five Spices

 

 

P

 

Paat-kok, pa-chiao peh kah

Anise, aniseed. Star anise

Pai-tsai

Green cabbage

Pao-ping

Thin pancake

Pao-tzu

Steamed bun with filling

Pok pang

Mandarin pancakes

 

 

S

 

Sa leung geung

Lesser galangal

Sang keong

Green ginger

Shu-kua

Papaya

Siew mai

Steamed prawn dumpling

Suehn

Bamboo shoot

Suen tau

Garlic

Sung chow

Light soy sauces

 

 

T

 

Ta-Iiao

Great Spice � anise-pepper

Taukau

Nutmeg

T�ien Ia

Sweet chilli sauce

Tim suen gheung

Sweet and sour sauces

Tofu

Bean curd

Tou-nga                                                                    bean sprouts

Bean sprouts

Tze bao gai

Chicken fried in paper

 

 

W

 

Wok

A shallow curved pan

Wong geung fun

Turmeric

Wonton

Small dumplings, savory

Wooi heung

Fennel

Wu hsiang fen

Chinese Five Spice powder, also heung neu fun

 

 

Y

 

Yen

Salt

Yen-sui

Coriander

Yook gway

Cinnamon

Yuanshih chiang

Bean Sauce

Yu chiap

Fish Sauce

Yu-yu

Squid

 

 

 

JAPANESE VOCABULARY

A

 

Aburage

Deep-fried bean curd

Aji-ti(o)-moto

Monosodium glutamate

Anoriko

Powdered seaweed used as a herb

Azabu-tade (asabu-tade)

Smartweed see tade

 

 

B

 

Bancha

Coarse green tea

Beni(-)shoga/u

Red pickled ginger

Budoshu

Wine

 

 

D

 

Daikon

Large white radish. Raphanus sativus

Daizu

Soya beans

Dashi

Soup stock

 

 

E

 

Ebi

Prawn, lobster, shrimp

 

 

G

 

Goma

Sesame seed

Goma abura

Sesame oil

Gomairi hatagorashi

A relish of sesame seed and leaf and red pepper

Gomas(h)io

A seasoning of black sesame seed, salt and monosodium glutamate

 

 

H

 

Hakka

Field mint

Hanagatsuo

Dried bonito fish shavings

Hanayuzu

Evergreen orange, Citrus junus

Hatcho-miso

Pure soya bean paste

Hatsu-take

Mushroom

 

 

I

 

Ika

Cuttlefish, squid

Inaka-miso

Beige-colored miso

 

 

 

 

K

 

Karashi

Mustard

Karasumi

Salted mullet or tuna roe

Katsuobushi

Dried bonito, basic ingredient of dashi

Kikurage

Wood fungus, a delicacy

Kinkam

Cumquat

Kinome

Dried prickly ash leaf (anise - pepper) a garnish and seasoning

Koikuchi

Dark soya sauce

Kosho

Peppers, capsicums

Koyadofu

Dried bean curd

Kurogoma

Black sesame

Kuwai

Water chestnut

 

 

M

 

Matade

A tade cultivar

Menrui

Noodles

Mikan

Tangerine, orange

Mioga

Japanese ginger

Mirim

Rice wine, for cooking

Miso

Soya bean paste

Miso shiru

Red bean paste, a soup thickener

Moyashi

Beansprout

Myoga

Mioga ginger

 

 

N

 

Naganegi

Spring onions

Namasu

Raw fish salad

Negi

Onion

Ninniku

GarIic

Nira

Chive

Nitsuke

Simmering in soy sauce and sugar

Nori

Dried seaweed

 

 

O

 

Orenji

Orange

 

 

P

 

Piman

Green pepper, Capsicum

Ponzu

Soy-and-sour-orange sauce

 

 

 

 

 

 

R

 

Rakkyo

Chinese onion

Remon

Lemon

Renkon

Lotus root

 

 

S

 

Sansho

A spice, powdered prickly ash leaf (see Anise-Pepper)

Sendai-miso

Red soya bean paste, highly salted seasoning consisting of dried seaweed, sesame, tuna and monosodium glutamate

Shichimi-togarashi

7 flavor seasoning: poppy.mustard or rape. hemp or chilli sesame, tangerine peel and sansho (see Spice Mixtures)

Shio

Salt

Shiro-miso

White soya bean paste

Shobu

Sweet flag, calamus, Acorus calamus

Shoga

Ginger

Shoyu

Soya sauce

Soba

Buckwheat noodles

Somen

Thin, wheat flour noodles

Su

Vinegar

Su-mi-re

Citron and orange liqueur

Sushi

Snacks with rice base served in lacquered boxes

 

 

T

 

Tachibana

Clementine

Tade

asabu-tade, smartweed, Polygonum hydropiper

Tade su

tade, vinegar and rice

Tamago

Egg

Tamanegi

Onion

Teriyaki

Basting with soy sauce and rnirin, during cooking

Tofu

Soya bean curd

Togarashi

ChilIi or cayenne pepper

 

 

U

 

Usukuchi

Light soya sauce

Uzu

Evergreen orange, Citrus juncus

 

 

W

 

Wakame

Lob-leaf seaweed

 

 

Y

 

Yakidofu

Grilled soya bean curd

Yakimono

Grilled foods

Yakumi

Spice

Yanagi tade

Smartweed, see tade

Yodofu

Boiled soya bean curd

Yuzu

Citron

 

ARABIC VOCABULARY

A

 

Ahwa

Coffee

Arni filfit

Chilli

Aza

Mastic (Persian)

Azaf

Caper

 

 

B

 

Badunis

Parsley

Bedinjan mahshi

Stuffed eggplant

Bharout

Carob

Borghul, bourghol burghul

Parboiled cracked wheat

 

 

D

 

Dawoud basha

Minced lamb dish

Dolmas

lit. �wrapping� usually rice and meat in vine or cabbage leaves

Doner kebab

Sliced lamb packed round a spit for roasting

Dukkah

Crushed nuts and spices dry dip

 

 

E

 

Eggah

Arab omelette thick with vegetables

 

 

F

 

Falafel

Hot spice balls of chick pea

Fattoush

Lebanese mixed salad

F�ta

Greek cheese

Filfil

Pepper

 

 

H

 

Habiba

Chicken and tomatoes, cold

HaIva

Sesame sweet

Hareera

Soup

Harissa

Hot chilli sauce (Tunisian)

Helbeh

Fenugreek (Egypt)

Hommous, hommos, hummus

Chick pea or chick pea and sesame paste dip

 

 

 

 

 

 

K

 

Karawya

Caraway

Kemoun, kamman, kammun

Cumin

Khalanjan

Galangal

Kharkoum

Tumeric

Kharub

Carob

Kibib

Egyptian anise liqueur

Kizbara

Coriander

Kurtham

Safflower

 

 

L

 

Laban

Yoghurt

Lahem muqaddad

Skewered Iamb

La kama

Moroccan fragrant spice mixture

 

 

M

 

Maamoul

Stuffed pastries

Malh

Salt

Maz(z)a

Mediterranean hors d�oeuvre

Meshwi

Grilled foods

 

 

R

 

Raki

Turkish anise liqueur

Ras el hanout

Moroccan 20 spice mix

Rigani

WiId marjoram

 

 

S

 

Samak

Fish

Sammak

Sumac

Shahwe(a)rma shawirmah

Sliced lamb on vertical spit

Shashlik

Skewered Iamb

 

 

T

 

Ta�amia

Egyptian for falafel

Tabil

Tunisian spice mixture: caraway, coriander, garlic and chilli

Tahina, tahine tahini

Sesame seed paste

Taklia

Ground coriander fried with crushed garlic

Tas kebab

Lamb stew

Toom

Garlic

 

 

 

 

U

 

Uran filfil

Chilli

 

 

Z

 

Zathar, zather

Mixture of sumac and thyme

Zhug

Seasoning of garlic, chilli, cardamom, caraway and coriander

 

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY

A

 

 

Acetic acid

 

A pungent, vinegary liquid found in certain fruits. CR3. COON

Achene

 

A non-succulent, indehiscent fruit containing a loose, single seed.

Adulterant

 

An inferior substance added to �bulk-out� or debase a product.

Adventitious

 

Growing unusually, eg. roots from a trunk above ground.

Albedo

 

The white mesocarp of citrus fruits.

Aldehyde

 

A chemical compound, dehydrogenated alcohol.

Alkali

 

Compounds know as bases, highly soluble in water; neutralizing acids forming a salt and water and turning litmus blue.

Alterative

 

Restorative; inducing the return to health.

Alternate

 

Of leaves: each placed farther along, and opposite to its neighbor.

Anaesthetic

 

Causing loss of sensation.

Analgesic

 

Pain-relieving.

Anodyne

 

Pain killer.

Anthelmintic

 

Clearing worms from the intestines. etc.

Anticoagulant

 

Delaying or preventing blood clotting.

Antimhydrotic

 

Anti-perspirant

Anti-inflammatory

 

Reducing swelIing

Antimicrobial

 

Killing germs

Antinauseant

 

Preventing or relieving vomiting

Antiperiodic

 

Beneficial in recurrent illnesses

Antiscorbutic

 

Anti-scurvy

Antiseptic

 

Destroying or preventing germ growth

Antispasmodic

 

Preventing or relieving muscular cramps and convulsions

Aperient

 

Gently laxative

Aphrodisiac

 

Encouraging sexual appetite

Appetitive

 

Encouraging appetite

Aril

 

A fleshy connects to or embracing various seeds

Ascorbic acid

 

A crystalline substance in fruits and vegetables, vitamin C

Astringent

 

Causing living tissue to contract; stopping bleeding

Atonic

 

Relaxing, especially of muscle

Axil

 

The angle between leaf and stem

Axillary

 

Born in axils

 

 

 

B

 

 

Bacteriostatic

 

Preventing bacterial development

Berry

 

A fruit with a fleshy pericarp containing more than one seed

Biennial

 

Having a life span of two years

Biollavonoid

 

Crystalline substances, present in some fruits, affecting blood capillaries

Blanch

 

To grow white, excluding chlorophyll by lack of sunlight

Bract

 

A leaf whose axiI bears a flower

Brine

 

A strong mixture of salt and water

Bulbil

 

A small bulb, or a bulbous reproductive structure growing above ground

 

 

 

C

 

 

Calyx

 

The protective covering of a bud composed of individual or fused sepals

Capsule

 

A moistureless fruit that splits open to cast its seeds

Carbohydrates

 

Organic compounds containing hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. The group included sugars and starch.

Cardiac

 

Of, or beneficial to, the heart

Carminative

 

Relieving or expelling gas in alimentary canal

Carpel

 

The female clement of a flower - the stigma, style and ovary

Cathartic

 

Cleaning out the bowels, purgative

Cellulose

 

The dominant substance in cell walls in plants, a polysaccharide

Chaemonucleolysitic

 

Breaking down the nucleus of cells by chemical action

Cholesterol

 

A waxy, insoluble steroid alcohol present in all body issue, an excess of which is linked to heart disease.

Citric acid

 

An acid present in citrus fruits, useful in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

Comfit

 

A sugar-covered nut or seed

Coniferous

 

Bearing cones

Coriacious

 

Leathery

Cortisone

 

A hormone, which can be synthesized, used against leukemia. arthritis, skin diseases etc.

Cotyledon

 

A seed leaf in the embryo of certain plants

Cyanide

 

A highly poisonous acid salt

 

 

 

D

 

 

Deciduous

 

Shedding all foliage yearly

Dehiscent

 

Opening spontaneously to east pollen, seeds etc

Demulcent

 

Soothing the skin

Diaphoretic

 

Inducing perspiration

Digestive

 

Promoting healthy digestion by stimulating production of saliva and gastric acids.

Dioecious

 

Having separate male and female flowers on separate plants

Diuretic

 

Stimulating the flow of urine

Drupe

 

A single-seeded, indehiscent fruit with a stony endocarp

 

 

 

E

 

 

Elliptical

 

Shaped like a flat circle

Emetic

 

Inducing vomiting

Emmenagogue

 

Encouraging menstruation

Emollient

 

Soothing the skin

Endocarp

 

Hard inner pericarp

Endosperm

 

The matter in a seed that protects and feeds the embryo

Enzyme

 

Complex proteins produced by living cells that act as catalysts in bodily processes.

Essence

 

The substance in a plant containing its characteristic qualities in concentrated form, usually oil, glycoside or alkaloid

Essential oil

 

The odorous principles of a plant in the form of a volatile oil, usually containing esters and terpenes.

Ester

 

A substance resulting from the interaction between an alcohol and an �acid: in plants often an aromatic liquid.

Expectorant

 

Clearing the chest by expelling moisture from lungs and windpipe

 

 

 

F

 

 

Family

 

A level of botanic classification: subdivision of an order, a group comprising plants with similar characteristics including one or more genera.

Febrifuge

 

A medicine that combats fever

Fixed oil

 

Vegetable or animal non-volatile oil

Floret

 

A small flower

Freeze-dried

 

Dried by elimination of liquid after quick freezing in a partial vacuum

Fructose

 

A crystalline fruit sugar

Fumigant

 

A substance from which smoke or fumes are used to treat contamination or purify the air.

Fungicide

 

That which kills fungus

 

 

 

G

 

 

Galactogogue

 

That which stimulates lactation

Germicide

 

Germ killer

Glabrous

 

Smooth, hairless

Glaucous

 

Bloomy, waxy or powder-covered

Glucose

 

A crystalline sugar, important energy source in metabolism

Glycoside

 

A glycoside that hydrolyses to produce glucose

Glyceride

 

A solid ester derived from glycerol

Glycoside

 

A dehydroxlated monosaccharide

Gum

 

A gluey substance issuing or tapped from certain plants, hardening on oxidization.

 

 

 

H

 

 

Hardy

 

Surviving the winter outdoors

Herbaceous

 

Fleshy; not woody

Hermaphroditic

 

Combining male and female reproductive elements in the same flower or plant.

Hesperidiurn

 

Any citrus fruit

Homogenise

 

To make into a uniform mixture

Hydragogue

 

Removing accumulations of wator or serum, causing water discharges

Hypoglycaemic

 

With abnormally low blood sugar

 

 

 

I

 

 

Indehiscent

 

Not splitting open to cast

Indolent

 

Causing no pain

Inflorescence

 

Arrangement of flowers in plants

Infusion

 

A liquid with the properties or flavor of the substance soaked in it

Insectifuge

 

Repelling insects

Irritant

 

Over-stimulating, inflaming

 

 

 

L

 

 

Lanceolate

 

Slender and pointed at both ends: lance-ended

Laterite

 

A tropical clay deposit containing oxides of iron and aluminum

Latex

 

A milky liquid present in many plants

Laxative

 

Loosening the bowels, encouraging voiding of faeces

Legume

 

A pod-producing vegetable

Linear

 

Thin and straight

Linolenic acid

 

A fatty acid present in natural oils. Less common than linoleic acid. Used in paints

Lithontriptic

 

Suppresses or reduces urinary calculi (stones).

Lyrate

 

Lyre-shaped

 

 

 

M

 

 

Macerate

 

To soak until soft or broken

Mesocarp

 

The central portion of the pericarp, usually fleshy

Minerals

 

A group of natural inorganic substances many of which are essential for health.

Mordant

 

A substance used to fix colors in the dyeing process.

Mucilage

 

Sticky carbohydrates present in various plants.

Mulch

 

Soft vegetable matter laid over soil to enrich it or protect plants.

 

 

 

N

 

 

Narcotic

 

A stupor-inducing drug.

Niacin

 

Nicotinic acid, part of Vitamin B, Complex B5.

Node

 

A swelling; the junction of a branch etc. with the main stem.

 

 

 

O

 

 

Oblate

 

Shaped like a flattened sphere.

Obovate

 

Egg-shaped, with smaller end at base.

Odd-pinnate

 

Pinnate with a single leaflet at end of stalk.

Oleic acid

 

An unsaturated oily acid, a glyceride, present in moist fats.

Oleic glyceride

 

Oleic acid.

Oleoresin

 

Resin and essential oil in combination. Extracted from plants.

Ovate

 

Egg-shaped.

Oviod

 

Egg-shaped.

Oxidation

 

Reaction with oxygen causing formation of an oxide.

 

 

 

P

 

 

Panicle

 

A multiple raceme.

Paripinnate

 

Pinnate with no single end leaflet.

Pectin

 

Acid carbohydrates present in fruits, which jellify when heated with sugar

Pentosans

 

A series of polysaccharides present in plants.

Perennial

 

Enjoying a life span of three or more years.

Pericarp

 

The element of a fruit that surrounds the seeds.

Pharmacopoeia

 

A list of drugs in official use.

Phenol

 

Carbolic acid, a weak acid derived from benzene. Used as an antiseptic.

Phylactic

 

Acting as a charm.

Phytonicide

 

Destroying plant cells.

Pigment

 

Any coloring agent present in living tissue.

Pinene

 

Alpha or Beta, two terpenes present in certain essential oils

Pinnate

 

Consisting of opposing leaflets.

Pinnatifid

 

Lobed, the divisions reaching more than halfway to the middle of the leaf

Placenta

 

Ovary part to which seeds are attached, eg. the white internal matter of capsicum, papaya etc.

Protein

 

The building blocks of life, nitrogen-bearing substances based on amino acid chains.

Prussic acid

 

A highly poisonous weak acid, hydrocyanic acid.

Pulse

 

Edible seed of leguminous plants.

Purgative

 

Emptying the bowels.

 

 

 

R

 

 

Raceme

 

A formation where stalked flowers grow along a main stem, the oldest at the bottom.

Refrigerant

 

Cooling, combating fever.

Resin

 

Solid or semi-solid waste products exuded from certain plants.

Restorative

 

Pick-me-up.

Rhizome

 

Underground stem, from which new plants grow.

Riboflavin

 

Vitamin B2.

Rootstock

 

Rhizome.

Rubefacient

 

Reddening the skin.

Rutin

 

Formerly vitamin P, see bioflavonoids.

 

 

 

S

 

 

Schizocarp

 

Dry fruit splitting into single-seeded parts when ripe.

Sedative

 

Calming.

Sepal

 

The leaf-like parts of a calyx.

Sessile

 

Stalkless

Set

 

Seedling, cutting etc. ready for planting.

Sheath

 

A leaf etc. encasing a part of a plant

Sodium

 

An alkaline metal essential to life but harmful in excess.

Soporific

 

Sleep-inducing.

Spadix

 

A flower spike with a fleshy stem, enclosed in a spathe.

Spathe

 

A large bract wrapped around the flower spike of certain plants, or two or more bracts enclosing a flower cluster.

Specific

 

A medicine with a particular use.

Spike

 

Inflorescence with sessile flowers arranged along a single stem.

Stamen

 

Male organ of flower, bearing the pollen-producing anther

Starch

 

A glucose-based polysaccharide common in vegetable tissue as the principal reserve food store.

Stearic acid

 

A waxy fatty acid, used to make candles etc.

Stigma

 

The tip of the style, where pollen is collected.

Stimulant

 

Encouraging physiological action.

Stipule

 

A small double leaf-like growth at the base of a leaf or stalk.

Stolon

 

A runner, a side-stem trailing along the ground producing nodal roots.

Stomachic

 

Beneficial to the stomach; increasing gastric activity.

Style

 

A thin cylindrical structure extending from the ovary, bearing the stigma.

Sucker

 

A new shoot or one growing from a root or rhizome.

Sucrose

 

Sugar, a saccharine carbohydrate

Sulphide

 

A sulphurous compound.

Synonym

 

A taxonomic name that has been replaced.

 

 

 

T

 

 

Taenifuge

 

Anti tape-worm.

Tannic acid

 

Plant-produced derivatives of gallic acid used in tanning, dyeing etc.

Tannin

 

Tannic acid.

Tap root

 

The main vertical root of certain plants.

Tartaric acid

 

A crystalline acid common in fruits, used in beverages, confectionery etc.

Taxonomy

 

Classification of animals and plants.

Terpenes

 

A group of hydrocarbons common in essential oils.

Terpineol

 

A lilac-scented alcohol of the terpene class.

Thiamine

 

Vitamin BI, occurring in the husks of rice and other grains.

Tincture

 

An alcoholic solution of a drug.

Toxic

 

Poisonous

 

 

 

U

 

 

Umbel

 

A flower formation where all the stalks grow from one point.

Umbelliform

 

Umbel-shaped.

 

 

 

V

 

 

Vermifuge

 

An agent that expels worms from the intestines.

Vitamin A

 

Retinal, an alcohol present in green vegetable and egg yolks.  Deficiency lead to night blindness.

Vitamin B

 

Complex, a group including the following: BI thiamine. B2 riboflavin essential in metabolism of carbohydrates, B5 niacin, nicotinic acid.

Vitamin C

 

Ascorbic acid, necessary to prevent scurvy.

Vitamin D

 

A vitamin present in dairy products.  Necessary to prevent rickets.

Vitamin E

 

Alpha-tocopherol, a vitamin present in some vegetables and in egg yolk.  A deficiency is believed to impair human reproduction.

Vitamin P

 

Rutin, bioflavonoid.

Vitta

 

An oil channel in some fruits

Volatile

 

Vaporizing readily

Volatile Oil

 

Essential oil

 

 

 

Botanical Index 

NB               Taxonomic synonyms are scientific names now invalidated or replaced. They appear here prefixed with all asterisk.

 

A

 

 

Acorns calamus

 

Calamus

Afrarnomum melegueta

 

Melegueta pepper

Allium cepa

 

Onion

Allium sativum

 

Garlic

*Alpinia galanga

 

Galangal (greater)

*Alpinia offficinarum

 

Galangal (lesser)

*Amomum cardamomum

 

Cardamom

Amomum granum paradisii

 

Grains of paradise

*Amomum melegueta

 

Melegueta pepper

*Amomum zingiber

 

Ginger

Anethum graveolens

 

Dill

Apium graveolens dulce

 

Celery

*Armoracia lapathifolia

 

Horseradish

Armoracia rusticana

 

Horseradish

 

 

 

B

 

 

*Bergera koenigii

 

Curry leaf

Bixa orellana

 

Annatto

Brassica alba

 

Mustard (white)

Brassica juncea

 

Mustard (brown)

Brassica nigra

 

Mustard (black)

 

 

 

C

 

 

Capparis spinosa

 

Caper

Capsicum annuurn

 

Capsicum (chili, cayenne, paprika)

Capsicum frutescens

 

Capsicurn (chili, cayenne, paprika) (see Chilli Guide for other forms)

Carica papaya

 

Papaya

Carthamus tinctorius

 

Safflower

*Carum ajowan

 

Ajowan

Carum carvi

 

Caraway

*Carum Copticum

 

Ajowan

*Caryophyllus aromaticus

 

Clove

Ceratonia siliqua

 

Carob

*Chalcas koenigii

 

Curry leaf

Cinnamomum cassia

 

Cassia

Cinnamomum zeylanicum

 

Cinnamon

Citrus spp

 

Citrus

*Cochlearia armoracia

 

Horseradish

Cocos nucifera

 

Coconut

Coriandrum sativum

 

Coriander

*Coumarouna odorata

 

Tonka bean

Crocus sativus

 

Crocus (saffron)

Cuminum cyminum

 

Cumin

*Curcuma domestica

 

Turmeric

Curcuma longa

 

Turmeric

Curcuma zedoaria

 

Zedoary (round)

Curcuma zerumber

 

Zedoary (long)

Cymbopogon citratus

 

Lemon grass

 

 

 

D

 

 

Dipteryx odorata

 

Tonka bean

 

 

 

E

 

 

Elletaria cardamomum

 

Cardamom

Emblica officinalis

 

Trifala (3)

*Eugenia aromatica

 

Clove

*Eugenia caryophyllata

 

Clove

Eugenia caryophyllus

 

Clove

*Eugenia pimenta

 

Allspice

Eugenia polyantha

 

Daun, salam

 

 

 

F

 

 

Ferula assafoetida

 

Asafoetida

Ferula foetida

 

Asafoetida

Ferula narthex

 

Asafoetida

Ferula rubricaulis

 

Asafoetida

Foeniculum vulgare

 

Fennel

 

 

 

G

 

 

Garcinia indica

 

Kokum

Glycine max

 

Soya

*Glycine hispida

 

Soya

*Glycine soja

 

Soya

Glycyrrhiza glabra

 

Liquorice

 

 

 

I

 

 

*Illicium anisatum

 

Star anise

Illicium verum

 

Star anise

 

 

 

J

 

 

Junierus communis

 

juniper

 

 

 

K

 

 

Kaempferia galanga

 

Galangal (Kaompferia)

*Kaempferia pandurata

 

Galangal (Kaompferia)

*Kaempferia rotunda

 

Galangal (Kaompferia)

 

 

 

L

 

 

Languas galanga

 

Galangal (greater)

Languas officinarum

 

Galangal (lesser)

Laurus nobilis

 

Bay leaf

 

 

 

M

 

 

Mangifera indica

 

Mango (amchur)

Menta spp

 

Mints

Mesua ferrea

 

Nagkesar

Murraya koenigii

 

Curry leaf

Myristica fragrans

 

Nutmeg and mace

 

 

 

N

 

 

*Nasturtium indicum

 

Nasturtium

Nigella sativa

 

Nigella

 

 

 

P

 

 

Pandamus odoratissimus

 

Screwpine

Pandanus odorus

 

Screwpine

*Pandanus tectorius

 

Screwpine

Papaver rhoeas

 

Corn Poppy

Papaver somniferurn

 

Poppy

*Papaya carica

 

Papaya

*Peucedonum gravolens

 

Dill

Pimento dioica

 

Allspice

*Pimenta officinalis

 

Allspice

Pimpinella anisum

 

Anise

Piper cubeba

 

Cubeb

Piper longum

 

Pepper (long)

Piper nigrum

 

Pepper (black, white green)

Pistacia lentiscus

 

Mastic

Polygonum hydropiper

 

Tade (smartweed)

Polygonum hydropiper fastigiatum

 

Azabu tade

Prunus mahaleb

 

Mahlebi

*Prychotis ajowan

 

Ajowan

Punica granatum

 

Pomegranate

 

 

 

R

 

 

Rhus coraria

 

Sumac

 

 

 

S

 

 

Santlurn album

 

Sandalwood

Sassafras albidum

 

Sassafras

*Sassafras officinale

 

Sassafras

*Sassafras varifolium

 

Sassafras

Schinus terebinthifolius

 

Pepper (pink)

Sesamum indicun

 

Sesame

*Sesamum orientale

 

Sesame

Sinapis alba

 

White mustard

*Soja max

 

Soya

*Syzygium aromaticum

 

Clove

 

 

 

T

 

 

Tamarindus indica

 

Tamarind

*Tamarindus officinalis

 

Tamarind

Terminalia belerica

 

Trifala (1)

Terminalia chebula

 

Trifala (2)

Theobroma cacao

 

Cocoa

Trachysperrum ammi

 

Ajowan

Trigonella foenum-graecum

 

Fenugreek

Tropaeolum majus

 

Nasturtium

Tropaeolum minus

 

Nasturtium

 

 

 

V

 

 

Vanilla fragrans

 

Vanilla

*Vanilla planifolia

 

Vanilla

 

 

 

X

 

 

*Xanthoxylum piperitum

 

Anise-pepper

 

 

 

Z

 

 

Zanthoxylum alatum

 

Badrang

Zanthoxylum budrunga

 

Badrang

Zanthoxylum limonella

 

Badrang

Zanthoxylum piperitum

 

Anise-pepper

*Zanthoxylumm rhetsa

 

Badrang

Zingiber officinale

 

Ginger

INDEX OF BOTANICAL FAMILIES OF SPICES

 

A

 

 

Alliaceae

 

Garlic, onion; relative chive

Anacardiaceae

 

Amchur. mastic, pink pepper. sumac; cashew, pistachio

Araceae

 

Calamus; arum lily, cuckoo pint

 

 

 

B

 

 

Bixaceae

 

Annatto

 

 

 

C

 

 

Caesalpiniaceae

 

see Leguminosae

Capparidaceac

 

Caper

Caricaceae

 

Papaya

Combretaceae

 

Trifala (beleric and chebulic myrobalans) buttonwood, Indian almond

Compositae

 

Safflower; artichoke, daisy, lettuce

Cruciferae

 

Horseradish, mustard, cabbage, turnip wallflower, watercress

Cupressaceae

 

Juniper; cedars

 

 

 

E

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

 

Trifala (emblic myrobolan); cassava, castor oil, poinsettia

 

 

 

G