European Swallow Hirundo rustica
Ringing data entered by ringers
European Swallow, adult (L) and juvenile (R), from Jacobsdal (WC)
1. Numbers ringed with SAFRING rings, 1948-2002
- Total ringed: 219177
- First ringed: 1948/49 ringing year
- Trapping method: Mistnets, Rehabilitatees
Number of European Swallow ringed per year with SAFRING rings
2. Computerised records, 1956-2002
Note: electronic records sent by ringers were extracted; no attempt was made to computerise other records.
- Number of records: 26285
- Ring sizes used: 16 with 1.8mm , 13862 with 2.3mm, 13 with 2.5mm, 7 with 2.5-4mm, 12642 with Old Prefix rings
- Recommended ring size: 2.3 mm Aluminium Alloy
- Top ringers: 128 ringers; top 5 ringers: Mr B Van Den Brink (4473), Mr RJ Nuttall (3977), Dr GPJ Grobler (3513), Mr F Conradie (2720), Dr H Bernitz & Dr Z Bernitz (2603)
- Bird age distribution: Unknown (1967), Juvenile (168), Immature (4804), Adult (9798), 0-6 months (243), 6-12 months (8967), 1-2 years (336), 2-3 years (1)
- Bird sex distribution: Unknown (2354), Male (210), Female (191), Possibly male (10), Possibly female (21)
- Markings: Metal only (26285)
- Condition: Good (26155), Rehabilitated (61), Released away from capture locality (70)
- Birds ringed per region:
|Free State, South Africa||11703|
|Gauteng, South Africa||4220|
|Mpumulanga, South Africa||3187|
|KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa||907|
|Eastern Cape, South Africa||277|
|Western Cape, South Africa||265|
|Northern Cape, South Africa||45|
|Limpopo Province, South Africa||42|
|Northwest Province, South Africa||40|
Map of localities where European Swallow have been ringed, 1956-2002 (Electronic data)
3. Biometrics and moult for European Swallow
Mass data (g)
Wing length (mm)
Primary moult November to March.
4. Recovery history (SAFRING's database)
- Number of recoveries: 605 recoveries and 513 recaptures ; Foreign 304 recoveries and 279 recaptures
- Greatest distance: 11660 km (60195588)
- Greatest elapsed time: 8y 8m 14d (AC13046)
- Causes of mortality of ringed birds: (major causes)
- Victim of weather: exhausted (20)
- Shot (16)
- Collision: with motor vehicle (or found next to road) (16)
- Sick or injured (11)
- Killed or attacked by domestic cat (10)
- Died due to sickness or injury (7)
- Trapped accidentally by human artifact (5)
- Collision with a window (5)
- Rest unknown causes
Fastest: A72250 migrated from Umhlanga, KwaZulu-Natal, to Whitley Bay, Britain, in 27 days.
5. Ringing references
- Dixon K. 2003. Chirps from the past. Bird Numbers 12(1):53.
(Bird migration before the advent of ringing)
- Martin P. 1997. The perils of swallow ringing. Safring News 26:40.
- Mendelsohn HP. 1973. Races of the European Swallow - Hirundo rustica. Safring News 2/2:21-22.
- Nuttall R. 2000. Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ringing in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Safring News 29:20-24.
- Oatley TB. 2000. Migrant European Swallows Hirundo rustica in Southern Africa: a southern perspective. Ostrich 71:205-209.
- Piper SE. 1974. Moult of the European Swallow. Safring News 3/3:24-32.
- Scott W. 1996. Ageing and sexing of the European Swallow Hirundo rustica. Safring News 25:30.
- Scott W. 1996. European Swallow Research: joint venture. Safring News 25:41-42.
- Spina F. 1996. The EURING Swallow Project. Safring News 25:44-46.
- Spina F. 1998. The EURING Swallow Project. Safring News 27:41.
- Underhill LG. 1997. Reviews: European Swallows Hirundo rustica in Botswana. Safring News 26:43.
- Van den Brink B. 1994. Swallow trapping with tape lures. Safring News 23:20-21.
- Van den Brink B. 1994. The Botswana Swallow project: December 1993 to January 1994. Safring News 23:40-42.
- Van den Brink B. 1995. Botswana swallow project for 1994-1995. Safring News 24:81-82.
- Van den Brink B & Van der Have TM. 1993. Swallow ringing in the Netherlands and southern Africa: the Botswana Swallow Project. Safring News 22:27-29.
- Van den Brink B, Bijlsma RG, van der Have TM. 2000. European Swallows Hirundo rustica in Botswana during three non-breeding seasons: the effects of rainfall on moult. Ostrich 71:198-204.
- Van der Have TM, van den Brink B. 1998. Barn Swallows in Africa: Effects of rainfall on body condition and speed of moult. Ostrich 69:17.
THE BLOEMFONTEIN SWALLOW PROJECT