Today Turkey ranks tenth in the world in terms of the diversity of minerals produced in the country. Around 60 different minerals are currently produced in Turkey. The richest mineral deposits in the country are boron salts and Turkey’s reserves amount to 63% of the world’s total. Other important minerals mined in Turkey are perlite, pumice, feldspar, bentonite, barite, magnesite, sodium sulphate, rock salt, gypsum, trona, strontium salts, zeolite, meerschaum, marble and natural stones, quartz, quartzite, bauxite, corundum and lignite.

Each year Turkey produces almost 150 million tons of minerals worth approximately 2.5 billion USD. Turkey’s leading exports of mining products are marble and natural stones followed by boron and its derivatives. Minerals such as chromium, magnesite, feldspar, gypsum, pumice, bentonite and kaolin are also exported. On the other hand, Turkey’s leading imports in the mining sector continue to be



dominated by crude oil, natural gas, lignite, iron ore and raw materials used in fertilizer production.

Industries based on mining products have flourished in Turkey in line with the developments in the mining sector. Turkey is among the world’s and Europe’s leading producer in a number of industries such as glass, ceramics, cement, marble and iron and steel. Other important industries include gypsum, aluminium, ferrochromium, fertilizer, paper pulp, brick and tile, prefabricated construction elements as well as gold and silver processing which has substantially developed in recent years.

Coal. Coal reserves in Turkey total 1.2 billion tons, 72% of which are in the form of coke. The average annual coal production is between 2.5 and 3 million tons.

Lignite. There are lignite deposits almost throughout the country. Kahramanmaraş-Elbistan, Muğla-Yatağan, Manisa-Soma, Kütahya-Tunçbilek-Seyitömer, Ankara-Beypazarı and Sivas-Kangal basins constitute the most important lignite reserves in Turkey. Total lignite reserves amount to 8.3 billion tons and the annual production is nearly 54 million tons. Turkey ranks seventh in the world in terms of the extent of its lignite reserves and sixth in terms of the volume of production.

Chromium. Turkey is one of the leading countries regarding production and exports of chromium ore. However, fluctuating prices during recent years have had negative impacts on chromium mining. Turkey’s chromium reserves, one of the biggest in the world, total 26 million tons and average annual production is around 500,000 tons, despite fluctuations.

Boron. Turkey has almost 63% of the world’s boron potential  and  boron  reserves  in the form  of B2O3 (24.4%