ON THE NATURE OF GRAVITATY
AND
THE SYNTHETIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVES








Abstract

A new theory is being offered according to which gravity waves are interpreted as the collective modes of vibration of virtual particles in the unit cells that constitute the crystal lattice of the vacuum.  This natural vibration (quantifiable as gravitophonons) is caused by cosmic radiation.  The task of the designer then is simple: to tap to this natural vibration.  Furthermore, an idea is offered for the new gravitational force emitter that I named Gravitophonon Maser.   The power of the Gravitophonon Maser resolves the problem of weakness of gravitational effects produced by earlier gravitational devices, including my own.  The Gravitophonon Maser’s strong effect on gravity allows for many practical applications including those in the fields of wireless communications, wireless power transmission, non-invasive surgery, and satellite launching. 

Introduction

I wrote this paper in support of my Phonon Maser invention.    Much of the text below has been included in the patent application.  I have written this paper also to address the controversy existing among the today's scientists on the nature of gravity and gravitational forces: attraction and repulsion. The repulsion (sometimes called "antigravity" by the journalists) is the most controversial topic of all.   There have been various statements and reports of :gravity modification" and "gravity shielding".   Professor Bob Park from the University of Maryland properly pointed that antigravity cannot be created by “gravity shielding”, "gravity blocking", or "gravity reflection".  What he didn't say is that an active device emitting a gravity-like gravitational field could effect gravity.

Such gravity devices are not only possible but already in existence.  One needs not to have a Ph.D. in physics to build a gravitational device: Electrostatic lifters are fascinating devices that have become popular construction projects implemented by the high-school students all over the world.   After proclaiming the impossibility of creating artificial gravitational force, Prof. Park suddenly went quiet ever since in November 2005, scientists led by Clovis de Matos and Martin Tajmar (and funded by the European Space Agency, ESA), published a well-tested study of gravitomagnetism. The ESA scientists measured the gravitational equivalent of a magnetic field in a laboratory by rotating a superconductor ring at 6,500 revolutions per minute, repeating their experiment over 300 times.   These scientists have found that, under certain conditions, the gravitomagnetic effect is much greater than expected from general relativity.

However, at just 100 millionths of the acceleration due to the Earth’s gravitational field, the effect, which the ESA scientists identified as the Gravitomagnetic London Moment, was a very weak one.  From the Casimir mirrors to the de Matos - Tajmar’s superconductor disk, the existing gravitational devices produced very weak effects unusable for most practical applications.  My earlier inventions, including the "antigravity" spaceship (US Patent No. 6,960,975), were for the devices that were not energy-efficient and therefore required very powerful energy sources to operate.

This is why have I developed the idea of Gravitophonon Maser, the new device that uses population inversion in order to artificially create powerful gravitational effects: attraction and repulsion.   But well before the Gravitophonon Maser, I had to study the nature of gravity, and understand how the force of gravity could be effected artificially.  

Background

The possibility of projecting a coherent beam of high energy at great distances has interested many physicists.  The first step toward this goal was understanding the physical nature of the vacuum. 
 
In 1887, the Michelson-Morley experiment showed that the Earth’s motion does not cause winds in a light-carrying medium in space. For some time, this result was misinterpreted as indicating that the vacuum of space is absolutely empty.
In December 1900, Max Plank published a paper that outlined the law of black-body radiation, thus giving birth to quantum mechanics.  In 1916, building upon this law, Albert Einstein created the foundation for the invention of both the maser and, later, the laser with his concepts of spontaneous and induced emissions. In 1911, Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes chilled mercury to superlow temperatures and found that electrical resistance vanished at 4.2 K. He called this strange physical state superconductivity winning the 1913 Nobel Prize in physics for this work.

In 1932, a series of experiments performed by Carl D. Anderson proved that absorption of a Gamma-ray energy quantum of 1.02 million electron volts (1.02 MeV) in any point of space makes a free electron and positron pair to appear. When such a pair of particles disappears in any point of space, there are at least two quanta emitted, with a total energy of 1.02 MeV.  This means that radiation turns into electrons and positrons, and that electrons and positrons, in-turn, annihilate into energy (radiation). 
In a July, 1940, interview with The New York Times, Nikola Tesla claimed to have invented a device that produced a “tremendous repelling force” by catapulting “microscopic electrical particles” into space. This “teleforce” beam, per Tesla, would be capable of “eliminating high vacuum”. In the late 1940s, H.B.G. Casimir proved that the vacuum is neither particle- nor field–free.  It is a source of zero-point-fluctuation (ZPF) of fields such as the vacuum gravitational field.  ZPF fields lead to real, measurable physical consequences such as the Casimir force.

In 1953, Charles H. Townes, James P. Gordon and Herbert J. Zeiger produced the first maser, a predecessor to the laser.  The maser, unlike the laser, projected microwave (rather than optical) radiation.    In 1957, Charles Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow of Bell Labs, simultaneously with Gordon Gould, proposed the idea of an optical maser, later called laser. This invention established a new field in physics and industry.  However, applications of lasers, especially in the Earth’s atmosphere, are limited by beam dispersion due to collisions of photons with the molecules comprising air.  Furthermore, the laser and maser provide only light and/or heat. Thus, the applications of these two devices are limited to these two effects.  In his Nobel Prize lecture, Townes anticipated that phonons could also be mased.  In the last chapter of this work, this chapter titled “The Phonon Maser”, Townes writes: “Acoustic waves follow equations that are of the same general form as the equations of light and manifest many of the same phenomena.  An acoustic wave can produce an atomic or molecular excitation, or receive energy from it by either spontaneous or stimulated emission. Hence, one may expect maser action for acoustic waves if a system can be found in which molecules are sufficiently coupled to an acoustic field and appropriate excitation can be found to find the threshold condition”.    Production of Coherent Radiation by Atoms and Molecules. Charles H. Townes. Nobel Lecture. December 11, 1964.

Also in 1957, Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer published a paper on their quantum-mechanical theory of how, at very low temperatures, the formation of electrons into pairs (hence Cooper pairs) permits superconductivity in some materials (“Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity”, J. Bardeen, L.N. Cooper and J.R. Schrieffer, Physical Review 106, Issue 1-1 April 1957, pp. 162-164).    For this new theory, its authors were awarded the 1972 Nobel Prize in physics.

In the early 1970’s, Menahem Simhony hypothesized that the vacuum of space is permeated by a three-dimensional crystal lattice.    Earlier in his career, Simhony assumed that this crystal lattice included (real) electrons and holes.   Later on, Simhony thought that (real) positrons were also present in the crystal vacuum lattice. (“Invitation to the Natural Physics of Matter Space and Radiation”, M Simhony, 1994 published by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. ISBN 981-02-1649-1).  According to Simhony, a cubic millimeter of vacuum lattice contains 6x1033 electron-positron pairs with a combined binding energy of 27 x 10^15 kW.    Simhony calculated the binding energy of each cell to be 1.02MeV.  By analogy with ionic alkali halide salts (sodium chloride in particular), the dimension of each side of the unit cube comprising 2 electrons and 2 positrons of the face-centered cubic lattice at rest has a lattice constant of 4.4 (+/- 0.5) * 10^(-15m).

The majority of scientists, however, believe that most of the vacuum-permeating positrons and electrons are not real (massive) but virtual (pure energy).  The virtual particles are merely fluctuations of vacuum energy.  To these scientists, the Casimir effect and, possibly, gravity and repulsion, are proofs of the existence of this energy.   Unlike Simhony, these scientists believe that the density of real electrons and positrons in the vacuum is very insignificant.  A manifestation of the relative sparsity of these electrons and positrons is in the small positive value of the cosmological constant.

In his 1991 European Patent Application #911036614, Herb Goronkin disclosed a phonon generator that promotes the formation of Cooper pairs in a superlattice.  The particulars of the disclosed device permit Cooper pairs to form and exist at temperatures that are typically too high for superconductivity.

In the early 1990s, Ning Li and D.G. Torr described a method and means for converting an electromagnetic field into a gravitomagnetic field. Li and Torr suggested that, under the proper conditions, the minuscule force fields of superconducting atoms can “couple”, compounding in strength to the point where they can produce a small repulsive force (“Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on Pure Superconductors”, N. Li and D.G. Torr, Physical Review D, Volume 43, Page 457, 3 pages, 15 January 1991).  

A series of experiments, performed in the early 1990’s by Evgeny Podkletnov, reportedly resulted in a reduction of the weight of objects placed above a levitating, rotating superconductive disk subjected to high frequency magnetic fields. (“Weak Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk YBa2Cu33O(7-x) Superconductor Below 70K Under E.M. Field”, E. Podkletnov, LANL database number cond-mat/9701074, v. 3, 10 pages, 16 Sep 1997).  The drawback of the technology described in Podkletnov’s above-mentioned paper is the weakness of the resulting effect.  Even though Podkletnov has reported .3%-to-2.1% weight reduction with the device described in the above-mentioned 1997 paper, many scientists point to a likelihood of error in Podkletnov’s measurements. 

In 2003, Randall Peters hypothesized the possibility of creating a phonon maser based on “mechanical oscillations by stimulation of excited states”.   Peters suggested that the acoustic memory experiments of 2002, and the optically-driven pendulum experiments of 1996, would lead to a practical phonon maser.   Per Peters, the mechanism of this maser would depend on the metastability of defect-structure organization (“Friction as Basis for a Phonon Maser”, Randall D. Peters, arXiv:physics/0308032 v1 8 Aug 2003, http://arxiv.org/html/physics/0308032).

In 2005, Droscher and Hauser proposed that the vacuum includes attractive and repulsive particles that cause gravitational effects. A particle and antiparticle are generated in a pair from the vacuum itself by the effect of vacuum polarization by virtual electrons, under the presence of a very strong magnetic field. Due to particle pair production, the total energy extracted from the vacuum is zero.   (“Heim Quantum Theory for Space Propulsion Physics, for Space Propulsion Physics”, Walter Droscher and Jochem Hauser AIP Conference Proceedings -- February 6, 2005 -- Volume 746, Issue 1, pp. 1430-1440).

In the November 2005 US Patent No. 6,960,975, I disclosed a space vehicle propelled by the electro-magnetically changed properties of vacuum, particularly the pressure of inflationary vacuum state.  A cooled hollow superconductive shield of the vehicle is energized by an electromagnetic field resulting in the quantized vortices of lattice ions projecting a gravitomagnetic field that forms a spacetime curvature anomaly outside the space vehicle.  The spacetime curvature imbalance, the spacetime curvature being the same as gravity, provides for the space vehicle’s propulsion.  

A few days later in November 2005, Robert Park dismissed my invention as an inoperable.  He told NATURE Journal: “If you design an anti-gravity machine, you’ve got a perpetual-motion machine… Shield half of a wheel from gravity and it will keep turning forever” (“Antigravity craft slips past patent officers” by Philip Ball, Nature 438, 139, 10 November 2005).  Park failed to notice that the space vehicle of my invention employs a powerful nuclear plant that develops energy greater than the gravitational pull by the height to which the vehicle is lifted.  Consider the Park’s wheel example.  It is not a perpetual motion machine if the shielding draws more energy than the wheel’s resistance to rotation. 

In his examination of my November 2005 patent, Jack Sarfatti noticed that the “lattice ions” should be defined as Cooper pairs. Sarfatti also suggested that the gravitational effect is very weak (“Dr. Jack Sarfatti's comments on the United States Patent 6,960,975 Volfson”, http://marsdrive.com/node/194). 

Also in Nov. 2005, scientists led by Clovis de Matos and Martin Tajmar and funded by the European Space Agency, published a paper on their research of gravitomagnetism. They measured the gravitational equivalent of a magnetic field in a laboratory by rotating a superconductor ring at 6,500 revolutions per minute.   The scientists found that, under certain conditions, the gravitomagnetic effect is much greater than expected from general relativity.  However, at just 100 millionths of the acceleration due to the Earth's gravitational field, the effect, which the scientists identified as the Gravitomagnetic London Moment, is very weak.  Unlike Podkletnov who used the Type II superconductor, de Matos and Tajmar used a Type I superconductor (“Gravitomagnetic London Moment and the Graviton Mass Inside a Superconductor”, C.J. de Matos and M.Tajmar, Physica C Volume 432, Issues 3-4, 15 November 2005, Pages 167-172). The relative weakness of the artificially-generated gravitational effect makes it necessary to consider amplification before this effect could be used in many practical applications.  

In June 2006, Anthony Kent at al offered an idea for a new device for sound amplification by stimulated emission of radiation or SASER that emits an amplified beam of acoustical terahertz phonons (“Acoustic Phonon Emission from a Weakly Coupled Superlattice under Vertical Electron Transport: Observation of Phonon Resonance”, A. J. Kent et al, PhysRevLett.96.215504, June 2, 2006).

The structure of the device, which includes a gallium arsenide/aluminum arsenide (GaAs/AlAs) semiconductor superlattice, is somewhat similar to that of a distributed-feedback optical laser.  The weekly-coupling superlattice is the gain medium of the SASER structure, in which electron population inversion for phonon emission is achieved by passing an electrical current. The superlattice confines the phonons and it acts like a distributed-feedback cavity. 

Discussion

The above-described discoveries and theories bring us closer to understanding gravitational energy and ways to affect its two main effects: repulsion and gravity.  Conquering these effects would benefit humanity in many different ways.       

Consider that a crystal lattice permeates the vacuum throughout the Universe.  This crystal vacuum lattice is comprised of electrons and positrons (Simhony).  The crystal is nearly perfect with black holes and Supernovas causing “imperfections” deforming otherwise identical unit cells of the crystal.  Unlike Simhony, I believe that the electrons and positrons comprising the unit cells of this lattice are virtual (pure energy), not massive.  This opinion is supported by the Michelson-Morley experiment and the subsequent tests and experiments.

Most scientists today believe in the very substantial presence of dark energy in the Universe. There is a possibility that this energy is represented by virtual particles comprising the crystal lattice of the vacuum. The presence of such a lattice explains the effects laying the foundation of this invention.   To validate of the theory supporting this invention, it is not important whether the particles forming unit cells of the crystal vacuum lattice are virtual or real.  Furthermore, the invention would work as intended regardless of the composition of the lattice and the unit cell structure. 

Consider the natural vibrations in the crystal vacuum lattice. These vibrations are caused by the microwave background radiation heating the crystal vacuum lattice to 2.7279 degrees K. The lattice vibrations take the form of collective modes, which propagate through the vacuum lattice.  These collective modes cause de Broglie elastic deformation of the unit cells and produce gravitational effects.  This is why the collective modes of these naturally-occurring vibrations are sometimes called “gravity waves”.   The discrete units of the gravity waves are phonons produced in pairs by the vacuum lattice, a phonon that causes gravity and an anti-phonon that causes repulsion in each pair.  

Gravity waves propagate at the speed of light (“General Relativistic Model for Experimental Measurement of the Speed of Propagation of Gravity by VLBI”, S. Kopeikin and E. Fomalont, Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium June 25-28 2002, Bonn, Germany, 4 pages).   The propagation of vibration through the vacuum lattice matches the speed of light as well.  There are other similarities between the graviton flow and the vibration of crystal lattice of the vacuum that will be discussed later in this chapter.

Droscher and Hauser hypothesized that the photon-like particles are capable of affecting gravity. They called these particles “gravitophotons”. However, their definition can now be made more specific.  De Matos-Tajmar and Podkletnov’s experiments have shown that Cooper pairs in a superconductor generate a field that, when projected from a superconductor into a vacuum, effects gravity. The positive energy, extractable from the Cooper pairs, is the vibration energy of the lattice that binds electrons into pairs.  This vibration energy is quantifiable as phonons (and not photons as thought by de Matos and Tajmar).   There is an important difference between the de Matos-Tajmar and Podkletnov experiments.  The Type II superconductor, used by Podkletnov, appears to align Cooper pairs to project the gravitomagnetic force forward above the disk, while with the Type I superconductor, used by de Matos and Tajmar, the gravitomagnetic force formed a field around the disk.

In the de Matos-Tajmar and Podkletnov’s experiments, the naturally-occuring elastic vibration, propagating throughout the crystal lattice of the vacuum and causing inertia and gravity, was affected by the newly-introduced, artificially-generated vibrations quantifiable as phonons.    Each phonon binding a Cooper pair has the energy that, when converted in mass, equals the mass of a hypothetical particles graviton.  This is what the phonon energy was mistaken for mass by Clovis de Matos and Martin Tajmar. One may now choose to adapt a new term “gravitophonon” (and not “gravitiphoton” as suggested by Droscher and Hauser).  Gravitophonon is a vibration whose physical effect on the surrounding matter and the propagation speed correspond the physical effect and the propagation speed expected from graviton but with the spin-0 (the conventional quadrapole graviton is assumed to have a spin-2).  While graviton causes gravity, gravitophonon may cause gravity or repulsion.  In order not to create confusion and controversy, I will continue to use a more general term “phonon”. 

The phonon in a Cooper pair is a massless boson having a spin of 0 and characterized by a short wavelength of 1.24x10^(-14) meter and a relatively small energy of 2.43 x 10^(-34) Joules (calculated by converting the “mass” of the Cooper pair -joining photon measured by de Matos and Tajmar, into energy).  The experiment set by Kent et al provides the empirical evidence of phonons’ population inversion in a superconductor.     Since phonons are bosons, in the process of a population inversion they interfere constructively superposing into bundles.   Since Cooper pairs in the Bose regime are also bosons, they also superpose into bundles.  Superimposed phonons, separated (by the electric charge) from the superimposed Cooper pairs (most likely “Cooper molecules”), are obviously of the optical type.

This definition of optical phonon comes from the comparison of the effect of radiation on ionic alkali halide salts and on the alkali halide salt –like crystal lattice of the vacuum (Simhony).   In both cases, optical phonons are easily excited by radiation, infrared or cosmic. The frequency of the optical phonons of the vacuum of space correspond to a mode of vibration where positrons and electrons at adjacent lattice sites swing against each other.

Consider two artificially-created bundles of superposed optical phonons.   The first bundle has a vibration wave coinciding in frequency and phase with the natural vibration of the crystal lattice of the vacuum.  In the second bundle, phonons (in-fact, anti-phonons) have the same frequency as the natural vibration of the lattice as in the first bundle, but their sinusoidal wave is inverted (180 degrees out of phase).  Now let us inject these two artificially-created bundles, one-by-one, into two different elastic unit cells of the crystal lattice of the vacuum.

When the first bundle enters a first unit cell, because of the natural vibration of the lattice, the first unit cell is already in a Broglie elastic deformation cycle.  Consider that the first bundle enters the first unit cell at the moment when the virtual electrons of the cell are moving closer together and the virtual positrons are moving farther apart.  Then the first bundle, having a strong positive charge, pulls the (negatively-charged) virtual electrons even closer together and repels the (positively-charged) virtual positrons even farther apart.  Upon the first bundle’s departure, the first unit cell recovers and then overcompensates to a much greater degree than it would without the first bundle passing through it. 

In physical terms, there are two waves, one naturally-occurring and one artificially-created, in the process of a constructive interference.  In mathematical terms, we describe two bundles of superposed optical phonons in the process of further superposition.  The ripple of the amplified vibration propagates through the lattice unit cells.  Such amplification of natural vibration of the crystal lattice by the first bundle causes a temporary and local increase in the gravitational energy of the vacuum. An increase in the gravitational energy of the virtual particles of the vacuum is associated with the gravitational time dilation and space contraction. 

The second bundle is identical to the first bundle except for its inverted phase.  This means that the second bundle enters a second unit cell at the moment when the virtual electrons of the second unit cell are moving farther apart and the virtual positrons are moving closer together.  Then the second bundle, having a strong positive charge, acts to pull the (negatively-charged) virtual electrons closer together and repel the (positively-charged) virtual positrons farther apart.  In physical terms, the result of the destructive interference of two waves, one naturally-occurring and another artificially-created, is a dampened, completely stopped, or even reversed vibration of the lattice. In mathematical terms, we can describe one bundle partially neutralizing another, or two bundles canceling out each other. 

The result on the crystal lattice of the vacuum would be a dampened ripple of wave, absence of any ripple, or an inverted (180 degrees out of phase) ripple. The reduction in the ripple of natural vibration of the lattice, caused by the entry of the second bundle, results in a temporary and local reduction in the gravitational energy of the vacuum. A reduction in the gravitational energy of the virtual particles of the vacuum is associated with the gravitational time contraction and space dilation.  A complete ripple stop results in a complete, temporary, and local elimination of the gravity effect. 

In the case of the second bundle, if the artificially-created wave is stronger than the naturally-occurring one, the direction of the propagation of the gravitational energy would change 180 degrees.  Eventually, the interaction of the virtual particles of the vacuum with the artificially-created bundle of superposed phonons would lead to a resumption of the natural lattice vibration: the bundle’s lifetime is finite.  However, the device of this invention sustains the anomaly by emitting new artificially-created bundles of superposed phonons for as long as the energy is available.

Consider the existing and claimed machines for phonon emission.  Podkletnov has reported that in the early 1990’s in Tempere, Finland, he used 6 solenoid coils at 850 Gauss each at a high frequency current of 105 Hz. The thickness of the toroidal disk used by Podkletnov was 10mm. The system’s reported efficiency reached 100% and the total field in Podkletnov’s disk was reported to be about .5 Tesla.  The system emitted individual phonons (not bundles). The maximum weight loss reported by Podkletnov was 2.1%

According to Ning Wu’s calculations, the 10mm disk, such as one used in Podkletnov’s 1992 Tampere experiment, could cause a relative gravity loss of .03%  (“Gravitational Shielding effects in Gauge Theory of Gravity”, Ning Wu, arXiv:hep-th/0307225 v 1, 23 July 2003).  However Ning Wu didn’t take into account the efficiency losses estimated by Skeggs to be at 56%.  Skeggs suggests that in the Podkletnov’s machine, out of the 850 Gauss developed on the coil surface, the field affecting the superconductor is only 400 Gauss (“Engineering Analysis of the Podkletnov Gravity Shielding Experiment, Peter L. Skeggs, Quantum Forum, November 7, 1997, http://www.inetarena.com/~noetic/pls/podlev.html, 7 pages).

Neither Ning Wu nor Skeggs considered strong scattering losses caused by the boundaries between crystallites of the polycrystalline media of the Type II superconductor used by Podkletnov.   Thus, the actual gravity loss in the Tempere experiment could be estimated to be in the range of 0.005% of the Earth’s gravity, a number in line with the Torr – Ning Li predictions and the experimental data from de Matos -Tajmar experiments.   This number appears to be too low to be detected with the instruments available to Podkletnov at the time of his experiment but in-line with his description of "a column of tabacco smoke" formed above the device when one of the scientists in the room started smoking a pipe. 

In order to achieve the maximum weight reduction claimed by Podkletnov, the thickness of the superconductor would have to be nearly 10 meters. To reach complete weightlessness on the surface of the Earth with the Podkletnov’s machine, the superconductor would have to be 500 meters thick, which is, obviously impractical.  It is worth noting that Podkletnov has explained the performance of his device by the relatively large disk diameter of 30 centimeters.  Podkletnov stated that in order for the device to be effective, the disk’s radius must exceed the Schwarzschild radius.  Both Tamjar and Wu disagreed stating that the gravitomagnetic field depends only on the disk’s angular velocity, charge-to-mass ratio (Tamjar) and thickness (Wu).

In order to resolve the problem of the weakness of the gravitational anomaly provided by his earlier machine, Podkletnov developed an Impulse Gravity Generator (“Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged YBa_2Cu_3O {7-y} Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure”, E. Podkletnov & G. Modanese, http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/physics/0108005 3 Aug 2001 32 pages, 7 figures.)  This solution reportedly provided a high-intensity coherent beam of gravitational force affecting gravity by up to 9%. 

In their 2002 paper, Chris Y. Tailor and Giovanni Modanese proposed employing the new impulse gravity generator to direct, from an outside location, an “antigravity” beam toward a spacecraft, this beam acting as a repulsive force field producing propulsion for the spacecraft.  (“Evaluation of an Impulse Gravity Generator Based Beamed Propulsion Concept”, Chris Y. Taylor and Giovanni Modanese, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 2002).  However, the impulse gravity generator was not suitable for this particular application because its powerful, nanosecond-long gravitational bursts would harm pilots and cause severe structural and electrical damage to the spacecraft.  The use of Podkletnov’s impulse gravity generator in other applications is limited by the device’s large size and high-energy requirements (reportedly, it is powered by a 5 million Volt energy source). These drawbacks underline the need for a powerful, energy-efficient, and portable projector of on-demand impulse or continuous beam of gravity-modifying phonons. 

Objects of Research

The first object is to create a theory that could become a base for the second-generation of gravitational devices.  This theory allows resolving problems typical for the first generation of the gravitational energy devices, these problems being the relative weakness of the produced force and its impulse nature.   A device of this invention is to be an efficient source of gravitational energy that generates a coherent, collimated, and high-energy beam.  It would be specifically advantageous for some applications to be able to switch the device from emitting a continuous beam emission to the impulse beam, and vice versa. 

Consider the only known source of artificially-created gravitational energy, a rotating superconductor.  In a flat, cooled superconductor disk, the electrons are bound into Cooper pairs energized at a ground level. Released into a vacuum, the phonons (initially formed to pair the electrons into Cooper pairs) affect the crystal lattice of the vacuum causing gravitational effects.  It is clear that to achieve the goal of a dramatic increase of the gravitational energy output while not raising the Cooper pairs’ energy to higher levels, one needs to increase the thickness of the superconductive disk and apply great amounts of energy.  A very long rod of superconductive material, stimulated by a large number of powerful electromagnets disposed along this rod, could provide many layers of Cooper pairs. The phonon energy, released by this multilayered generator, adds up into a relatively high-energy beam.  However, the cost of a very long high-temperature superconductor rod would be very high.   The energy requirements would be very high as well.  In order to make the device more portable, practical and efficient, but still very powerful, signal amplification is required. 

Kent at al has shown that the population could be inverted in both the photon amplifiers and the phonon generators.  One could then conclude that the solution for the problem of the weakness of the gravitational energy beam is available in the 50-year old art of light and microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. 

Thus, the second, and more specific, object of this invention is the adaptation of the amplification concepts used in lasers and masers to vibration energy amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. In order to emit a more powerful beam, it is required to amplify the gravity-affecting waves before they are emitted (these amplified waves mathematically expressed as bundles of superposed phonons).  It is important to note that all the previously known gravity-affecting devices emitted single phonons, not their bundles.  The bundles of superposed phonons, upon the transition from a crystal lattice of the device of this invention into the crystal lattice of the vacuum, amplify, dampen, completely stop, or invert the natural lattice vibrations, thus locally affecting the gravitational energy.

Thus, the third and the most specific object of this invention is the development of a phonon maser emitting a collimated, coherent, and powerful beam of the bundles of superposed phonons, this beam, continuously or in impulses, affecting the local gravity or repulsion forces.

The Invention

A gravitohonon maser is comprised of a resonant cavity, a superconductive gain medium, and pumping means. The resonant cavity is comprised of highly reflective means and partially reflective means.  The superconductive gain medium is an elongated superconductor, which may be a crystalline high-temperature ceramic superconductor or a single-crystal superconductor.   The pumping means provide electromagnetic energy for the superconductive gain medium in order to form and then excite Cooper pairs.  Trapped in the resonant cavity and amplified by the population inversion, the resonating bundles of superposed free phonons eventually break through the partially reflective means and enter the vacuum of space in a collimated, coherent, and all-penetrating beam of bundles of superposed guest phonons.   This beam changes properties of the ambient space, including its gravitational energy.

Unlike the Podkletnov and De Matos - Tamjar machines that emit single gravitophonons, in the Gravitophonon Maser, billions of gravitophonon bundles could form a powerful, coherent, collimated, and all-penetrating attractive or repulsive beam of superposed gravitophonons.  Each bundle may comprise up to half of the Avogadro number (3.01 x 10^23) gravitophonons.  This makes the energy of each bundle as high as 7.31^(-11) Joules at wavelength of 1.24x10^(-14) meter.  As a result, the Maser' gravity (or antigravity) beam is many times stronger than the Earth’s gravity. 

Applications

Aerospace represents some of very important applications for this invention.  An air- or spacecraft could be launched and landed by, or with the assistance of, the phonon maser. The cost of sending a payload into orbit would be dramatically reduced.   Or the phonon maser could aim its beam at a space target to correct a satellite’s orbit or deflect an approaching comet away from the Earth. A built-in telescope or laser would assist in aiming the phonon maser at the space target.  

Wireless communications provide other uses for the phonon maser. Unlike radio, light, or microwave signals, the phonon maser beam cannot be obstructed or distorted by physical objects (atmosphere, water, structures, precipitation, mountains, etc.).   Because the phonon maser could transmit a signal to a receiving station through the mass of the Earth, one transmitter may replace a system of communication satellites that costs many billions of dollars to build and deploy.  

There are yet more applications of this invention in the wireless power transmission.   Construction of a power grid is an expensive enterprise. The phonon maser could transmit power onto a distant flywheel driving an electrical generator with no investment into infrastructure.

Another application of this invention is in medicine.  With the phonon maser or masers, the defective tissues or foreign bodies could be moved within, or removed from, a patient without making incisions.  The none-invasive surgeries with the phonon maser could be relatively inexpensive, quick, safe, and result in greatly reduced hospital stays. 

Still another application of this invention is as a spaceship engine. Such an engine could be comprised of two phonon masers.  One phonon maser could project a powerful beam of the bundles of superposed phonons in one direction, and another phonon maser could project a similarly powerful beam of the bundles of superposed anti-phonons in the opposite direction.  By creating repulsion (and expanding spacetime) behind the spaceship and creating gravity (and contracting spacetime) in front of it, the spaceship engine could generate high-speed propulsion. 

Many other applications for the phonon maser will become obvious in the future.  The embodiments, most appropriate for these new applications and broadly based on this invention, are within the scope of this invention.
































The home of Gravitophonon Maser, the important new invention of Boris Volfson.  Other Volfson inventions include Antigravity Spaceship, US Patent No. 6,960,975, and Antigravity Chamber. antigravity, Boris Volfson, gravitophonon maser, antigravity maser, phonon, photon, Gravitophonon Maser, phonon maser, antigravity maser, gravitophonon laser, phonon laser, antigravity laser, Borris Volfson, antigravity spaceship, Menahem Simhony, Simhony, Volfson, laser, maser, 6,960,975, US Patent 6,960,975, test chamber vacuum, inflationary vacuum, population inversion, phonon maser, graviphonon, phonon laser, Boris Wolfson, gravity waves, gravitational waves, EPOLA, crystal lattice of the vacuum, photon laser, photon maser, graviphonon, graviphoton, graviphonon maser, graviphonon laser,gravitophoton maser, gravitophonon laser. 





copyright © February 2006 by Boris Volfson



Please read this paper first before proceeding to the Maser Construction , Maser Method and Maser Uses pages.
Go straight to the Discussion paragraph to learn about gravitophonons and gravitophonon bundles.