The Census of India 2001 has been an historic and epoch making census, being the first census of the third millennium. It has produced wealth of data on the state of abundant human resources inhabiting the country, their demographic and economic structure, social and other characteristics.

   

 
population
Persons@
1,028,737,436
Males
532,223,090
Females
496,514,346
Rural
742,617,747
Urban
286,119,689
% Urban population
27.8%

Note :@

The total population and rural population include estimated population of 127,108 for Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur. India's population without the estimated population of these areas is 1,028,610,328 (532,156,772 males and 496,453,556 females)

   


  The total geo-graphical area of the country is 3,287,240 sq.km. This includes 120,849 sq. km. of area under the illegal occupation of Pakistan and China. The largest state in India in terms of geographical area is Rajasthan with an area of 342,239 sq.km.

   The total population of India at the 00.00 hours of 1st March 2001 stood at 1,028,737,436 comprising 532,223,090 males and 496,514,346 females.

   At the International level, India accounts fro only 2.4 percent of the world surface are and yet it supports and sustains 16.9 percent of the world population. In 150 China with 22 percent of population led the world followed by India with 14.2 percent. It is estimated that by 2050, India will overtake China to become the most populous country on the earth with about 17.2 percent population living here.

   Uttar Pradesh with a population of more than 166 million holds distinction of being the most populous state in the country followed by Maharastra (97 million) and Bihar (83 million). The other large states, in terms of population size are West Bengal (80 million),Andhra Pradesh (76 million), Tamil Nadu (62 million), Madhya Pradesh (60 million), Rajsthan (57 million) and Gujrat (51 million). These states together account for 76 percent of the total population of the country.

   Among the union territories, Delhi (13.8 million) ranks first in terms of population whereas Lakshdweep with a population of 60,650 occupies the lowest rank. The population of the country.

   India lives in its villages. Due to diverse geographical terrain the size of the villages in small, in plain areas the villages tend to be bigger. Out of a total of 5.94 lakh inhabited villages in the country, the largest number of villages (1.45 lakh)are in the population size group of 500-999 persons, followed by the groups 100-1999 (1.30 lakh) and 200-499 (1.28 lakh). There are 3,961 villages, which have a population of 10,000 persons or more.

TABLE 1: NUMBER OF VILLAGES AND UAs / TOWNS BY SIZE CLASS AND THEIR POPULATION

Ranges
No. of villages
Population
Ranges
No.of UAs/Towns
Population
Less than 100
45,276
2,274,375
Less than 5000
192
667,772
100-199
46,276
6,912,023
5,000-9,999
879
6,658,356
200-499
127,511
43,960,187
10,000-19,999
1,346
19,458,295
500-999
145,402
105,274,341
20,000-49,999
1,163
35,154,857
1,000-1,999
129,977
183,294,133
50,000-99,999
404
27,832,412
2,000-9,999
80,413
239,184,866
1,00,000-4,99,999
320
60,554,358
5,000-9,999
14,799
98,112,136
5,00,000-9,99,999
39
27,503,626
10,000 & above
3,961
63,478,578
10,00,000-& above
35
108,290,013
Total
593,615
742,490,639
Total
4,378
286,119,689
Source : Primary Census Abstract, India, Census of India 2001.

   As in case of the villages, the UAs / towns also very considerably in terms of population size. Largest numbers of UAs / towns are in the population size group 10,000 to 19,999 persons with 1,346 UAs / towns falling in this group. The total number of UAs / towns with more than one million populations is 35. Mumbai Urban Agglomeration with 1604 million populations is the largest UA in terms of Population, followed by Kolkata UA (13.2 million) and Delhi UA (12.9 million). List of the million plus UAs / Cities is given below:

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