Giant Squid and Colossal Squid Fact Sheet (page 2 of 2)By Dr. Steve O'Shea -- Last updated: 5/6/03
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Kondakovia longimana Filippova, 1972 (Fig. 10)
Vernacular: Giant Warty Squid; Longarm Octopus Squid
Kondakovia longimana is one of two squid known to reach giant size in the Antarctic (the other being Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni). It is a major prey species for sperm whales (second largest food source by weight, with annual consumption estimated at 2.10 x 106 tonnes) (Roper et al. 1985). It is also the largest squid preyed upon by albatross and increases in their dietary importance with increasing latitude / decreasing temperature (Imber 1992). It has been captured in nets from 0 to 50 m depth, but most specimens have been taken from the stomachs of sperm whales caught over water depths in excess of 2000 m (Roper et al. 1985).
It is possible that the first reported specimens of this species are different from any specimen subsequently referred to this species (that is to say, several species may be presently confused as one). The group is in need of immediate systematic revision. Diagnosis: ML to 850 (probably 1150+) mm. Skin of mantle, head and proximal portions of arms and fins with fleshy longitudinal ridges. Nuchal folds and photophores absent. Arms shorter than (7080% of) mantle. Tentacles short, 100120% ML. Tentacle club manus with 1719 pairs of hooks and always two complete rows of marginal suckers. Tentacular hooks with broad lateral blades forming a V-shaped ridge across claw distally and two interior lobes visible orally through aperture.
Number of adult specimens known (reported) : Five. Vacchi et al. (1994) reported some of the measures and indices of one adult female specimen (ML 670 mm) from Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea), which was found alive, kept in captivity until its death, and then preserved. Three other adult females (material from the National Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa) are presently being described (Bolstad in prep.). The only known male specimen in good condition lacked tentacles (Clarke 1980).
Predators: Several species of toothed whale (Clarke & Macleod 1982, Martin & Clarke 1986, Nemoto et al.1988, Clarke & Goodall 1994), seal (Goldsworthy et al. 2001), penguin (Offredo et al. 1985, Adams & Klages 1987, Ballance et al. 2001, Goldsworthy et al. 2001, Piatkowski et al. 2001), albatross (Imber & Russ 1975, Imber 1992, van den Hoff 2001, Xavier et al. 2003), petrel (Nel et al. 2000, Ballance et al. 2001, Goldsworthy et al. 2001), bony fish (Goldsworthy et al. 2002, Cherel et al. 2004), and shark (Cherel & Duhamel 2004).
Reproduction : Unknown.
Kondakovia, like Mesonychoteuthis, could occur in southernmost New Zealand waters.
Closest record (unreported): Unknown.
Publication : In an international journal, probably by mid 2004
Adams, N.J. ; Klages, N.T. 1987. Seasonal variation in the diet of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Journal of Zoology (London) 212: 303324.
Ballance, L.T.; Ainley, D.G.; Hunt, G.L. Jr. 2001. Seabird Foraging Ecology. In: Steele, J.H.; Thorpe , S.A. ; Turekian, A.A. (eds). Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences vol. 5. Academic Press, London . 26362644.
Cherel, Y.; Duhamel, G. 2004. Antarctic jaws: cephalopod prey of sharks in the Kerguelen waters. Deep-Sea Research I 51: 1731.
Cherel, Y.; Duhamel, G.; Gasco, N. 2004. Cephalopod fauna of subantarctic islands: new information from predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series 266: 143156.Clarke, M.R. 1972. New technique for the study of sperm whale migration. Nature 238: 405406.
Clarke, M.R. 1980. Cephalopoda in the diet of sperm whales of the southern hemisphere and their bearing on sperm whale biology. Discovery Reports 37: 1-324.
Clarke, M.R. ( ed .). 1986. A handbook for the identification of cephalopod beaks. Clarendon Press, Oxford : 1-273.
Clarke, M.R.; Goodall, N. 1994. Cephalopods in the diet of three odontocete cetacean species stranded at Tierra del Fuego, Globi cephalia melaena (Traill, 1809), Hyperoodon planifrons Flower, 1882 [sic], and Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacepede, 1804). Antarctic Science 6(2): 149154.
Clarke, M.R.; Martins, H.R.; Pascoe, P. 1993. The diet of sperm whales (Physeter macro cephalus Linnaeus 1758) off the Azores. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 339: 6782.
Goldsworthy, S.D.; He, X.; Tuck, G.N.; Lewis, M.; Williams, R. 2001. Trophic interactions between the Patagonian toothfish, its fishery, and seals and seabirds around Macquarie Island. Marine Ecology Progress Series 218: 283302.
Goldsworthy, S.D. ; Lewis, M.; Williams, R.; He, X.; Young, J.W.; van den Hoff, J. 2002. Diet of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) around Macquarie Island, South Pacific Ocean. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 4957.
Imber, M.J.; Russ, R.R. 1975. Some foods of the wandering
albatross (Diomedea exulans). New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs Wildlife Publication No. 174 22(1): 2736.
Martin, A.R.; Clarke, M.R. 1986. The Diet of Sperm Whales (Physeter catodon) Captured Between Iceland and Greenland . Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom . 66: 779790.
Nel, D.C.; Nel, J.L.; Ryan, P.G.; Klages, N.T.W.; Wilson, R.; Robertson, G. 2000. Foraging ecology of grey-headed mollymawks at Marion Island , southern Indian Ocean, in relation to longline fishing activity. Biological Conservation 96: 219231.
Nemoto, T.; Okiyama, M.; Iwasaki, N.; Kikuchi, T. 1988. Squid as predators on krill (Euphausia superba) and prey for sperm whales in the Southern Ocean. In: Sahrhage, D. (ed.) 1988. Antarctic Ocean
and resources variability . Berlin : Springer-Verlag
Offredo, C.; Ridoux, V.; Clarke, M.R. 1985. Cephalopods in the diets of Emperor and Adelie penguins in Adelie Land, Antarctica. Marine Biology 86: 199202.
Piatkowski, U.; Heinemann, H.; Pütz, K. 2001. Cephalopod prey of king
penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) breeding at Volunteer Beach, Falkland Islands, during austral winter 1996. Fisheries Research. 52: 7990.
Vacchi, M.; Greco, S; La Mesa, M. 1994. Kondakovia longimana Filippova, 1972 (Cephalopoda: Onychoteuthidae) from Terra Nova bay, Ross Sea. In: Rodhouse, P. G., Piatkowski, U. & Lu, C.C. (eds.) 1994. Southern Ocean cephalopods: life cycles and populations. Antarctic Science 6: 283.
Van den Hoff, J. 2001. Further observations on the cephalopod diet of Wandering Albatrosses (Diomedea exulans L.) at Macquarie Island . Emu 101: 169172.
Xavier, J.C.; Croxall, J.P.; Tratham, P.N.; Wood, A.G. 2003. Feeding strategies and diets of breeding grey-headed and wandering albatrosses at South Georgia. Marine Biology 143: 221232.
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