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Sun: Facts & Figures
Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Unknown
Equatorial Radius
Metric: 695,500 km
English: 432,200 miles
Scientific Notation: 6.955 x 105 km
By Comparison: 109 x that of Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 4,379,000 km
English: 2,715,000 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.36 x 106 km
By Comparison: 109 x that of Earth
Volume
Metric: 1,412,200,000,000,000,000 km3
English: 2.7403 x 1017 mi3
Scientific Notation: 1.412 x 1018 km3
By Comparison: 1,300,000 Earths
Mass
Metric: 1,989,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
English: 4,385,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 lbs
Scientific Notation: 1.989 x 1030 kg
By Comparison: 332,900 x Earth's
Density
Metric: 1.409 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.255 that of Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 6,087,799,000,000 km2
English: 2,347,000,000,000 square miles
Scientific Notation: 6.0877 x 1012 km2
By Comparison: 11,990 Earths
Equatorial Surface Gravity
Metric: 274.0 m/s2
English: 899.0 ft/s2
Scientific Notation: 2.740 x 102 m/s2
By Comparison: 28 x Earth's surface gravity
Escape Velocity
Metric: 2,223,720 km/h
English: 1,381,760 mph
Scientific Notation: 6.177 x 105 m/s
By Comparison: 55 x Earth
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
25.38 Earth days
609.12 hours
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: 5,500 °C
English: 10,000 °F
Effective Temperature
Metric: 5504 °C
English: 9939 °F
Scientific Notation: 5777 K

Additional Information:

Spectral Type: G2 V Luminosity: 3.83 x 10 33 ergs/sec.

Age: 4.6 Billion Years

Composition: 92.1% Hydrogen, 7.8%Helium

Synodic Period: 27.2753 days

Rotation Period at Equator: 26.8 days

Rotation Period at Poles: 36 days

Velocity Relative to Near Stars: 19.7 km/s

Mean Distance to Earth: 149.60 million km (92.96 million mi) (1 astronomical unit)

Solar Constant (Total Solar Irradiance): 1.365 - 1.369 kW/m2
(at the mean distance of the earth from the Sun, about one AU)
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