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Microclocks at NIST - CPT

Chip-Scale Atomic Devices at NIST

 
Chip-scale vapor cell on a fingertip
Mounted VCSEL

 

A chip-scale atomic clock physics package
Diode laser on sub-mount
Microfabricated optics sub-assembly

 

Photodiode on sub-mount

 

Alkali cell made from a hollow-core glass fiber

A microfabricated torsional cantilever

 

Microfabricated cells on a coin

 

Photodetector on sub-mount

Glass fiber cell preforms
Heaters
Microfabricated atomic vapor cell

 

Optics package mounted on substrate
VCSEL die

 

The NIST program on chip-scale atomic devices (CSAD) seeks to design, build and characterize miniature atomic instruments and sensors based on fabrication techniques traditionally used in the field of microelectronics and micro-electric-mechanical systems (MEMS). We are currently building structures (such as those shown above) that are the size of a grain of rice (V < 10 mm3) and could run on a AA battery (dissipate < 75 mW). These atomic clocks are stable enough that they neither gain nor lose more than ten millionths of a second over the course of one day, and are paving the way for atomic-level timekeeping in portable, battery-operated systems such as global positioning receivers and wireless communication devices.

The 2007 NIST-CSAD Team

Research positions available

New results:

New May 2007: Differential atomic magnetometry with a diverging laser beam

The Physics of Coherent Population Trapping

  1. Coherent population trapping (CPT)

  2. Atomic clocks based on CPT

  3. High-contrast CPT resonances

  4. Differential coherent population trapping (coming soon)

  5. Wall-coated alkali vapor cells (coming soon)

Chip-scale atomic clocks:

  1. Physics package fabrication

  2. Performance

  3. Electronics and local oscillator

  4. Power and thermal management

  5. Applications

  6. Long term frequency stability of chip-scale atomic clocks

  7. Basic questions and answers

Advanced chip-scale atomic clocks:

  1. CSACs with improved short-term stability

  2. Atomic vapor cells with improved long-term stability

  3. Long-term frequency stability of chip-scale atomic clocks

Chip-scale atomic magnetometers:

  1. A chip-scale atomic magnetometer based on CPT

  2. Atoms coupled to magnetic, mechanically resonant microstructures

  3. A self-oscillating Rubidium magnetometer using nonlinear magneto-optic rotation

Acknowledgements:

This work was carried out in collaboration with the Electromagnetic Technology Division with funding from NIST and the Microsystems Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). For additional information on this work, please contact John Kitching.

List of References

New December 2005:

V. Gerginov, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, "Long-term frequency instability of CPT clocks with microfabricated vapor cells," Accepted, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, V. Shah, L. Liew, J. Moreland, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, "Microfabricated Atomic Clocks and Magnetometers," Accepted, J. Phys. A.

Requires Adobe Acrobrat Reader P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, "Self-oscillating Rb magnetometer using non-linear magneto-optic rotation," Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 126103, 2005.

Requires Adobe Acrobrat Reader J. Kitching, S. Knappe, L. Liew, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, V. Shah, J. Moreland, A. Brannon, J. Breitbarth, Z. Popovic, and L. Hollberg, "Chip-Scale Atomic Frequency References," presented at ION-GNSS, Long Beach, CA, 2005.

Requires Adobe Acrobrat Reader J. Moreland, J. Kitching, P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah, V. Gerginov, Y.-J. Wang, and L. Hollberg, "Chip-scale atomic magnetometers," presented at 2005 Meeting of the Military Sensing Symposia (MSS) Specialty Group on Battlefield Acoustic and Seismic Sensing, Magnetic and Electric Field Sensors (BAMS), Laurel, MD, 2005.

Requires Adobe Acrobrat Reader V. Gerginov, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Liew, J. Moreland, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, A. Brannon, J. Breitbarth, and Z. Popovic, "Component-Level Demonstration of a Microfabricated Atomic Frequency Reference," presented at Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, 2005.

Requires Adobe Acrobrat Reader S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, V. Shah, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, "Microfabricated Atomic Clocks and Magnetometers," presented at International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, Cairngorms National Park, Scotland 2005.

Requires Adobe Acrobrat Reader J. Kitching, S. Knappe, L. Liew, J. Moreland, H. G. Robinson, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, and L. Hollberg, "Microfabricated atomic clocks," presented at 18th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Miami, FL, 2005.

Requires Adobe Acrobrat Reader J. Kitching, S. Knappe, L. Liew, J. Moreland, H. G. Robinson, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, V. Gerginov, and L. Hollberg, "Chip-scale atomic clocks at NIST," presented at Proc. Nat. Conf. Stand. Lab. Int. (NCSLI), Washington, DC, 2005.

Requires Adobe Acrobrat Reader J. Kitching, S. Knappe, L. Liew, J. Moreland, H. G. Robinson, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, V. Gerginov, and L. Hollberg, "Chip-Scale Atomic Frequency References: Fabrication and Performance," presented at Proceedings of the European Frequency and Time Forum, Besancon, France, 2005.