THIS county is situated nearly in the centre of England, and from its extended and irregular figure, borders on more counties than any other shire in the kingdom. Towards the north, the rivers Avon, and Welland divide it from Leicestershire, Rutlandshire, and Licolnshire; on the east it is bounded by Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, and Bedfordshire; on the south, by Buckinghamshire, and part of Oxfordshire; and on the west, the Charwell secures it from another portion of Oxfordshire whilst the Learn, for a short distance, and then the old Roman Watling Street, separate it from Warwickshire. To the north east, the limits, or county boundaries, are not fixed with certainty. About the year 1670, the inhabitants of Crowland, in Lincolnshire, laid claim, to about four hundred acres of ground adjoining the great Borough-Fen, and which were formerly considered as part of this county; but the inhabitants of the Soke asserting their right of possession, the dispute, by trial at law, was deter mined in their favor. A commission was then issued to a jury of gentlemen, of which Sir Edmundbury Godfrey is said to have been foreman, who came from London to view the premises, and terminate the contest. For this purpose they traced the boundaries of the county, from St. Martin’s, at Stamford, with great exactness; and Northamptonshire was adjudged to extend eastward as far as Crowland Bridge. But in the parish of Barnack, the most northern situation in the county, the distinct limits were not then settled, and still continue, as in some adjoining parishes, uncertain. The extent of Northamptonshire, in its present state, may be estimated at nearly 66 miles, in it longest diameter, i.e. from its most western verge at Aynho, to the remotest north-eastern limit near Crowland. Its greatest breadth, from Hargrave in the east, to Barbv in the west, is estimated at about thirty miles; yet the average width, perhaps is not twenty miles: and from Brackley across to Astrop in the south, also from Peterborough, in a northerly direction to Peakirk, does not exceed eight miles. The circumference may be estimated at 216 miles, and the superficial area of the whole has been computed at 550,000 acres; but the latest authorities referred to in the poor returns to Parliament, state it to be 617,000, of which 290,000 are said to be arable, 33,000 in pasturage, and about 86,000 uncultivated, including woodlands. It contains one city, 11 market towns, 336 parishes, and, according to the latest population returns, 27,401 houses, and 11,757 inhabitants.
At the time of the general Norman Survey, there were thirty hundreds and Wapentakes in the county of Northampton, a we find them recorded in Domesday Book, viz. Wicesle (Wapentake), Gravesende, Coltrewesto, Corbei, Wilebroc, Rodewelle, Maleste, Nevesland, Hecham, Hocheslau, Ordinbaro, Claislund, Sutone, Nivebote, Naresford, Stodfalde, Wardone, Wimersle, Hanvordesho, Gillesburg, Stoche, Pochebroc, Optone, Aluratleu, Spelho, Foxle, Towcestre, Alboldeston, Colstreu, Aiwardeslea. When this survey was made, a considerable part of Rutlandshire was included in the county of Northampton; but in the fifth year of King John, we have mention made of it as a separate shire; and by an inquisition taken, in the fourth of Edward the First, it- was certified to have been given by Henry the Third to the King of the Almains. By a later division the hundreds were reduced to twenty-eight; and in the reign of Edward the Second they were further contracted to the present number of twenty, and were called by the names which they now bear: ten being comprehended in the eastern division of the county, and ten in the western.
ROMAN ANTIQUITIES, &c. When the Romans took possession of the central part of Britain, they found it occupied by a tribe of people known by the name of Coritani; an account of whom has already been given in the third volume of the pre sent work. These being subjugated, their conquerors soon began to form military roads and fortresses, f which it is in tended to give a concise account of such as were included with in that part of their territory, since called Northamptonshire. Two great roads, or via-strata, crossed the county; and were directly or collaterally connected with several permanent stations, temporary encampments, and vicinal-ways. The WATLING STREET, in proceeding from the south, towards the north, enters Northamptonshire, at, or near Stratford, and continuing in almost a direct line across the county, leaves it at Dove Bridge. On this course there appears to have been three stations, as mentioned both in the second and sixth Iters of Antoninus: and also in the Itinerary of Richard of Cirencester. (Ref 1) These were Lactodorum, 17 miles from Magiovinium; Bennavennam, or Isannavotia, 12 miles from the first; and Triopontium 12 miles distant from the latter. Much difference of opinion has prevailed among antiquaries respecting the sites of these stations; and it will not be an easy task to reconcile the disputes of those who argue from maxims of theory, rather than the evidence of remains, situations, and probable description. From the known and indisputable station of Verulain, St. Alban’s, the Watling Street in it progress northward passed Durocobrivis near Dunstable, and Magiovinium, in the vicinity of Stratford. From this to Lactodorum was 17 miles, which distance, with the name still retained of Towcester, and the vestiges of the place, are tolerably satisfactory proofs, as to the site of this station. The Bishop of Cloyne, says unequivocally that Towcester “must have been the Lactodorum.” The next Roman town on this road was Benaventa, or Bennavennum, which has been variously placed at Weedon bec (Ref 2) at Castle-Dykes, and near Daventry; but the superior claims of the latter are decisive from mere cursory view of each place. Here is the immense en campment (Ref 3) called Borough-hill; also the remains of other fortifications named Burnt-walls, &c. in a valley to the west. In an adjoining wood, close to the present turnpike road, are other military works, called John of Gaunt’s Castle, which probably constituted part of the Roman station. Twelve miles north of this was Tripontium, a name descriptive of its situation, and character. This station is usually assigned to Lilburn, where is a conical artificial bill, probably the keep of a fortress, and some castrametations. Causeways, pavements, and other an cient vestiges have been found here.(Ref 4)
Besides the stations and roads already noticed, there appears to have been other works of the Romans on the western side of this county. The great encampment called castle-Dykes, south eat of Wedon, appears to have been either formed, or altered by the Romans. It was a fortress of great strength and magnitude About three miles to the east is Nether-Heyford, where part of a tessellated pavement was discovered in 1699. This was, however, only a fragment of a common floor, though Moreton describes it as “a noble piece of art, exceeding all that I ha seen, or read of.” (Ref 5)
About three miles south-west of Daventry is ARBURY a large encampment on the summit of a hill. Moreton and Reynolds attribute this to the Romans; and the former describes it as being on “ one of the highest hills in the county.” At Guiisborough, are some entrenchments, called “THE BOROUGHs,” which Stukeley pronounced to be “traces of a Roman camp.” In the south-western angle of the county, between the villages of Aynho, and Newbottle, is another entrenchment called RAYNSBURY. CAMP. From what has been already stated, it is evident that the western side of Northampton abounded with military posts, during the Roman colonization of England and from reviewing this district, with the parts of Warwick- shire, and Oxfordshire, immediately adjoining, we shall find such other traces of the Roman as may serve to develope their general systems of military and political tactics, as these were evinced in a conquered country. In nearly a direct line, south from Raynsbury Camp, in the county of Oxford, the remains of a Roman road, called the port-way points towards Aldcestcr and Chesterton; and nearly parallel with that street, is a raised mound, named Aveditch-bank. These appear to have formed a communication between the fortress at Chesterton, and that at Raynsbury: it is indeed extremely probable that the same road, continued to, and formed a connecting line with the other great works at Castle-Dykes, Borough Hills, &c.(Ref 6)
For the other ancient remains, which may be strictly attributed to the Romans, we shall have to refer to the eastern side of the county, where the Roman road, called the forty-foot -way, or Ermine-street, is to be found. This enters the county from Huntingdonshire, near the village of Castor, where it passed the Nen river. Parts of this road, are still lofty and conspicuous between Castor and Upton; and again in the parish of Barnack. The only station, in this county on the line, was Durobriva, which was at or near Castor: some account of this has already has been given in the history of Huntingdonshire.
In order to show that the Romans occupied places, and established permanent habitations in other parts of the county, it will be sufficient to point out the spots where vestiges of those people have been found. The most considerable of their remains are some tessellated pavements, or floors of different rooms which were found at WELDON in the year 1738. The plan displayed, a long gallery, about 90 feet by 10; which communicated with seven other apartments. The whole formed nearly a parallelogram of 100 feet by 30; and consisted of foundation walls, and floors made of small tesserae laid in the common pattern. (Ref 8) Numerous coins of the lower Roman empire, and several of Constantine, Constans, &c. were discovered at the same time.
At COTTERSTOCK near Oundle, a tessellated pavement was found in the year 1736. It measured about 20 feet square;(Ref 9) and among the rubbish were fragments of urns, with shells, tiles, and horns and bones of beasts. In the year 1798, some further discoveries were made in the same field; consisting of one pavement nearly perfect, and fragments of others; also several coins, &c (Ref 10)
At THORPE, near Peterborough, Dr. Stukely says that a mosaic pavement was discovered; and at STANWICH near Higham Ferrars, Bridges describes a tessellated floor to have been found.
The names of IRCHESTER and CHESTER, near Wellingborough, induce us to expect something Roman there; and accordingly we find the remains of an encampment at Chester, of nearly a square form, which included an area of about 20 acres within it outer banks. Parts of brick pavements, coins, foundations of and other ancient relics have been found at this place, which is on the banks of the river Nen.
Near the same river, in Woodford field, “are manifest signs,” according to Moreton, “of a place possessed by the Romans.” Fragments of tessellated pavements, an urn and some other vestiges have been found at this village.
Such are the chief remains which have been discovered, relating to the Romans in this count and from these it appears evident that nearly the whole of the open parts of it was subservient to their military domination. On the banks of the Nen and Welland, it is probable that they occupied other fortresses, and villa’s; but these have never yet been sufficiently explored, or the entrenchments, satisfactorily described. Mr. Reynolds, in his “ Iter Britaniarium,” gives the following list of places, where certain antiquities have been found, that indicate Roman possession. Badby, Barnack, Barnwell, Castor, Catesby, Charlton, Chester, Chipping- Warden, Cogenhoo, Cotterstock, Drayton, East-Farndon, Guilsborough, Kettering, Northampton, .Pauls—perry, Piddington, Ringstead, Stanwick, Old Stratford, Thorpe, Wedon-Bec, Wedon-Pinkney, Great Weldon, Whilton, Wollaston, and Woodford.
SAXON and NORMAN ERAS, ENCAMPMENTS, and CASTI,ES. Soon after the Saxons had usurped possession of Britain, they subdivided it into different kingdoms, or states; and the present county was included within the Mercian Monarchy. Under this the great monasteries of Medenhamstead now Peterborough; and Crowland in the same district were founded. Indeed the former was the first, in the time of formation, and most important in size and consequence within the kingdom of Mercia; and this like its neighbour at Crowland, was plundered, and burnt by the Danes in their different predatory excursions into this part of the island. Medenhamsted, however, became so famous, that it was called Urbs-Regia, the royal city; and just before the Roman conquest it was pre-eminently distinguished by the title of Aurea- Civitas, or Golden city. From King Wulfere’s charter of endowments and privileges to this monastery, dated 664, we learn that several places in the vicinity were tributary to it. Among these the following names of towns and villages occur; Wansford, Cliff called Kings- Cliff, Estune, now Easton, and Northborough. Other places are named in King Edgar’s Charter, Anno 972. Oundle, then called Undale, is recorded in the Saxon Chronicle A.D. 709, when Bishop Wilferth died there. In Edgar’s Charter this place is referred to as a market-town of considerable note. At Stamford Baron, the monks of Medenhamsted kept a monistarium, or mint. Hamtune, now Northampton, is mentioned two or three times in the Saxon Chronicle: and it is generally admitted that this was a place of considerable strength and consequence during the repeated conflicts between the Saxons and Danes. The latter indeed kept possession of it for some time; Moreton says, about 39 years; and during their siege of, and residence in this town, it is said that the encampment, south of the place, called Huntsborough.- Camp, was formed. It is not only probable, hut well authenticated that the Saxons, Danes, and Normans, alternately and successively took possession of the chief Roman stations; and adapted them to their respective modes of attack and defence. In this county, Toseceaster, or Towcester, appears to have been burnt by the Danes, and King Edward ordered it to be rebuilt. In the year 921, this monarch with his army marched to Passenham, in order to expel the Danes from this part of the country. At this time Towcester was encompassed with a wall of stone: and Moreton conjectures that the King caused a small square encampment to be made on the Ouse at Passenham at that time.
Of entrenchments, and castellated remains, not hitherto named, there are traces and traditions concerning one, at each of the following places; Rockingiham, Braybrook, Higham-Ferrars, Drayton, Geddingion, Fineshed, Earls- Barton, Fotheringhay, Barnwell, Maxey, Preston- Capes, Sulgrave, Culworth, Thorpe- Waterville, Weekley, Cottingham, Longthorpe, &c. &c. Many of these, it is presumed, were the sites of the first Norman Baronial Castles.
Soon after the Norman conquest, the county of Northampton was granted, and subdivided in the following proportions, to the persons hereafter named. To Alan Rufus Earl of Britain, 1 manor; Waltheof Earl of Northampton, 4 manors: Judith his countess, 88 manors: Robert Earl of Moreton and Cornwall, 99 manors: Robert, Earl of Millent and Leicester, 3 manors: Robert de Vesci, 1; and Robert de Todenei, 9 manors. Robert de Stafford, 1: Alberic de Vere, 6: Jefery de Magnaville, 7: Walter . 1: Gunifrid de Coiches, 16 : Ralph de Limesi, 2: Ralph de Grantmesnil, 20: William Fitz-Ausculph, 4: William Peverel, 4: Robert D’ Oyley, 3: Ranuiph de Peverel, 44 Lordships. Besides these the King retained several lordships; others were belonging to monasteries, and some were granted to various in ferior persons.
|Names of Places.||Orders||Founded.||Granted to||Near|
|Aynho||Hospital||temp. Hen. II||Mag. Col. Ox. 1484||Brackley|
|Cannons Ashby||Bi. Can. P||temp. Hen. II||Sir Fras. Bryan||Banbury|
|Armston||Hospital||1232||Sir Edw. Montague Oundle||Oundle|
|Brackley||Hospital||temp. Hen. II||Mag. Col. Ox||--|
|Billing Parva||Aug. P||temp. Wm. I||Cell to St. Andrews, Northampton||Northampton|
|Castor||Nunnery||refounded 946||transferred to Peterborough||Peterborough|
|Catesby||Cistert. P||ante 1241||John Onley||Daventry|
|Chacomb||Aug. Can. P||temp. Hen. II||Michael Foxe||Banbury|
|Coltesbrook||Prmmonst. Cell to Sulby||--||Francis Pygot||Northampton|
|De la Pré||Cluniac A||temp. Steph||John Mershe||Northampton|
|Dingly||Kn Hospital||--||Edward Hastings||Harborough|
|Everdon||Alien P.||--||Et Hen.VI.||Daventry|
|Fyebury||Cell to Peterboro’||--||--||Peterborough|
|Fineshade||Bi. Can. A||temp. John||John Lord Russel||King’s Cliffe|
|Fotheringhay||Nunnery||--||annexed to Delapré temp. Steph.||Oundle|
|--||--||refounded by Edw IV||Duke of Northumberland 6 Ed. VI||--|
|Harrington||Kn. Hospt||temp.Hen.III.||Francis Pygot||Howell|
|Higham Ferrars||College||temp. Hen. V.||Robert Dacres||--|
|Irthlingborough||College||temp. Ed. III||--||Higham|
|Luffield||Bened. P.||temp. Hen. I.||became Cell to Westminster||Towcester|
|--||Cluniac P.||about 1076||Sir Thomas Smyth||--|
|--||Cr. Friars||temp.Hen.I||Richard Tavernee||--|
|--||Bl.||ante 1240||William Ranisden||--|
|--||St John Hos.||about 1168||--|
|--||St Thomas||--||about 1450||--|
|Northolm||Cell to Peterboro||--||--||Peterborough|
|Pipwell||Cister. A.||temp. Steph||W.Marquis of Northampton 1 Ed VI.||Rowell|
|Piriho||St. John hos||--||--||--|
|PETERBOROUGH||Bened. A.||655||destroyed 870||--|
|--||--||refounded 970||See of Peterborough||--|
|--||St. Leonardn Hos||uncertain||Ditto||--|
|--||St. Thomas Becket Hos||about 1180||--||--|
|Peakirk||Monastery||716||annexed to Peterborough 1048||Peterborough|
|Preston Capes||Monastery||temp. WM. I.||removed to Daven.||Daventry|
|Rowell||Aus. P.||uncertain||henry Lee||--|
|Sewardsley||Cistert. P||Hen. II||Richard Fermor||Toweester|
|St. James||Bl. Can. A.||ante 1112||J Gifford||Northampton|
|Sulby||Praemons A.||about 1155||Chris. Hatton||Wilford|
|Stamford Baron||Bened. P.||1155||Richard Cecil||--|
|--||St. John and St Thomas Hos||about 1176||See of Peterborough||--|
|Wedon Bec||Monastery||temp. Saxons about 680||destroyed by Danes||Daventry|
|Wedon Pinkney||Alien P.||--||All Souls Col. Ox.Hen VI||Banbury|
ECCLESIASTTCAL HISTORY, with concise accounts of THE BISHOPS OF PETERBOROUGH.--The precise period of the introduction of Christianity into this island, cannot be clearly ascertained, and its progress through the different districts, is involved in equal obscurity: according to Kennett,(Ref 11) “In tile year 634, Birinus, a missionary from Pope Honorius, having converted the West-Saxons to Christianity, founded an episcopal see at Dorchester,” in Oxford shire. In 680, a council was held at Hatfield, by Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, to settle the ecclesiastical constitution, and by the alteration then introduced, “ the see of Dorchester, which, from the time of Birinus, belonged to the West-Saxons pertained from henceforward to the kingdom of Mercia.” During the intestine commotions, which convulsed the two kingdoms, there was no regular succession of bishops, till king Offa having recovered Bensington, or Benson, in Oxfordshire, from the West-Saxons, about the year 779, re-settled the see of Dorchester, and in 794, the diocese is said, by Mathew of ‘Westminster, to have included, “ the counties of Oxford, Buckingham, Huntingdon, Cambridge, Northampton, and half of Hertfordshire,” Thus it continued for nearly three centuries, when by the authority of a council, held at London in 1072,
Dorchester, being considered too insignificant a place, this episcapal see was transferred to Lincoln, and Northamptonshire remained under its jurisdiction, till Henry the Eighth, having seized the temporalities, and secularized the abbey of Peter- borough, erected one of the six new bishoprics there, in the year, 1541 at the same time, he ordained by letters patent, that it should consist of a bishop, a dean, six prebendaries, and an archdeacon. Since the foundations of’ this see, the following prelates have successively filled the episcopal chair:
JOHN CHAMBERS, the last abbot, and first bishop, was a native of Peterborough, a benedictine monk, and placed at the head of the abbey, in 15 The year following, Cardinal Wolsey spent his Easter here, ingreat state, carrying his palm, and going with the monks, in procession, on Palm Sunday. In 15 Abbot Chambers, in conjunction, with John Walpool, the prior, and thirty-seven other monks, formally acknowledged the king’ supremacy, under their hand and seal; and in 1540, he resigned the abbey to the king, and had a liberal pension allowed him, but, before the expiration of another year, in consideration, probably, of those repeated proofs of prompt or rather servile subserviency to the views of the imperious Henry; he was presented with the new mitre, and had the temporalities of this see consigned to him on the 14th of September, though his consecration did not take place till the 23d of October, 1541. On his decease, in 1656, Queen Mary the first nominated
DAVID POLE or Poe D.D. who was consecrated, August 15, 1557, whose election was confirmed by a bull of Pope Paul the Fourth. He was descended from a noble family, received his education at Oxford, where be became fellow of All Souls College, and having acquired considerable eminence in the sway of the civil an4 Canon law, was appointed Archdeacon of Salop, Dean of the Arches, Archdeacon of Derby, and Chancellor of the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry. When Protestantism once more gained the ascendancy by Elizabeth’s succession to the throne, he lost his bishopric and his liberty; by refusing to acknowledge her supremacy; he was soon, however, restored to the latter, and retired to his estate, where be died in 1568, leaving all his books at London and Peter borough, to All Souls College. The vacancy in this see, arising from his removal was supplied by
EDMUND SCAMBLER. D.D.a native of Gressingham, in Lancashire, and chaplain to Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canter bury, who was consecrated in January, 1560, and was permitted to hold in common with it, the Prebend of Wistow, in the Cathedral of York, and a canonry a in the church of Westminster. Whether judging an explicit decloration of religious principles expedient or suspecting some of the chapter of being tainted with these of his predecessor, he was induced to draw up twenty- three articles, to which he required their subscription: certain it is, he was more tenacious of their faith than their privileges, for he surrendered to the crown the hundred and liberties of Nassaburgh, with the gaol and the manors of Southorp and Thirluby; in consideration of which he is said to have received The see of Norwich; when
RICHARD HOWLAND. D.D. successively master of Magdalen and St. Johns Colleges, Cambridge, was elected in his stead, 1584 In 1587 Mary, Queen of Scots, was beheaded at Fotheringhay castle, and buried in this Cathedral, on the 5th of August ; but her son James, when he ascended the British throne removed the body to Westminster Abbey.
After presiding over this diocese sixteen years, Bishop Howland died, at Castor, in 1600, and his remains were interred in the ‘east end “of his cathedral, without any memorial. He was succeeded by
THOMAS DOVE. D.D. Dean of Norwich, who had been the favourite chaplain of Queen Elizabeth, by whom he was raised to this see, for his eloquence, and presided over it thirty years, dying in 1630. He was buried in the north-cross aisle, and a handsome monument erected to his memory, by his son, which was destroyed during the civil war. The Dean of the diocese,
WILLIAM PIERSE, D. D. became the new bishop; but scarcely two years elapsed, before be obtained the see of Bath and Wells, and
AUGUSTINE LINDSELL, D. D. Dean of Lichfleld, was introduced in 1632 Preferment followed him still more rapidly, for the year following, he was translated to Hereford, and his place here filled by
FRANCIS DEE, D. D. who retained it till his death in 1638, and was buried at time upper end of the choir of his cathedral. He was a man of distinguished piety and amiable manners. lie evinced his attachment to St. John’s College, Cambridge, where he was educated, by giving to it, during his life-time, the impropriate parsonage of Pagham, in Sussex, held by lease of the church of Canterbury, for the maintenance of two fellows and two scholars, for ever, to be elected out of Peterborough school. This bishopric was next bestowed on
JOHN TOWERS, D. D. a native of Norfolk, who had pre obtained considerable preferment in this county having been chaplain to the Earl of Northampton, who gave him the, living of Castle Ashby, and in 1630, he succeeded Bishop Pierce in the deanery. When the bishops, in 1641, were deterred, or prevented from attending the House of Lords, by a insurrection of the populace, he joined eleven of his brethren, in entering a protest against” all such Orders, votes, laws, resolutions, and determinations, as should be passed during their absence, from December 7, 1641, and declaring them to be null, and of no effect; for which they were all committed to the Tower, where, they were confined four months.”
On his release, he went to Peterborough, but finding his situation increasingly uncomfortable, repaired to the king at Ox ford, and resided there till the surrender of that city, to the parliamentary forces, when he returned to Peterborough, and passed the remainder of his days in poverty and distress. He died the 10th of January, 164 was interred, the following day, between the choir and the altar, in the grave of Abbot Henry, of Morcot. During the temporary extinction of episcopacy, under the Commonwealth, this see, and indeed every- other, lay dormant; but at the restoration of Charles the Second, in 1660, it was conferred on
BENJAMIN LANEY, D. D. a native of Ipswich, who had been chaplain in ordinary to Charles the First, and at the same time Master of Pembroke Hall, Oxford, and Prehendary both of Winchester and Westminster. About 164 he was deprived of his mastership for his distinguished loyality, and retired to the king, by whom he was employed in the treaty of Uxbridge, and when Charles the Second fled., he followed and attended him during his exile. Nor was Charles unmindful of this zealous attachment to, and sufferings in the royal cause, but took the earliest opportunity of re-instating him in the mastership of Pembroke Hall, gave him the deanery of Rochester, and permitted him to hold the mastership in common with this bishopric. His further advancement to Lincoln, in 1663, led to the elevation of
JOSEPH HENSHAW, D. D. another suffering royalist, who, at the opening of the civil war, was deprived of all his preferments, despoiled of his goods, and obliged to compound, at an exorbitant rate, for a small temporal estate, but fortunately found an asylum, under the hospitable roof of Lady Paulett, at Chiswick; and when monarchy again gained the ascendant, was almost immediately appointed Dean of Chichester; and in 1663, Bi shop of Peterborough, which last dignity, he enjoyed to the close of his life, in 1678. in May, 1679
WLLIAM LLOYD, D.D. received this See in exchange for that of Llaadaff and on his further translation to Norwich, in 1685, it was entrusted to
THOMAS WHITE, D. D. a native of Kent, Chaplain to the Prince of Denmark, afterwards Queen Anne, and Archdeacon of Nottingham. He was installed in. the Archbishop’s Chapel, at Lambeth. White was one of the Six spirited bishops, who, With Archbishop Sancroft at their head, signed and presented a petition to James the Se stating in the most firm, though respectful terms, their objections to promulgating and distributing his declaration for liberty of conscience. This being deemed by that arbitrary monarch a seditious libel, they were all committed to the Tower, as brought to trial; but all were acquitted, to the unbounded joy of the people. The glorious Revolution speedily followed, and our conscientious prelate lost his bishopric by re fusing to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy to William and Mary: yet such is the for of religious prejudice, that over the grave of a man thus ever ready. to sacrifice private interest on altar of public duty, Dr. Hicks (it is said) could not be prevaled on to read the burial service, though appointed by the deceased, himself to, the performance of that last sad office on his expulsion, their, majesties made choice of
RICHAIRD CUMBERLAND D D. (Ref 12), a country clergyman who, to his infinite surprise, walking into a coffee room, took up a newspaper, which gave him the first intimation of his good fortune; For this it is presumed, he was principally indebted to his “De legibus. natur disq philosophi ,“&c or a Philosophical Enquiry into the Laws of Nature : --- a work professedly directed against and very successfully combating, the metaphisical subtleties, of Hobbes. Having, reached the age of eighty-seven, no less distinguished by his virtues than learning, he was carried off by a paralytic stroke in 1718 and his diocese transferred to ‘
WHITE KENNET, D. D. Dean of the Cathedral. Whilst at the University he commenced his career as a political party writer, but after his introduction into the church he turned his controversial powers into that channel, and published several tracts in opposition to popery, and in defence of the establishment.
He died in 1728 and in his room was appointed
ROBERT CLAVERING, D. D. Hebrew Professor at Oxford, whose removal by death in 1748,
JOHN THOMAS, D. D. who had previously been made Dean in 1740. He was private tutor to his present Majesty; in whichimportant and highly responsible situation, he fortunately secured the approbation of his royal master, and the affection of his royal pupil; and reaped the harvest of their gratitude in the successive bishoperies of Peterborough, Salisbury and Winchester. On his acceptance of Salisbury in 1757, this see devolved on
RICHARD TERRICK, D. D. one of the King’s chaplains and, can of St. Pauls; who in 1764 exchanged it for the more honorable and lucrative one of London, when
ROBERT LAMB, D. D. left the Deanery for the Palace, but did not live to enjoy this new accession of dignity, more than five years,’
JOHN HINCHCLIFFE, D. D. Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, being collated to it in 1769. The ministry being desirous, for political, reasons, of removing him from his mastership, he was induced to resign in 1778, and obtained the golden deanery of Durham, which be held in commendam with his bishopric till his death in 1794, when the mitre, which this truly respectable and conscientious prelate had worn for twenty-five years, was consigned to .
SPENCER MADAN, D. D. then Bishop of Bristol, who is the present possessor of the See
Nobility of the County., with the titles derived from places in it; and a List of Noblemen’s and Gentlemen’s Seats.
Grafton This place gives title of Duke to Augustus Henry Fitzroy, (1675.)
Thornhaugh In 1603 the title of Baron Russel of Thornhaugh was conferred on the noble family of Russel.
Burleigh. Near Stamford, gave title to William Cecil, Baron Burleigh, in 1570
Northampton. This town has conferred the title of Earl from a very remote period and in 1618; it was granted to William, Lord Compton ; and is still continued in the same family.
Peterborough Gives the title of Earl to the Mordaunts, (1628).
Harrington Charles Stanhope, Baron Harrington, 1729, Earl of & Harrington 1742
Norborough William Wentworth Fitzwilliam, Earl Fitzwilliam, of Norborough (1746,) Baron Fitzwilliam, of Milton, (1742) and Viscount Milton (1746.)
Brackley. John William Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater, Viscount Brackley, (1616).
George Finch, Earl of Winchester and Nottingham, Viscount Maidstone, Baron Fitzherbert, of Eastwell, and Baron Finch, of Daventry, (1673).
Dean James Brudenell, Earl of Cardigan, Baron Brudenell, of Dean, (1780).
George John Spencer, Earl Spencer, Viscount Althorpe, (1765).
Drayton Sackville, Viscount Sackville of Drayton (1782).
Boughton Henry James Montague Scott, Baron Montague, of Boughton, (1786).
Braybrooke. Richard Aldworth Neville Griffin, Baron Braybrooke,
Lilford Thomas Powys, Baron Lilford, (1797)
Norden in his, very short account of this county observes, “The fertilitie, salutarie ayre, plea prospects, and conveniencie of this shire, in all things, to a generous and noble mynde, have so allured nobilitie to plante themselves within the same; that ‘no shire within this realme, can answer the like number of Noblemen as are seated in these parts.”. Her Majesty, he says, had three seats; “Grafton Colleweston, and Fotheringhay,” and eleven parkes; four more belonged to Noblemen five to Knights five to squires “So full,” he further remarks” of gentry, that it may be called the Herald’s Garden.”
Seats Of Nobility WAKEFIELD LAWN Duke of Grafton. BURGHLEIGH HOUSE, Marquis of Exeter ALTHORPE, Earl Spencer APETHORPE Earl of Westmoreland CASTLE ASHBY, Earl of Northampton DEAN Earl of Cardigan EASTON NESTON CASTLE Earl of Pomfret. FARMING WOOD HALL Earl of Upper Ossory MILTON ABBEY, Earl Fitzwilliam DRAYTON HOUSE Viscount Sackville. RUSHTON HALL Viscount Cullen. ALDWINKLE Dowager Lady Lilford. BOUGHTON HOUSE, Duke and Duchess of Buccleugh LILFORD, Lord Lilford. ROCKINGRAM CASTLE, Lord Sondes WHITTLEBURY FOREST Lord Southampton. PETERBOROUGH PALACE Bishop of Peterborough. BARONETS AND COMMONERS. CANONS ASHBY, Sir Edward Dryden, Bart. BIGGIN HALL Sir Isaac Pocock, residence of Charles Berkeley, Esq. CARLTON, Sir John Palmer, Bart. COTTERSTOOK HALL, Lady Booth COTTERSTOOK HALL, Sir William Langham, Bart CLOPTON HALL Late Sir Booth Williams. COURTEEN HALL Sir William Wake, Bart. CRANFORD HALL, Sir George Robinson, Bart. FAWSLEYS PARK Sir John Knightley, Bart. FINEDON HALL Sir William. Dolben, Bart. residence of Earl of Egmont HORTON Sir Robt Gunning, K. B. LAMPORT Sir Justinian Isham, Bart. GREAT OAKLEY Sir R Brook deCapelBrooke, Bt. SUDBOROUGH, Rev. Sir Thos. Hewett, Bart. ABINGTON John Harvey Thursby, Esq ARTHINGWORTH HALL Rev. Lan Rokeby. LEDGER’S ASHBY Mrs. Ashley. LEDGERS ASHBY LODGE George Henry Arnold, Esq. ASTROP Rev. William Shippen Willes. AYNHO HALL W.Ralph Cartwright, Esq. M. P. BAINTOM Robert Henson, Esq. EARL’S BARTON William Whitworth, Esq. BARTON SEAGRAVE HALL. Charles Tibbits,. Esq. BARTON SEAGRAVE PARSONAGE Hon. & Rev. R. B. Stopford. BILLING PADDOCK Robert Carey Elwes, Esq. BLAKESLEY HALL Mrs. Wright. BLATHERWICK HALL Henry O’Brien, Esq. BOUGHTON Rich. Wm. Howard Vyse, MP LAXTON HALL George Freke Evans, Esq. BRADDEN HOUSE Cornelius Ives, Esq BRIXWORTH HALL Walter Strickland, Esq. BROCKHALL Thomas Reeves Thornton, E BULWICK HALL Thomas Tryon, Esq. BURTON LATIMER Harper, Esq. CHACOMB PRIORY Charles Fox, Esq. COLTINGHAM Henry Boulton, Esq. COSGROVE John Christopher Mansell, Esq. COSGROVE PRIORY Ditto do. Do. Residence of Miss Lowiids. CRANFORD Rev Mr Hutchin, belonging to Sir G. Robinson. CRANSLEY John Capel Bose, Esq. DALLINGTON Miss Wright, residence of Robert Willis Blencowe, Esq. DE-LA-PRE ABBEY Edward Bouverie, Esq. DINGLEY HALL Late John Peach Hungerford EASTON, John Monkton. ECTON Samuel Isted, Esq EDGCOTT HALL Thomas Carter, M P EYDON LODGE Rev Francis Annestey FARTHINGNOE G Rush, Esq FINESHADE ABBEY Hon John Monckton FINEDON Mrs Raynsford residence of John Gray. GLENDON HALL Mrs. Booth, GUILSBOROUGH HALL William Zouch Lucas Ward,Esq. EAST HADDON HALL William Sawbridge Esq. HARLESTONE PARK Robert Andrews, Esq. HOLLYWELL . William Lucas, Esq. IMLEY HALL Mrs. Browne KILMARSH HALL William. Hanbury, Esq. KINGSTHORPE T Reeve Thornton, Esq ‘residence of Lady Cave KIRBY George Finch ,Hat on, Esq. unoccupied KNUSTON HALL Jos Gulston, Esq —Unoccupied MARSTON ST.LAWREWCE Samuel Blencour Esq. ORLINGSBURY Allen Edward Young, Esq. OVERSTONE HALL John Kipling, Esq. PITSFORD HALL Money, Esq. residence of Andrew Corbet, Esq. POLEBROKE Captain Hunt. RINGSTEAD Leonard Burton, Esq SHELBROOK LAWN Hon. General Fitzroy. SOUTHWICK HALL George Francis Lynn, Esq. STANFORD HALL Henry Otway, Esq. SUDBOROUGH HALL John Dore, belonging to the earl of Darlington STOKE Brian PARK Levison Vernon, Esq. SULBY HALL George Vayrie, Esq. TEETON HOUSE John Langton, Esq. THENFORD HALL Michael Woodhull, Esq. THORPE LUBBENHAM HALL Francis Paul Stratford, Esq. THORPE MALSER HALL Thomas Cecil Maunsel, Esq, THURNEY HALL James Welden Roberts, Esq. UFFORD HALL Edward Brown, Esq. UPTON HALL Thos.Sam . WatsonSamwell, Esq. WADENHO HALL Thomas Hunt, Esq. WOLCOT HOUSE Col. Neville Noel, residence of Statford O’Brien, Esq. WELTON PLACE John Plomer Clarke, Esq. WHITTLEBURY Hon. and Rev. H. Beauclerk. WOOLLASTON HALL Francis Dickens, Esq. WOOTON HALL William Harris, Esq. WICKEN Mrs., Prowse.
GEOGRAPHIAL FEATURES, NATURAL HISTORY, RIVERS, CANALS, FORESTS, &c.---At former period the greatest portion of Northamptonshire was occupied by the forests of Salcey, Whittle wood and Rockingham: and these still cover above 18,000 acres of land. This space, however, is not wholly devoted to woods. For within the boundaries, numerous deer, cattle, horses and sheep, are fed. Many of these are afterwards fattened on the rich grazing lands of the county, and then sent to the London markets. The prevailing system of husbandry is grazing, and many of the farmers are justly noted for their skilful management of land and stock. Mr. Pitt, in his “General View,” &c. bears this very honorable testimony in behalf of the Northamptonshire farmers. “They are not at all wanting in enterprize, energy, or the exertions necessary to effect improvements Witness the great progress already made in the improvement of their sheep stock.; and the activity and acuteness displayed in laying in their beasts for fatting I have also found them, in general, liberal, communicative, and free from those narrow jealousies which are too often excited by the enquiries of stranger.’ Mr. Donaldson observes “there are no very large farms within this county; for although great progress has of late years been made in inclosing the open fields, yet the lands are generally parcelled and let out again to the former tenants who occupied them in the open field style, and to such extent as it is supposed their abilities and circumstances would enable them to manage properly; so that it is only in the old inclosed parishes where there are farms of any considerable extent, and even then the rent of one farm seldom exceeds .500/-. a year In the newly inclosed parishes the farms are generally from 100/- to 300/- per annum.’ Mr. Pitt remarks in “a particular examination of the county, in the year 1806, I find that the general modes of occupation may be reduced to four.
“1. The common field occupations, consisting of arable land in the common field in constant tillage, and enclosures near the town or village generally at grass, together with the natural grass-land of the valleys, inclosed or open; these occupations are titheable, and the present rents from l0s. to 20s per acre. In Rothwell, a farm of what is called four yard lands or about one twentieth part of the parish, has about one hundred and. twenty acres of open land, and thirty acres inclosed, five horses, eighteen head of cattle, of which one-half may be milkers and ninety-six sheep, twenty-four being attached to each yard land.
“2; Modern inclosures in alternate tillage and pasture. The pastures generally stocked, principally with sheep, of which there are farms of various sizes, with sometimes old pasture land attached, and employed in the feeding of cattle.
“3. Enclosed land, in alternate tillage and pasture, with pasture land attached thereto, the pasture land generally applied to supporting dairy cows. Of. these there are farms of various sizes, on which from seven, eight, and ten, to twenty, forty, and even sixty dairy cows are kept; the principal object being generally better for the London market. The inclosed land of this county is generally tithe free. Rent of farms, at present, 1806, from 20s. to 30s per acre; but near towns the land lets much higher.
“4. The ancient inclosed land, generally at grass, and applied to feeding sheep and oxen, or part mown for hay. In some parishes of this class, little or no grain is grown; the rent generally from s. to 30s. per acre, Those farms are the largest occupations in the county; I viewed one of six or seven hundred acres, and heard of much larger; but a considerable prportion of this land, of uncouth appearance, and overrun with ant hills is, probably, at a rent of not more than 20s per acre,”.
The surface of this county is peculiarly advantageous for cultivation, having neither dreary wastes nor rugged mountains; but is every where sufficiently regular for all the purposes of husbandry and tillage. Every hill is cultivated, or may be kept in a profitable state of pasturage, and every inequality in the surface contributes to its ornament and beauty. The upper and middle’ parts of the county are abundantly covered with extensive woods, which are intersected with numerous vistas and lawns.
Mr Donaldson, in his “General view” states, that there are 316 parishes in this county, 227 of which are in a state of inclosure, and 89 in open field; besides which there are many thousand acres of woodlands, and a large tract of rich valuable land called the Great Peterborough Fen, in a state of commonage; so that supposing the inclosed part of the county at present under the most approved modes of management, there is above one-third of the whole, by no means in the best state of cultivation of which it is susceptible. Without enumerating the various small commons, or the nature and extent of the a rights of pasture it may be sufficient to mention particularly
THE GREAT PETERBOROUCH FEN, a tract of fine level land, containing between six and seven thousand acres, of a soil, equal perhaps to any in the kingdom, and capable of the highest cultivation. It is situated between Peterborough and Crowland, towards the north-eastern angle of the county and : is subject to the depasturage of the cattle, horses, and sheep of thirty-two parishes or townships, which comprise what is commonly called the Soke of Peterborough. The right of commonage is considered to be scarcely of any value: but if this portion of land was converted into private property, a divided into farms of a proper size, advantages, both of a public and private nature, must necessarily be the result.
WOODLANDS. The extensive tracts of woodland in this county consist either of forests, chases or purlieu woods. Of the forests, the principal is that of Rockingham, which is situated in the northern part of the county, and extends for nearly twenty miles in one direction. The two large forests of Whittlewood and Salcey, lie towards the southern border of the county. There are two chases; Geddington and Yardly: the former was once a part of Rockingham forest but permission was given by the crown, many years since, to the ancestors of the Montague family to disforest it, and convert it into a chase. Yardly chase was once part of Salcey forest, but has also been deforested. Purlieu woods, are those which are situated in the vicinity of the forest and which at one time formed a part of them; but the respective owners having at some former periods obtained grants from the Crown to disforest them, and to consider them as their own private property, they are not now subject to any of the regulations of forest woods. The purlieu woods are extensive and numerous in this county, particularly towards the southern side, and upon the borders of Rockingham forest and besides these, there are several small tracts of woodland very advantageously situated in various parts of the county. The underwood in the forests and chases, principally consists of black and white thorn, ash, sallow, maple, and a small proportion of hazle. As the history, extent, rights and peculiarities of the forests, constitute a natural .feature in the topographical annals of this county, it will be requisite to detail them more fully’ In the History: of Hampshire, vol. V of this work, will be found an account of officers, and various other particulars respecting the royal forests.
The FOREST of SALCEY, is situated hear the south-eastern; border of the county, where it joins Buckinghamshire. From a perambulation, made in the time of King Edward the First, it appears that the limits had been extended by King John; but that the woods and, lawns afforested by that king, were disafforested by Edward, according to the tenor of the Charta de. Foresta, and in consequence of a grant of a fifteenth part of the movables of all his subjects. But though the Forest was, by solemn proceeding brought back to its ancient bound’s, and though the limits thus established, were followed and confirmed by usage, for more than three hundred years, an attempt was made by Charles the First, again to enlarge the Forest, and with that, view, in the year 1639, a new perambulation was made, by which a considerable extent of country was added to it, and subjected to the burthen of the Forest Laws; but this oppressive measure, which was extended also to several other forests, was rendered ineffectual by an Act of Parliament, in 1641, which confined all the Royal Forests to their reputed limits in the twentieth year of the preceding reign.
The lands, now considered as forest, and in which the crown is possessed of the timber and other valuable rights, extend in length, about two miles and a ha1f and in breadth nearly one mile and a half, and contain 1847 acres, 23 poles, statute measure consisting of the following particulars:
Acres R. P 1121. 3. 24. are divided into 24 coppices covered with timber and underwood. 470 3. 37. are open plains and ridings, never inclosed 74 2. 8. are inclosed meadow and pasture lands, occupied by the Warden and Keepers, with their respective lodges. 179. 2. 34. are inclosed lawns, appropriated to the use of the deer, and the cattle of the Warden and Keepers.
The whole is divided into four walks, viz. Hanslop, Piddingtonn, Hartwell, and the Deputy Ranger’s walk. The first is partly in Hanslop parish, and partly extra-parochial; the second, in the parish of Piddington; the third, in the parishes of Hartwell, Ashton, Piddington, and part extra-parochial; the fourth, in the parish of Piddington, and partly extra-parochial.
By the custom of this forest, the under-wood of the several coppices is cut in rotation, at twenty-one years’ growth; and after each cutting, the coppices are inclosed, so as to exclude the commonable cattle, of the forest, for nine years, but the deer are admitted into them two years sooner, by means of creeps and deer leaps, made in the fences. At the end of nine years, they are again thrown open, and so continue for the remaining twelve years until he period of cutting the under-wood returns.
The owners or occupiers of lands in the parishes of Hartwell Ashton, Quinton, Piddington, and Hack in Northampton- shire, and Hanslop, in the county of Bucks, claim a right ofc mon of pasture, in the forest, from Old May-day to Martinmas, (23d of Nov,) for as many horses and cows, as they can keep in winter, on their lands, to which the right is appendant.
The Forest of Salcey, was made part of the honour. of Graf ton, by Act of Parliament, 33. Henry VIII. and. during the time that the coppices continued in the actual possession of the crown, the underwood was cut and sold, from time to time, by the regular Woodward, by virtue of warrants, from the Lord Treasurer or Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the profits ac counted for to the king’s use.
In the 17th year of Charles the Second, this forest together with that of Whittlewood, were settled on Queen Catharine, for her life, as part of her jointure, reserving all the timber trees and saplings for the use of the crown. And in the twenty-fifth year of that king, the several coppices, woods, under-woods, and woody lands in both these forests., were granted to Henry, Earl of Arlington, for the term of his life, after the decease of the Queen, and after his death, to Henry, Earl of Euston, (afterwards Duke of Grafton) Charles, Earl of Southampton, and George Lord Fitzroy, otherwise Lord George Palmer, Sons of Charles the Second, and their respective heirs male, for ever. By virtue of this grant, which commenced on the death of the Queen Dowager, 31st of December, 1705, the family of Grafton became entitled to, and now possess the underwood in the several coppices, which, after each cutting, are enclosed with a strong hedge and ditch, at the expense of the Duke of Grafton, except in those parts where the fences of the coppices form part of the outer boundary of the forest, the greater part of which, is fenced by the proprietors of the adjacent lands, and the residue with posts and rails, at the expense of the crown, The right to the under wood, is the only property, which the gamily of Grafton, appear to have in Salcey Forest.
This forest is under the government of the following officers, viz, a Warden, or Master Forestor; Lieutenant, or Deputy Warden; two Verderers; a Woodward; three Yeomen-keepers of the several walks of Hanslop, Piddington, and Hartwell; one Page Keeper; and the Surveyor General to the woods and forests.
The Warden, in right of this office, possesses the Great Lodge, which is a well built brick house, having offices, with gardens, and pleasure grounds attached to it.
The number of deer kept in this forest, is about one thousand, of all sorts; and the number killed annually, is about twenty- eight brace of bucks, and twenty-four of does; of which four bucks, and four does, are supplied for the use of his Majesty’s household, in pursua of warrants, from the Board of Green Cloth; and six bucks and six does, (more or less, as the forest is able to supply,) are killed under warrants from the Cofferer’s Office, or Clerk of the Venison warrants, for the use of the public offices, and for persons accustomed to have venson from the royal forests. Besides these, the Verderers of the forest, the Chief Justice of Eyre, and his Secretary, and the Surveyor General of the woods, have each a fee buck, and doe, yearly; the Deputy Warden, six ‘bucks and does; and each of the three
Yeomen. Keepers, one brace of bucks, and one of does. The residue are disposed of by the Warden.
The Verderers in this, as in all forests, are chosen by the free holders of the county. Their office is judiciail, to preside at the forest courts, and to take cognizance of all trespasses, relative to vert and venison: but no courts are now held for this forest.
By a survey of the timber, taken in the year 1608, it appears that there were then growing in this forest, 15,274 timber trees, of oak, then valued at 11,951l. besides 440 decaying trees, valued at 1401. 13s, 4d. The number of loads, of timber, is not mentioned in this survey ; but as we find,, from other authentic documents, of the same period) that the general price of oak timber was then about ten shillings per load, girt measure, the 15,274 oak trees, which were valued at near 16s. each, must have contained, one with another, not less than a load and a half of timber, or about 22,911 loads, girt measure, which is equal to 34,366, square measure.
On a survey, taken in 1783, there were reported,, to be ‘then in this forest, only 2,918 oak trees, fit for the navy, (including all trees, down to thirty feet of timber,) containing by computation, 3,745 loads of timber, square measure; and only 194 scrubbed, doatard, or defective trees, of above thirty feet each, besides browze trees, of which there were 8,266 oak trees, containing by computation, 7,338 loads of timber, square measure, and 8,914 browse ashes; so that the timber, fit for the navy, according to this survey, was little more than one-tenth part of the quantity fit for naval use, growing in this forest in 1608.
The whole produce, of the timber and wood, felled and sold, in this forest, for the use of the crown, from the death of the Queen Dowager, to the end of the year, 1786, amounts to the sum of 6,4471. 3s. 21/4d which falls short 441l .8s. 01/2d of the fees, poundage, and other disbursements attendant thereon. But there is to be taken into this account, the timber supplied for the use of the navy, from 1781, to 1786, (the only part of the hove period, in which naval timber was felled of which the net produce was 2,111l 15s 2d, from which the said deficiency,
441l. 18s. 01/2d. being deducted, the net produce of the wood and timber, from 1705 to 1786, was 2,066l. 17s. 11/2d against which is to be set the Warden’s and Wondward’s salary, amounting in that period to 3645l. so that the expences on this forest, from 1705, to 1786, have exceeded the whole produce of the wood sales and naval timber, by the sum of 1,578l. 2s. 101/2d
That so valuable a property as the timber, in a forest, of above 1,800 acres ‘extent, fully planted, and excellent in soil so unproductive, and yet the stock remaining, so comparatively inconsiderable, can only be imputed to the ruinous effects of a mixture of opposite interests, in the same property, and of the system of management of the royal forests, which has, prevailed for many years past. This system, like that of the generality of public offices, is not only destructive of public property, but peculiarly injurious to all classes of the community, excepting the persons, who are immediately profiting by peculation, and converting that to self-aggrandisement, which justly belongs to the country. This practice has prevailed from time immemorial, and continues its ruinous operation, in spite of the remonstrances of commissioners, and the general voice of complain Its effects, in forests, particularly’, arise from the destruction of young timber, by lopping them for browse wood, whereby the officers are enriched, at the expence of the public purse. “The office,” report the commissioners, “of Surveyor of the Woods, as at present constituted, the nature of its perquisites, and the mode of executing the business of that department, are additional causes of waste and expence. The poundage of five per cent. on all monies, coming to the bands of the Surveyor’-general, :And another poundage of five per ‘cent. on the expenditure of all those monies, make it the interest of that officer, to fell the timber, and to promote and enhance the expence of repairs and works in the forests. The whole of the actual business in the forests, being transacted by deputies, and those deputies not acting upon oath; the sales of the wood and timber, being Wholly under their direction, without any adequate check or control and those deputies, in many instances, (as appear by our former reports) the buyers of the wood and timber, sold by themselves; the works and repairs, being either performed by them, or by workmen of their appointment, upon estimates of their own forming; and neither those estimates, made on oath, nor the works afterwards surveyed, or the accounts sworn to, by those who transact the business, though the Surveyor General himself is accountable on oath, must leave the whole entirely dependent on the personal integrity of an individual, who is neither from rank or situation, or the fair emoluments of office, placed above the temptation of ordinary corruption; and yet this officer is the only one who has any special charge of the growing timber in the forests.” These are serious charges, and call loudly for redress. The Report further states, that the stools or roots of the tree felled, which unquestionably be. long to the crown, are here taken by the Keepers. In a large fall of timber, this article might be worth attention: but the Deputy Surveyor of this forest, whose duty it is to attend to the interest of the Crown there, is also one of the Keepers of Whittlewood Forest, and therefore has a double charge, and the opportunity of making double profits.
The soil of this forest appears to be peculiarly adapted to the growth of large timber; as a proof of which, may be mentioned, that there is one ancient oak tree, seventeen yards in circumference; and the trees in general are larger and longer than those in the neighbouring Forest of Whittlewood; but the underwood here is of much less value, the land being cold and wet, and lying very flat. The succession of young timber in this forest is, comparatively, very small, chiefly owing to the great quantity of browse trees, which, in 1783 were no less than 17,580, of oak and ash, being more than double the number of all the other trees in the forest, down to saplings and storers of two feet each.
The FOREST of WHITTLEWOOD, though principally belonging to the County of North extends into the adjoining Counties of Oxford and Buckingham, and has been formerly of very considerable extent. Many of the facts already stated, respecting the Forest of Salcey, are equally applicable to this of Whittlewood, and therefore it will be unnecessary to repeat them.
This Forest, as well as that of Salcey, is part of the Honour of Grafton: a perambulation made in the reign of Edward the First, describes separately the parts lying within the three counties above named: the bounds of the Forest, and the operation of the forest laws were greatly extended 15 Charles I.; but an act of Parliament in the next year restored the ancient limits as prescribed by the perambulation of Edward the first, and confirmed 20 James I. But a part only of the lands within those limits seems now to be considered as forest. That part contains 5,424 acres 1 rood 11 poles, and is almost entirely encompassed with a ring mound, which has been its boundary beyond the memory of the oldest man. The rest of ,the land, within the ancient perambulation, but without that mound, consists, as in Salcey, of many estates belonging to several proprietors, who are, some wholly, some partially, exempted from forest laws. The part within the mound consists of the following particulars.
The whole is divided into five walks, viz. Hazleborough, Sholbrook, Wakefield, Hanger, and Shrobb: the first situated in the parishes of Whitfield and Silverstone; the second in that of Whittlebury; the third in the parishes of Whittlebury, Pottersbury, Passenham, Denshanger, and Lillingston Dayrell; the fourth and fifth in the parish of Passenham.
The coppices in this forest, like those in Salcey, are cut in rotation at twenty years growth; after each cutting, they are inclosed for nine years, and then thrown open to the deer and cattle for the remaining. twelve years; excepting those in Shrobb Walk, which is constantly inclosed the Walk not be big subject to any right of common. The wood, underwood, and timber, in seven coppices being that part of Hazleborough Walk which lies in Silverstone parish, now belong to Earl Bathurst; the crown having no other right) than that of herbage and cover for the deer. The remaining sixty-two coppices be longed to, and were in the actual possession of, the crown till 17 Charles II. when this forest and that of Salcey, were settled on Queen Catherine for life, as part of her jointure in the twenty-fifth of the same reign, the coppices in both forests were granted to Lord Arlington for his life, (after the Queen’s death,) with remainder to the Duke of Grafton, and other sons of, the King, as has been noticed respecting Salcey Forest.
Fifteen parishes enjoy, under certain limitations, the privilege of common pasture in the forest of Whittlewood: of these, six, called in-parishes, send their. cattle into the forest from March 25 to November 1; and nine, called Off or Out-parishes, turn in their cattle from April 23 to September 25 The quantity of land subject to rights of common is 4,486 acres, 3 roods, 2 poles, being the whole of what is now deemed forest land excepting Shrobb Walk, the lawns, and other inclosed lands
This forest is under the superintendance and care of-.-A Lord Warden or Master Forester---Lieutenant or Deputy Warden- Two .Verderers—-Woodward---Purlieu Ranger Keepers, and Six Page-Keepers---besides the Surveyor-General of the Woods and Forests.
By grant of 11 Anne, the Duke of Grafton holds the office of Lord Warden or Master Forester, which gives him the possession of the chief lodge, called Wakefield-Lodge, with the gardens, pleasure grounds, and inclosed meadow lands, containing together nearly 117 acres, with the pasturage for cattle in common with the deer, in an inclosed lawn, called Wakefield 1 containing upwards of 245 acres. His grace has also, as Hereditary Keeper, the custody and management of the deer:
no more, however, seems to have been required from his family, sincece the date of the patent, than to answer certain warrants for the supply of his Majesty's household, and the public offices, or bilers accustomed to have venison from the royal forests. The Residue appears to have been left to the disposal of the Lord Warden.
The number of deer at present kept within the forest, is computed to be about 1800 of all sorts; and the number killed, on rear with another, is about 138 bucks and 100 does.
In the survey made in the year 1608, Whittlewood Forest is stated to contain 51,046 timber trees of oak, then valued at 25,755l., and 360 decaying trees valued 123l. 6s. 8d: the quantity of timber is not mentioned, but, accordisig to the computation noticed in Salcey Forest, it must have been from 40 to 50,000 loads girt measure, or from 60 to 75,000 loads square measure.
From the Treasury warrants and the accounts of the Surveyors. general, it appears that the whole produce of the timber felled in this forest, from the death of the Queen Dowager in 1705, to he end of the year 1786, including 480 loads taken for works at Blenheim, but excluding what has been felled for the navy ammounts to 37,026l. 15s. 6d,---the payments for repairs, fees, poundage, and other attendant disbursements, in that period, are 38279l 16s. 101/2d exceeding the produce by 1353l. 1s. 41/2d 'The timber felled for the navy from 1772 (the earliest fall on that account) to 1786, netted 7648l. 9s. 1d: and of that supplied for the same purpos from 1786 to 1790, the net produce is 6053l. lOs. 2d.---making together 13,701l. 19s. 3d., whence the deficit of the crown sales, 1353l. being deducted, the remainder 12384l 17s. 101/2d shows the clear produce to the crown since forest has been in the possession of the Grafton family, being 85 years, averaging about 145l. 5s. 7d. per annum.
By the survey taken in 1783, there appeared to be growing in forest 5211 timber trees fit for the navy, containing 7230 loads of timber sqeare measure; and 402 scrubbed, dotard, and decayed trees containing 569 loads. The same survey states that there were 18,617 trees in the forest constantly lopped for browse for the deer, viz. 6335 oak trees, computed to contain 8,907 loads of timber square measure, (being more than a load and quarter each on an average,) and 12,282. ash trees, containing 3512 loads; so that the number and contents of the browsed oaks was greater than of the oak trees reported to be fit for the, navy, of which the number in the coppices was not quite three trees to every two acres of load. Between the years 1772 and 1783 there had been felled for the navy 1461 trees, producing 1335 loads; if these be added to the trees of 30 feet and. up wards, growing in the coppices at the time of the survey, the number would still be less than two trees to an acre; and if the browse oaks be taken into the computation, the whole number of the trees of thirty feet and upwards, would be little more than three trees to an acre.
The FOREST or ROCKINGHAM is situated in the northern part of the county, and is esteemed to have been anciently one of the largest forests in the kingdom. In a perambulation dated 14th of Edward I. it is described as extending from Northampton to Stamford, being about 30 miles in length; and from the river Nen, on the south, to those of the Welland and Maidwell, on the north-west; being a medium breadth of nearly 8 miles. This extent was limitted soon after the accession of Henry the Second; but the bounds was particularly specified and settled in the 17th of Charles I. The forest consists of three separate districts, called the Bailiwicks of Rockinghain, Brigstock, and Clive or Cliffe, situated at the distance of two or four miles from each other; each of which is divided into several walks, viz. Rockingham into---the Lawn of Benefleld, the West Bailiwick, or West Walk, Gretton Woods and little Weldon Woods, Weedhaw and Thornhaw, and Corby Woods;---Brigstock into Geddington Woods, and Farming Woods;---and Cliffe into Westhay, Moorhay, and Sulehay. Farms, and Shortwood. These three Bailiwicks were formerly under the superintendance of one Warden, or Master Forester, of the whole forest; which office was granted the 1st of James I. to Thomas Lord Burleigh for three lives. Charles the First divided or rather abolished that office, and constituted three Master Foresters of separate districts. The Master Forestership of Rockingham-Bailiwick, with Geddington Woods, was granted in the 4th of Charles I. to Edward Lord Montague for three lives; but no subsequent grant of it appears: that of Cliffe-Bailiwick was granted in the 5th. of Carles the First, to trustees for Mildmay, Earl of Westmorland for three lives, and is now held by the present Earl of Westmorland on the same tenure and that of Farming Woods, the patent for which was not issued out in that reign, was granted in the 27th of the next, to Sir John Robinson, for three lives, and is now held by the Earl of Upper Ossory. The other officers of this forest, in the reigns of James the First and Charles the First, besides the Warden, were a Lieutenant, four Verderers, a Ranger of the Forest, and under ranger of each Bailiwick, a Bow Bearer, Mastet Keepers and under Keepers of the respective walks, and twelve Regarders fot each Bailiwick, be sides Woodwards and under Woodwards. One court of Swanimote was held for the two Bailwick of Rockingham and Brigstock, and another for the Bailiwick of Cliffe. But since the abolition of the office of Wardcn and the discontinuance of the forest courts, the forest has been principally under the care of the hereditary keepers, and the tthe three Bailiwicks have been wholly unconnected in respect to their government or management. The election of Verderers is still continued, though the office is now little more than nominal.
The Bathwick of Rockingham comprises divers extensive woods in the parishes of Cottingham, Middleton, great and Little Oakley Gretton, Little Weldon, and Corby, reputed to contain about 3500 acres, a large open plain called Rockinghamshire, and several smaller plains containing together about 560 acres, and an inclosed lawn, called Benefield Lawn, containing about 384 acres The woods and plains within this Bailiwick belong to the Earls of Harcourt and Cardigan, Lord Sondes, George Finch Hatton, Esq and other proprietors, and are subject to the feed of the deer, and commonable to the adjacent towns and parishes The Lawn of Benefield is a tract of pasture land in the nature of a park, inclosed and set apart for the feeding of the deer, and not subject to any right of common. This lawn, and the keeperships of the several walks, are held by Mr, Hatton, by virtue of a grant in fee to Sir Christopher Hatton, in the 25th year of Queen Elizabeth.
The number of deer supplied from this Bailiwick, is, for the use of the crown, four brace and half of bucks, and the same number of does, and for the forest officers eleven brace of each, in the whole fifteen brace and half of each.
The Bailiwick of Brigstock, which is the least of the three divisions, comprehends that part of the town and fields of Geddington, which lie to the north of the river Ise; certain woods called Geddington Woods, containing about 700 acres; the town and part of the fields of Brigstock; the woods called Fanning Woods, containing also about 700 acres; and a lodge called Farming Woods Lodge, with an inclosed lawn adjacent to it, said to contain about 200 acres. The number of deer supplied from this Bailiwick is 34 bucks and as many does.
The Bailiwick of Cliffe is the largest division of the forest, and comprehends four extensive tracts of wood-land, namely, Westhay Woods belonging to the Earl of Exeter; Moorhay Woods belonging to the Earl of Westmorland; Earl’s Woods, in Moorhay Walk, the property of the reverend Abraham Blackhorne and others; and Sulehay Woods, belonging also to the Earl of Westmorland. Those woods, with the open plains and wastes adjoining, and two inclosed lawns, called Moorhay Lawn and Sulehay Lawn, held by Lord Westmorland, in right of the ‘keepership of those walks, contain together about 4,582 acres. The town and fields of King’s Cliffe, except Cliffe Park, and, parts of the towns and fields of Duddington, Apethorpe, Newton, Nassington, and Yarwell, are also comprised within the limits of this bailiwick; but the woods and lands above-mentioned are the parts which are chiefly subject to the haunt and feed of the deer (Ref 13)
CANALS, &c. first artificial canal, that was made to render any benefit to this county, was the Oxford, which passes through the parishes of Aynho, Boddington, Braunston, and Barby, all on the western verge of the shire. At Braunston it joins the Grand Junction Ganal, which crosses the western side of this county. This navigable cut was planned for the purpose of opening a water communication between the river Thames, and the principal inland canals of the kingdom. It was intended for vessels of 60 tons burthen. Near its junction with the Oxford, are two reservoirs, one of about 30 acres area, and the other of nearly 130 acres. In the course of the first mile from Braunston, the level of water is raised 37 feet by lockage. It is then continued upon that level about four miles and a half, one mile of which is an excavation, or tunnel, through a hill. This is called the Braunston Tunnel; the water is afterwards lowered by lockage 172 feet to the level of the Ouse; in its course passing by Wedon; after crossing beneath the great London road it is carried over a valley by an embankment of earth, nearly half a mile ia length, and about 30 feet high. This embankment passing close to Wedon church-yard, the top water level is above the height of the body of the church, and nearly upon a level with the bells. Two public highways for carriages, and one swall river pass under the canal, through the base of this embankment; the course of the cut is then continued north-easterly, recrossing the London road, and after wards taking an eastern direction, passes Lower Heyford, Bug- brook, and Gayton, to Blisworth; this is eighteen miles from Braunston, and so far is the canal navigable at this end. At Blisworth are erected extensive wharftige and warehousçs for goods, two new Inns on the banks of the canal, and other works, adapted to a growing place of trade. Near this place a Rail way branches off to Northampton, the river, at which town, is 120 feet beneath the level of the canal at Blisworth. From this place the line of the cut is through a tunnel, at plane woods which was a work of considerable difficulty, from the quality of the substratum and quantity of springs. The difficulties, how ever, were surmounted in 1806; and the passage thus formed through the hill, according to Mr. Pitt’s opinion, is “a very masterly and surprising work of art.” The course is next by Stoke-Bruern, Grafton-regis, and Cosgrove, where it enters Buckinghamshire. At Grafton the canal crosses the Tow-river and near Cosgrove it crosses the Ouse, and is raised by an enbankment for a considerable distance, and to a great height above the meadows.
Another canal called the Union has been projected and planned to extend from Market Harborough to Northampton; but the opposition of the pioprietors of the Grand Junction, has hitherto counteracted the execution of these plans. It is now proposed to alter its course, and make the line shorter, by joining the Grand Jutiction at Long-Buckby. Proposals have recently been issued for making another canal from Harborough to Stamford, to follow the course of the river Welland This plan is, at present, in its infancy.
RIVERs.---Northamptonshire may justly boast, and we believe exclusively, that in the important article of water it is entirely and completely independent, for of the six rivers which flow thiough, or intersect it, every one originates within its boundaries, and not a single brook how ever incignificant runs into it from any other district; whilst there is not a county bordering upon it, that is not, in some degree, supplied from its various and ample aquatic stores.
Morton remarks as “ a natural and unwrested observation, that the rivers of Northamptonshire are so equally and duly ranged and distributed, as if they ran in channels contrived and cut by art and labour, to convey a competent share of water into every part;” and after particularising their various courses, adds “so that there is no town in the county five miles distant. from one or other of the above-mentioned rivers or rivulets.”
The NEN or Nyne, though in point of intrinsic celebrity yielding the palm to the Ouse and Avon, yet continuing longest in, and being most beneficial to, the county, has the fairest claim to priority of notice. The several villages of Naseby, Draughton, West Haddon, Fawsley and Staverton, contend for the honor of its source; but it is now pretty generally admitted that the northern branch springs from Chapel Well at Naseby, and the western from Hartwell near Staverton, and both uniting at Northampton, from no inconsiderable river, which pursues its irriguons windings through a range of richly fertile meadows, and receiving all along the homage of tributary streams, till it reaches Peterborough, whence it runs by Wisbeach to Lynn, where it is absorbed in the German Ocean.
It was navigable formerly no higher than Peterborough : after some ineffectual attempts to extend the navigation, particularly by Sir William Fleetwood in 1706, it was at length accomplished, and boats laden with coal came up, by Oundle, Thrapstone, Higham—Ferrers, and Wellingborough, to Northampton, in August 1762. The navigation of this river is, however, still very defective and incomplete, it is capable of being rendered highly serviceable to the towns on its banks. At the wharf, in Northampton, observes Mr. Pitt, “ not a single vessel, loading or unloading, is to be seen ; a crane stands solitary, and not the least stir of business; a small deposit of coal (from the rail road course,) and a few deals, comprize all the visible articles of commerce.”
The WELLAND in local importance, ranks the second in this county, and takes its rise near the vicarage house at Sibbertoft, whence, having measured the short space of four miles, it reaches he skirts of the county, which adopts its devious wanderings as the line of boundary, during a lengthened course of nearly fifty miles, by Harborough, Rockingham, and Stamford, where it becomes navigable, through Deeping to Crowland, when it enters Lincolushire, and at length fills into the Foss—dyke Wash, near Boston.
Northamptonshire derives comparatively but little benefit from the four other rivers to which it gives rise, though two of them, the Ouse and the Avon, stand in the first class of British rvers; but they are both mere rivulets when they first issue from the earth, and soon desert their native distrct.
The Ouse, (according to Morton) originates at Ouse—well, in the parish of Farthingho, near Brackley, and speedily entering Buckinghamshire, re—visits its parent county near Old Stafford
The AVON, or lessor Avon, commences its course at Avon near Naseby, and flows in a westernly direction into Warwickshire.
The Leam, springing from the village of Hellidon, is immediately joined by other rills from Cateshy and Staverton, with which it hastens into Warwickshire; and having named the two villages of Leamington, meets the lesser Avon, into which it falls, and the junction forms the celebrated Avon, which, passing Warwick, intersects the county, and meandering through Worcestershire, ultimately loses itself in the Severn.
The Charwell, derives its name from a little spring called Charwell near Charwelton. After gliding in silent obscurity by Banbury, finishes its career at the city of Oxford, where it resigns its identity to the Thames, and is discharged, with it, into the Eastern Ocean.
ROADS, BRIDGES, &c.---The great mail roads through this county, of which there are four, are mostly level, wide, and good; and a few of the collateral turnpike roads are generally kept in a good state; but the cross, or parish roads, are shamefully neglected. These are mostly very narrow, and the farmers seem careless in performing the statute duty of repairs, or wholly desert them. Each tenant who occupies a farm of 50l. is bound to give six days of labour, with a cart and two men every year; but if the farmer be remiss in this duty, it seems that those empowered to interfere are equally negligent, and the public traveller is thereby often put to great inconvenience, and sometimes danger. Mr. Pitt, and Mr. Knight, in the same work, justly reprove this derilection of public and private duty. The county bridges are numerous, and generally in good condition: Mr. Pitt remarks that “ there are few districts which can boast of a greater number of handsome, well built, stone bridges; every ‘brook and rivulet is made passable by means of a stone arch; and the bridges on the larger rivers do credit to the public spirit of the inhabitants"
MANUFACTURES. Northamptonshire cannot be called a manufacturing district, yet a large portion of its population is engaged in, and supported by, some species of handicraft business. The chief of these consist in making shoes, lace, and woollen stuffs, In the town of Northampton, and in several of the neighbouring towns and villages, the first branch of these is carried on to a very considerable extent. While the men are engaged in making the shoes, many women and girls are employed in closing, bind and lining them. Towcester is considered the principal seat or centre of the lace-making business: and the woollen manufactures are chiefly at Kettering; and towards the northern side of the county. At Daventry, a great number of whips are made: and at the same town is a large manufactory for silk hose.
ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE, SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS, &C.--
The county of Northampton contains many interesting specimens of both these classes of antiquities: but as the contracted nature of this work, precludes a particular account of them, we must content ourselves by briefly pointing out a few of the those interesting and curious in each class. In that of ancient architecture, Peterborough Cathedral, and the contiguous buildings display some fine and varied examples, from the early Norman to the latest English. The churches of Castor, Barnack, Earls-Barton, St. Peters, and St. Sepulchres at Northampton,. Barnwell, Twywell and Spratton, are all distinguished by semi circular arches, short columns, and the corresponding mouldings of zigzag, billetted, &c In some of these are also ancient piscinas, fonts, stone stalic &c The tower of Castor, Earls Barton, Barnack, and St. Peters, Northampton, are distinguished by various arcades, columns, and other ornaments of the early Norman style. In the class of large churches, displaying fine specimens of enriched and florid architecture, those of the following parishes will be found to be interesting Fotheringhay, a collegiate church, has a lofty tower, flying buttresses, crocketed pinnacles, and windows with mullions and tracery. That at Oundle is large, with a tower and crocketed spire, also spacious windows of varied and enriched tracery The churches of
Luffield Kettering, Higham-Ferrars, Wellingborough, and Finedon, are all large structures, and display in their towers, spires, windows, doors &c. various specimens of the elaborate architecture of the middle ages. Those of Braunston, Whiston, Raunds, Brington, and Kings-Sutton, present some beautiful, or curious architectural features: and the Chapel at Glynton, Moreton says, is “one of the finest in England.” The crosses at Geddington, and near Northampton, erected by King Edward the First, to the memory of his Queen, Eleanor, are well known specimens of beautiful and elegant architecture.
In the class of ancient mansions, this county presents a few interesting examples. The houses of Burleigh, Kirby, castle Ashby, Fawsley Rushton, and Drayton, are large, and afford to the architectural antiquary, some admirable objects of study and contemplation; as calculated to show the taste and fashion of the ages when they were respectively erected. Mr. Gough has described one at Billing, as peculiarly curious: but this has been nearly, or wholly destroyed, since that learned topographer Wrote his account in the Archologia.
Fonts.---Though we are not enabled to point out many curious, or fine specimens of this class of antiquities, yet those at the following churches, will be found worthy of notice. At Hardwick, near Welingborough, is one of a very early date: that at Warnford is said to be formed of lead; and few are to be found of this kind: at Barnack, St. Peters in Northampton, castor, Pauls-perry, and Greens-Norton, are ancient specimens.
In SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS, of marble, brass, &c. the county of Northampton, perhaps, may be said to excel any other part of the kingdom of equal extent, excepting London. This is to be accounted for from the number of noble families that have been settled here from a remote period. In Warkton church are three large, splendid monuments, with statues, &c. to the Montague Family; and in Weekly Church are two or three altar tombs, with effigies, &c. to some older branches of the same family. At Brington are several costly tombs, in memory of the Spencers of Althorpe. The church of Stowe is noted for a very interesting altar-monument, with a recumbent figure, most likely a portrait, by N. Stone, of Elizabeth Latimer, wife, first to ir John Danvers, and secondly to Sir Edmund Carey. In the said building is a cenotaph, consisting of a large cumbrous mass of English marble, with upright statues, to the memory of the benevolent Dr. Thomas Turner, who was buried at Corpus Christi. College, Oxford. The church at Easton-Neston is rendered memorable by several sepulchral memorials to the Fermors, Earls of Pomfret. In Stamford Baron Church, are some gorgeous monuments to the Cecils of Burleigh. The cathedral church of Peterborough contains some sepulchral mementos, but few of these are of distinguished importance. The persecuted
Mary Queen of Scots, is recorded by a cenotaph: Catharine of Arragon, first wife to King Henry the Eighth, was also interred here.
In the church at Rockingham, the Watsons, now Baron Sondes, have usually been interred; and some monuments have been raised to their memories. Lufwick Church is not more eminent for its architecture, than for the monuments that adorn the interior: for here are several to the different families of Stafford, Vere, Mordaunt, Green, &c. It contains also some fine specimen of stained glass. In Castle-Ashby Church are some old brasses, and an ancient tomb with an armed effigy of a Knight.
The church at Easton Maudit contains three or four monuments with statues, canopies, &c. to the Yelvertons. In Horton church is a curious tomb to William Lord Parr, uncle to Catherine: also brasses to Roger Salusbury, and his two wives. Hardingstone Church has two old tombs, and a fine monument by Rysbrack. At Fawsley are several mural slabs, brasses, and finely sculptured monuments to different persons of the Knightley family. In Stean church a branch of the Crewe family of Cheshire, was formerly interred, and several tombs are preserved to record the names of different persons. Marham church contains some monumental memorials to the Fitzwiliiams of Milton.
Besides the above there are many other churches in the county, which will be found to interest the antiquary by their ancient monuments. Some of these will be specified in the subsequent pages.
The following particulars respecting the Poor., &c. are derived from the reports laid before Parliament, and printed ir 1804, for the use of the Members of the House of Commons, In this official document it appears, “That returns were received from three hundred and thirty-three parishes, or places in the county of NORTHAMPTON, in the year 1803: in 1785 the returns were from three hundred and twenty-nine; and from three hundred and thirty in 1776.” It is - then further stated that” Eighty-seven parishes or places maintain all, or part of, their poor in workhouses. The number of persons so maintained, during the year ending Easter 1803, was one thousand three hundred and thirteen; and the expence incurred therein ;mounted to 12,811l. lOs. 81/2d being at the rate of 9l. per year for each person maintained in that manner. By the returns of 1776, there were then sixty-seven workhouses capable of accommodating one thousand six hundred and fifty-seven persons. The number of persons relieved out of workhouses was nineteen thousand two hundred and twenty one, besides one thousand five hundred and sixty-one who were not parishioners. The expence incurred in the relief of the poor not in workhouses amounted to 81,795l. Os. 41/2d A large proportion of those who were not parishioners appear to have been vagrants; and therefore it is probable, that the relief given to this class of poor, could net exceed two shillings each, amounting to 156l. 2s. This sum being deducted from the above 81,795l. Os. 41/2d leaves 81,638l. 18s. 41/2d being at the rate of 4l. 4s. 111/2d for each person relived out of any workhouse. The number of persons relieved in and out of workhouses was twenty thousand five hundred and thirty-four, besides those who were not parishioners. Excluding the expence supposed to be incurred in the relief of this class of poor, all other expences relative to maintenance of the poor, amounted to 97,734l. 18s. 21/4d being at the rate of 4l. 15s. 21/4d for each parishioner relieved. The resident population of the county of Northampton, in the year 1801, appears, from the population abstract, to have been one hundred and thirty one thousand seven hundred and fifty-seven; so that the number of parishioners relieved from the poor’s rate appears to be sixteen in a hundred of the resident population. The number of persons belonging to Friendly Societies appears to be six in a hundred of the resident population. The amount of the total money raised by rates appears to average 18s. 31/4d per head, on population. The amount of the whole expenditure on account of the poor appears to average at 14s. 101/2d per head on the population. The expenditure in suits of law, removal of paupers, and expénces of overseers and other officers, according to the present abstract, amounts to 3287l. Os. l1/2d The amount of such expenditure, according to the returns of 1785 was then 1,808l. 5s. 8d. The expenditure in purchasing materials for employing the poor, according to the present abstract, amounts to 1,344l. l9s. 2d. The amount of such expenditure, accörding to the returns of 1785 then 307l. 11s. 7d. The poor of fourteen parishes or places in this county are farmed or maintained under contract. It is not known that any parish or place maintains its poor under a special act of Parliament Forty three Friendly Societies have been enrolled at the Quarter Sessions of this county, pursuant to thc acts of 33 and 35 George III.
|Town of Northampton|
|In Four Parsihes||1371||3244||3776||24||2496||7020|
|City of Peterborough||734||1571||1878||181||735||3449|
|Liberty of ditto||1252||3402||3424||3270||558||6826|
Is at the north-western angle of the county. At the time of the Domesday survey, it was divided into two districts, or hundreds named Gravesend, and Alwardeslea; but before the reign of Henry the Third, these were united under the present name. The hundred court was formerly held under a large beech tree (Ref 14) in Fawsley Park, but is now transferred to Everdon. This district is in general hilly, greatly diversified in scenery, and abounds in delightful and extensive prospects. The views from Newnham, Barby, Stowe, and Studbury Hill, are exceedingly fine; and the latter, is by some persons considered as the highest land in the kingdom. This hundred contains the parishes of Ashby St. Ledgers, Badby, Barby with Onely, Braunston, Catesby, Charwelton, DAVENTRY, .Dodford, Everdon, Farthingstone, Fawsley, Hellidon, Kirby Litcitbozough Newnham, Norton including the Hamlets of Muscott and Thrupp, Preston Capes, Staverton, Stowe-Nine- Churches, Wedon-Bec, and Welton.
ASHBY ST LEDGER, a small village, situated upon a rivulet that forms a contributary stream to the river Nets, takes its additional name of St. Ledger, from the patron saint, Lodagrins, to which the church is dedicated This structure consists of a nave, north and south ailes, with a tower and spire at the west end At the upper end of the north aile are still remaining the steps which led to the rood loft, between the chancel and the nave, here are three piscinas for holy or consecrated water, one in the north aile, another in the south aile and a third near the altar The advowson of this parish was, it in early period, appropriated to the prioy of Launde in Leicestershire by the founder., In the church and chancel are several ancient sepulchral inscriptions: within the communion rails, upon an altar tomb, are the recumbent figures of a man and woman, and underneath the following inscription in black letter.
‘Hic jacet WILLIELMUS CATISBY armiger, et Margareta Uxor ejus, qui quidem Willielmus obiit vicessimo die rnensis Augusti anne Domini miflesimo CCCC octogesirno quinto et predicta Margareta obiit VIII° die mensis Octobris anno Domini rnillesimo CCCC, LXXXXIIII, quosiim animabus propicietur Dens. Amen.” The distinguished person whose memory this inscription records, was one of the three favorites who ruled the kingdom under the usurpation of Richard Third, and formed the conspicuous triumvirate, that gave rise to the old distich
“The rat, and the cut, and Lovel the dog, Do govern all England under the hog” (Ref 15).
In the first year of that Monarch’s reign, (he is associated iii the list of our kings) William was made esquire of the king’s body; chancellor of the Marches for life, and one of the chamberlains of the Exchequer. Attending his royal master; in the last and fatal expedition which that usurper made, against the Earl of Richmond, he was taken prisoner at the battle of Bosworth field, while valiantly fighting by his patron’s side; and three days afterwards beheaded as a traitor at Leicester. With a species of cruelty equally ludicrous as unjust, in the following Parliament the long defunct William Catesby was attainted of high treason, by which attainder all his lands escheated to the crown. At the eastern end of both ailes of Ashby Church; are two portions separated from the rest, which formerly were appropriated as places of sepulture for the two great lords of the place. In one of these, called St. Mary’s Chapel, many of the Catesby family have been interred; but most of the inscriptions on their monuments are effaced. From escutcheons over two recumbent figures on an altar tomb, it appears they meant to commemorate John de Catesby, who was commissioner for suppressing unlawful assemblies, during the famous insurrection under Jack Straw and Wat Tyler, in the reign of Richard the Second, and Emma his wife, by whom, as heiress of the Crawfords, in the reign of Edward the Third, the Catesby tame into the possession of this domain.
ROBERT CATESBY, by whose attainder in the third year of James the First, the lordship of Ashby Was again alienated from the family, rendered himself notorious by having been the projector and principal actor in that detestable conspiracy, generally denominated the gunpowder plot. (Ref 16) A small room in the detached offices belonging to the manorial house, is still shown s the council-chamber of the conspirators. Catesbv was, for his inhuman design, beheaded; and his head, with that of his father-in-law, Thomas Percie, another abettor of the crime, fixed oil the top of the Parliament house.
The manorial house of Ashby is a good old family mansion, at present occupied h Mrs. Ashley, the widow of the late John Ashley, Esq. who purchased the estates from the family of the Jansons.
Ashby Lodge, about a mile from the village, a handsome house in the modern style, is the seat of George Arnold, Esq.
BADBY, is a considerable village, situated on the ascent of a which forms part of an uninclosed district, comprising a large sandy heath, called Badby-down. In this parish are numerous springs, and several quarries of a hard blue stone, known y the name of rag-stone, which is found very serviceable for the j of building and paving. Arberry, or Arbury hill (Ref 17) in Badby parish is celebrated for having on its summit a large encampment, supposed to have been a work of the Romans. The ramparts are very steep, and the foss which nearly surrounds the whole, is very wide, and twenty feet deep; the figure is irregular, approximating to a square, and incloses an area of about ten acres. The south-west angle inclines outward, nearly in the shape of a modern bastion, and probably the upper angles were originally of the same form.
NEWENHAM. This village is the birth-place of THOMAS RANDOLPH, the poet, who was born 1603. This eccentric, but certainly great genius, possessed peculiar poetic talents; for at the early age of nine years he is said to have written the history of Christ’s Incarnation in verse. The first part of his education he. received at Westminster school, whence he removed to Cambridge, was elected scholar of Trinity College in 1623 and subsequently proceeded to a fellowship. He was much esteemed by cotemporary poets, particularly by the celebrated Ben Jonson, who used to bestow on him the appellation of, “my son?’ Indulging freely in those excesses too common in unrestrained youth, he injured his constitution, and died at a premature age in the house of his patron, William Stafford, Esq. at Blackerwicke in this county; in the church of which place he was interred March, 17, 1634: and a monument of white marble, ornamented with emblems, was soon afterward’s erected to his memory, by the liberality of Sir Christopher Hat on, of Kirby. His poems, which are principally of a humorous cast, abound with sterling wit; and some few are written in a grave and moralizing style. They were collected into a volume., and published by his brother Robert, who was likewise a poet, and died vicar of Donington in Lincoinshire, 1672.
BRAUNSTON is a small ‘village on the borders of Warwickshire, where the Oxford canal joins the line of the Grand Junction. The church is a large handsome structure, having a fine octangular spire (150 feet in height,) with crocketed angles. Near the upper end of this village is a stone cross, composed of four ledges of diverging steps, on which is raised a shaft of an octagonal shape, cut out of one block of stone, though eleven feet in height, and surmounted with a kind of entablature decorated with four busts, supposed to be representative of the four Evangelists. It was probably erected for a land mark by the convent of Nuneaton, which possessed two virgates of land in this parish. The tenure of a considerable portion of this lordship being of a peculiar nature, is deserving notice. If the widow of any copyholder appears in the manorial court, next ensuing the decease of her husband, and there presents a leathern purse with a groat in it she may become tenant, and hold his copyhold lands for life; but to render this continuative tenancy valid, the must attend regularly every court-day.
Dr EDWARD REYNOLDS, an eminent English prelate, though not a native, yet as long the resides clergyman of this parish, a great benefactor to the place, and not having been previously mentioned at Southampton where he was born, may properly be noticed here. He was educated at Merton College, Oxford, where he eminently distinguished himself. Upon the breaking out of the Civil War in 1641, though professedly at that time an Episcopalian and a preacher to the honourable society in Lincoln’s Inn, he joined the Presbyterian party, and the following year took his seat in the assembly of divines, convened at Westminster. On the ejection of Dr. Samuel Fell from the deanery of Christ Church, Dr. Reynolds was elected in his room, ,and made Vice Chancellor of the University. Refusing afterwards, in 1650, to take what was termed “the Independent Engagement “ he was in his turn ejected from the deanery; and for some time resided on his cure at this place. Hence he removed to London, obtained the living of St. Lawrence in the Jewery, and in 1658 presented the congratulatory address from the London ministers to Richard Cromwell, on his succeeding his father in the protectorate. He was made Bishop of Norwich in 1661. The acceptance of a seat on the episcopal bench, gave great offence to his former connections. His death happened in 1676. He wrote and published much; and his works which principally consist of Calvinistic divinity, have been collected into one folio volume.
CATESBY. in this village was formerly a priory, founded by Philip de Esseby according to some writers, and by Robert, his son, according to others, for a prioress and nine nuns, of the Benedictine Order, (Ref 18) who endowed it with the advowson of the church, various lands, and as is highly probable, with the ma nor of Catesbv; for. in the thirty-first of Henry the Third, the prioress and nuns of this house Obtained, among other privileges, the grant of a weekly market, to be held on Mondays, within their manor of Catesby, “apud manerium de Catteby.” The principle of avarice which influenced King henry VIII. to abolish the religious orders in England, is evident in the circumstances attending the suppression of this house Though the commissioners appointed previous to the Dissolution to make their reports as to the actual state of each monastery, bore ample testimony to the good character of the inmates here; neither the discretion of the prioress, not the acknowledged regularity of the nuns, were able to divert from his purpose the avaricious Monarch, nor prevent the downfall of this convent. On its suppression, in exchange for lands in Herefordshire and Salop, the revenues of the priory, arising from 788 acres of pasture, 83 of meadow, and 161 of arable land, exclusive of the convent, church, two water-mills, eight messuages, and one cottage were granted to John Anly, Esq. On the site of the priory, and out of its ruins, has been erected a mansion belong to the family of Parkhurst A portion of the chapel is still visible. The present proprietor does not reside here.
In that part of the parish, dominated Upper Catesby, stood the church, which is supposed to have been demolished at the same time with the priory, as it appears to have been disused for two hundred years past. Some remains of the four but tresses belonging to the tower, and a fragment of a wall having a pointed window, are still standing. The church-yard continues to be the parochial cemetery, and divine service is preformed in the chapel of the manor-house,
DAVENTRY, OR DAVENTRE,
A MARKET town, is situated on the side and top of a hill, and is encompassed with hills to the south and east. Owing to the mode in which the name is generally pronounced, Danetre, the common people have imbibed a notion, that the place ori-, ginated with the Danes. And from this silly traditional con-^ceit has been taken the device for the dress of the town crier, who bears on his badge of office the effigies of a Dane in the act of cutting down a tree, i.e. Pane-tree, From such an ety-mology, however, the judicious antiquary appeals, and finds a better derivation of the appellation in the British words, avon-tre, i. e. the town of the two Avons, exactly descriptive of the place situated between two rivers, bearing the same name,(Ref 19). At the Conquest this was certainly a place of note, as appears by the account of it in Domesday Book; in the time of which survey it formed part of the immense possessions bestowed, by; the Conqueror on his niece, the Countess Judith, whom he had given in marriage to Waltheof the great Earl of Northumber-land; and to engage the future fidelity of this powerful noble man, granted with her in dower this county and that of Huntingdon. The earl afterwards engaged in a conspiracy; but repenting of the steps he had taken, threw himself at the foot of the throne, and supplicated an amnesty for himself and followers: but notwithstanding such submission, he was beheaded in 1074, as is said, at the instigation of his wife.(Ref 20). This vicious woman, it appears, had cast her adulterous eyes on another, whom she intended to marry; but of this gratification she was disappointed by the policy of her uncle. He recommended to her choice a Norman nobleman, Simon de St. Liz, who was lame, whom Judith rejected with disdainful scorn; which so enraged the king, that he alienated her honours and estates, and granted them to the same de St. Liz, on his marriage with the countess's daughter: leaving the mother to pine in reluctant widowhood.
A Priory was founded at Daventry in the year 1090, by Hugh de Leycester, for monks of the Cluniac order, and subject to St. Mary de Caritate in Canterbury. The number originally consisted of four only, who had their habitation at Preston-Capes, in which parish their patron had a baronial residence; but that situation having been found inconvenient, he obtained leave of Simon de St. Liz, Earl of Northampton, and Lord of Daventry, for their removal to this place; where he erected a priory for them near the parochial church. This house, by the long list of grants and benefactions, was most richly endowed, a circumstance that did not escape the keen observation of Cardinal Wol-sey; for it was one of the monasteries dissolved by the permission of Pope Clement VII., and King Henry VIII., in the seventh year of his reign, and granted to the Cardinal for the purpose of erecting his intended new colleges of Ipswich, and Christ-church in Oxford. But with what fatal consequences to the principal agents in this nefarious transaction, we are informed by the venerable annalist, Stow. Wolsey had excited five persons to provoke a dispute with the monks of this house, about the right to certain lands, and caused the same to be brought, for final hearing, before himself as umpire in the cause. He embraced this opportunity of exercising the power, previously delegated by the pope and king, for dissolving the society and seized the revenues, on which the pious historian thus remarks. " But of this irreligious robbery done of no conscience, but to patch up pride, which private wealth could not furnish, what punishment hath since ensued by God's hand (sayeth mine author) partly ourselves have seen; for of those five persons, two fell at discord between themselves, and the one slew the other, for which the survivor was hanged; the third drowned 5 himself in a well: the fourth being well known, and valued worth two hundred pounds, became in three years so poore, that he begged till his dying day: and the fifth, called Dr.. Allne, being chief executor of these doings was cruelly maimed in Ireland, even at such time as he was bishop."(Ref 21) The same author then proceeds to trace the hand of retributive justice to the Cardinal, who died under the king's displeasure; then to the colleges, one pulled down, and the other never completed by the patron; and finally to the unrighteous pontiff, who was besieged in his holy see, and subsequently suffered a long imprisonment by the imperialists, who shut him up in the Castle of St. Angeio at Rome. On its suppression, the spiritualities of this priory were valued at 1151. 17s. 4d., and the temporalities at 120l. 10s. 2d. The conventual was afterwards made the parochial church, which a few years since was taken down, and a new edifice built. The monastery joined the west end of the old church, and thence the buildings extended northward. The part yet remaining, supposed to have been the refectory, is plainly discernible by the ancient windows and doorways, some of them in the pointed style, and a large flight of steps leading to the apartments.
Though Daventry sends no member to Parliament, it is a borough, incorporated under a charter, said to have been originally granted by King John; and again renewed and confirmed in the reign of Elizabeth. By virtue of this, the town is governed by a bailing twelve burgesses, twenty common-council-men, usually denominated, "the twenty men," one recorder, two Serjeants at mace, and a town-clerk. The bailiff for the time being is a justice of the peace, of the quorum, and chief clerk of the Market The recorder and town-clerk are required to be barristers at law. The former must be approved by his majesty, and is continued a justice of peace for life, by virtue of his office. The two serjeants at mace are empowered to arrest persons within the borough, attached for any debt under an hundred pounds; the bailiff, ex-bailiff, with the recorder, constituting a quorum, who may issue writs for the recovery of debts to that amount; they have likewise the power of committal to the county gaol, no other justices having cognizance of causes within the borough. No foreigner, i.e. none but townsmen, can serve on the local juries; and the inhabitants-are exempt from serving on juries at the sessions and assizes for the county.
A GRAMMAR SCHOOL was founded here in 1576, by William Parker of, London, woollen draper, a native of this place, who left an annual salary of twenty pounds, for a master, and ten, pounds to be .distributed yearly amongst six poor men. Five boys are educated by a legacy of Lord Crewe, formerly Bishop of Durham; and twelve others are supported at school at the expense of, the Corporation, By the returns made to Parliament in 1801, the number of houses was 503,, and inhabitants 2582; of whom 669 were represented as occupied in trade. Here is a well supplied market on Wednesdays, and five annual fairs notable for the sale of horses, this being considered a central place of horse dealing for the kingdom.
Daventry was the birth-place of HENRY HOLLAND, celebrated as one of the translators of the Rhemish Testament, a work, long the subject of polemical controversy between the divines of the Catholic and reformed churches. He received his early education at Eton, whence he went to St. John's College, in Oxford, and took a degree in arts; but changing his religion, he repaired to the university of Douay, in Flanders, where he took orders, removed to Rheims, and became an eminent tutor and preacher in the English College there. After some years' residence, he returned to England, with the view of aiding in the conversion of this nation to popery, for which purpose the Rhemish Testament was published. But finding the futility of the scheme, and wearied with the unprofitable employment, he retired to Douay, was made licentiate, and divinity reader to the adjacent monastery of Ancine, where he died in 1625, and was interred in the, cloister. Over his grave was placed this ditstich:
" Dantria me genuit, me clara Vigornia fovet, Etona me docuit, post docet Oxonium."
GEORGE ANDREW, Bishop of Fearns and Leighlin, in Ireland, a native of this town, received his education in Magdalen College, Oxford, where he took a degree, and entered into holy orders before he quitted the University, Removing into Ireland, he was first appointed to the Deanry of Limeric, and then preferred to the Bishopric of Fearns. But on the breaking out of the rebellion, he was driven from his See, and resided some years privately in London, where he died in 1648.
Here also was was born JOHN SMITH, a celebrated engraver in the mezzotinto style. " The end of King William's reign," says a.noble author, " was illustrated by a genius of singular merit in his way, John Smith."(Ref 22) He was the son of John Smith, who had been three times bailiff of Daventry, and was placed put by his father as an apprentice to a painter in London, of the name of Tilley, When he had served the term, he applied to a Mr. Becket, from whom he learned the art of engraving in mezzotinto; and was further instructed by the famous Van de Vaart. He then received admission into the house of Sir God frey Kneller, to exercise his art in engraving the pictures of that eminent master. Besides portraits, he also engraved a variety of historic and fancy pieces, among which the most admired, for its peculiar delicacy of touch, is a holy family after Carlo Maratti. Previous to his death, Smith had collected proofs of his various plates, in two large volumes. Walpole says, he was the best mezzotintor of the age, or that has appeared, " who united softness with strength, and finishing with freedom" Though by the style of painting, from which he copied, his prints will carry something of burlesque down to the latest posterity. Smith died at Northampton, and was buried within the precincts of St. Peter's church, where a tablet is raised to his memory.
About half a mile to the south of the town, is the celebrated BOROUGH, or BURROUGH HILL, commonly called Dane's Hill, a Spot peculiarly interesting to the lovers of antiquarian research, On the top of this is a very large encampment occupying nearly the whole of the summit. In extent, perhaps it surpasses any similar work in the kingdom. The shape is oblong, inclining to an oval, or rather to the form of the human foot, and in this respect resembles the most formidable one the Romans had in the West of England, called Worle Berry, in the county of Somerset, though the latter is far inferior as to magnitude. The whole is variously defended, with two, three, or four valla, and an equal number of fossa, as the nature of the ground, and the facility, or difficulty of access appeared to require for its security. The length is rather less than a mile, and the breadth not more than one quarter in the widest part. Moreton, who minutely describes it, observes that the circumference " is generally reckoned three miles; and supposing the area to be an oval of two miles in circumference, it contains no less than one hundred and ninety acres. But the circuit is ten thousand five hundred and sixty paces, and the length five hundred and eighty-seven paces, of five feet to the pace. So that allowing nine feet square, for the lodgment of every foot soldier, no fewer than ninety-nine thousand, seven hundred foot soldiers might be quartered there."(Ref 23)
Near the northern extremity of the hill, the encampment Was divided by a rampart, extending nearly across the area from east to west. The part thus separated from the larger fortification, consisted of an area of about twelve acres. This is nearly of a circular form, and has at the north east end a high mount, on which has been an arx-exploratoria, or the pretorium of the general; and on the east side of the foss is a spring, called Spelwell, which Camden by mistake denominates a mount. ,
On the south east side of the hill, about three hundred yards from the outer works of the larger encampment, is a smaller camp, forming a parallelogram or oblong square, encompassed by a single foss and vallum, having entrances on the east and west sides. The area includes about an acre.(Ref 24)
On the south, at the foot of the hill, is a remarkable spot denominated BURNT- WALLS, where various walls, arched vaults, foundations of buildings, &c. have been discovered, and whence large quantities of stone have, at different times, been removed, for the purposes of building. The space these occupy, contains about six acres, and appears to have formerly been surrounded with a foss. Some writers imagine this was a moat, and once supplied with water from the springs in Daventry park.
In a wood, contiguous to. Burnt-Walls, are the vestiges of some ether fortified place, which is traditionary called John of, Gaunt's Castle but if ever this distinguished Lancastrian her* lived here, or possessed this post, it was probably part of the great Roman station at this place, and immediately connected with Burnt Walls. This is mentioned, in an agreement between the convent and Robert Fitzwalter, lord of Daventry, in 38,of Henry III. " Dictus Convent, similiter in defenso habeburit culturam suam ad Brende Wallis"(Ref 25).
Such, briefly, are the works en Borough Hill and its vicinity. By whom they were originally formed, is a question that has afforded various topics for conjecture: as they have been assigned to the Danes, Saxons, Romans, and Britons. Pennant thinks the original encampment was the work of the latter people, the nature of the construction agreeing with the description of the Gaulish and British mode of fortifying places, left us by Tacitus, " Tunc montibus arduis & si qua clemantur accedi potemnt in modum valli saxa praesttuit," and the same author informs us, that the lceni took refuge from the army of the Roman propraetor Ostorius," Locum pugnae delegere septum agresti aggere et aditu angusto, ne pervius equis foret.(Ref 26). The Coritani when assailed, would of course avail themselves of such a strong position by nature, as this of Borough Hill, and fortify it in a similar manner; while Camden and others think it was the work of the propraetor. That on his being victorious against the natives of these parts, he took possession of their strong holds" there can be little doubt and finding this so eligible a spot to make a stand, would as certainly, new model and strengthen the fortifications to increase its tenability ; forming it into a summer camp, and the warmer situation beneath into a hibernaculum, or winter station. This he most probably established as a. post, when on traversing the island, to quell the different insurrections of the; insurgents; he fortified the river Aufona or Nen by which means the retreat of Petilius Cerealis the Roman" general was covered, after his compleat defeat by the Britons ; on Which occasion the ninth Legion was cut to pieces, nearly the: whole of his infantry either killed or taken, and he with difficulty escaped hither, accompanied by a portion of his cavalry. From' these and other circumstances Antiquaries of the first eminence have been induced to consider Borough . Hill or rather Burnt Walls, as the site of the Roman
BENAVENNA. This has been placed by Camden at the village of Wedon, in which opinion. he has been followed by Burton, Gale and Stukeley, the latter .of whom positively, asserts, that " Wedon in |the street, is beyond dispute Benavona, as surely it ought to be wrote, being situated on ;the head of the Aufona, running to North-avanton, or North-ampton."(Ref 27). Two points, in addition to Roman remains, and the place being on, or near a Road, are requisite to decide questions of this nature. And when it is recollected how much the decisions of Camden were usually influenced by a comparison of the ancient and modern names of these towns, and what a portion of the word, Benaventa is retained in Daventry : it is rather singular that he should have given the preference to the village of Wedon. Pennant thinks he finds a reason in the name, for placing the station at, or near Borough-hill, immediately adjacent to the town of Daventry The Britons he conjectures would call this hill, as being near the source of a river, according to their usual mode •of giving appellations to places, pen, pronounced ben, and Avon, river, i. e. Ben-avon or the head of the river; and as it is well known the Romans Latinized the British names, they would naturally term it Benavanna, or, as Stukeley acutely observes, Benavona. This exactly answers to the description of the place in question. One of the sources of the river Nen has its rise near Daventry, and the ancient name of this, has been thought by most writers to have been Aven, or Avon. This argument certainly applies much more strongly to Daventry, than to Wedon.(Ref 28).
Horsley is inclined to favor this opinion, but doubts whether to prefer Burrough Hill, or Ashby St. Leger: his reasons he deduces from the distances between this, and the next station, Venonis: in the second iter the number of miles set opposite Bennavanria or Benevenna, is XVII, and this he concludes to be nearly accurate, from the distance between Venonis and Bcnfavena, in the eighth iter being set down XVIII; which places, vthough the names are somewhat different, he considers identically the same. , " I have therefore set off thirteen and a half computed miles, according to the large scale in Camden, and find it reaches exactly to Daventry, or Leger Ashby, or to that part of, Watling Street that is over against those places. The present town of Daventry stands to the west of this great military way, but it is likely that the ancient Roman town may have nearly come up to it. There is sufficient evidence of a Roman station and town at this part, as will appear from the accounts we have in Camden and Dr. Stukeley, viz. the encampments, &,c. at Borough Hill, already described" (Ref 29).Subsequent to the Romans leaving the Island, the Saxons appear to have occupied this post at an early period; they were no doubt in possession of it A. D. 1006. For in that year the Danes receiving fresh arrivals of invading troops under Swaine, carried fire and sword through the country; and the Mercians, of which kingdom this country formed a frontier part, were commanded by Ethelred to rise en masse, and a portion were entrenched on Borough Hill, from which after a severe struggle, they were dispossessed by the Danes, who in their turn occupied it; whence the work has been attributed by some writers to that people. But it has justly been remarked, that every thing at present visible on this hill must net be ascribed to remote antiquity; for as Charles the First occupied and fortified this post, previous to the battle of Naseby: some of the fortifications may have been raised by the troops under that unfortunate Monarch. The entrenchment of Borough Hill, and the works in its vicinity, have been much defaced and reduced, within a few years, in consequence of inclosing the open fields, and appropriating the land to tillage.
FARTHINGSTONE. In this parish, en the brow of a hill, are some ancient fortifications denominated the CASTLE DYKES, from a tradition that anciently a castle stood on the site. Morton conjectures, without advancing proof from any record, that it was formed about A. D. 813, when Ethelfteda, the relict and successor of Ethelred King of Mercia, raised several fortresses for the defence of her territories, and this was set fire to and burnt by the Danes, under Swane A. D. 1013, who committed desperate ravages after he had passed the Waiting Street, in his retaliating route from Gainsborough to Oxford.(Ref 30). The works are so overgrown with wood, that it is difficult to ascertain their form and extent. They include an area of about thirteen acres, and consist of two strong holds, divided by a ditch running from east to west, and the whole surrounded by two valla, separated by a foss from fifteen to twenty feet deep, and nearly one hundred feet broad from vallum to vallum. In digging for stone to erect a house, the workmen discovered a room built of or hewn stone, and which apparently once had a vaulted stone roof; through the floor of this was -another beneath. Among the rubbish were found three rudely sculptured stones; the one having on it a bearded arrow, another a female head, and a third with the figures of a man and woman in the position of their arms a-kimbow.(Ref 31). Upon the south-west of a hill adjoining to the castle hill, is a plot of ground called the castle-yard, of an irregular shape, containing six or seven acres, entrenched on every side except the south-west, where the ground is highest; and at the bottom of the trench are large heaps of cinders incorporated with earth and pebbles. The fortifications at this place are curious, and highly interesting; for they present some rather unusual features of castrame-tation. The Keep-mount is very lofty, with the scarp peculiarly precipitous.
The parish of FAWSLEY, which gives name to the hundred, is situated in a well wooded country, and principally consists of the demesne and park appendant to FAWSLEY-HOUSE. Near the latter is the village Church, which is very neatly fitted up, and Contains several fine monuments, raised to different persons of the .Knightly family, who have been lords of this, place ever since the time of King Henry the Third, Among the monuments, that of Sir Richard Knigftlyt who died in 1616, and Jane his wife, has sculptured figures in alabaster in recumbent postures, on an altar tomb. He is represented in armour, over which is thrown an herald's mantle, and a mail doublet over his thighs. This Sir Richard -was several time* returned member of Parliament for the county. He was a most distinguished patron of the puritans, and, persuaded by the celebrated Snape and other .ministers of the party, he was induced to expend large sums of money in printing incendiary pamphlets against the establishment. The mode in which such "swarms of libels were brought into existence, that they darkened, the atmosphere by their numbers, and with their poisonous effluvia filled the land, is singularly curious." Not only were itinerant preachers appointed to declaim against existing grievances, but itinerant printers, and portable presses moved from one place to another, for farthering the no-episcopacy scheme. One Walgrave, who had the conduct of those which had been brought down from Moulsey to Fawsley, on their way to Manchester, was for some time detained here by Sir Richard. And subsequently Waldgrave and the workmen having been seized by the Earl of Derby at Manchester, the secret was disclosed, Sir Richard, and other abettors were cited in the Star-chamber Court for the offence, severely censured, and ordered to be fined and imprisoned. But on the intercession of the pious and amiable Archbishop Whitgift, who had been a chief object of their slanderous assertions and insults, the fines were remitted, and their persons set at liberty.
The family appears to have been hostile to the establishment, till its suppression; for Mr. Richard Knightly in the reign of Charles the First, was one of the most zealous promoters of the discontents between the king and his subjects, which unhappily broke out soon after into open warfare. In Fawsley House, the grand scheme on which the malecontents determined to act, was matured, and the conduct concluded upon, to which they solemnly engaged to adhere; viz. The retrenchment of regal power; 1. in the right of making war and peace; 2. in the sole disposal and ordering of the militia"; 3. in the nomination of all great officers to places of trust, and profit; 4.. in the disposal of the revenues, which .were proposed to be placed under the management and control of four several councils, be to appointed by Parliament; and who should be empowered to act without any summons or writ, from the crown. A plan highly plausible in theory, but, as the event proved, difficult to execute, and disastrous in the issue.
On a brass plate in the Church are engraved representations of Sir Edmund Knightly, and his wife Ursula, who was sister to John Vere, Earl of Oxford. Though a serjeant at law, he is represented in armour, according to the fashion of the time?. He died 1542.
A large mural monument is raised to the memory of SIR VALENTINE KNIGHTLY, and his wife Anne: he died in 1566
FAWSLEY HOUSE, the ancient seat of the Knightly family, delightfully situated in Fawsley Park, is a motley building of. different ages, and incongruously combined. Some of the oldest parts are curious, as calculated to display the customs and manners of our baronial ancestors The Kitchens and Hall are particularly entitled to notice; the first from their peculiar fire places, and the. latter for its lofty roof, bay window, and ornamental chimney-piece. The Kitchen, as Mr. Pennant observes, is " most hospitably divided." The chimney consist* of two funnels, and on each side of the partition is an enormous fire place, though not adequate to roast" a hecatomb of beeves." The fire places are placed back to back, so as not to interrupt the respective operations at each. One is twelve feet six inches, and the other fourteen feet ten inches wide, with double arched mantle pieces of stone. The Hall is a noble room, fifty-two feet in length. It is very lofty, and has a timbered roof curiously carved. The grand bow window, forming the recess, is richly ornamented with some tracery, and sculptured decorations. The rest of the windows are very large, and placed according to the fashion Of the time when made, a great height above the floor. In each are emblazoned, in stained glass, the family arms, and those of the families with which the Knightly's have been connected. And these are numerous, as their alliances were extensive. But the chimney-piece, also yery curious, is large, grand, admirably contrived, 'and richly decorated with tracery mouldings. Immediately over it is a large handsome window, the smoke being conveyed through two funnels, carried up inside the collateral buttresses of the fire place; by which contrivance the uniformity of the hall is equally preserved, as to windows, as though it had no chimney.(Ref 32). At the lower end are two doors in the pointed style Among the pictures are some curious portraits of the Knightly family, and others of eminent persons.
The park consists of fine improved demesne, which abounds with ornamental forest woods. In the valleys are some well-disposed pieces of water in a finely wooded dell. The park, is well stocked with deer.
DR. JOHN WILKINS, a celebrated divine and mathematician. was a native of Fawsley, having been born in the house of his maternal grandfather, the Rev. John Dod, (well known, under the appellation of the Decalogist,) though his father was a goldsmith in Oxford. In 1637 he was admitted a student of New-Inn, Oxford, at the early age of thirteen, whence removing to Magdalen College, and having graduated, he entered into holy orders, and was appointed chaplain to Lord Say, and soon after to George, Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Wilkins was a striking, instance of the fluctuation of opinions in individuals, and the heterogeneous conduct of government, in the eventful period during which he lived. On the Civil War breaking out he joined the presbyterian faction, and subscribed to the covenant; and in 1648 was appointed to the wardenship of Wadham College, by the committee formed for the reformation of the University. Having legally vacated this, trust, by his marrying Robina, sister of Oliver Cromwell: through his connection with the usurper, he obtained a dispensation of the statutes in his favour, and retained his station. By his nephew, Richard Cromwell, he was made master of Trinity College, Cambridge; but was ejected the following year, on the restoration. Subsequently conforming to the established church, he was successively preferred to be preacher to the Society of Gray's Inn, to the living of St Lawrence, Jewry, to the deanry of Ripon; and, through the interest of the Duke of Buckingham was advanced, in 1658, to the Bishoprick of Chester in which see he died, Nov. 19, 1672. The extent and universality of his learning have been generally allowed, which his works have tended to demonstrate;(Ref 33). and his greatest enemies can censure him for instability in his political and hierarchical Opinions.
Lichborough or Litchborough, is supposed to have been one of the four British garrisoned towns taken by the Saxons, in the year 571. The name certainly better accords with the chronicle than either Loughborough, in Leicestershire, or Leighton, in. Bedfordshire, at which places Lycanburgh (Ref 34). has been placed by Camben apd Gibson.
STAVERTON. In this parish is a lofty hill called Studbury, which has by many persons been considered the highest spot of ground in. England and the conjecture receives a considerable support from a fact, that the rain water which falls on the summit and sides, runs to three very different points of the compass; part westward to, the river Leam and thence info the Western Ocean j part eastward to the Nen, and onwards to the Eastern Sea; and a part southward into the Charwell, in which direction it proceeds by that channel nearly thirty miles towards Oxford. The only objection to this evidence being conclusive is, that to the north there is no water that runs in that bearing so far as five miles.
In the church of STOWE, commonly called Stowe-nine-churches from the circumstance of the Lord of the Manor having had the right of presentation to that number, is a magnificent monument, -highly worthy the attention of the curious traveller, whether the worth which it was erected to Commemorate, or the skill of the artist by whom it was executed, be taken into consideration. This, which Mr. Pennant styles the "most elegant tomb that -this or any other kingdom can boast of," is sacred to the memory of Elizabeth, fourth daughter of John Lord Latimcr. The figure is certainly a fine piece of sculpture, in white alabaster, recumbent on a black slab. The attitude is happily - chosen, being the most easy possible, that of a person in sleep: her head, reclining on a cushion, is covered with a hood, with a quilted ruff round her neek; one hand is placed on her breast, and the other lies by her side; the gown, which covers her feet, flows in the most natural folds, and she lies on a long mantle lined with ermine, fastened at the neck with jewels: all is graceful, all would have been easy, had it not been for the preposterous fashion of the times, which is destructive of all beauty, grace, and symmetry. At the feet is a griffin couch-ant, holding a shield charged with the family arms. The figure lies on an altar-tomb of white marble, which is ornamented with various armorial bearings, and inscriptions on the sides: one of them states,
"Here lyes intombed the body of the Honorable Lady ELIZABETH, 4th daughter, and co-heir of JOHN LATIMER, by the Lady Lucy Somerset, daughter of Henrie, Earl of Worcester, who was married unto Sir John Danvers, of Dantsey, in the county of Wilts, Knight, by whom she had issue, three sons and seven daughters' The other inscriptions relate to her children; for commemorating whose virtues and her own affections she. caused this monument to be erected in her life-time:
Sic familia praeclara AEtatis 84 Prabclarior prole Anno Virtute praeclarissima Dm. 1630. Conimutavit specula; non obiit.
This handsome .and interesting monument was executed by Nicholas Stone, who was a master mason, statuary and stonecutter, to King James, and Charles the Second. He was an artist of some celebrity at that time: and parts of the present specimen are honorable testimonies of his abilities. From a note that Vertue preserved of his, it appears that, "March 16, 1617, I undertook to make a tombe for my lady, mother of Lord Danvers, which was all of white marbell and touch,(Ref 35). and I set it up at Stow-of-the-nine-churches in Northamptonshire, som two yeare after. One altar tombe; for which I had 220 li." When Pennant first visited this church, the monument here alluded to was " going fast to decay:" but since then it ha? been carefully cleaned and repaired; and is now guarded by the present rector, the Rev. Mr. Crawley, with laudable care and attention. As an example of the taste of the age, and state of sculpture, when it was executed, this may be deemed a very interesting piece of art. The head appears to be a portrait of the lady, and was probably executed from a cast.
On the north side of the chancel is a large marble mural monument, or cenotaph, raised to the memory of Dr. THOMAS TURNER, who was born in Bristol, 1645, and buried in 1714, in the chapel of Corpus-Christi College, Oxford. This benevolent man expended a large fortune in acts of charity and at his death, after bequeathing 4000l. to his relations and friends, directed the residue of his property to be applied to public charities. He augmented the stipends of the poorer members of Ely Cathedral, in which he was prebend; left 100l. to be expended in apprenticing poor children of that city: 6000l. for improving the buildings of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, of which he had been president; and 20,000l. for the purchase of estates, the revenues of which were to be applied towards the relief of the poor widows and, children of the clergy. His executors accordingly bought the manor, &c of Stowe; also the other lands of West Wrotting, in Cambridgeshire, to the value of 1000l. a year And upwards. The price of this manor was 16000l. The monument records the charities of this worthy divide, a statue of whom is represented in his mister of arts robes, on a terrestrial globe, with a book in his hand. A canopy over his head is supported by two fluted columns of the Corinthian order; arid the monument is adorned with two large statues emblematic of religion and benevolence. The whole was executed by Thomas Stayner.
WEDON BEC, or, as it is now commonly called, WEDON ROYAL, receives its former appellation from a small religious house, that Was founded here as a cell to the abbey of Bec, in Normandy. The name of Royal is modern: and has arisen from & large military depot for arms, stores, &c. which has been erected and formed here within a few years. The place is sometimes called We-don-in-the-Street, from being seated on the Roman Watling-Street. It is related that Wulfere, one of the Kings of Mercia, had a palace here; and that his daughter Werburgh, who was canonized as a saint, founded at this place a nunnery, which was "endowed with singular privileges. This religions house, and probably the royal mansion, was burnt by the Danes. Leland says, that a chapel, dedicated to St. Werburgh, Was standing in his time attached to the south side of the church. The military buildings, called the Depot, consist of a governors house; also barracks, with several spacious storehouses, for artillery, muskets, ammunition, &c. A cut from the Grand Junction Canal is formed to communicate with the storehouses, and by this canal, the stores, and troops can be readily and cheaply conveyed to almost any part of England;
In the village church of DODFORD, north-east of Wedon, are some ancient sepulchral memorials deserving notice. Pennant describes one to contain an effigy of " a cross-legged knight armed in mail, with both hands upon his sword, as if in the act of drawing it." This figure be conjectures to have been representative of " a Keynes, one of the Ancient lords of the place; and from the attitude of his legs to have lived during the fashionable madness of the Crusades" Here is a brass-plate for William Wyde, who died owner of this place in 1422 and another in memory of his wife. In another part is an alabaster figure represented in armour, of John Cressy, who distinguished himself in the French wars, under the Duke of Bedford. He was made a Privy-counsellor in France, and died in Lorraine, A.D. 1448.
As to its aspect, has nearly the same characteristic features as the adjacent Hundred of -Fawsley being mostly hilly, and Abounding in springs. Two streams have their source in it, and soon after leaving the hundred join the river Charwell. It contains no market-town, and the villages are but small. It comprehends the parishes of Aston-le-Walls including the Hamlet of Appletree, Boddington-lower, Boddington-upper, Byfield, Chipping-Warden, Edgcote, Eydon, Greatworth, Sulgrave, and Woodford cum Membris.
CHIPPING-WARDEN, or 'Cheping-Warden, the village which gives name to the hundred, Was certainly once a market-town. The nominal adjunct chipping, is derived from the Saxon term 'ceapen, to cheapen, and metaphorically to buy. And in the twelfth year of King Richard's reign, the name first occurs annexed to the town, where a market was then held, by virtue of a grant obtained during the minority of Henry the Third, by Henry de Braybrook. In this parish are some entrenchments, denominated ARBERRY-BANKS. Moreton conjectures that they were either a camp of the West-Salons, formed when they in- vaded Mercia, or works thrown up by the Danes, previous to the desperate battle fought between them and the Mercians on the plain called Danes-moor, adjacent to the village of Edg-cot. 'Near the north end of the village is Wallow-Bank, an earthen rampire, which on the western side is almost perpendicular; but on the eastern, it slopes down with a gradual declivity. Only a small part of it remains, as portions at each end, have been progressively levelled by the plough. From the base to the ridge of the present fragment is nine paces, and the length is about twenty-four. Morton conjectures that it originally extended southward below Walton, to the Charwell; and northward by Aston, hence called Aston-in-the-Wall, to the river Learn; an extent of sixteen miles.(Ref 36) This has been considered a prcetentura, or fore fence, and is said to be evidently Roman, " from the form, and the coins found about it.'(Ref 37) The purport of raising it appears to have been to secure the Roman conquests eastward of the vallum, from the incursive depredations of the Britons; who, taking advantage of the shelter "afforded them by the Forest of Arden in Warwickshire, were continually infesting the Romanized natives of this part of the island, Morton says the name Wallow is derived from the word Wall, and Alaewe or lowe, the Saxon terms for a hill,, as much as to say Wall-hill, to which the appellation, bank, has been a later addition. But in the Roman name of such a fortification is found a far more easy derivation. The Latin vallum leaving out the m at the end, and changing the v in pronunciation, as in many instances has been done in the names of places by the English (Ref 38)gives us the identical word Wallu, pronounced Wallow. Near this vallum is a plot of land of about forty acres, denominated the black-ground, from the colour of the soil, where frequently have been discovered, coins, pieces of hewn-stone. and foundations of buildings. Hence it seems highly probable that a Roman villa, or some other edifice belonging to the Romans, once existed here,
EDGCOTE-HOUSE, in the small parish of Edgcote, formerly the family seat of the Chaunceys, bears marks of antiquity though the structure has been partially modernized. The back part of it, however, is deserving notice, not only as characteristic of the style of domestic architecture of a former period but us having been the residence of the celebrated Thomas Lord Cromwell, Earl of Essex, vicar-general to King Henry the Eighth. Part of it was erected by him a short time previous to his attainder and decapitation. In this curious building, many of the doorways and windows are in the pointed style, and a saloon above stairs has the floor flagged; apparently as a preventive from fire, or as a refrigerating drawing-room during the heat of summer. Over the chimney-piece, in stone-work, are displayed ten quarterings of the family arms in one shield, also the same coats repeated on distinct shields. On the side of the arms in the upper part, are the figures of Mars, and Venus with Cupid by her side; and below, the statues of Apollo, and Vulcan. This curious piece of sculpture bears the date of 1598. The kitchen is peculiarly worthy of notice. The fireplace has two large chimneys of a peculiar character, with arch work in the front. In each, an arch of massy stone, eighteen feet in length, sustains itself; and the incumbent weight, although its form is the small segment of a large circle, nearly approximating to a flat. Over each of these is another arch more raised, and above it two vast funnels of stone, and between them a large window.(Ref 39) The House is now the seat of T. Carter, Esqr. M. P. In this parish, to the south of the village, is a spacious valley called Danes-moor, or Duns-more, where, it is said that a sanguinary conflict took place between the Danes, who had in great force encamped on the heights of Rainsborough, and an army of Saxons collected to oppose their depredations. But as this is not mentioned in the Saxon Chronicle, it merely rests upon tradition. Greater credibility attaches to the account of a, battle fought here between the leaders of the two Contending factions, for the houses of York and Lancaster. The Lancastrians were commanded by Sir John Coniers, and Robert Hilliyard, who entitled himself Robin of Riddesdale. The followers of King Edward the Fourth were commanded by William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, who being defeated, and having lost five thousand men, and the rest of his army routed, was himself, together with his two brothers, John and Richard, and Richard Wydvil, Earl of Rivers, taken prisoners, and carried to Northampton; where, at the command of George, Duke of Clarence, and Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick, who had recently revolted from the royal cause, they were beheaded four days after the battle. In 1642 the unfortunate Monarch, Charles the First, with his two sons, and a part of his army lay at Edgcote, previous to the battle of Edge hill; and returned to the same place the day after the engagement.
SULGRAVE Near the church of this village, are the remains of an encampment, on the summit of an eminence, called Castle Hill. This is very lofty, and commands an extensive reach of country: and it is traditionally related that nine counties can be seen from, its apex. About a mile north of the village is an artificial mount, probably a sepulchral tumulus.
In the parish of WOODFORD, on the banks of the Nen, are some ancient remains, which in the Magna Britannia, are said to display " manifest signs of a place possessed by the Romans.; for in apiece of ground called the Meadow-furlong," many tessellae, tiles, and fragment* of pottery have been found.
KINGS SUTTON HUNDRED
ASSUMES different features from the adjacent hundred of Chipping Warden: the northern part being generally flat, and the soil deep. On the west it is bounded by the Charwell, on the banks of which river is a fine tract of meadow land ; and to the south-east, in the vicinity of Aynho, the ground becomes more elevated, and the soil light and dry. At the time of the CONqueror's survey, the present district was divided into two hundreds; one called the hundred of Elbodestow, or Abbodes-towe; and the other the hundred of Sutton.
In its present state it contains the parishes of Aynho, Brackley St. James's, Brackley St. Peter, including the hamlet of Old Brackley with Halse, Chalcombe, Croughton, Culworth, Evenley, Farthinghoe, Helmdon, Hinton in the 'Hedges, King's Sutton with Astrope, Marston St. Lawrence, "Middleton-Cheney, New-bottle, Radston, Steane, Stutchbury, Syresham, Thenford, Thorp Mandeville, Wappenham, Warkworth, including the hamlet of Grimsbury, and Whitfield.
AYNHO, a large respectable village, is situated on an eminence. Below the rock on which the village stands, issues a -powerful spring of water, called the Town-Well, which running into the vale below, passes through a fine meadow, of about two hundred and twenty acres in extent, to the river Charwell. From this spring, and the situation, the place receives its appellation of Avon-ho, softened into Aynho. At the east end of the village, part of the vicinal Roman road, called Port-way is visible, and is traced again to the southward, but no vestiges of it appear to the north of this place. In the church, are numerous monumental memorials ; several of which are commemorative of the Cartwright family, who have long been proprietors of this manor. It is how the property of W. R. Cartwright, ESP, M. P. for the county, who has a handsome seat here, and possesses a fine collection of pictures, some of which are by Morilli.
Here was formerly an Hospital, founded by Roger Fitz-Richard, and his son Robert, in the time of Henry the Second, for the accommodation of poor and sick travellers. It was subsequently granted to Magdalen College, Oxford, from which society it is held by lease, and occupied as a private house, though still designated by the appellation of The 'Spitat.
A Free-School was also founded here by John Cartwright, Esq. and endowed with a rent charge of twenty pounds per annum, as' a salary for a master
SHAKERLEY MARMION, born in the Manor house of Aynho, in the year 1602, was reputed by his contemporaries to be a man of considerable genius and brilliant wit. More attentive to cultivate the friendship of the muses than in husbanding his estate, his fortune was quickly dissipated, and he commenced author. Besides several smaller poems, published as fugitive pieces, he was the author of four comedies, viz. Holland's Leaguer; A Fine Companion; The Crafty Merchant, or The Soldier's Citizen; and The Antiquary. He published a moral poem, in two books, entitled Cupid and Psyche. Marmion received an university education, in Wadham College, Oxford, where he proceeded to a master's degree; and Wood states that although he inherited an unencumbered estate) of seven hundred per annum, yet he died poor in 1639.(Ref 40)
SIR RALPH WINWOOD, an eminent statesman, in the time of James the First, was also a native of this place.' He was educated at Oxford, where he became probationer fellow of Magdalen College. Leaving the university, he travelled on the continent, to obtain a knowledge of diplomacy, In 1607, he received the honor of knighthood, and was employed as ambassador to the States of Holland. In 1614, he was made Secretary of State and a Privy Counsellor. He was born 1565, and died in 1617 His writings are " Memorials of State Affairs" which after his death were published in one volume folio.
Situated on a descent, near a branch of the river Ouse, takes its name from the brakes or fern, with which the adjacent country is said to have formerly abounded. Though at present but a small town, it has been much larger, of greater relative importance, and is considered one of the most ancient boroughs in the kingdom : many remains of its former greatness are still visible. " Master Paynell told me, that he saw at Brakley, in the, parts by Bukyngham, manifest tokens, that it had beene a wallyd toune, and tokens of the gates and towres in the walles by the half circles of the foundations of them (I sowght diligently, and could find no tokens of walls or ditches) And that there hath bene a castell, the dyke and hills whereof do yet appere (I saw the castle plott.)(Ref 41)" Leland observes further, that it was " a flourishing town" in the time of the Saxons, but was rased by the Danes. That after the conquest it was again in a prosperous state, became one of the great staples for the sale of wool, and had the honor of being governed by it Mayor. These privileges it received in the reign of Edward the Second, and in the eleventh year of Edward the Third's reign, it was of such eminence, that it sent three representatives, as merchant-staplers, to a council, held respecting trade, at Westminster, The first notice on record, of Brackley, as an incorporated town, is in a deed respecting the hospital, dated in the fifty-sixth year of Henry the Third ; and in the seventh year of Edward the Second, the title of Mayor was granted to its chief magistrate. The Corporation consists of a Mayor and six Aldermen, and ..twenty-six capital Burgesses; and as the lords of Brackley were instrumental in procuring the town this franchise, they have always been invested with a share in its execution. The Mayor is annually nominated from among the Aldermen, by the lord's Steward, and sworn before him at the manorial court. Oldfield says, this town first sent members to the British Senate in the reign of Edward the First ;(Ref 42) but Brydges observes, " that it never sent any burgesses to Parliament, nor ever received any precept to send, as a borough, till after the last Parliament of Henry the Eighth; when upon the dissolution, of the monasteries, most boroughs, whose lords were courtiers, were encouraged to return members, and the large dissolved abbey towns were particularly summoned"(Ref 43)
In this town was anciently a Castle, as Leland noticed, but by whom erected, or when rased, does not appear: there were no remains in the time of Leland, though the site still retains the name of Castle-Hill. Here were anciently two- churches; St. Peter's and St. James's. The former is still the parochial church, and the latter a chapel of ease to it. The Hospital dedicated to St. James and St. John, is said by Camden to have been founded by the family of Zouch, who were great benefactors to the institution. The founder was Robert Bossu, Earl of Leicester, in the reign of King Henry the First* It originally consisted of a master and six fellows, who were a kind of canons, or secular chaplains, subject to no ecclesiastical rule. It was Afterwards granted to Magdalen College, Oxford, on condition, that the master and fellows should maintain here a stipendiary priest to sing and say mass for the soul of Francis Lord Lovell, and the souls of his ancestors. The College appears to have made it a kind of asylum for their society in perilous times; for in the reign of King John, A. D. 1212, that prince went to Ox-ford, to meet his Barons, who disobeying the summons of the king, and a civil war ensuing, the students were great sufferers, many were dispersed, and the members of Magdalen found their safety by retiring here. The building is now in a ruinous : in the modern hall (Ref 44) are one hundred and five shields, Charged with the arms of several prelates, nobles and distinguished personages.
The Hospital, with, its offices, appears to have consisted originally of two quadrangles. The Chapel is still subsisting, though stripped of its former decorations, and in a dilapidated state. It has a broad low tower on. the north-west side, The door-way at the west end, has a circular arch, with crenellated, and other antique mouldings, Over this is a window, composed of three divisions, each in the pointed style, with nail-head mouldings; and on each side is a niche in the statues. On the south side of this chapel, near the high altar, was a confessionary, of fire arches. In the presbytery, Leland informs us were interred several noblemen, whose tombs he saw, and by the arms they were some of the Lords, Holland, Zouch and Lovell, Of the tombs, however, none remain, though the right of sepulture still, attaches to the place. The estates belonging to this hospital are still vested in Magdalen College, without any obligation to perform the condition on which they were originally granted. A Free School was founded here in the time of Edward the Sixth,
Besides the above, these was another Hospital for the sick and infirm, called St. Leonard's, which was placed under- the conduct of a master.
An Aim's House was founded here by Sir Thomas Crewe, for six decayed women each of whom was to receive the annual sum of four pounds. This allowance was subsequently increased to six pounds by the founder's grandson, Nathaniel Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham. ,
Leland mentions three crosses at this place, one of which, from his description, must have been a very curious object, and was probably erected by the Staplers. It was twenty-eight feet in height, with an octagonal pillar in, the centre, and the fides ornamented with the statues of male and female figures, with various decorations of tabernacle work. This was taken down about the year, 1706, to make room for the erection of the present town hall
The present town of Brackley, can only shew its former extent by its ruins, and its pristine prosperity, by a reference to its records. It consists of one street, extending from the bridge up the side of the hill, about a mile in length; and the houses are chiefly constructed of stone. By the returns made under the population act, the number of houses was 956, and inhabitants 1420. Leland observed, that in his time " the market was desolated." But at present the town has a well supplied market on Wednesdays, and a good market house for the accommodation of the attendants.
In the vicinity of Brackley, is a piece of land called Bay-ard's-Green, where, in the days of chivalry, several tournaments Were exhibited. The first of these martial shews, was performed in the thirty-second year of King Henry the Third's and reign; in the following year was another display of a similar kind. A third tournament was held here in 1267, when several highly distinguished persons entered the lists.
SAMUEL CLARKE, noted for his skill in the oriental languages, was a native of Brackley. He was educated at Merton College Oxford, where he took the degree of master of arts, and leaving the University, kept a school at Islington, near London. But returning again to Oxford, he was in 1658, appointed to the office of Architypographus, and elected superior beadle of the Civil Law. He was consulted by Dr. Edmund Castell, in his Heptaglott Lexicon, and as the Doctor acknowledges in his preface to the first volume, furnished considerable assistance to that learned work. The Polyglott Bible, also, published by-Bishop Walton, is much indebted to Mr* Clarke for the portion of learning and labours he afforded towards its completion. He wrote several essays relative to Oriental literature, which remain in manuscript, in the archives of the Bodleian Library. He died December 27th, 1669, and was interred in the parish church of Holywell, Oxford.
In the Church of CROUGHTON, is an handsome monument to the memory of the Rev. William Friend, M. A. formerly rector of this parish, and his three sons; Robert, who was head piaster of Westminster School; William, and John. The latter, who became an eminent Physician, was born here, and re ceived his early education at Westminster School, whence he was removed to Christ Church College, Oxford. He was suc cessively appointed Professor of Chemistry to the University, Physician to the Army in Spain, Fellow of the College of Physicians, and in 1722 was elected member for Launceston, in Cornwall. He was appointed Physician to the Queen of George the Second, and died in 1728. Besides other publications, he was author of a Course of Chemical Lectures: — "The History of Physic from the time of Galen to the beginning of the 16th century" &c 2 vols, 8vo. All his writings were collected and .published in Latin, by Dr. Wigan, in one volume folio.(Ref 45).
HELMDON, the parsonage house of this villagers rendered noted in the annals of antiquarian literature; by an ancient inscription on a mantle-piece in one of the rooms, Much disputation and ingenious conjecture have been exercised on the subject, (Ref 46).and .on the first introduction of Arabic numerals into England. from the prints that have been engraved of the inscription, and published in the Philosophical Transactions, Archaeologia, &c. we should be inclined to think that the figures and letters were farmed by some common illiterate carpenter, who was unable to make them either, with accuracy or propriety. Hence it seems very absurd to deduce any systematic conclusions from such questionable data. The date is said to be A. Del M°. 133. Mr. Denne thinks it should be read 1533 (Ref 147). and this is more likely than the former date.
KINGS SUTTON CHURCH, is distinguished by its western tower, which is ornamented with a lofty handsome spire, and crocketed pinnacles. In the hamlet of Astrop, in. this parish, is a mineral spring called St. Rumbqld's- Well, which formerly attracted many visitors, to the place, but its celebrity has declined.
ASTROP HALL, formerly the seat of Lord Chief Justice Willes, is now the residence of a descendant of his lordship, the Rev. W. S. Willes.
MIDDLETON CHENEY, or Chenduit. Over the door of the church tower of this village is the statue of a saint, with various decorations in stone work; and on the south side of the church is a porch of rather singular contrivance and execution. The roof is wholly of stone, and formed with a more acute angle than those usually constructed with timber. The stones which compose it are all cut with an inarching joint, by which means they are prevented from falling, and lie compact and firm. (Ref 48). It is the custom, in summer to strew the floor of this church with hay, cut from ash-meadow, and in winter straw is found at the expense of the rector. A peculiar tenure also prevails in the lordship of this parish. When estates descend in the female line, the eldest sister inherits by law.
On a field in this parish, a battle was fought between the royal and parliamentarian forces, when the latter were defeated. In the history of the Civil Wars, this battle is denominated Middleeton- Cheney-fight.
NEWBOTTLE. In this parish is an old manor-house, which formerly belonged to the Earls of Thanet, but has been lately purchased by W. R. Cartwright, Esq. M. P.
The Hamlet of Charlton is noted for a fortification called RAINSBOROUGH, of which a manuscript account, preserved in the museum at Oxford, gives this description. " In the limits of Charlton, and in the parish of Newbottle, in Northamptonshire, is on the top of a little hill, which has a prospect round about it, a camp with a double fortification. The mound about it hath, as it seems; been woodland. The inward fortification is more than a quarter of a mile about; the outward half at least. This camp and hill is called Rainsborough Hill, though some gentlemen in the neighbourhood would have it Dainesborough Hill, as if it had been a camp of the Danes." Since the time of this writer the encampment has undergone considerable alteration.
STEANE, Or STENE. The manor of this parish was once the property of the distinguished family of the Crewes, (now of Cheshire) many of whom were interred in the church, wherein are still several monuments sacred to their memory. Against the north wall of the family burial-place is a neat marble slab, supported by pillars of the Ionic order, with an inscription to " John Lord Crewe, Baron of Steane, who died on the 82d year of hi sage, Dee. 12 1679 Another inscription is to " THOMAS GREWE miles serviens dni regis ad legem, proloquutor parliamentorum annis XXI Jacobi, et I Caroli Feb. anno dni 1633, obiit atatis suae 68. Peregrinus in Partriam." On an altar tomb, composed of white, black and grey marble, are two recumbent statues; one representative of a person in the habit of a serjeantat law, reposing his head on his right hand, and holding a roll in the left; the other, of a female reclining on a pillow, habited in the costume of the time. On a tablet is this inscription, " Temperans CREWE, the wife of Thomas Crewe, Esq. and one of the daughters and co-heirs of Reginald Bray, Esq. by Anne his wife, daughter of Thomas Lord Vaux, died in the year of our Lord, 25 October, 1619, and in the year 38 of hir age, and now resteth from hir labours, and hir works follow hir.
Praeraissa non amissa, discessa non mortua
Conjux casta, pareus faelix, matrons pudica,
Sara Tiro, mundo Martha, Maria Deo."
On another tablet, surmounted by the family arms, is this inscription
" JOHN LORD CREWE, Baron of Steane, son of Sir Thomas Crewe, Knight, and Temperance his wife, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Reginald Bray, of Steane, in the county of Northampton, Esq.: died in the eighty-second year of .his. age, on the twelfth day of December, in the year of our Lord 1679" This John Lord Crewe was a member of parliament in the fifteenth year of Charles; the First's reign, and during the troubles and usurpation his fidelity to that unfortunate Monarch remained unshaken. By his prudence and perseverance he became one of the happy intruments in the restoration of royalty. In return for his services he was, by King Charles the Second in the twelfth year of his reign, called from the lower to the upper house, by the style and title of Lord Crewe, Baron of Steane. Near the monument of Thomas Lord Crewe, is another hand-one of veined; marble,, sacred to the memory of NATHANIEL LORD CREWE, Lord Bishop of Durham. He was born at this place, January 31 , 1633, and received his education in Lincoln College, Oxford, where he co-operated with the Presbyterian. party; but at the restoration took holy orders, and in 1669 was made Dean of Chichester. In 1671 he was preferred to the bishopric of Oxford, from which see he was afterwards, in 1674, translated to Durham. For his preferments he was indebted to James, Duke of York, whose measures he strenuously supported,; yet in the conventional parliament held against that Monarch's interest, he was one of those who voted that James had abdicated the throne. This, however, did not obtain, for him the desired exemption : he was excepted out of the general amnesty granted by William, and Mary to the adherents of the Stewart family. At length, however, he procured the Royal pardon, and was permitted to retain his dignity. By the death of his brother, in 1691, he succeeded to the paternal title, and died Baron of Steane, September 18, 1721.
The vestments belonging to this church form an object of some curiosity. The furniture for the altar, pulpit and reading desk, is rich crimson velvet, originally made for the Royal Chapel of St. James's, and was a present to this church by Nathaniel Lord Crewe, clerk of the closet to King Charles the Second; Who gave also the Bible which had been used by that Monarch. The Manor-house of Steane was transferred from the Crewes to the Duke of Kent, and has since been purchased by Earl Spencer, but is occupied by a farmer.
About a mile and half from Middleton is THENFORD HALL, the seat of Michael Woodhull, Esq. who has distinguished himself in the annals of literature, by a " Poem on Equality," &c. This house contains a large and choice collection of Books and MSS. This estate came into the possession of the Woodhull family by purchase in the time of King Henry the Seventh, In the church is a monument, with an effigy of a man in armour, said to be for Fuleo de Wodhull, who died in 1613.
About a mile northward of the village of Thenford is a high hill, called Arbury, which was apparently once fortified with a circumvallation, though at present only part of the rampart is visible on the south side. In the vicinity have been found such tessellae as the Romans used in their Mosaic pavements, a medal of the Emperor Constans, and in the church-yard an urn filled with incinerated bones: notwithstanding these indications of Roman vestiges. Morton, with his usual partiality refers it to the Danes (Ref 49).
In the hamlet of ASTWELL, in the parish of Wappenham, is an ancient mansion, the property of the Marquis of Buckingham, now occupied by a farmer, but formerly a seat of the Earls Fer-rars. Behind the gateway is a small court, whence is the entrance into the large hall, the windows of which project, and have over them battlements. The chimney-pieces and wainscot in several of the rooms are ornamented with armorial bearings, and other carved decorations. At the east end of the large parlour was formerly a chapel, now dilapidated.
WARKWORTH CASTLE, in the parish of Warkworth, was formerly the seat of the Woodhulls and the Chetwoods. This handsome castellated mansion, consisted of a body, and two-wings, forming three sides of a quadrangle, and the centre was flanked with two bastion, towers, rising to the height of the building, one on each side. It stood in a large park, decorated with fish ponds and plantations, On the death of the late Owner, Francis Eyre, Esq. the estate was sold, the house pulled down, and the pleasure-grounds, &c. destroyed. In the Church are several ancient sepulchral inscriptions, on brass plates and stones. Some of them bear the early dates of 1413 and 1420. One of these records the name and memory, of " Mons. John, Chetwode, Chivelar of Warkworth," who died 1412,
GREEN's NORTON HUNDRED
Is a small district, situated to the north-east of King's Sutton, and in its general aspect displays similar features to those of that division of the county. In the south-east part it is, however, covered by a portion of Whittlewood Forest. In the time of the Norman conquest it was denominated the Hundred of Foxle, from a town since destroyed, which stood near its southern boundary. In the reign of Edward the Third, this and the manor of Norton having been purchased by Sir Henry Greene, the name was changed to Green's Norton, and ever since both have been vested in the same proprietors.
This hundred contains the parishes of Blakesley, Bradden, Cannons-Ashby, including the hamlet of Adston, Greens Norton, Maidford, Moreton-Pinkney, Plumpton, Silverstone, Slapton, Weston, Weedon, and Whittlebury; and the Hamlet of Wood-end.
ASHBY CANONS received the latter appellation from a priory of Black Canons, probably founded by Stephen de Leye, in the reign of Henry the Second; and in one of his gifts of lands he solemnly confirms the grant by the offering of a sword upon the altar, in the presence of all the parishioners, whom he constituted witnesses between him and God, of the benefit conferred. The annual revenues at the dissolution were valued at 1121. 8s. 41/4d. and the site of the house, with the possessions belonging to the monks, were granted to Sir Francis Bryan, from whom they passed to Sir John Cope. Nothing remains of the monastery but the small church, in which are sepulchral mementos of several of the Dryden family who came into possession of the manor after the Copes.
The mansion-house, at present the seat of Sir John Dryden, is a moderate-sized structure, built in an age when strength and stability were more consulted in architectural designs than regularity or symmetry. It received some repairs and embellishments a few years since, out of the ruins of the residence of the Copes above mentioned. In the present building, the only thing remarkable is a room thirty feet by twenty, which is said to be entirely floored and wainscotted with the timber contained in a single oak-tree which grew on this lordship.
GREEN'S NORTON. In this village, which gives title to the hundred, it is generally supposed, was born the celebrated lady, eminently distinguished both for virtue and rank, Queen CATHERINE PARRE, and her brother William, Marquis of Northampton. On the marriage of their father, Thomas Parre, Knt. with Maud, one of the co-heiresses of Sir Thomas Greene, he came to reside at this place. Catherine having been introduced at court, found means to engage the affections of the amorous King Henry the Eighth, and became his sixth wife. She had received, according to the custom of the age, a learned education, to which she happily joined an uncommon share of prudence: as the mode in which she conducted herself, amidst the surrounding difficulties of the times, evidently evinced. Her attachment to the reformation, and favorable attention to the reformers, roused the hatred of Gardiner, and other zealous champions for the church of Rome, who by various plots and contrivances endeavoured to effect her downfall and ruin. But in despite of all their machinations, by her judicious conduct, and conciliatory demeanour, she preserved her interest in the King's affections till the day of bis death. Her second marriage, with Sir Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral of England, in 1547, was still less propitious; for, in consequence of his ill treatment, she died of grief the following year,
In the church are a few monuments worthy of notices On an altar tomb are the effigies of a man in armour, and his wife in the dress of the time, in white marble. The first represents Thomas Green, who died in the time of Edward the Third. Other memorials of the Green family are found here in different stones, brasses, and fragments of stained glass. The font in this church is ancient and curious.
SILVESTON, a hamlet in Greens Norton parish, has by some antiquaries been considered an usual residence of some of our ancient kings. And in confirmation of the fact, it is stated, that in 1194, Richard the First, in the fifth year of his reign, took up his abode, when William King of Scotland had an audience to prefer his complaint against the Bishop of Durham, for an insult he had received from that prelate at Brackley, and that the records inform us Edward the First twice resided here But there are no vestiges of any royal palace at Silveston; whence we are induced to conclude that this place was only visited occasionally by a few monarchs.
WHITTLEBURY, another hamlet in this parish, contains several handsome villas, belonging to distinguished families. Sylvan scenery attracts the attention of the votaries of taste; and furnishes means for the display of it. Retirement, shade, and seclusion, if they do not rank among our ideas of sublimity, are certainly connected with our views of comfort, and intimately associated with our pleasurable sensations. The Forest of Whittlewood, with its walks, purlieus, &c., has been already in the general description of the county.
WAKEFIELD LODGE, the seat of the Duke of Grafton, hereditary ranger, is delightfully situated on a gentle eminence, "which slopes gradually to the margin of a lake. The opposite bank swells into a noble lawn, nearly a mile in extent; the smooth features and soft tints of which are finely contrasted by the bold and abrupt aspect of a dense woodland scene, terminating the view. Standing in the centre of the forest, many beautiful rides branch off in almost every direction from the house, which is a large mansion built by a Mr. Cleypole, son-in-law of Cromwell.
SHELBROOK LAWN, a handsome house lately rebuilt, is the seat of the honorable General Fitzroy. Within about half a mile of what is termed Whittlebury Green, a neat hunting box has been recently erected by Lord Southampton. On the opposite side of the green, the Honorable and Rev. Henry Beau-clerk has a good house, surrounded with pleasure grounds, tastefully laid out, and opening into the wild scenery of the forest.
Is generally hilly, yet the features are of that indistinct kind which afford little diversity of prospect, and are still less interesting in picturesque scenery. The Watling-Street, which makes a considerable angle at Towcester, traverses, in a straight line, the hundred to Forster's Booth, and enters in the same direction the hundred of Fawsley. This district was anciently of much greater extent, but was reduced to its present limits in the time of Edward the First. This hundred contains the parishes of Abthorpe, including the Hamlet of Foscote, Cold Higham, Gayton, Pattishall, Tiffield, and the town of Towcester.
PATESHULI, or, PATTERSHALL, is memorable for having been the birth-place of several celebrated characters; among whom was SIMON DE PATESHULL, or Pattishull, who, according to Matthew of Westminster, was an able minister and statesman, a faithful privy-counsellor, and of great political authority in the time of King Richard the First. And from the sixth year of that monarch's reign, till the eighth of King John's, served the office of sheriff for this county. In the first year of the latter reign he was appointed one of the justices in the court of King's Bench; and in the seventeenth year of Henry the Third, made Lord Chief Justice of England. (Ref 50)
HUGH DE PATESHULL was a person of no less distinction, the father's reputation conducing to the advancement of his son. In the early part of Henry the Third's reign, he had committed to him the custody of the Exchequer seal; and having executed that important trust with application and fidelity, in the eighteenth year of the same reign, he was promoted to the high office of treasurer of England; he was afterwards made Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. Contemporary with these, and of the same family was MARTIN DE PATESHULL, who, though a clergyman, also in the first year of the reign of Henry the Third, was made Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, continued in that office upwards of twelve years, and died dean of St. Paul's.
DR. RICHARD STEWARD, who was born here in 1595, studied in Magdalen College Oxford, of which society he was elected fellow. He first devoted his attention to civil law, but afterwards to theology, and soon became one of the most eminent divines of the age in which he lived, and obtained several dignified preferments. In 1628 he was made prebendary of Worcester, appointed to a stall in the cathedral of Sarum in 1629, chaplain in ordinary to King Charles the First, and made Dean of Chichester in 1634. In 1638 he was appointed clerk of the closet, the following year Provost of Eton College, dean of the chapel-royal, Prebendary of St. Pancras, and Bean of St. Paul's in 1641. In 1645 he was advanced to the deanry of Westminster, and died at Paris, NOV. 14,1651.
C0MMONLY called Toseter, and in the Domesday Book Tovecestre, is situated on a plain near the banks of a small river, named Tove. Numerous Roman coins have been found here, particularly about Berrymount Hill, which is an artificial mount composed of earth and gravel, on the north-east side of the town. It is flat on the top, about twenty-four feet in height, and the diameter one hundred and two. This hill was surrounded by a moat capable of being filled with water from the adjoin brook, and has every appearance of having been a Roman muniment. Horsley . (Ref 51)places here the station Lactodoro with greater probability of correctness than at Stony- Stratford, as Gaie and Stukeley have done; though both places have an equal claim as to their being on a great Roman road. The distance assigned between Benavenna and Lactodoro is XII millia, and the distance between Daventry and Towcester nearly accords with this, being twelve statute miles: for though the Roman was somewhat less than the English mile, yet the difference may be reconciled, by the Watling-Street proceeding straight, and the present turnpike curving to the south. On the north-west side of the town are vestiges of a foss, and the ruins of a castle or tower, probably a Saxon work; for in that period this town appears to have been a place of considerable strength, and is said to have been so well fortified, that the Danes who besieged, were unable to take it. . (Ref 52) However, at some time it must have suffered from those people, for in the year 9 King Edward, who was in possession of the whole kingdom, excepting a part occupied by the hostile Danes, issued his mandate for the rebuilding and fortifying Towcester, The panes of Northampton and Leicester, who had previously made a truce with the Saxons, suddenly broke their engagement; and marching to this place, carried oil an assault for a whole day; hut the inhabitants displayed their courage by a vigorous and successful resistance; and being succoured by a Saxon army, the Danes were obliged to retreat. In consequence of this, towards the close of the summer, Edward advancing with his army to Passenham encamped there, till he had fortified Towcester, and encompassed it with a stone wall. (Ref 53) At present Towcester consists principally of one long street, the houses in which are generally well built, and being a great thoroughfare, there are several good inns. In the windows of one, the Talbot, are the arms and name of William Sponne, Archdeacon of Norfolk, and rector of Towcester, who, in the twenty-ninth year of King Henry the Sixth, gave this inn and certain lands for the payment of the fifteenths, if any such tax should be levied by Parliament: and in case of no such tax being levied, then the revenue to be applied by the feoffees for repairing and paving the streets of the town, &c. He founded also a college and chantry here for two priests to pray for his soul, and the souls of his relations; the revenues of which, at the Dissolution, were valued at £19. 6s. 8d. per annum. A monument in the church commemorates this benefactor to the town. He is represented in a loose robe which descends beneath his feet, with an ermine hood and sleeves. Beneath is a representation of an emaciated body, such as is very commonly seen in cathedrals. By the returns made under the population act in 1801, the number of houses appears to be 424, and inhabitants 2030; of whom 846 were represented as being employed in trades and manufactures, principally in those of silk and lace, of which latter article great quantities are made in this town and adjacent villages.
SIR RICHARD EMPSON of notorious memory, was the son of a sieve-maker in this place. He turned his attention to the law, by his eminent skill in which, he became a favorite of King Henry the Seventh, who made him chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and to serve the purposes of royal avarice, promoter- general for enforcing the penal statutes throughout the kingdom. This, he, with his associate Edmund Dudley, did with so much rigour and relentless cruelty, that they incensed the people to such a degree, that Henry the Eighth was constrained to sub— mitto popular remonstrance, and sign his hand for their execution. Empson was tried at Northampton, and beheaded Aug. 16, 1510.
Consists principally of open fields, and rnay be said to contain more uninclosed land than any hundred in the county ; in the southern division except on the Duke of Grafton's estate, there is scarcely an inclosure. This district projects into Buckinghamshire, is intersected by the Tove river, the grand junction canal, and the great northern turnpike road. Cleley Hundred con-tains the parishes of Alderton, Ashton, Cosgrove, Easton-Neston, with Hulcott, Fortho, Graf ton-Regis, Hartwell, Passenham, including the hamlets of Denshanger, Powkesley, and part of Old Stratford, Paulerspury, Potterspury, including the hamlet of Yardly Gabion, Roade, Stoke-Bruern, including the hamlet of, Shuttlehanger, and Wicken. '
In the church of ASHTON, under an arch near the pulpit, on an altar-tomb, is the marble figure of a man in a military dress. His head is shewn reclining on a pillow, and supported by two angels, whilst his feet are resting OH a lion couchant. The belt round his armour is ornamented with roses, and round the verge this inscription, in black letter:
" Mons. Johan Harteshall gist yey Dieu de sa alme eit mercy, Amen." The person this monument commemorates, lived in the time of Edward the Third. At the upper end of the north aile is an altar-tomb, with effigies of a man and his wife, in praying postures, also nine sons and six daughters. At the head of this monument, on a tomb of free-stone, against the north wall lies the figure of a cross-legged knight, in wood.. (Ref 54)
EASTON-NESTON, a village about one mile and a half from Towcester, has been rendered eminent in the estimation of artists and connoisseurs, from the splendid collection of ancient marbles, pictures, &c. which formerly decorated, and gave dignity to the mansion of the Earls of Pomfret at this place. The statues, &c. were presented to the university of Oxford, in 1755, by Henrietta Louisa, Countess of Pomfret, a lady distinguished for her literary talents.
Since that time, Easton-Neston has lost much of its attractive consequence; and being now mostly deserted by the family, is not likely to be again renovated. Morton pronounces a high panegyric on this place, and says, it could not be easily surpassed by any seat in Europe. The house was partly built by Sir Christopher Wren, and partly by Hawkesmoor ; but since their time it has been considerably altered. In the adjoining church, are several curious and interesting monuments ; among which is a brass plate, with an engraved figure of Richard Fermor, who died in January, 1552-3; and as his life WAS marked by many singularities, so his death was also peculiar; for on the day he died, were assembled at his house a number of his friends and neighbours, of whom he took a serious leave, retired to his closet, and was found dead in an attitude of devotion. (Ref 55) Sir John Fermor, son of the above, with Maud, his wife, are represented kneeling at a desk, beneath an arch. He died in 1571. Another tomb is distinguished by an effigy of Sir George Fermort son of the last. He is represented in alabaster, recumbent and armed, with picked beard, and small whiskers. A figure of his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Curzon, lies by his side ; and beneath are fifteen small kneeling statues, of seven sons and 'eight daughters. He died in 1612. Another handsome monument perpetuates the memory of Sir Hatton Fermor, who died of a broken leg in 1620. This figure is represented standing with great boots, flapped down, vast whiskers, picked beard, and what is rather singular, a cravat round his neck. The monument was erected in 1662,
SEWARDSLEY PRIORY, which formerly stood in the parish of that name, was of the Cistercian order, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The building was situated near a wood, at pre-*ept denominated Nun-Wood, and Chapel-Coppice. In the time of Edward the Sixth, the priory, with its possessions, were granted to Richard Fermor, Esq. The kitchen and a few other vestiges are still visible in a house occupied by a farmer,
GRAFTON, which gives the title of Duke to the family of Fitz-roys, bad formerly near it a large mansion, (Ref 56) the seat of the ancient family of Widvilles, of which Sir Richard de Widville in the time of Edward the Fourth, was created Earl Rivers, treasurer of the Exchequer, and constable of England; for life; which honors he received in consequence of his daughter Ja-quet, being married to that monarch.
ANTHONY LORD SCALES; eldest son of the Earl, who succeeded his father in the honor and estate, was probably born here. On the flight of King Edward, he accompanied him into Holland, subsequently returning with him, he was constituted Captain-general of all his Majesty's forces, both by sea and land, and shared in all the successes and reverses of fortune experienced by his sovereign. For these services he was advanced to great honors, and appointed to places of high trust: but being an object of jealousy to Richard Duke of Gloucester, to whom had been committed the guardianship of Prince Edward, during his minority, he was drawn into a snare at Northampton, his person seized, conveyed to Pomfret Castle, in Yorkshire, and there beheaded. He appears to have been a friend to literature, for he translated into English a French work of Jehan de Teonville, " The Sayinges and Dictys of the Philosophers," in which he styles himself Lord of Scales, and of the Isle of Wight, defendour and directour of the siege, Apostolique for the Pope in England, and governor of the Prince of Wales. In the" preface he acquaints the reader that he made the translation in 1473, in his voyage from Southampton to the Julibee, or pardon of St. James, in Spain. Besides this he translated, "The Moral Proverbs of Christian of Pyfe," and the Boke named Cordial, or " Memorare Novissima." The former work was printed by Caxton, at Westminster, in 1477 ; and the two latter in the following year.
PASSENHAM, a small village, is mentioned in the Saxon Chronicle, as the place, where the army of King Edward lay, in that monarch's expedition against the Danes, while he was fortifying the important station at Towcester. (Ref 57) The chancel of Pas-senham Church, erected and ornamented at the expense of Sir Robert Banastre, knt. in the year 1626, is worthy of notice. On the south side are six stalls of wainscot, and seven on" the north, supported by pillars of the Ionic order, and decorated with a variety of carving. Over these stalls were the effigies of the Twelve Apostles, and that of St. Paul Against the south wall, accompanied with appropriate Latin inscriptions, were figures representative of Nicodemus, Matthew, Luke, and John. On the north side, those of Joseph of Arimathea, Daniel, Eze-kiel, Jeremiah, and Isaiah.
SHROB LODGE in this parish, belonging to one of the five walks in Whittlewood Forest, was lately the seat of that learned and industrious antiquary, Browne Willis, Esq.
PAULER'S PURY, PAUL'S-BURY, or PAVELI'S PERY. In the church of this village is an elegant monument of white marble, inlaid with black, with two figures representative of a man and his wife, complacently looking at each other. The male effigy in armour, curiously cut out of freestone, reclining its left arm on a pillow. ; the female resting her right arm upon her veil. It contains a long inscription in Latin, commemorative of Arthur Nicholas Throgmorton. In the church is a curious ancient Font. A modern mural monument records the name of some of the Bathurst family, who formerly had a handsome house in this parish.
EDWARD BERNARD, a celebrated mathematician and astronomer, was born at this place, in the year 1638. After receiving a classical education in Merchant Taylor's school, London, he was admitted a scholar of St. John's College, in Oxford, and afterwards obtained a fellowship in the same society. While Sir Christopher Wren held the Savilian professorship of astronomy in that university, Mr. Bernard was appointed officiating deputy to the professor, and afterwards became successor in the chair to that distinguished character, in the year 1673. His skill in mathematical learning eminently qualified him for fulfilling the duties attached to it, and his merits in this department of literature, were generally acknowledged. The university having formed a plan for publishing, with emendations, corrections, &c. all the ancient mathematicians, both Greek and Latin, Mr. Bernard was appointed by the delegates to superintend the important work. The scheme, however, was after-Wards abandoned, for a part of Euclid only. In 1684, having taken his Doctor's degree in divinity, he was presented with the living of Brightwell, in the county of Berks, where he died in the year 1697. Several astronomical papers, written by him were printed in the Philosophical Transactions. He published a Treatise on Ancient Weights and Measures; Private Devotions ; Etymologicum Britannicum; Orbis Eruditi Literatura Charactere Samaritico deducta, &c.
POTTER'S-PERY, This village receives the distinctive appellation from a pottery of coarse earthenware, which is said to be not only the largest, but the most ancient fictile manufactory in this past of the kingdom. (Ref 58) The clay is of a yellow colour, dense, compact, and of great tenacity. The bed extends a considerable distance, but is scarcely in any part of it mare than two feet thick, and lies so near the surface as frequently to be turned up in ploughing. The pots made from it are brittle, and liable to crack, particularly in frosty weather
About a mile from the village of STOKE-BRUERNE, is STOKE PARK, the seat of Leveson Simon, Esq. The house, which may vie with any structure of the kind in the county, was erected by Francis Crane, Esq. to whom the estate, on which it stands, was given in consideration of money due to him from the crown, in the time of Charles the First. The design was obtained from Italy, The building was begun about the year 1630, and finished before 1636, during which interval, he gave an entertainment here to the king and queen. It consists of two wings, connected with the body by corridors ; the columns which support these, Bridges says were formed of red stone, a colour different from the ether parts of the house ; but this defect has been lately remedied by the whole front having been eased with- handsome white stone, and it now exhibits a pleasing uniformity of colour, corresponding with the regularity of the structure. This Francis Crane, who was the last lay-chancellor of the Order of the Garter, appears to have had an enterprising mind; for under the patronage of King James the First, and encouraged by the Prince of Wales, and Villiers, Marquis of Buckingham, he established a manufacture of tapestry, on an extensive scale, at Mortlake, in Surrey. But the extent of patronage does not •appear to have been by any means adequate to the magnitude of the undertaking. For in a letter written to the king by Sir Francis, he complains of the royal negligence ; of the non-payment of large sums he had expended for the Marquis; of three hundred pounds, besides carriage, paid for certain drawings, as designs for tapestry, made for Pope Leo the Tenth ; the subject the twelve months of the year, by Raphael d' Urbino. And he further states, that his disbursements in the concern, had exceeded upwards of 16,000l. of which in return, he had received no more than 2.500l. and both his estate and credit were so far exhausted, that without further support, he should be unable to continue the business one month longer. The royal bounty expected, however, was not extended, and the trade, consequently unsupported, soon fell into decay. He died, according to the record on his monument in the church of Stoke Berne, in the 82d year of his age, A. D. 1703. .
HAS on the north a natural boundary in the river Nen, and on the east adjoins the county of Buckingham. At the time of the survey contained in Domesday Book, this district was divided into two hundreds; one called Cosentreu, and the other Wi-mersle. How long the distinction subsisted, it is difficult to determine ; but in the time of Henry the Second, both portions were united; and went under their present appellation. This Hundred contains the parishes of Blisworth, Brafield on the Green, Castle-Ashby, Cogenhoe, Collingtree, Courtenhall, Denton, Grendon, Hardingstone, Hortont Houghton Great, Houghton Little, Milton Malzor, Piddington, including the hamlet of Hackleston, Preston Deanery, Quinton, Rothers-Thorpe, Whiston, Wooton, and Yardley Hastings.
CASTLE ASHBY, the seat of the Earl of Northampton, is seated near the northern extremity of Yardley Chase, through which is a wide avenue of above three miles in length, directly to the south front of the mansion. This is a large pile, standing on • the brow of a gentle, eminence, and commanding to the north, east, and west, a wide tract of inclosed grazing country. The house evidently occupies the site of a more ancient, and probably castellated edifice : but no part of the present building was erected before the reign of Elizabeth. Indeed, it is said to have been begun by Henry, Lord Compton,who was created a Baron in the fourteenth year of that Queen's reign. Considerable additions have been since made, and the bouse has been wholly renovated, and adapted to the comforts of refined society, by the present noble proprietor. This mansion surrounds a large quadrangular court; having a screen of two stories, on the southern side, erected from a design by Inigo Jones. This consists of a piazza at bottom, and a long gallery over it: the exterior dressings of which are truly in the style of Jones; rusticated columns, decorated frieze, pilastres, &c. .
At the south-east and south-west angles of the court, are two lofty octangular towers; the parapets of which, as also the whole parapet of the court elevation, are formed by stones cut in the shape of letters. They are ranged to repeat this text, " NlSI DOMINUS AEDIFICAVERIT DOMUM, IN VANUM LABORAVERUNT QUI AEDFICANT EAM." In the balustrades of the turrets are the dates of 1625, and 1635; marking the time when the screen was built, and the upper parts of the house finished. On the opposite side of the court to the entrance screen, is the great Hall, a lofty handsome apartment, which contains several family portraits, &c. and has a gallery at each end. Among the pictures are portraits of BISHOP COMPTON, who died in 1713, aged 88; Sir STEPHEN Fox; a family piece by West,of the late Earl of Northampton, his Lady, and two Children, &c. Here is also a portrait of EDWARD LYE, who began the Saxon Dictionary, afterwards finished and published by Manning. He was rector of Yardley-Hastings, where he died in 1767. Here is' a portrait of SPENCER, second Earl of Northampton, in armour. This nobleman particularly distinguished himself in the perilous time of Charles the First; having relinquished a life of ease, in an advanced age, he raised a regiment of foot and a troop of horse at his own expense, and with these encountered dangers an hardships in fighting for his king. In whose cause he was killed at the battle of Hopton Heath, March 19, 1642-3. In other apartments are numerous portraits, &e. among which is a very curious and finely painted head of the celebrated GEORGE VILLIERs, Duke of Buckingham, who was stabbed by Felton. In the long gallery are portraits of JOHN TAIBOT, Earl of Shrewsbury,(Ref 60). and MARGARET his COUNTESS. These are painted on board, and are curious, as specimens of the art of painting, dresses, &c. in the time of Henry the Sixth. Talbot was a distinguished hero in the wars of France, and it is related of him that he was victorious in no less than forty battles arid skirmishes. It is generally related, that he was killed at the siege of Chastillon, after he had taken Bourdeaux, though his epitaph states that he was slain in battle at the latter place. He was above eighty years of age at that time, Walpole ranks these two pictures among the most ancient examples of oil painting in England. The libraries contain many curious books ; and in a large drawing room up stairs, is an immense chimney piece of marble dug from the county. The Cellars are large, lofty, and peculiarly adapted to contain a vast stock of ales, wines, &c. They are formed like the crypts of churches; being supported on columns, and ribbed arches. A large lake in the park, and the artificial plantations were formed by Brown.
THE CHURCH nearly adjoins the house, and is remarkable for its neatness, an ancient curious porch on the north side, and an old altar tomb, with a statue of a cross-legged knight, in chain armour. On the floor of the chancel is a fine brass, with an engraved figure of a priest, or monk, with a gown, ornamented with representations of ten saints.
WHISTON, north of Castle-Ashby, is entitled to particular notice for its elegant and uniform CHURCH, This stands proudly elevated on the brow of a hill, embosomed in trees, and completely detached from any other buildings. It consists of a nave, two ailes, chancel, and western tower: the whole of which is built in one uniform style. Bridges appears to have discovered an inscription among the fragments of painted glass in the windows, stating that the church was erected by Anthony Catesby, Esq. lord of the manor, Isabel his wife, and John their son, in the year 1534. This was the time when church architecture, like monachism, was approaching its dissolution : but the building here "alluded to, does not display any marks of it, for the whole is in the true, and almost best, style of the Tudor age. The tower is handsome, and appropriately decorated with panelling, graduated buttresses, windows with tracery, and clustered pinnacles of four at each angle, with crockets, finials, &c. In the third tier are the arms of Henry the Eighth, beneath a double arched window, with a square head. The nave is divided from the ailes by four arches on each side, supported by clustered columns, with panelling, tracery, and shields in the spandrils. The south porch is similarly ornamented. Some interesting monuments are preserved within this shell of fine architecture. In the chancel is a mural tomb, with busts of a man and woman: also basso-relievos of two young women and a boy and girl. This commemorates Sir JOHN CATESBY, Knt. of Arthingworth, who died in 1485: Sir HUMPHREY CATESBY, Knt. who died 1503: ANTHONY CATESBY, the founder of this church, who died 1583: and others of the same family. Against the south wall is a neat modern mural tablet, with a basso-relievo of a Cupid weeping and leaning on an extinguished torch, executed by Nollekins, R.A: to commemorate the death of Mary, wife of the Honorable William Henry Irby. In the chancel is an inscription to the memory of " Gulielmus Irby, Baron de Boston/' who died in 1769, aged 49.
At COURTENHALL, a village on the western border of Salcey Forest, is a free-school, which was founded by Sir Samuel Jones, and endowed with 80/. per annum for the master, and 20l. for the usher. The same person also left 500l. for building the school-house, &c., and 500l. for repairing the church. In the latter is a monument, " in Italian marble," to his memory, with effigies of Sir Samuel and his Lady, both in kneeling postures. He died in 1762, aged 68. In this church were also interred Mr. Richard Lane, and Elisabeth his wife, parents of Lord KEEPER LANE. This gentleman appears to have been a native of Cour-tenhall, and became a conspicuous character in the momentous age of Charles the First, In 1680 he was called to the bar, and chosen lent reader to the society of the Middle Temple, London. Thomas, Earl of Strafford, having been impeached by the long parliament of high treason in the year 1640, Mr. Lane was considered the most competent person to conduct the Earl's Absence. Soon afterwards he was made attorney-general to Prince Charles ; but finding the tide of affairs running in a strong current against royalty, he left his chambers, furniture, library, &c. to the care of, a friend, the well known Bulstrode Whitelock, Esq. and retired to Oxford, where King Charles then kept his court ; and in 1643 was made a serjeant at law,, knight-ed, appointed to be chief baron of the Exchequer, and one of his majesty's most honorable privy-council. The following year he was in the commission for the treaty of Uxbridge; and in 1645 had the great seal delivered to his custody. He was one of the commissioners appointed by the king to treat upon terms for the surrender of Oxford; after which, to escape the resentment of the Parliament, he fled into France,, where he, died in the year 1650. His wrote Reports of Proceedings in the Court of Exchequer, from the third to the ninth of James the First These were printed in 1657
HUNSBOROUGH, an encampment in the parish of HARDINGSTONE, lies at the distance of above a mile south-west of Northampton near the summit of a hill, which commands an extensive view over the surrounding country. The fortification is of an oval form, encompassed with a double vallum and single foss, including an area of about one acre. The foss, which appears to have been much larger, is at present twelve feet wide, and twenty deep, over which the entrance was to the south. From the form, and other circumstances, Morton concludes, that it was originally a summer camp belonging to the marauding Banes.
At DELAPRE or DE-LA-PRE, in this parish, was a Convent for nuns of the Cluniac order. It was founded in the reign of Stephen, by Simon de Liz, junior, earl of Northampton, the annual revenues of which were valued, on the Dissolution, at 119l. 9s. 7d. In the cemetery belonging to this convent, Leland informs us, (Ref 61).that many of the soldiers were buried, who fell in the sanguinary conflict which took place in the fields of Hard-ingstone, in the thirty-eighth year of Henry the Sixth's reign. This fight is commonly called the battle of Northampton; in which the Duke of Buckingham, with other noblemen, were killed, and the King taken prisoner. A modern house, of varied architecture, has been raised from the ruins, and on the site of the abbey. It now belongs to Edward Bouverie, Esq.
Near the south-western corner of the park, on the side of the great turnpike road, is one of those monumental memorials which King Edward the First erected to the memory of his consort, Queen Eleanor. This is called the QUEEN'S CROSS, and may be considered as a structure, in the execution of which, the architect and sculptor were almost equally concerned, and equally interested. Indeed, at the time this was erected, we may fairly conclude, that both professions were combined in the same person. Vertue and Walpole were inclined to attribute the design and. execution of this cross, and those at Geddington, Waltham, &c. to Peter Cavallini, a Roman sculptor ; but their opinion is disputed by Pilkington, Bromley, and some other writers. At present this point is merely a subject of conjecture: not so the peculiar styles of sculpture, and architecture displayed in these interesting and truly valuable examples of ancient art. Both these are highly admirable in their respective classes; and when in a perfect state, the whole cross must have been an object of peculiar beauty and admiration. It is still an interesting and picturesque structure. The annexed print displays the general form and arrangement of parts: but it fails, from the smallness of the scale, in representing the architectural details.(Ref 62). " Standing on eight steps, in an open space, and on elevated ground, it assumes a very imposing appearance. Above the steps it is divided into three stories, the lower of which has eight faces, separated by buttresses at the angles. Each face is ornamented with a pointed arch, having a central mullion pilaster, with tracery, and the whole surmounted by a purfled pediment. Two shields are also attached to each face, charged with the arms of England and Ponthieu singly, and those of Castile and Leon quarterly. A carved book is also affixed to four of the sides."(Ref 63). The second, or next tier upwards, consists of open canopies, with pillars, pediments, &c. and four statues; one of which, at least, was intended as an effigy of the Queen. Above this is a diminished square compartment, ornamented with tracery, having crocketed pinnacles, pediments, &c. The whole is surmounted with a single shaft of stone, in the form of a cross. This structure, like many others in the country, has been much injured and disfigured by officious, but tasteless persons in repairs and restortion; one of the planners of which has very unwisely affixed his name, thus " Rursus emendat, et restaurant. Georgii III. regis 2do. Domini 1762, N. Baylis." This is not all; for a large white marble tablet, with gorgeous wreaths, &c. over it, displays, in a very obtrusive manner, the following Latin inscription: whereby the magistrates of the county seemed determined to emblazon their own deed, by sacrificing not only the effect, but even injuring the design and masonry of the building they profess to restore.
About half a mile east of Queen's Cross is the village of HARDINGSTONE, pleasantly and healthfully seated on the brow of a hill: and thence commanding some extensive views. The town of Northampton, particularly, is seen from some parts of this village, spreading over the brow, and down the slope of an opposite hill; and, interspersed with churches and other public buildings, assumes rather a grand and imposing appearance. In the church are some monuments to the Harveys, who formerly possessed an old manor house in the village.
In Harvey's aile in the church, is a monument of alabaster, with pillars of black marble, and figures in several partitions : also two alabaster statues of a man and woman kneeling. " To the pious memory of STEPHEN HARVEY, Esq. Auditor of the Duchy of Lancaster," who died Nov. 8, 1606. Another inscription records the name and memory of " SIR FRANCIS HARVEY, Knt. one of the Judges of the Common Pleas," who died Aug. 2, 1632. Others of the same family were interred here, whose names and offices are recorded; but that of JAMES HARVEY, author of the " Meditations," and other literary works, does not occur among them. He was, however, of this family, and born here in 1714. The publication already named has been extremely popular, and is still read with avidity by young persons, and also by some of particular religious sentiments. Besides the " Meditations and Contemplations among the Tombs Flower Garden," &c. Harvey was author of " Theron and Aspa-pio, or Dialogues and Letters," &c. The whole of his works were published in 7 vols. 8vo. 1796, to which is prefixed a Memoir of his Life, He was first engaged as curate to his father; but soon removed to Bideford, in Devonshire: returning home, he succeeded his parent in the livings of Weston-Favel and Col-lingtree, in this county. He died of a consumption in 1758, and was buried at Weston-favel church-yard.
In the church of Hardingstone are several monumental records to different persons of the Tate family, also a fine tomb by Rysbrack, to the memory of Mr. Clarke.
The village of COLLINGTREE, near the western extremity of this hundred, was the birth-place of the Rev. WILLIAM WOOD, F. L. S. who was born on the 29th of May, 1745, and died at Leeds on the 1st of April, 1808. Biography is never more usefully or laudably employed than in narrating the memoirs of those persons who by pre-eminence of genius have advanced themselves from an humble birth to honorable celebrity. Whilst the writer is performing this task, he is administering to the best feelings of the human heart, and is laying before the World such an example as cannot fail to rouse emulation, and gratify benevolence. This is evinced in the life of Mr. Wood, who manifested powerful talents, and an amiable disposition. Under the tuition of the Rev. Drs. Savage, Kippis, and Rees, he acquired a classical education, and what is more valuable, a habit of philosophizing and thinking. According to an intelligent biographer, he " soon distinguished himself by his love of knowledge, his ardour in the pursuit of it, and his promptness and facility in acquiring it."(Ref 64). As a public character, Mr. Wood, is chiefly known as the writer of various articles in Dr.Rees's Cycloptedia: and by several sermons, the latter of which are distinguished by a simplicity, perspicuity, and persuasiveness of eloquence, which could not fail to engage the heart, and improve the head of those who heard them. As a preacher he was much admired by his congregation; and was also peculiarly esteemed by a large circle of immediate friends, and distant correspondents. In his professional duty of a Christian minister he was first engaged at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, whence he removed to Ipswich; and when Dr. Priestley was employed as Librarian to the Marquis of Lansdown, and tutor to Lord Henry Petty, Mr. Wood was deemed a proper person to fill that eminent man's pulpit. This was at once honorable to Mr. Wood, and proved equally so to the discriminating choice of the Unitarian congregation of Leeds; as minister of whom he continued from 1773 to the lamented period of death, " with uninterrupted harmony and mutual regard !" " It appears that the subject of this memoir, was no ordinary man. His mind was of no common character;. his intellectual powers were of the first order; his faculties were masculine and vigorous; his understanding was comprehensive, clear, and enlightened; his imagination vivid and powerful; his judgment solid and profound." The mind thus formed, and thus disposed, must be calculated to effect great and good purposes; and such appears to have been the constant object of Mr. Wood's life and actions. In promulgating enlightened and liberal principles respecting politics and theological doctrines, he was strenuous and active; for he despised bigotry in one, and party intrigue in the other. The life of such a man cannot be too often related to the listening world, as it may excite emulation in the good heart, and produce contrition in that prone to vice.
In HORTON CHURCH is a fine monument to the memory of WILLIAM LORD PARRE, or PAR, who is represented by a recumbent statue, in alabaster : by the side of which is another of his Lady, Mary Salusbury. The male figure appears in armour, with a collar of S. S. and beneath its head is a helmet. This nobleman obtained the manor of Horton by his marriage: and being uncle to Queen Catherine Parre, was appointed her chamberlain ; and during the Queen's regency, on the King's expedition to France, in 1544, Lord Parre was nominated one of her Majesty's Privy Council. He died in 1546.
A fine brass on the floor displays the figures of ROGER SALUSBURY, and his two wives. He died in 1492.(Ref 65). Near the church is
HORTON HOUSE, the seat of Sir Robert Gunning, Bart. K. B. This estate has been successively possessed by the Salusburys already named, Parrs, Lanes, Montagues, from whom it descended to the Earl of Halifax, who was succeeded by Lord Huntingbroke, and he by the present proprietor. The House, a large handsome structure, with a fine front towards the east, is seated in a park, which abounds with noble forest trees, and is enlivened with a broad piece of water.
At Horton was born, in 1661, CHARLES MONTAGUE, the first Earl of Halifax, who was first a king's scholar in Westminster school, whence he was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he soon distinguished himself by profound erudition. Though much engaged in politics, with the assistance of Prior, he produced a poem, intitled, " The Country Mouse, and the City Mouse," with the intention of ridiculing a piece, written by Dry-den in favour of the Romish church, called " The Hind and Panther." The satire was pointed and happily applied, and was considered to possess so much merit, and to have produced so good an effect, that at the revolution the author was rewarded with a pension from Government, made a Commissioner of the Treasury in 1691, and three years afterwards Chancellor of the Exchequer. In 1698 he was appointed first Commissioner of the Treasury, and in 1700 advanced to the peerage, by the style and title of Baron Halifax. On the accession of George the First to the throne he was created Earl of Halifax, and installed one of the Knights of the Garter. His Lordship, who died in 1715, was, during his life-time, considered the Macaenas of the age : he was the patron of Addison, and the intimate friend of Swift, Pope, and several of the most eminent writers of that period.
THOUGH containing the county town, derives its name from a bush in Weston-Favell field. This district has two rivers for natural boundaries, to the south and west. It is wholly inclosed, highly cultivated, and abounds with seats and villas. Within it was formerly Moulton Park, which belonged to the crown, and was under the care of a keeper appointed by.the king. The house is now occupied by a farmer, the park is surrounded by a wall, and the whole deemed extra-parochial. This hundred contains, besides the town of Northampton, the following parishes. Abingdon, Great Billing, Little Billing, Boughton, Kings-thorpe, Moulton, Overstone, Pitsford, Sprattont and. Weston-favell.
At ABINGDON, a small village, east of Northampton, is the seat of John Harvey Thursby, Esq.; the house, a plain commodious edifice, is surrounded by a small walled park. This estate was obtained by Robert Bernard by his marriage with the heiress of Sir Nicholas Lyllyng in the reign of Henry the Fifth, and continued in that family till 1671, when Sir John Bernard, Bart, sold it to William Thursby, Esq. The south side of the church is almost covered with ivy; and when viewed from the village green, in conjunction with Mr, Thursby's house, forms a singularly rural and picturesque scene. In the chancel are several memorials of the Bernards and Thursbys, and two in the north chapel for Sir Edmund Hampden, Knt. who died in 1627, and his wife, the relict of Baldwin Bernard, Esq. On a brass plate near the communion table, is the following poetical tribute to their youngest son, Justinian Hampden.
About three miles east of Northampton is GREAT BILLING, the manor of which, with an " handsome old house," were possessed, for many generations, by the Earls of Thomond. From that family the whole descended to Mr. Blackwell, M. P. for Northampton. The estate was subsequently the property of Lord John Cavendish, who rebuilt the mansion house in a handsome style, with two fronts, &c. Here that nobleman spent the latter part of an active senatorial life in privacy and retirement. After his decease, the manor, &c. was purchased by Robert Carey Elwes, Esq. son-in-law of Lord Yarborough. In the chancel is the burial-place, though long since disused, of the O'Brians, over which a large monument of black and white marble, more distinguished for its bulk than its elegance, was erected by Sarah, Countess Dowager of Thomond " in memory of her lord, HENRY, EARL and GOVERNOR OF THOMOND, in the kingdom of Ireland, who died at his seat at Billing, the second of May, 1691, in the seventy-third year of his age." His son, Henry Horatio, Lord O'Brien, and Baron of Ibriekan, was, according to this inscription, " by special providence, and the great prudence and foresight of the said Earl and Countess, in the seventeenth year of his age, most happily married to Lady Henrietta, second daughter to the noble Lord Henry, Duke of Beaufort." He died at Chelsea of the small-pox, in his twenty-first year.
Here is a small alms-house for one man and four Women, founded by John Freeman, Esq. by will in the reign of James the First.
SIR ISAAC WAKE, who was appointed ambassador by James the First, to Venice, Savoy, and other states, was the son of the Rev. Arthur Wake, rector of this parish. He was educated at Merton-College, Oxford, and was chosen public orator, and Member of Parliament for the University, in 1623. He was eminent for his learning, ingenuity, and elocution; and was author of several orations and discourses. He died at Paris in the king's service, in 1632; and was interred in the chapel of Dover Castle,
At a short distance to the west, is situated Little Billing, the property and residence of the Longevities, from the time of Edward the Second to that of Charles the First. In the latter reign lived Sir Edward Longeville, who was the last person that possessed this manor. Leland states that the mansion of the Lon-gevilles " yetremaineth at Billing, and there lai divers of them buried." Bridges is unusually minute in describing the state of the ruined house. " The first story," he says, is " supported with broad arches, where is the appearance of a chapel. The door-cases, of Harlestone freestone, are thick and large; and at the south end is a turret with a stair-case leading up to the leads. A part of it is embattled. In the yard is a farm-house, made out of the ruins adjoining to the ruinous part." A very small portion of this edifice now remains. Various authors have placed a religious house here; and Buck engraved a print of the ruins, which he called a " Cistercian Priory" Bridges, asserts there never was any monastic establishment here. Gough describes the house as a curious example of ancient architecture-
BOUGHTON, four miles north of Northampton, was transmitted by intermarriages from the Green's and Vaux's to Sir John Bris-coe, Bart, who mortgaged it to Lord Ashburnham, by whom it was sold to the Earl of Strafford; and that title becoming extinct, on the demise of the late earl, this portion of his property devolved to Richard William Howard Vyse, Esq. M. P. for Be-yerley, and son of General Vyse. The manor-house is irregular and antiquated, but not very extensive, part having been taken down by Sir John Briscoe; the remainder is now undergoing the same fate; but it is understood that Mr. Vyse intends to erect a new one. The situation is certainly inviting, the park being finely wooded, and capable of considerable improvement.
In the twenty-seventh year of Edward the Third, Sir Henry Green " obtained for himself and his heirs the grant of a fair to be held yearly in this manor for the space of three days, beginning upon the vigil of the nativity of Saint John the Baptist, and ending the day after it." Since that time, the fair at Boughton, has become the most celebrated in this part of the kingdom, and is annually resorted to by a vast concourse of persons, either for pleasure or business. The first day is principally for wooden-ware of every description: on the second the neighbouring families of distinction breakfast in the tea booth, and mingle in the rustic holiday; and the last day is appropriated for the sale of horses and cattle. It is kept on the green, an open common half a mile south of the village, where temporary booths for refreshment, and rows of stalls for different species of merchandize, are erected.At the extremity of this green stands the ruins of the old parochial church. Grose has given a view of it, in his antiquities, with the tower and an octagonal spire, both of which fell down; some years ago, and the roofless body alone remains. The in habitants still bury in the church-yard; but there is a chapel in the village, the south door of which bears the date of 1599.
Between this place and Northampton, is the pleasant village of KINGSTHORPE, which, from, time immemorial, has been a royal demesne. A certain number of the freeholders under the payment of a specified annual rent to the crown's grantee, hold the manor in trust for the town; all the freeholders participate in the benefits attached to it, and include in their privileges, exemption from toll.
A bailiff was formerly appointed, but this office has long since been dispensed with. The trustees, or freeholders, transact their business in a small town-house erected for that purpose, by a Lady Pritchard. Their seal is a crowned head between two fleurs-de-lis, with this inscription round it. SIGIL- LUM.COMMUNE KlNGSTHORP.
At the entrance of the village from Northampton, stood the Hospital of St. David, or as it is styled in some records, of the Holy Trinity. It was founded in 1200, at the instance of Peter de Northampton, and Henry his son, rector of this parish, and with the approbation of the Prior of St. Andrew, who granted the site, and in whom was vested the appointment of the master. The clear yearly rental at the Dissolution was 24/. 6s. Phillip and Mary gave it to Hugh Zelly for life. It consisted of one large range of buildings, containing three rows of beds for the poor, the sick, and the stranger, with one chapel dedicated to St. David, and another to the Holy Trinity. Bridges speaks of the ruins, but nothing can. now be traced, excepting an arch or two in some cottage-walls. In this lordship are quarries of considerable extent and local celebrity. The stone is of a soft texture, hardens by exposure to the atmosphere, and is of a delicately white tint.
The Church, though spacious, and enjoying all parochial rites, is merely a chapel to St. Peter's in Northampton, being rated with it in taxation, and served by the same incumbent.
THE principal town of the county, is memorable in the annals of political and local history, for the number of councils and synods held here; for its formidable ancient castle, with the provincial earls; also for numerous monastic foundations, military events, and lastly its modern improvements, and pleasantness of situation as a place of business or retirement. In narrating its history, it will not only be unnecessary, but extraneous and frivolous to dwell on the legendary stones that have been related and printed, respecting the first settlement made hero, and the inhabitants who formed it. It is stated, however, that a town was formed at this place during the Anglo-Saxon dynasty, and that the same was attacked, plundered, and burnt by the Danes, in their different predatory incursions into this part of the island. The Northumbrians, under Earl Morcar, took possession of this town in the year 1064; and in the ge-nuine spirit of savage warriors, murdered many of the inhabitants, burnt the houses, " carried away thousands of cattle, and multitudes of prisoners" According to records there were theft 60 burgesses in the king's lordship, and 60 houses: but at the era of the Norman Conquest, 14 of the latter were waste. By the Domesday Survey, it appears there were only 40 burgesses in North-hamtune then. " William the Conqueror gave to Simon St. Liz, a noble Norman, the town of Northampton, and the whole Hundred of Falkely, (Fawsley) then valued at forty pounds per annum, to provide shoes for his horses."(Ref 66) In 1106, the Saxon Chronicle states, that Robert, Duke of Normandy, had an interview here with his brother King Henry the First, to accommodate the differences then subsisting between them. In his twenty-third year, that monarch and his court kept the festival of Easter at Northampton, with all the pomp and state peculiar to that age; and in the thirty-first year of the same reign, a Parliament was held in this town, when the nobles swore fealty to the Empress Maud, on whom the king had settled the right of succession. In 1138, King Stephen, in order to attach the clergy to his interest, a measure in those days so essentially necessary, summoned a council to meet him at Northampton, at which all the bishops, abbots, and barons of the realm attended, for the purpose of making promotions in the church. In 1144 Stephen held his court here, when Ranulf, Earl of Chester, who came to tender his services, was detained as a prisoner till he had surrendered the Castle of Lincoln, and other fortresses, as security for his allegiance, he being suspected of conspiring, with the Duke of Normandy, against the king. When the celebrated statutes of Clarendon were established, 10 Henry II, for the good order of the kingdom, and for the better defining the boundaries of ecclesiastical jurisdiction; and Archbishop Becket alone refused his assent, (a refusal attended with a train of evils, vexatious to the king, and fatal to the prelate;) a council of the states was convened at Northampton, before whom the archbishop was summoned to appear, and answer to the charges of contumacy, perjury, &c. which should then be exhibited against him. In the twentieth year of this reign, Anketil Mallore, who supported Prince Henry's unnatural rebellion, marched with a considerable force from Leicester to Northampton; where, having defeated the royalists, he plundered the town, and returned to Leicester with his booty, accompanied by nearly two hundred prisoners. In the twenty-sixth year of this Monarch's reign, a convention of the barons and prelates was assembled here to amend, confirm, and enforce the constitutions of Clarendon. By this council the kingdom was divided into six circuits; and justices itinerant were assigned to each. From the formation of this convention, the advice of the knights and burgesses being required, as well as that of the nobles and prelates, it has been considered as the model by •which parliaments have been constituted in succeeding times. The King of Scotland, with the bishops and abbots of that kingdom, attended this council to profess their subjection to the Church of England. In the 10th of Richard I. Geoffrey Fitz-walter paid 40s. to be discharged from the inspection of the coinage here: this is the first official mention of a Mint at Northampton, though there are reasons to believe it of greater antiquity. How long it subsisted is uncertain, but mention is made of it in the two succeeding reigns. On the death of King Richard, John his successor being then in Normandy, a great council of nobles assembled in this town, and were prevailed on by the adherents of the new Monarch, to take an oath of fealty to him, and support his claim to the crown.
King John, in the tenth year of his reign, having been displeased with the citizens of London, commanded the exchequer to be removed to Northampton. In his thirteenth year, in a council of lay nobles convened here, the King met the Pope's Nuncios, Pandulph and Durand, in order to adjust those differences which had long subsisted between him and the Holy See. The King made large concessions; but as he would not, or could not, restore to the clergy their confiscated effects, the treaty was broken off) and the King was solemnly excommunicated by the Legates. During the reign of Henry the Third Northampton was frequently honored with his residence and particular marks of his favor: and in the war between that King and the confederate Barons, it was alternately besieged and possessed by each of the contending parties. About this time a kind of University was established here, consisting of students who at different times and from various causes had deserted Oxford. The new seminary at first was countenanced by the King; but the scholars having taken a decided part in favor of the Barons, were commanded to return to Oxford. A similar emigration took place from the university of Cambridge; but was soon superseded by a royal mandate, which compelled the students to return to their old seminaries; and further provided that no university should ever be established here. It is, however, a manifest indication of the importance attached to Northampton, that both the universities should make choice of this place as their asylum and abode.
On Good Friday, in the seventh year of Edward the First the Jews residing in this town crucified a Christian boy, who fortunately survived their cruelty: for this atrocious act, fifty of them were drawn at horses' tails and publickly hanged. In the preceding year three hundred had been hanged for clipping the coin. These and other enormities rendered the Jews so odious, that in the eighteenth year of this reign a statute was passed for their total expulsion from the kingdom, and for the confiscation of their property. Edward the First frequently resided at, Northampton in great splendor: and on his death a parliament was held here to settle the ceremonial of his burial, and the marriage and coronation of his successor. Another parliament met here in 1317, in which an imposter, John Poy-clras son of a tanner at Exeter, was brought to trial for affirming that he was the real sou of Edward the First, and that, the
King was a carter's son, and substituted at nurse in his stead: producing no evidence however in support of his assertions, he Was condemned and executed.
In the eleventh year of King Edward the Third, the Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of Northampton obtained the royal licence to hold an annual fair for twenty-eight days; which fair is now disused. In this reign several parliaments were held here. The last that assembled at Northampton was, 4 Richard II. when the poll-tax was levied, which occasioned the rebellion, therein Walter Tyler was the chief.
The next memorable event respecting this town was a decisive battle fought in its vicinity between the Yorkists and Lancastrians, 38 Henry VI. when that unfortunate Monarch was made prisoner. Northampton was visited by Queen Elizabeth in 1563, and by King Charles the First in 1634-: it was ravaged by the plague in 1637; and in 1642 was seized by the parliamentary forces, by whom it was fortified: the south and west bridges being converted into drawbridges, and additional works thrown up in the defenceless places. In the north-east part of the town/parts of a foss and a bastion of earth are yet visible. The town suffered greatly by a flood, May 6, 1663.
Northampton has sustained some very severe losses by fire; but these have ultimately proved beneficial to the place; for the uniformity and substantial character of the houses, width of the streets, and general arrangement of the town, are ail to be attributed to those calamitous events. According to Leland's statement most of the houses were made of wood at his time. On Midsummer-day, 1566, a fire destroyed several houses : but the most memorable occurrence of this nature was in the year 1675, when the greater part of the town was consumed, and many of the poorer inhabitants reduced to great distress. The general loss of property was calculated at 150,000l. Above 600 dwelling-houses were then burnt, and more than 700 families thereby deprived of their habitations and property- A subscription was soon instituted, and it appears, by a list of benefactions, that above 20,000/. were raised for the sufferers.(Ref 67) On that occasion the following sums were given by the persons, and from the places here specified : Earl of Northampton, and Earl of Sunderland, 120/. each; Lord Arlington, Bishop of Lich-field and Coventry; Sir William Farmer, Sir William Langham, George Holman, Esq. and Paul Wentworth, Esq. 100/. each. The city of London collected and contributed 5000/.; the town of Manchester, 155/.; Nottingham 150/.; Oxford University, 450/. the city, 124/.; Stratford on Avon, 180/.; Warwick, 171/.; York, 100/.; Lincoln, 118/.; Derby, 150/.; Cambridge University, 286/.; town, 85/.; Coventry, 200/.; Banbury, 110/. In the year after the fire it is stated that 150 houses were rebuilt.
The town of Northampton was formerly surrounded by embattled walls, and was defended by a large fortress, or CASTLE, and by bastion towers. In the walls were four Gate-houses, named from their relative situations, East-Gate, West-Gate, North-Gate, and south-gate. Those towards the South, North, and West, had rooms or dwellings over them, and that to the east, according to Bridges, " was the fairest of all" being lofty, and embellished with shields of arms, and other ornaments. Southward of this was a smaller gate, or postern, called the Durn-Gate. By an inquisition, taken in the time of King Edward the First, it appears that the walls were embattled; and at different places had steps to ascend them. Like the walls round the city of Chester, these served for a public walk; where the infirm and indisposed inhabitants were accustomed to "take the air." They also constituted the best footpath in winter, from one extremity of the town to another.
This walk is reported to have been wide enough for six persons to walk abreast. Leland mentions the walls and Gates as standing when he visited Northampton. The same topographer says
"The CASTEL standeth hard by the West-gate, and hath a large kepe. The area of the resideu is very large, and bulle-warkes of yerth be made afore the castelle-gate.(Ref 68) " That some fortress was erected at Northampton before the Norman Conquest, may be inferred from the events that have occurred here during the Saxon and Danish dynasties : but of that building no accounts have descended to the present times. It is however recorded, that Simon De Senliz, or St. Liz, the first Earl of Northampton of that name, erected a castle here, in the reign of William the Conqueror; but as no mention is made of it in Domesday Book, it appears not to hare been completed till after that survey was taken. It was situated on an .eminence without the west gate of the town; and was defended on three sides by a deep trench, or foss, whilst a branch of the river Nen served as a natural barrier on the western side. In Henry the Second's reign, it was possessed by the Crown; and was afterwards entrusted to some constable or castellan appointed by the sovereign. But in the civil war of 1264, between Henry the Third and his nobles, we find it in the occupation of the confederate Barons, under the banner of the Earl of Leicester, whose son Simon de Montford was then its Governor. The king having received considerable reinforce-ments from the northern barons, his adherents besieged the Castle with great vigour: but the admirable situation and strength of the fortress, with the undaunted courage of the garrison, composed of the finest troops in the service of the Earl, under the direction of officers of distinguished skill and valour, baffled all the efforts of the royal troops, and convinced them that force was totally inadequate to their arduous enterprise. At length recourse was had to a stratagem, not altogether just or manly in principle, but which effectually served their purpose. While the barons were engaged in a parley, under pretence of negotiation, a chosen body of the royal forces was dispatched to make a breach in the walls at the opposite extremity of the town. The plan succeeded : the garrison thus taken by surprize, were, notwithstanding a brilliant display of courage, completely discomfited, and surrendered themselves prisoners of war: in this capitulation, were included fourteen of the most potent barons and knights-bannerets, and forty inferior knights. The castle thus reverted to the Crown, till in the third year of Edward the Third, Thomas Wake, then sheriff, claimed the custody of it, as annexed to the county, and belonging to his jurisdiction; and it being found, by inquisition then taken, to have been immemorially attached to that office, it was ordered to be given up, to be held by the said sheriff and his successors. Within the castle was a royal free Chapel dedicated to St. George. Previous to the year 1675 this fortress was used as the county-gaol; and the two courts of justice were held here. In 1662 pursuant to an order of the king and council, the walls and gates, and part of the castle were demolished: and the site of it, sold soon afterwards to Robert Haselrig, Esq. in whose family it still remains. It appears indeed, from 'the account of Norden, that even in the year 1593 the castle was much decayed, and the walls defenceless. "This towne," says he, " is a faire towne, with many faire old buildings, large streets, and a very ample and faire market-place; it is walled about with a wall of stone, but meane too of strength : neare unto the towne there standeth an eminent castle, ruynous." Since Norden's time most of these ruins have been swept away, or levelled : and now only a few fragments of foundation-walls, and parts of the fosses remain. The inner ballium was nearly circular, and surrounded by a lofty wall, with bastion towers at irregular distances. This was again encompassed by a deep and wide toss. A broad ballium, or area for the garrison, extended for some distance, and was guarded by an outer vallum, with barbican, &c. The general extent and character of the earth works may still be traced.
Northampton is both a corporate and Borough town: its first charter of incorporation appears to have been obtained from King Henry the Second, but since that reign several other charters, to alter, or enlarge the privileges of the corporate body, have been granted. For the first of these the burgesses gave a fine of 200 marks, to hold the town of the king in ca-pite. By a subsequent charter from King John, they were exempted from all "toll, lastage and murage, throughout England ; also from being impleaded out of the town;" and were invested with other liberties in as ample a manner as the citizens of London. For these privileges they were bound to pay annually, into the King's exchequer 120/. In the 41st year of Henry the Third, a new charter was obtained, confirming and extending the liberties, &c. of the burgesses. Again in the 27th of Edward the First, and in the 4th of Henry the Seventh, the charter was renewed and confirmed; and in the 9th year of the latter reign, the mayor, bailiffs, &c. obtained the liberty of choosing a recorder, and appointing two burgesses, who, with the mayor, were invested with the powers of justices of peace within the town. By a charter bearing date 3d of August, 15th Charles the. Second, the corporation is specified to consist of a mayor, and two bailiffs, and such as have been mayors and bailiffs, with 48 burgesses, called common council, recorder, chamberlain, and town clerk. Though this charter was surrendered in 1683, and a new one issued, yet the former continued in force till 1796, when an altered, or as commonly called, new charter was obtained. According to a provincial newspaper, it was brought from London by the mayor, who was conducted from the bridge, through the town " with great ceremony, amidst the congratulations of the townsmen, on the re-establishment of their ancient privileges, and the security and protection afforded to the poor."
The recorder and town clerk usually continue for life, though subject to an annual election. This corporation is invested with extensive juridical powers: being qualified to try all criminal causes, though they seldom extend their jurisdiction beyond petty larcenies. For this purpose therefore, they hold a court of record, once in every three weeks.
As a Borough, Northampton has continued to return two members to the British Senate, ever since the twelfth year of the reign of Edward the First, when it sent two representatives to the Parliament held at Acton-Burnel in Gloucestershire. In the first year of Edward the Second, the Parliament was held at, Northampton; and John de Longeville, and Robert de Beds-ford, were members for this place. Few boroughs have been more noted in the annals of contested election than Northampton, as it is commonly considered an Open-borough: i. e. every inhabitant householder, paying scot and lot, has the liberty of voting. This, Mr. Pennant calls, " a cruel privilege; for such who have, of late years, been ambitious of recommending their representatives." If cruel to the ambitious, it is certainly important to the humble part of the public, for though corruption, intrigue, and bribery may seduce a few, these are not so likely, to operate on the many. The number of voters is nearly 1000. A memorable election contest occurred for this borough in 1768, when the Earls of Halifax, Northampton, and Spencer were opposed to each other; or rather each exerted his respective influence to return a member. Never, perhaps, was bribery so extensively and lavishly employed: and though all the parties were not positively ruined, yet each was materially injured in fortune. It is stated that Lord Spencer expended above 100,000l.: and each of the other noblemen nearly 150,000/.
CHURCHES. There were formerly seven Parish Churches, within the walls of Northampton; respectively dedicated to All Saints, St. Giles,St. Gregory, St. Mary, St. Michael, St. Peter, and St. Sepulchre. Besides these, there was St. Catharine's, a chapel of ease to All Saints, in the town ; St. Edmund's Church, without the east gate ; and St. Bartholomew's, without the north gate. Of these structures, four only are remaining at present, into which number of parishes the town is divided ; Ail Saints,St. Giles's, St. Peter's, and St. Sepulchre's.
The CHURCH dedicated to ALL SAINTS, situated about the centre of the town, having been consumed by fire, in 1675, Was begun to be rebuilt soon Afterwards, and was completed in the year 1680, and the first sermon was preached by the Bishop of Peterborough, Sept. 5,1680, The interior of this is very unlike the generality of Churches. The windows and architectural ornaments are neither Gothic, Grecian, nor of any regular order, or Style. It consists of one large room, or space, with a square chancel, at the east end, and a tower at the west end : near the centre are four large columns, supporting a flat roof, from which, rise a dome or cupola.
The length of the body is seventy-three feet, and its breadth seventy-Four feet. The chancel is thirty-four feet and a half long, and twenty-four feet broad, and is divided from the nave, by a carved screen of Norway oak. At the west end of the church is a portico, twenty-four feet in length, supported by ten pillars, and two pilasters, of the Ionic order, and ballus-traded at the top. On it is a statue of Charles the Second, with an inscription commemorative of his gift of one thousand tons of timber, towards rebuilding the church. The interior contains few objects to arrest attention, or gratify curiosity. Against the north wall is a mural slab to the memory of Sir James Stonehouse, Bart. M. D. whose benevolent mind will ever be revered by the inhabitants of Northampton. He was the projector and chief promoter of -the Infirmary, and acted as physician to it, during the latter part of his life. He died Dec. 8, 1795, in the eightieth year of his age.
Attached to the western end of the church, is a tablet recording the name of JOHN BAILES, who was born in this town, and Jived to a very advanced age; retaining his faculties of " hearing, sight, and memory to the last. He lived in three centuries, and was buried the 14th of April, 1708." Bridges observes, that, " his age appears to have been assigned conjecturally to 126; he was at most but 114 years old," After his death he was dissected, by Dr. James Keill, who published an account of the appearances, &c. of the corpse, in the Philosophical Transactions, No. 306, Art 8. He was a button-maker, and attended all the neighbouring markets and fairs, to dispose of his own manufactures.
At the south-west corner of the Church-yard, is a Conduit, covered with a small octangular building, which was formerly ornamented with eight pinnacles, and tracery, in two rows of pannels.
St. GILES'S CHURCH, is situated near the eastern end of the. town, immediately withinside the ancient town wall. This is a large pile of building, and consists of a nave, ailes, transept, and tower rising from the centre. At the west end is an ancient Door-way, with a semicircular arch, and Norman mouldings. In the south transept is an old Altar-monument, which is said to have been raised to one of the Gobion family; but the inscription is wholly obliterated. Within this Church there was formerly a Chapel dedicated to St. Peter; and a fraternity, or Guild of St. Clement.
ST. PETER'S CHURCH, is seated at the western extremity of the town, in the vicinity of the Castle, and was probably erected by one of the first Norman Earls of Northampton. From the register of St. Andrew's Priory, in this town, it appears that the rectory of St. Peter's, was given to that monastery, by Simon de St. Liz, and was confirmed to it, with the Chapelries of Kingsthorpe and Upton, by Hugh Wells, Bishop of Lincoln. " In the reign of Henry the Third, the right of patronage was recovered of the Convent by the King, and continued for some time in the hands of the Crown. The advowson was afterwards given by Edward the Third, in the third year of his reign, to the Masters, Brethren, and Sisters of St. Catharine's Hospital, near the Tower, (of London) with whom it hath ever since continued. It was the privilege of this Church, that a person accused of any crime, intending to clear himself by Canonical purgation, should do it here, and in no other place of the town, having first performed his vigil and prayers, in the said Church the evening before.".(Ref 69) Hence it appears that this Church was invested .with the privilege of sanctuary; and it may be also inferred that it was founded by, or under the patronage of some powerful person, or society. The Architecture of this Church is curious and interesting. In some particulars it may indeed be considered an unique edifice : hence it would be desirable to ascertain the era of its erection, but of this we have no record; each person is therefore at liberty to conjecture, but as almost every antiquary is a slave to hypothesis, he is constantly liable to err himself, and deceive others. Perhaps, if we refer the origin of the building to a period within fifty years after the Norman conquest, we shall be nearly certain of its age ; but it must be acknowledged, that many ornaments, proportions, and parts do not exactly assimilate with the prevalent style of that era, yet they are generally too slender and ornamental for the Anglo-Saxons. St. Peter's Church consists of a nave, and two ailes of equal length; having seven columns on each side, three of which are composed of four semi-columns. The four single shafts are ornamented with stone bands,.(Ref 70) of four mouldings, near the centre; but the clustered columns, which seemed more to require this appearance of binding, have no such appendage.
All the capitals are charged with sculpture of scroll-work, heads, animals, &c. On each side of the nave are eight semicircular arches, with indented zigzag mouldings on the face and soffits. Over these was a series of six small windows, with semi-circular heads, on each side. But the most decorated and curious part of the interior of this singular structure, is the great archway, beneath the tower, at the western end of the nave. This consists of three receding arches, each charged, both in elevation and soffit, with zigzag mouldings. On each side of the archway, are three pilaster columns, some of which are ornamented with spiral and lozenge mouldings. The exterior of the Church and Tower is equally curious, though the architectural and sculptural decorations, are not so profuse or elaborate. At the south-west and north-west angles of the tower are buttresses of peculiar form. Each consists of three semi-columns, gradually diminishing at every story. On the north and south sides of the same, are two series of arcades ; and at the west end, one range corresponding; with a blank arch, having three rows of flat stones, charged with varied tracery in panels. At the south side of the church is an ancient door-way, with semicircular arch : and on each side of the nave, over the ailes, is a continued range of arcades. Over these are numerous brackets, representing various grotesque heads, figures, &c. The Font, about the age of Edward the First, is covered with blank arches, crocketted pediments, &c. similar to the Queen's Cross. The very interesting church, which we have now endeavoured to describe, is entitled to the most careful preservation, and it is hoped that the church-wardens and clergy belonging to it, will be attentive to their charge, not only to protect it from wanton injury, but from those beautifying reparations, which too commonly are more injurious than beneficial to such buildings. In the present edifice, this is displayed in the thick coats of whitewash, plaster, &c. which have been repeatedly laid on, thereby obscuring many ornaments, and destroying the harmony and propriety of the whole architectural design..(Ref 71)
ST. SEPULCHRE'S CHURCH] near the northern extremity of the town, is another singular and curious specimen of the ecclesiastical architecture of England. This also, like St. Peter's, may be considered unique, having some features and peculiarities unlike any other of the country. Mr. Pennant and some other writers, say, it is supposed to have been " built by the Knights-Templars, on the model of that at Jerusalem."This conjecture has arisen from the circumstance of the original-church having been circular, .(Ref 72) whilst that of the holy sepulchre at Jerusalem, was also constructed in that form. The present edifice consists of a square tower with a spire, at the west end : a circular part, and a square east end, of three ailes. This and the tower are additions, of a comparatively modern, date, to the original edifice. Part of the circular building is evidently very ancient, probably before A. D. 1200; but various alterations have been made at different times. Within a circular exterior wall, is a series of eight columns, also disposed in a circle. From these arise eight arches, in the pointed style, but completely plain and unadorned. Over the columns, the wall assumes an octangular shape. Four of the pillars have square bases and capitals, whilst those of the .other four are circular, Bridges calls them " of the tuscan order ;" and Grose, in his Antiquities, repeats the same terms; but there is very little of the Tuscan or Doric style displayed in the architecture of this building. Here was evidently a church in the time of Henry the First, as that monarch gave it, with four acres of land, to the convent of St. Andrew. In the exterior wall of the old church, are two ancient door-ways, three windows, and others stopped up ; also a piece of very old sculpture., just within the western door. In a wall, at the south-west end of the church, is another piece of old sculpture, representative of the crucifixion; probably the top of a stone-cross.
DESTROYED CHURCHES. It has already been remarked, that, Northampton formerly contained seven churches, of which only four remain, the others having been destroyed or dilapidated. It may gratify local curiosity to point out the sites, &c. of these. Just without the north-gate, was one dedicated to St. Bartholomew, the parish belonging to which, is united to that of St. Sepulchre's. The church-yard, now a small field, is called Lawless Close, a corruption Bridges thinks, " from Lawrence, by which name it appears to have been known in later times." Leland says, that he '" saw the ruines of a large Chapelle with-oute the north-gate."
Immediately without the eastern gate of the town, was a church dedicated to St. Edmund, which appears to have been standing in the time of Henry the Eighth. Near St. Peter's church, was that of St. Gregory, the site and buildings of which were granted in 1577, for a Grammar-school, with the vicarage house, for the use of the master. Part of the church is still appropriated to the school-house.
In St. Mary's-street, eastward of the castle, was a church, dedicated to the " Blessed Virgin," which was united to the vicarage of All Saints, in 1589. A church to St. Michael, was seated in St. Michael's-lane, now called Cock-lane, north of Abingdon-street. The parish is annexed to St. Sepulchre's. In the parish of All Saints, was St. Catharine's Chapel, in the ceme-try belonging to which, it was formerly customary to inter the bodies of those persons who died of the plague. Besides these, there appears to have been St. Martin's Chapel, in St. Martin's-Street, and St. Margaret's Church without the west-gate. Most of these buildings were annexed to the monastery of St. Andrew, by Hugh Wells, Bishop of Lincoln early in the thirteenth century.
Northampton formerly contained several monastic establishments and edifices, but few of these are remaining. In order to shew the state of the place anterior to the time of Henry the Eighth, who like most tyrannical monarchs, effected some good, without intending it, we propose to give a short account of the different religious foundations, which were successively established in the town. The first, in order of time, appears to have been the PRIORY OF ST. ANDREW, situated at the north- western part of the town, near the river, and was founded anterior to the year 1076; for in 1084, Simon de St. Liz repaired the buildings, and augmented the endowments. It was also then made a cell to the Abbey of St. Mary de Caritate ; and progressively was much enriched by the gifts of several royal and noble persons. By a survey taken the twenty-sixth of Henry the-Eighth, its annual revenues were rated at 263/. 7s. Id. clear of all deductions. The last prior of St. Andrews, was appointed the first dean of Peterborough cathedral, as a reward for his submissive acquiescence to the commissioners. Several eminent persons were interred here.
The Franciscans or- Grey-Friars,-had an establishment in Northampton, soon after their coming into England. They originally hired a habitation in St. Giles's parish, but afterwards built one on ground given them by the town, in the year 1245. John Windlowe, the last warden, and ten of his brethren, surrendered their poor revenues of 61.13s. 4d. per annum, 28th of October, 1539; after which the Friary was granted to one Richard Taverner.
Near this house was a PRIORY of Carmelites, or White-Friars, founded in 1271, by Simon Mountfort and Thomas Chetwood. It was valued at 101. 10s. per annum, and granted to William Ramesden after being resigned by John Howel, the last prior, and eight brethren.
The DOMINICANS, or BLACK FRIARS, were fixed here before 1240. John Dalyngton was either founder or a considerable benefactor to this establishment. Its annual revenues were only 5/. 11s. 5d. It was resigned to the crown by its prior, William Dyckyns, and seven of its friars.
William Peverel, natural son to the Conqueror, founded before 1112, a house of Black Canons, in honor of St. James. Its annual revenues amounted to 175/, 8s. 2d. according to Dugdale; or 213/, 17s. 2d. according to Speed. Henry the Eighth granted it to Nicholas Giffard. Its last abbot was William Brokden, who, with five monks, resigned it in 1540.
The AUSTIN FRIARS or FRIARS EREMITES, had a house in Bridge-street, founded in 1322, by Sir John Longueville, of Wolverton, in Buckinghamshire ; and several persons of his name were interred here. John Goodwyn, the prior, with seven friars, resigned it to the king in 1539. It was soon afterwards granted to Robert Dighton. Its revenues are unknown.
The COLLEGE OF ALL SAINTS, was founded in 1459, with liberty of purchasing to the value of twenty marks. It consisted only of two fellows. In 1535, it was found, clear of all reprizes, to be worth 39s. 4d. College-lane, in this town, takes its name from it.
The HOSPITAL of ST. JOHN, an ancient building in Bridge street, consists of a chapel, a large hall, with apartments for the brethren, and two rooms above for the co-brothers. The stair-case is painted, arid the chapel window is handsome in form and ornaments. This hospital was founded for the reception of infirm poor persons, probably by William St. Clere, archdeacon of Northampton, who died possessed of that dignity, in 1168. He is supposed to have been brother to one of the Simon St. Clere's; but Leland justly insinuates that they never were called by that name, but by that of St. Liz.
Near this place, close to the site of the south gate, is St. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL, which was founded in 1450, in honor of St. Thomas Becket. It was first endowed for twelve poor people, but an additional revenue was granted by Sir John Langham, in 1654, for six more. Another alms-man is supported by a third bequest, left by Richard Massingberd. The front of this hospital is ornamented with niches, pointed windows, and a row of shields in panels. Among the public buildings and establishments of the town. none is more prominent in utility, or larger in size, than the GENERAL INFIRMARY. This was begun in 1791, and opened in 1793. It stands on the eastern side of, but detached from, the town., on the brow of a hill, which gradually slopes to the south. The building, which cost about 15,000/. consists of three stories above ground, and one beneath, and is admirably disposed for the reception and accommodation of the sick. One side of the house is appropriated to male, and the other to female patients. The whole was designed and built by Mr. Saxton, architect, and is faced with stone, from the Kings-thorpe quarries ; the proprietor of which made a present of the whole. This was a noble and liberal act. The establishment is supported by the interest arising from numerous legacies and annual subscriptions ; and it must afford much gratification to the benevolent and humane mind, to contemplate the extensive benefit that has been afforded by this infirmary. According to the last report of the committee in August, 1809, there appear to have been cured, during the preceding year, " 1859 in and out-patients ;" and since the first opening of the infirmary in 1744 .(Ref 73) there have been 44,147 persons " perfectly cured," besides 5,780, who had derived " great benefit" Exclusive of medical and surgical aid, the establishment provides, what are no mean auxiliaries in the cure of distempers, proper accommodations, constant attention, with wholesome and nutritious food. '' In our charitable abode, say the committee, " nothing is denied that can any way promote recovery." The society is regulated by a grand visitor, (Duke of Grafton,) president, (Earl Spencer,) governors, and such a number of officers and servants, as from time to time shall be found necessary.
Near All Saints Church is, the OLD COUNTY GAOL, now converted into the turnkey's lodge, and debtor's prison. It was originally built by Sir Thomas Haslewood, as a private house. Behind this is the New Gaol which was begun in 1791, and , finished in 1794. It was built from the designs of Mr. Bretting-ham, architect, and cost between 15,000/. and 16,000/ It is,ar-ranged according to Howard's plan, and will hold about 120 prisoners.
The Town gaol in Fish lane, is a small modern building. Near the east end of All Saints Church, is the COUNTY HALL or Sessions-house, a large room, fitted up for the two courts of Nisi-Prius and Crown.
At the northern extremity of the town, is a range of modem buildings, erected in 1796, and appropriated to BARRACKS. A new THEATRE has been built in Gold-street..
A BLUE COAT SCHOOL was established here about the year 1710, by John Dryden, Esq. of Chesterton, who gave his house, called the George Inn, to endow it. The trustees appointed to superintend this charity, obtained an Act of Parliament, a few years ago, to sell this house, and invest the money in the funds, and appropriate the interest to the school. The George Inn was purchased by a society of several persons., who subscribed 50/. each, and is now their property.
BROWN SCHOOL. The late James Earl of Northampton, and other gentlemen of the county, gave several sums of money to the Corporation, who purchased an estate at Bugbrooke, the rents arising from which is applied to clothe twenty poor freemen, and educate and clothe twenty-five boys of freemen. When the revenues have been inadequate to pay the animal charges, the deficiency has been made up by the Corporation.
GREEN SCHOOL. Mr. Gabriel Newton, in 1761, gave a rent charge of 26/. per annum, to provide twenty-five poor boys with clothing and education; but this sum being insufficient, the Corporation advance the remaining money necessary to support the establishment. A GIRL'S SCHOOL, was founded here by two ladies in 1738, and endowed with lands and houses to support and educate thirty poor girls. The revenues haying increased, six more children are also now provided for.
In the year 1778, An Act of Parliament was obtained for paving, lighting, watching, &c. the town; but this being found insufficient, a new act was procured in 1797. To carry this into effect, the commissioners expended about 10,000/. to meet the interest for which, a rate of 1s. 6d. in the pound, is levied on the rental of the houses. In consequence of this act, nearly all the streets and lanes of Northampton are paved, both for carriages and foot passengers; and as the town is chiefly built on the slope, and near the top of a hill, it is generally clean and pleasant. Near its centre is a large open area, surrounded by shops and private houses, called the Square, or Market-place. In the centre of this is a large public pump, and at one side is a reservoir of water, called the Great Conduit. In the town are several chapels, appropriated to different sects or religious societies. That called the Castle-Hill Meeting is a large commodious building, and belongs to the Independents. The justly celebrated Dr. Dod-dridge, D. D. preached here for twenty-two years, and also superintended an academy, which by his learning and judicious management, obtained considerable reputation. Close application however occasioned a consumption of the lungs, to mitigate, or -cure which, he was advised to visit. Lisbon, where he died in 1751. In this chapel, a small mural tablet (Ref 74) records his name and memory, and contains an epitaph, written by Gilbert West,
Another Meeting-House for Independents, was erected here in 1776, in which are several small, but handsome monumental memorials. The Baptists' Meeting, a large building, was formerly noted by the preaching of the Rev. J. Ryland, who officiated in it for some time, and was buried here. The Moravians, Methodists, and Quakers have also chapels in the town.
Northampton contains a few Old Mansions, entitled to notice Near St. Peter's Church, is a large old house, with windows supported on brackets, and other exterior marks of ancient architecture. This belonged to the Heselreges, of whom some account has been given in Vol.. IX. p. 452, of this work. In Horse-shoe-lane are some remains, in out-houses, a gable end with bow-window, battlements, &c. of a house which belonged to Sir Ed-mond Bray. At the bottom of Bridge-street, Lady Fermor had a mansion, the remains of which are converted into small tenements. At the north-eastern corner of the Market-square, is an old house, having some shields, with arms, the date of 1595, and other ornaments on its principal front. It is supposed to have belonged to the Jves family.
The town of Northampton may be said to be divided into four, nearly equal parts, by two streets, running east and west, and north and south. Both these streets are wide and commodious, and each extends nearly a mile in length. Most of the houses are built of a reddish coloured sand-stone, dug from quarries in the neighbourhood ; but some are constructed of stone of a yellowish tint> and a few are brick buildings. At the eastern extremity of the town, a pleasant walk has been made, its sides planted with hedges and trees, and thus rendered peculiarly eligible as a promenade for healthful exercise. It is called Vigo Paradise Walk, or the New Walk, and was formed at the expense of the Corporation. ,At the lower extremity is a spring of chalybeate water, inclosed with steps and walls; and near the upper end is another spring of clear water, known by the name of Thomas a Becket's Well. At the north side of the town is a tract of land, which, in the year 1778, was an open field of 894 acres, but in that year an act was obtained to inclose it. About 129 acres of this was then allotted to the freemen of the town, for cattle, &c. but it was provided in the act that the same may be claimed and used as a race course for any two days between the 20th of July and 20th of October. Two weekly Newspapers are published in Northampton ; besides which, three respectable booksellers' shops, and some circulating book societies, tend to promote the great ends of liberal enquiry, and promulgate useful knowledge. One of the latter, called "the General Library" contains a large and accumulating stock of valuable scientific books; and is established on a plan likely to render it permanent, and increasingly advantageous to all the members. From literature to public Characters, is an easy and natural transition; and it will be found that Northampton has given birth to some persons of eminence, who may be properly classed among the worthies of the county. Richard and Adam of Northampton, were born -here, and both were advanced to the Episcopal See of Ferns, in Ireland; the first in 1282, and the second in 1323.
John of Northampton, or according to his Latin name Jo-annes Avonius, was a Carmelite friar, in this his native place. He Was author of a work, entitled, fi The Philosopher's Ring," a sort of perpetual almanack, which was " esteemed.a master-piece of that age." He lived in 1340.
SAMUEL FISHER was the son of a shop-keeper of the town, and .after practising as a puritanical minister, for eleven years, at Lydde in Kent, turned Anabaptist, and zealously inculcated the tenets of that sect. Like a true enthusiast, he also published several pamphlets to promulgate his sentiments and doctrines. The Quakers having attracted his attention, and presenting to his imagination some novelty, he next adopted their creed, and advocated their cause. With a degree of zeal, bordering on crazy quixotism, he undertook a journey to Rome, for the avowed purpose of converting the Pope to the Quaker tenets ; but failing in his mission, returned to England, and continued to recommend the cause of Quakerism, till death checked his wild career of fanaticism. After the restoration of King Charles the Second, he held a conventicle in London, for which he was imprisoned in Newgate, but obtaining his release, retired to Hackney, where he died of the plague, in October, 1665.
Dr. SAMUEL PARKER, Bishop or Oxford, was born in 1640, and received the first rudiments of education, in this town, whence removed to Oxford. Here he was first a student of Wadham College, and afterwards of Trinity College. In the early part of his life he espoused the cause of the puritans, but soon deserted them, and zealously advocated the Church of England's doctrines. In 1665, he published a work, called " Textamina," &c. and was also author of a History of his own Times," which has been printed in Latin and English. Servilely courting the favour of King James the Second, that monarch rewarded his court sycophancy, by making him Privy Counsellor and Bishop of Oxford. He died in 1687.
Dr. THOMAS CARTWRIGHT, Bishop of Chester, was also a native of Northampton. He gradually advanced himself in the , church, and was progressively appointed Vicar of Waltham-Stow, in Essex; Domestic Chaplain to Henry Duke of Gloucester ; Doctor of Divinity; Prebendary of Twyford, in the cathedral of St. Paul's London Minister of St. Thomas Apostle, London; Dean of Ripon; and next,'Bishop of Chester. King James the Second afterwards made him one of the ecclesiastical commissioners, and on the death of Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury,appointed him Titular Bishop of that See. Following his royal master to Ireland, he died there in 1689, and was buried in Christ-church, Dublin. Several of his sermons, and a speech spoken at Magdalen College, Oxford, are in print. A portrait of him has been engraved in Mezzotinto, by J. Becket from a picture by Soest.
WILLIAM BEAUFU, a native of Northampton, was a carmelite friar here, and wrote an account of the " Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary ;" a " Lecture of Lentinus" &c. He also translated ,different works out of French into Latin, and dying here, was interred in his monastery, Anno. Dom. 1390.
ROBERT BROWN, the celebrated founder of the Brownists, from whom have sprung the numerous and respectable sect of Independents, was a native of this town, according to Collier,* and after having studied divinity in the University of Cambridge, he became a school-master in Southwark. However he was
Destined to act a more prominent character on the stage of life, and instead of teaching youth the rudiments of language, he undertook to instruct adults, in what he deemed, the true principles of religion. He therefore determined to preach and practice a new system ; and accordingly, about the year 1580, " he "began to inveigh with intemperate vehemence and ardour against the discipline and ceremonies of the Church of England, 'representing her government as anti-christian, her sacraments as superstitious, her liturgy as a mixture of Popery and Paganism, and the mission of her clergy as no better than that of Baal's priests in the Old Testament"'* Persecuted for these opinions, and his conduct in promulgating them, he fled to Middleburgh. Here he established himself, and published three tracts, entitled, 1. " A Treatise on Reformation" &c. 2. " A Treatise upon the 23d chapter of Matthew," &c. and 3. " A Book, which sheweth the Life and Manners .of all True Christians" &c. Returning to England, and persisting in cherishing and disseminating his new tenets, he experienced much persecution • from the established prelates. Some of these at last frightened him into apparent submission, and he was then appointed to a rectory in this county. Here, according to Fuller, he had a church, in which he never preached, and a wife, with whom he never lived. Opposing some proceeding of a parish constable, he was arrested, and conveyed to Northampton gaol, on a bed in a cart, being above eighty years of age. In the latter part of his life he boasted of having " been committed to 82 prisons ;" and here he died in 1630.
OVERSHOE-HALL, at the eastern extremity of Spelhoe Hundred, is a respectable mansion; and after having been occupied by various proprietors, was purchased of the late Lord Brown-low, by John Kipling, Esq. its present possessor. A new, and very neat Church, with windows of stained glass, has been built here, at the sole expense of Mr. Kipling.
PITSFORD, a small village about five miles north of Northampton, is seated on an elevated dry soil, but is singularly well watered : for as Morton reports, in a field of about twelve hundreds, at this place " there are at least twelve hundred springs, and no fewer than twenty-four little rills," besides several other springs arising from the sloping sides of " four or five little val-lies." In this parish, near the great turnpike road, is a sepulchral tumulus, known by the name of Longman's-Hill. On a heath here, is a small encampment called Harrow-Dykes, the cir-cumvallation of which was formerly of a square form* but only two sides remain, one of which is about eighty yards in length. In this parish is PITSFORD-HALL, which has been occupied for some years by Colonel Corbet. The house, a respectable modem building, consists of a centre and two wings.
ROBERT SKINNER, Bishop of Worcester, was the second son of .Edmund Skinner, rector of this parish. He received his education at Oxford, and becoming Fellow of Trinity College, was. tutor to the celebrated Chillingworth. He successively obtained the Bishoprics of Bristol and Oxford, holding the livings of Greens-Norton in this county, and Launton near Bicester, in commen-dam; being deprived of his see on the fall of episcopacy, he retired to Launton, where he is supposed to have been the only prelate who conferred orders during the Commonwealth. At the Restoration, he was re-instated; and in 1663 was translated to Worcester, where he died in 1670, and is interred in the cathedral church of that city.*
At SPRATTON, about six miles from Northampton, is a handsome house, occupied at present by John Bambrigge Storey, Esq. The tower of the church is a fine specimen of the Anglo-Saxon style. The western entrance is formed of semi-circular receding arches, supported by columns with decorated capitals, over which is a double row of semi-circular mouldings; the lower one of chevron, and the upper of varied tracery. A range of arches between pillars embraces the north, west, and south sides. The belfry window consists of a Saxon arch, divided in. the centre by a mullion, and at each extremity a smaller arch, pointed: above, are two fillets, with grotesque heads underneath, surmounted by an octagonal spire; which, with the body of the church, are comparatively of modern date. The inner door of the south porch is also of the Saxon style. On an altar monument, in the chauntry-chapel, is the figure of a knight in white marble, with a wild boar at his feet; and on various parts of his girdle the initials I. S. traditionally supposed to be Sir John Swinford,
WESTON FAVEL, a pleasant village between Abington and Great Billing, at one period boasted of three mansions, belonging to the families of Ekins, Holman, and Harvey, all of which are dilapidated. Within the walls which encircled one of them is a cherry orchard, with which this neighbourhood, and we believe no other part of the county, abounds. The Rev. James Hervey, the popular author of Meditations, &c. who possessed this rectory, and preached here many years to overflowing congregations, lies in the chancel under a plain stone, marked by a simple inscription.
NEWBQTTLE-GROVE, OR NOBOTTLE HUNDRED.
Is supposed, but improperly, to derive its name from a large plantation of firs, situated between Dallington and Bramley; for in the Domesday Survey this district is denominated Neve-tote, Nive-botle., and Nivebottle Grove, The etymology of the compound implies a circular wood; as Neve means round or circular, and bote in Saxon signifies wood. The district still abounds with groves, and timber trees; and is well cultivated in many parts. The small heaths of Bramption, Harleston Darlington, and Duston, are, however, left in a wild, and almost unprofitable state. The hundred contains the parishes of Brington, Erockhall, Bugbrooke, Chapel Brampton, Church Brampton, Dallington, Duston, Flower, East-Haddon, Harie-stone, Harpale, Heyford Nether, Heyford Upper, Holdenby, Kislingbury, Ravensthorpe, including the Hamlet of Teeton, Upton and Whilton.
ALTHORPE, in the parish of Brington, is the seat of Earl Spencer. The house, a large pile of building, occupying three sides of a quadrangle, was built by the Earl of Sunderland, in the year 1688. Mr. Gough states* " that this estate, &c. has belonged to the Spencers ever since the reign of Henry the Seventh. Robert Lord Spencer was succeeded, 1627, by his son William, and he, 1637, by his son Henry, created Earl of Sunderland after the battle of Edgehill, 1642, and slain at the battle of Newbury the same year" Morton remarks, that Althorp is memorable for three things: " 1. The exactness of the proportions of all the parts, both without and within, and particularly that of the gallery. 2. For the dry moat which encompasses the house upon three sides. 3. For the park." What the natural historian deemed subjects of beauty, or objects of admiration, are not considered so now: for as an example of domestic architecture, the House of Althorpe does not present the least claims to beauty, grandeur, or symmetry. The moat, originally filled with water, is obliterated, and the squared garden plots, walks, &c. have been superseded by level lawns. The contents of this mansion are, however, highly interesting and valuable; in its large and fine collection of pictures, and
Vast library of choice books. In the latter article, Lord Spencer is laudably emulous of |possessing the most enlarged and selected collection in England; and it is generally admitted that be has succeeded. The books at Althorpe fill three or four apartments, besides which, his lordship has a much larger library at his house in London. The pictures here are also numerous, and many of them of the first class. A few of these can only be noticed on the present occasion. PORTRAITS—A Head of Cor-naro by Titian:—Another of a young man of the Cornaro family, by the same artist:—-Head of the late Lord Lucan :— Lord Althorpe, when a boy, in a fine landscape by Sir Joshua. Reynolds: another of Lady Camden, by the same admirable painter. Head of Verrio, by himself:—Full length of Rubens in black, by Vandyck:—A small head of Henry VIII. probably by H. Holbein: full length of William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, by Vandyck: another of Elizabeth, Countess of Fal-mouth, by the same: also a full length of Rachel, Countess of Southampton: a half length of Artemisia Gentelischi, with Pallet, &c. by herself: a head of Petro Van Mol. dated 1635: full lengths of George Digby, Earl of Bristol; and William, 5th Earl, and 1st Duke of Bedford: Vandyck: Venetia Lady Digby after death, by Vandyck: Henry VIII. and his Children, a large picture, supposed by Holbein. Ignatius Loyola, by Titian: Duchess of Devonshire, a full length in a landscape, by Sir Joshua Reynolds: Rembrandt's Mother, by Rembrandt. PICTURES—A Soldier in Armour, Salvator Rosa: Landscape and Figures, H. Micham: Venus and Adonis, Titian: Sampson and a Lion, Gia. Brandi: Witches, a very curious picture, by Salv. Rosa: Hermits in a Cave, with a Cross, &c. D. Teniers: a sweet and perfect specimen of the Master: Schoolmaster and his Scholars, by Lud. Caracci. A Boy blowing a piece of burning wood, Scalken: Hero and Leander, with Dolphins, &c. Te-niers a curious and unusual sort of picture for this master: Acis and Galatea, by N. Poussin: Holy Family, Raftaelle, a singularly fine and highly finished picture, by this immortal artist; Descent from the Cross, N. Poussin: St. Charles Baromio celebrating high mass, by Dominichino: Landscape with rocks figures, &c. and very fine sky, by D. Teniers: Jewish Sacrifice; a fine sketch, by Rubens: a Landscape, with setting sun; containing views of an arch, bay, trees, temple, &c. by Claude: a Descent from the Cross, by Le Brun.
The park at Althorpe is distinguished by large masses of forest trees, and great inequality of surface in the natural disposition of its grounds.
About one mile north-west of Althorpe, is BRINGTON, called Briton, in the church of which village are several large and stately monuments, to different persons of the Spencer family. Some of the tombs are designed with columns, pediments, and other architectural members: and most of them contain effigies in armour, or with dresses characteristic of the respective ages when, they, lived. These are in a private chapel, railed off from the north side of the chancel: and besides the monuments, here are various swords, pieces of armour, with panes of painted glass in the window. As most of the persons interred here, have been illustrious by title, or eminent for public-services, it is intended to give a short account of them. The first in time, is an arched recess, inclosing an effigy of a knight in armour, with another of his lady, in the dress of the period in which she lived; and at their feet is a tablet bearing an inscription, recording the name of SIR JOHN SPENCER, Knt. who died April 14, 1522; and Dame Isabell his wife, one of the daughters and co-heiresses of Walter Graunt, Esq, of Snitterfield, in the county of Warwick.
On the verge of an altar tomb, placed against the north wall, is a Latin" inscription; and on a tablet over, one in English; both purporting that in this sepulchre were interred the remains of SIR WILLIAM SPENCER, Knt. and Dame Susan his wife, daughter of Sir Richard Knightley cf Fawsley. Sir William died June 22, A.D. 1532.
Under an Artie mural monument, which is gorgeously ornamented, are the figures of a knight in armour, and his lady, recumbent on an altar tomb, with their hands Uplifted in a supplicating posture; over which is an achievement of family arms and against the wall a long inscription,- stating that underneath are deposited the bodies of SIR JOHN SPENCER, Knt. who married Catherine, one of the daughters of Sir Thomas Kitson, Knt. of Hengrave, in the county of Suffolk; he died November 8, AD. 1586.
A large monument having a canopy supported on eight columns, and with two recumbent statues, is raised to the memory of SIR JOHN SPENCER, Knight, who died 1599; and his lady; who was sole daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Catelin, Knt. Beneath an arch supporting a handsome monument, on a black marble tablet, an inscription records the name of SIR ROBERT SPENCER, Knt. who was created Baron Spencer of Worm-leighton; and Margaret his wife, one of the daughters and coheiresses of Sir Francis Willoughby, Knt. of Wollaton, in the county of Nottingham. Lord Robert died October 25, A.D. 1627; and Margaret his lady August 17, 1597. This monument was erected A.D. 1599, during the lifetime of the nobleman whose memory it preserves, who was summoned to the peerage in the reign of James the First.
Under an arch of black and white marble, supported by eight black marble columns of the Corinthian order, having the capitals white, lying on an altar tomb, are the figures of a baron and baroness, dressed in their state robes. Inscriptions, on four separate tablets, state that this elegant memorial is a tribute of conjugal affection to the virtues of SIR WILLIAM SPENCER, Knt. of the Bath, and Baron of Wormleighton, who had six sons and seven daughters, by his Lady Penelope, eldest daughter of Henry, Earl of Southampton; he died in the 45th year of his age, A.D. 1636, The other tablets contain appropriate sentiments. The statues were executed for Nicholas Stone, who paid for one 14/. and for the other 15/. Walpole's Works, Vol. IIL p. 16.
Near the monument of Sir William Spencer, is an half length statue of an armed man rising from a white marble urn, which bears an inscription to SIR EDWARD SPENCER, youngest son of Robert Spencer, Baron of Wormleighton. He died in 1655, aged 61. This monument was erected by his disconsolate widow. A marble tablet, with- a female figure personifying, benevolence, and executed by Nollekens, R. A. perpetuates the memory of JOHN EARL SPENCER, born Dec. 19 1734; died Oct. 31, 1783. An epitaph, in a high strain of compliment, like many of those by Pope, is attached to this monumental memorial. On the floor of the burial-place and chancel, are various flat marble slabs, charged with the family arms, and divers inscriptions. One commemorates Margaret Spencer, daughter of Sir Robert Spencer, Knt. Baron of Wormleighton, who departed this life December 6 A,D. 1613 Another, Mary Spencer, second daughter of William Lord Spencer, who died July 12, A.D. 1622. Collateral to this, another stone is sacred to the memory of William Spencer, third son of Richard Spencer, Esq, who died June 20, 1631. Both these died in their infancy.
On flat stones in the chancel are inscriptions to Robert Spencer, Knt. and Baron of Wormleighton; and stones of a similar description, mark the places of interment belonging to other families of less celebrity.
The church consists of a nave, two ailes, a chancel, with a tower at the west end,, and a monumental chapel. Between the chancel and nave is a carved wood screen, with the date of 1605. This building is situated on the brow of an eminencei and commands an extensive and diversified tract of country.
BROCKHALL HOUSE, situated in the parish of the same name, is an old mansion, built by one of the Eyton family. It has been greatly enlarged and improved by the Thorntons, lords of the manor; and is now the residence of Thomas Reeve Thornton,
DALLINGTON Church contains several handsome monuments, commemorative of the Raynsford family; and is celebrated in the records of biography as the birth-place of SIR JOSEPH JEKYL, who was born in 1663. He was an eminent lawyer and distinguished patriot. By his attachment to the whig interest, and the zeal he displayed in conducting the trial of Dr. Sache-rerel, he obtained considerable interest at court. On the accession of George the First, he received the honour of knighthood, and was made master of the rolls; and while holding that high official situation, he published a treatise, intitled " The Judicial Authority of the Master of the Rolls, Stated and Vindicated," in answer to the Lord Chancellor King. He died in the year 1738.
In DUSTON stood the very ancient monastery of ST. JAMES'S ABBEY, which was founded by William Peverel, natural son of William the Conqueror, for black canons of the Augustine order; and though no precise date appears upon record as to the time of its foundation, it must have been before A.D. 1112, as the founder died about the close of that, or the commencement of the following year. Though it does not appear that this was ever a mitred abbey, the abbot not having been in possession of a barony, yet two instances occur of the abbots having been summoned to parliament, in the forty-ninth of Henry the Third, and the twelfth year of Edward the Second. By the survey taken of the revenues in 1553, the clear annual income, exclusive of all customary deductions, amounted to 1757. 8s. 2d.; and in 1559, it was, with its possessions, surrendered to the royal commissioners. Some remains of walls and foundations, are all the vestiges traceable at present, of this ancient and well endowed monastery.
The Delves, as they are provincially termed, in the parish of HARLESTONE, have occupied the attention of some antiquaries, but they appear to be simply hollows remaining from quarries, worked out or disused. The place has been famous, from remote antiquity, for its strata of excellent blue ragstone, used for building, paving, and sepulchral purposes. Within a small distance of Newbottle Grove are vestiges of an ancient building, with several ruinous walks leading to it, called Sharrah. Some persons conjectured this to have been a religious cell • and others, the site of an ancient mansion. On Delves-Heath are traces of a fortification.
FLORE, or FLOWER, in the Domesday-book is called Flora, perhaps from its pleasantness of situation. The Church was given in the reign of King John, to Merton Abbey in Surry; but at the Dissolution, was granted to Christ Church, Oxford, to which college it now belongs. Here is a brass-plate, with figures of the Virgin and Child, and Thomas Knaresburgh, in armour, with Agnes his wife. He died in 1450, and she in 1483.
HARLESTONE HOUSE, a plain comfortable mansion, situated in a pleasing, though small park, well stocked with deer, is the residence of Robert Andrew, Esq. the present Sheriff of the county. New offices have been lately erected, various plantations made, and other improvements adopted on this estate, which evince both the taste and spirit of its present possessor.
In Horestone meadow, within the parish of NETHER HEY-FORD, about half a mile east of Watling Street, was discovered a tessellated pavement, covered with mould and rubbish. The tessellae were of variegated colours, and when first opened were as firm and compact as a stone floor; but exposed to the weather, the cement became less tenacious, and the tessellae were easily separated. From what was found it appeared to have been fifteen feet in extent, from east to west; but its diameter from north to south is uncertain. Morton, in his usual Conjectural style, presumes it must have been a square, and that it was the floor of a room in some building of a circular figure, about twenty yards in diameter; several lesser rooms or passages at the same time were discovered. The sides of the floors were painted with three straight lines of a red, yellow, and green colour. Foundations of walls, and other vestiges of dilapidated buildings were also visible. In the apartments were found fragments of various antique earthen vessels, which Morton,* supposing to be a patera and urns, concludes, that this was the manor house of some eminent Roman, and that here some of the family had been interred. To this latter conjecture Hearne f objects; because, as he justly observes, it was not customary with the Romans to bury in private houses after the promulgation of the legal code, called the Twelve Tables, though the usage was prevalent anterior to that period. And the very allusion of Morton to the testimonies of Isidore and Servius prove directly the reverse of his position. From what can be collected of this pavement, it was among the inferior kind of tessellated works, distinguished under the appellation of Ropographia, though Morton, in his sanguine manner, says, that it exceeds all the pavements he had seen or read of in England. This, if not the site of a Roman villa, was evidently that of some hall or mansion, built for the residence of an officer commanding a district, and charged with the preservation of order within certain prescribed limits. Or it might have been the villa of the general, who presided over the adjacent military station, called Benavenna.
In the church of this village, on a tomb under an inarched monument, are the portraitures in brass, of a man in armour, and a woman in the habit of the times, having their hands joined together; with a Latin inscription, at the head of the tomb, recording the memory of Sir Walter Mauntell, and Elizabeth his wife; the former of whom died June 18, A. D. 1487.
At the upper end of the church against the south wall is an elegant monument, having for supporters two fine statues of
Faith and Hope. In the centre are the effigies of a man and, his wife, with their offspring. On a marble tablet a Latin inscription purports that it was erected to the memory of Francis Morgan, one of the judges of the King's Bench, who died August 10, in the year 1558; and Ann his wife, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Christopher Pemberton. In 1553 this Francis Morgan, Esq. sate as judge, and pronounced sentence of death upon the amiable and unfortunate Lady Jane Grey. The cruelty and injustice of which is said to have so affected his conscience, previous to his death, as to bring on insanity, and that in the paroxysms of the disease he would cry out " take away the Lady Jane from me !"*
In this parish was born JOHN STANBRIDGE, an eminent grammarian, distinguished for- his assiduity in attempting to revive the study of the Latin language. He was educated in Winchester, became Fellow of New College, Oxford, and was appointed first usher, and then master of the free school, attached to Magdalen College in the same university. He published several treatises on the science of grammar, and continued in his appointment till his death, which happened some time after
DR. JOHN PRESTON, commonly called the patriarch of the puritans, was also a native of this place. He received his education in Queen's College, and was afterwards elected master of Emanuel College, Cambridge. Having great influence with the puritans, and possessing a genius for politics, he was employed by the Duke of Buckingham to endeavour to obtain their compliance with the measures of the court. Desirous, however, of furthering the plans of his own party, he used the information thus confidentially entrusted to him for sinister ends, and thus frustrated the schemes of the politician. He died July 20, A. D. 1628.
HOLDENBY, or HOLMBY-House, in the parish of HOLDENBY, will ever be memorable for the circumstances attending it pre-vious to its dilapidation. It appears, both from descriptions and remaining vestiges, to have been a most magnificent structure, and was erected in the reign of Elizabeth, by Sir Christopher Hatton, who says, it was intended to be the last and greatest monument of his youth. Norden, who must have seen it in its pristine glory, says, " In the hall there are raised three py-ramides, very high standing insteade of a shryne, the midst whearof ascendeth unto the roofe of the hall, the other two equal with the syde walls of the same hall, and on them are de-painted the arms of all the gentlemen of the same shire, and of all the noblemen of this land. The situation of the same house is very pleasantlie contrived, mountinge on an hill environed with most ample and lardge fields, and goodly pastures, manie young groves newly planted, both pleasant and profitable fishe ponds well replenished, a parke adjoyninge of fallow deare, with a large warren of conyes not farr from the house, lyinge between East-Haddon and Long Bugbye. About the house are great store of hares; and above the rest is especially to be noated, with what industrye and toyle of man the garden hath been raised, levelled, and formed out of a most craggye and unprofitable grounde, now framed a most pleasante, sweet, and princely place, with divers walks, manie ascendings and de-scendings, replenished also with manie delightful trees of fruite, artificially composed arbors, and a destilling house on the west end of the same garden; over which is a ponde of water, brought by conduit pypes out of the feyld adjoyninge on the west a quarter of a mile from the same house. To conclude the state of the same house is such, and so beautiful, that it may well delight a prince"* The manor and house of Holdenby, subsequently devolved to the crown, and formed first a palace, and then a prison, for the unfortunate monarch, Charles the first. After he had surrendered his person to the Scots at Newcastle, expecting they would have espoused the royal cause against the. parliament, he was by them sold to his enemies for the sum of 200,000/. paid down, and security given for a like sum. The king then delivered to a parliamentary committee, was carried to Holdenby-house; and though a kind of prisoner on parole, was placed under a strict, but pretended honorary guard. While he remained here, the dissension broke out between the Presbyterian party and the Independents; on which occasion it was judged expedient by the military commanders, as essential to the cause of the latter, that the king should be in their possession. Cornet Joyce was therefore dispatched by Cromwell, with fifty horse, to seize the king at Holdenby house, and bring him by force to the army, under promises, notwithstanding this violent proceeding, that his life and all his just rights should be respected; with what sincerity these were made, the page of history amply declares. The melancholy picture there drawn of the fate of royalty after this seizure, will ever cast a sombre cloud, over the spot, and spread a veil of additional gloom over the venerable and mouldering ruins of the palace at Holdenby. Of this structure, which was probably demolished by order of parliament, some arches, pyramids, walls, and the grand entrance gateway, were standing in 1729, when a plate of it was published by N. and S, Buck.* But most of the remains have been removed to raise, or to he incorporated with, other buildings.
This place gave the title of baron to Lewis Duras, Marquis of Blanquefort, brother to the duc de Duras in France., He had been captain in the Duke of York's guards, and having signalized himself in a naval engagement with the Dutch in 1665, was afterwards raised to this dignity by King Charles the Second, who also conferred on him the manor of Holdenby.
SIR CHRISTOPHER HATTON, a native of this place, was bred to the law; and by a rapid advance, raised to the highest honours and preferments. Having attracted the notice of Queen Elizabeth by his comely person, and graceful dancing at court,* he was first appointed one of the gentlemen pensioners, afterwards gentleman :of the privy chamber, captain of the guard, vice-chamberlain, a privy-counsellor, lord chancellor of England, a knight of the garter, and chancellor of Oxford University. He died in 1591.
About two miles west of Northampton is UPTON-HALL, the seat of Thomas Samwell Watson Samwell, Esq. who has greatly improved the mansion house and contiguous grounds. The first is a large irregular building of brick and stone, partly ancient, and part modern. It is pleasantly situated, commanding a fine view to the south, on a gravelly soil, and contains some good apartments, in which are many family and other portraits.
The brawls here alluded to, were a sort of figure dance, then much In vogue; and probably deemed as elegant as our modern cotillions.
The manor of Upton, with other estates in this county, have belonged to the family ever since the reign of Henry the Seventh. They are descended from the Samwells, who were formerly settled at Restormal Castle in Cornwall, and were created baronets in 1675. Francis Samwell was auditor to King Henry the Seventh, and Sir William Samwell, Knt. auditor to Queen Elizabeth, and was knighted at the coronation of King James the First. The present possessor succeeded to the family estates on the decease of his maternal uncle, Sir Wenman Samwell, Baronet, in 1789, and by an Act of Parliament passed in 1790, then took the surname and arms of Samwell.
The walls of the hall or saloon, were painted with basso-reliefs, by Joseph Artan, an Italian artist, in the year 1737. In a recess facing the chimney is a fine whole length figure of Apollo, over which is the bust of a lady of the family, supported by Bacchus and Ceres. The following pictures are also in this room, and most of them whole lengths, viz. Charles the Twelfth King of Sweden, (original): Thomas, the second Lord Viscount Wenman, and his three daughters: a large Family piece, consisting of Sir Thomas Samwell, Baronet, his eldest son and three daughters: Sir William Fermor, ancestor to the present Earl of Pomfret, (Vandyck): Sir John Finett, by the same artist. This gentleman was bred in the court, where, by his wit, innocent mirth, and skill in composing songs, he became a great favorite of James the First. He was sent into France in 1614, on public concerns, and knighted the year following. In 1626, on the death of Sir Lewis Lewknor, to whom he had been an assistant, he was appointed master of the ceremonies, concerning which he wrote a curious book, now very scarce, intitled f'inetti Philoxenis, which was published after his death in 1656; he also translated a work from the French, concerning the beginning, continuance, and decay of estates 1606. He died July 12, 1641, aged 70, and was buried in the Church of Saint Martin's in the Fields, London.
In this house was born, A.D. 1611, the celebrated JAMES HARRINGTON, who was son of Sir Sapcott Harrington, Knt. by Jane his wife, daughter of Sir William Samwell, Knt. He became a gentleman commoner of Trinity College Oxford, in 1629, where he was placed under the tuition of the famous William Chillingworth. He travelled into France, Germany, and Italy, but returned at the beginning of the Civil War, when he endeavoured, without success, to be elected a member of the House of Commons. In 1647, when the king was confined at Holdenby, near this place, he was appointed one of the grooms of his Majesty's bed-chamber. He attended his royal master in his several removes from Holdenby to Hurst Castle; and on all occasions, both before and after the king's death, spoke of him in terms of high commendation.
Some little time before the restoration Mr. Harrington, with some ingenious friends, assembled almost every night to project a scheme of Commonwealth-Government. The design was, 'that a third part of the house should be removed every year, by which mode the whole body would be changed every three years. He published several works both in verse and prose, the most remarkable of which is " the Commonwealth of Oceana," Lond. 1659, fol. He died the llth Sept. 1677, aged 66; and was buried near Sir Walter Raleigh, in Saint Margaret's Church Westminster. In one of the apartments here is a portrait of Mr. Harrington. In the Blue Drawing Room is a very fine portrait by Honthurst, of the celebrated Lucy, Countess of BEDFORD, daughter of John Lord Harrington of Exton, and wife of Edward Earl of Bedford; she was a great heiress, but wasted both her own and her husband's fortune. She was a patroness of the wits of her age, and was much celebrated by some of them, particularly Dr. Donne. May dedicated his translation of the " Pharsalia" to her. At Woburn Abbey there is a picture of her in a fantastic habit in the attitude of dancing; and another very fine one by Honthurst. She was also a collector of antique medals.
In the Library are portraits of Queen Mary, wife to Philip King of Spain; Edward the Fourth; Edward the Sixth; James the First Oliver Cromwell; Shakespeare; Buffandin, musician to the King of Poland; and two pictures of dead game.
In the Dining Parlour is a large and capital painting by Mercier, representing a group of Bacchanalians, being portraits of so many gentlemen.
In the Drawing Room is a descent from the cross on copper, in the style of Rembrandt.
The Church, situated near the mansion, is a small and ancient structure, consisting of one aile only. The inside is neat and well pewed, the east window of the chancel is of painted glass, inserted a few years since. In the chancel, on a mural marble monument, are inscriptions to the memory of Sir Thomas Samwell, the second baronet of the name, who, in the younger part of his life, having spent some years in visiting Holland, Flanders, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and France, finished his course in his own country, and died in 1757, aged 70.
In the chancel is an ancient alabaster monument, with an effigy in armour, of Sir Richard Knightly, Knt. and another of his lady, who was daughter of Sir John Spencer, Knt,
Denominated in Domesday Book Gisleburgh Hundred and a half, is bounded on the western side by the little Ouse river, which separates it from Leicestershire. This district is hilly, abounds in fine pastures, and nearly the whole of it consists of grazing lands. The weaving of tammies, shalloons, harrateens, and other worsted stuffs, used to be the principal employment of the inhabitants. But owing to the war this manufacture has greatly declined, and is now confined to the once flourishing Tillage of East Haddon, and Long Buckby. This hundred contains the parishes of Ashby Cold, Buckby Long, Clay Coaton, Cottesbrooket Creaton Great, Crick, Guilsborough, including the Hamlet of Nortoft, Haddon West, Lilbourn, Naseby, Standford, Thornby, Watford, including the Hamlet of Murcott, Welford, Winwick, Yelvertoft ; and the hamlets of Coaton, Creaton Little, Elkington, and Hollowell.
COLD ASHBY was the birth-place of RICHARD KNOLLES, an author whose labors have had the good fortune to be handed down to posterity, not only from their intrinsic merit, but with additional celebrity through the encomiums bestowed upon them, by that profound scholar and critic, Dr. Johnson, in the Rambler. He became a student in the University of Oxford about the year 1560, was afterward elected fellow of Lincoln College, and subsequently appointed master of the free grammar-school of Sandwich, in Kent. An occupation allowing little avocation. for literary pursuits, or leisure for composition; yet by assiduity and perseverance he found time to write, " The History of the Turks,' &c. fol. published in 1610: a work of considerable merit, which was afterwards continued to the year 1677, by Sir Paul Ricaut, who resided some years as consul at Smyrna. Prior to bringing out this work, (the labors of twelve years,) Knolles had printed, in 1606, Bodin's six books of a Commonwealth. He wrote also the lives and conquests of the Ottoman kings; a discourse of the greatness of the Turkish empire, &c. and died in 1610.
COTESBROOKE HOUSE, situated in a small park, a modern brick mansion, consisting of a body and two detached wings, is the residence of Sir William Langham, Bart. Of which family, the first that received the honour of knighthood, was Sir John Langham, a merchant and alderman of London, who, with the Lord Mayor, Sir John Gayer, were sent to the tower in 1647. After being liberated, Sir John was again committed, with Sir Abraham Reynardson, Knt. and Mayor, in 1648; for refusing to publish an act, entitled " An Act for the Exheredation of the Royal Line, the Abolishment of Monarchy in the Kingdom, and the Setting up of a Commonwealth." As a reward for his unshaken loyalty, on the restoration, he was created a baronet by King Charles the Second.
In the south cross aile of Cold Ashby Church, on an altar tomb of black marble, are the recumbent effigies of a person id an alderman's gown, and a lady dressed in the costume of the time. The inscription states that this monument was erected to the memory of Sir John Langham Knt, and Bart, some time alderman of London, who died May 13, 1671; and Dame Mary his wife, who died April 8, 1652. This right worthy knight founded and endowed, in 1651, an hospital in Cottesbrook, for two poor widowers, and six poor widows.
GUILSBOROUGH, which gives name to the hundred, is supposed to derive the appellation from a large Roman encampment in this parish, situated between the sources of the Nen and Avon. Like the generality of the camps made by the Romans, the form is a parallelogram, having the longest sides lying east and west, which are in length between five and six hundred feet, and the shortest north and south, are about three hundred.* The whole is encompassed by a single foss and vallum, and includes an area of nearly eight acres. It is supposed to have been a camp of the Propraetor Ostorius: and at present is known under the appellation of borough hill, but often called the Burroivs. In this parish is a free school for the instruction of youth in English, writing, &c. and a free grammar-school founded and endowed by Sir John Langham, in 1668.
GUILSBOROUGH HALL, a large mansion, built at different periods, is the residence of William Zouch Lucas Ward, Esq. and from being seated on an eminence, forms a conspicuous object. Nearly close to the house is the parish church, with a lofty spire, which, from some points of view, completely unites with* and appears to form a part of the mansion. This was formerly the seat of the Belchier family, one of whom, DAI.RIDGE-COUNT BELCHIER, was born here. He resided a good deal in Holland, and while there wrote a humorous comedy, called "See Me, and See Me not, written by Haas Beer Pot." This was much acted in the low countries by a company of performers, known by the name of Health-drinkers. Belchier also translated several works, and was author of some poems. He died in Flanders,
LILBORN, at the north-west angle of this hundred, has been already referred to, p. 4, and in the ninth volume of this work, p. 461, as a place of Roman antiquity. Either at this village, or in its vicinity, was the station Tripontium; though our antiquaries differ in opinion respecting it. Camden, by inverting the order in Antoninus's itinerary, places it at Towcester. Horsley prefers Bugby; but Gale and Stukeley are decisive in appropriating it to a spot on the bank of the Avon, in this neighbourhood.
It is rather singular, that the learned, author of the Britannia. should have omitted to notice, that a preceding antiquary,* whom, he justly extols, had fixed on this spot as the Tripontium of the Itinerary , and had he continued his annotations, would doubtless have advanced his reasons for the opinion. From the discoveries, which at times have been made, it is very probable, the station occupied both the northern as well as the southern. sides of the river, various Roman remains having been. found at both places. For an account of the former, see the description already given of Leicestershire. Morton observes", that upon the banks of the Avon was anciently a castle, but by whom, or at what period erected, he does not inform us. There are certain vestiges of what might be conjectured to be the site. of a castle, but on a nearer examination, they will appear more to resemble a Roman fortification. The work is a square elevated area, containing about a quarter of an acre, with a foss and vallum, parts of which, on the eastern and western sides are still visible; at the south-east and south-west angles, are aggera, probably the sites of two pretoria. The Round Hill, so called from its conical shape, distant about a quarter of a mile from the Roman road, seems to be artificial, and as to its shape and size, is not dissimilar to 'Berry-mount, near Towcester. Cam-den observes, that some persons, under the expectation they should find treasure, made excavations into this hill, but were disappointed in finding only coals. Prom this circumstance he conjectured, it was thrown up as a land-mark, and endeavours to prove, it was customary to deposit under mounds of this kind, intended for demarcation, half burnt bones, potsherds, Coals, &c.* But this is one of those vagaries, into which the minds of great philosophers, historians, and even antiquaries, are too prone to indulge, when deprived of the directory of facts, and consequently puzzled in the mazes of conjecture. Morton thinks the dimensions of this hill are too great, to admit of the opinion, that it is a tumulus, and the notion of coals having been found in it, he considers an idle tale, but supposes it was raised for the erection of a beacon or watch-tower on it. Another tumulus, of a similar description, was some years ago levelled, under which were found charcoal, ashes, and burnt bones, whence it is conjectured, that near this place, a desperate battle was fought between the Saxons and the Danes.
NASEBY or Navesby, though a small village, is on many accounts interesting to the traveller, and will ever be conspicuous on the face of history. Its geological features naturally attract the attention of the observant philosopher; and the political importance connected with the military scenes displayed in its vicinity, must entitle it, in a peculiar manner, to topographical notice. An author, who had opportunities of making comparative remarks, says, " the village stands upon an eminence, supposed to be the highest ground in the kingdom."* Though this be probable, yet some of the author's reasons are rather more curious than satisfactory, viz. a statement of altimetrical height between this place and the Thames, at London, and thence to the level of the sea. It is observed, that no water runs into this lordship from any other quarter, and what runs out of it, on the eastern side, has its course towards the German Ocean ; and that on the western, proceeds to the Irish Sea. No less than six springs rise in the village, and several others in the lordship, the waters issuing from which, are collected in reservoirs, on the declivous ground, and form valuable ponds. The lesser or what is termed the upper Avon, rises near the church, from a spring called the Avon-well; the Nen from another called the Chapel-well; and some have referred the source of the Welland to Naseby Field. One spring is of a petrifying quality, giving to wood, immersed in its waters, lapidean incrustations. The parish consists mostly of open commonable fields, and is supposed to measure, taking in every angle, from eighteen to twenty miles in circumference. The local historian, who has been minute in his observations, and laudably assiduous in his enquiries, states, that thirty-nine or forty parish churches may at different times, in a clear day, be seen by the naked eye from one station, an old windmill-bank, in Naseby Field. These are supposed, on the occasion, to be irradiated with the sun's light, and the range of their distance, is from one to twenty-two miles.
Naseby was formerly a market-town, a charter having been granted to the inhabitants, in the fifth year of King John. In an area of the village is still standing the mercate-cross. Here was formerly a considerable weaving manufacture of worsted, called stuffs, harrateens and tammies ; but the immense increase of the cotton trade, and the general prevalence of muslins and calicoes, has been a great drawback upon the worsted manufactures in general, and have nearly destroyed them. By the returns made under the population act, the number of houses in 1801, was 105, and inhabitants 538.
Adjacent to this village, on Naseby-Field, was fought that ever memorable battle, between the royal and parliamentarian forces, in which, according to Lord Clarendon, were lost both the king and kingdom, A particular account of this engagement, has already been published in Vol. IX. p. 428, &c. The Conflict occurred on the 14th of June, 1645; and after it all the royal garrisons successively capitulated to the parliamentary soldiers.
STANFORD CHURCH contains several monuments erected to the memory of the Cave family. Under a canopy of white marble,, against the north wall of the chancel, is the effigy of a man; also a Latin inscription, commemorative of Richard Cave, eldest son of Sir Thomas and Lady Eleanor Cave, who died on the Continent, in the nineteenth year of his age, July 26. 1606. Adjoining the above, within the communion rails, is a magnificent monument over an altar-tomb, on which are the effigies of a knight and his lady, and a Latin inscription indicates that this memorial was raised by an affectionate and disconsolate widow, to perpetuate the name of Sir Thomas Cave, son of Roger Cave and Margaret Cecil. He died Sept. 6, 1613. An epi-cedium, in elegiac verse, indecorously puns upon the name of Cave. In the middle aile, on an altar-tomb of white marble, are the figures of Sir Thomas Cave, and his lady Elizabeth ; and at the feet their six sons and eight daughters. He died Sept. 4, 1558. Several brasses and inscriptions on flat stones, are commemorative of other persons of the same family "Stanford Hall has already been described in Vol. IX. p. 481.
WATFORD CHURCH contains several handsome monuments to the memory of the Clerke family. In the chancel is one of black and white marble, having the entablature supported by two columns of the Corinthian order. An inscription records the memory of Sir George Clerke, knt. descended from the Clerkes of Willoughby, in the county of Warwick, who died January 30, 1648. As a testimony of conjugal affection, Barbara, his disconsolate relict, caused this monument to be erected ; and departed this life, in the assurance of a better, Feb. 2, 1655. Her remains were also deposited beneath the same tomb.
SULBY ABBEY, in the parish of WELFORD, was founded for the monks of the Premonstratensian order, by William de Wideville, or Wivill, lord of Welford manor, about the year 1155. It seems to have been liberally endowed, for at the dissolution, the annual revenues were stated at 305/. 8s. 5d. which were granted in exchange for the manor of Holdenby, to Christopher Hatton, Esq. on. whose demise the latter devolved to the crown.
In WEST HADDON Field is an artificial mount, called Oster-Hill, under which, if credence be due to the tradition of the neighbourhood, were interred several officers, who fell in a dreadful engagement, fought here, between the royal and baronial troops. At their interment, the soldiers struck a long spear into the ground, and heaped up earth over the bodies around it, to the height of the spear. However improbable this part of the story may appear, there can be no doubt but, the hill is a sepulchral tumulus ; and from the name and other concomitant circumstances, it has been conjectured, a monument to the memory of the celebrated Roman Pro-paector, Publius Ostorius. That he died in this island, though not in battle, with the fatigues of warfare, is asserted by Tacitus, but the place of his death or sepulture, has not been recorded in history, and all attempts to ascertain this curious fact must therefore rest on conjectural probability. This place, however, seems to have had some connection with the Roman general, whilst the works at Guilsborough, and in the vicinity of Daventry, are allowed to have been of his erection. The long chain of fortified posts he formed along that course of the Watling-street, which extended through this part of the kingdom, furnishes additional and corroborative evidence favorable to the opinion of his, interment here.
Separated from Leicestershire by the river Welland, at the time of the conqueror's survey, was divided into two districts. viz. Stotfield, which comprised the western, and Rodeville the eastern part of it. In the twenty-fourth year of Edward the First's reign, both occur under the name of Rothwell, It contains the parishes of Arthingworth, Bowden-Little, including the parish of St. Nicholas, the hamlet of Little Oxenden, and part of the parish of St. Mary's, Braybrooke, Clipstone, Desborough, Draughton, East Farndon, Glendon-Barfoot, Harrington, Haste-beech, Hothorpe, Kelmarsh, Loddingtan, Maidwell, Marston-Trussel, Orton, Magna Oxenden, Rothwell, Rushton, All Saints and St. Peter's, Sibbertoft, Sulby, Thorpe Malsor, and Thorpe Labenham, or Underwood, extra-parochial
In BRAYBROOKE Church is a carious, and elaborately decorated monument, which escaped the notice of Bridges, but an engraving of it was afterwards made at the expence of the late Lord Howard, and given to the purchasers of Bridges's History. The same nobleman also allowed Mr. Nichols, to take impressions from the plate for Vol. 11.. of his History of Leicestershire, wherein it is said to have been raised for Sir Nicholas Griffin, knt. who died in 1509, aged 34. The monu-ment, however, appears to have been erected by Sir Thomas Griffin, eldest son of the former, who died in the eleventh year of Elizabeth's reign. The design is completely in the style of that age, and displays an affectation of classical architecture. On a base, are raised several pilasters, having the widest parts near the capitals, and these support an entablature, crowned with pedestals, shields, crests, and other ornaments. In the centre is a coat of arms, with nine quarterings, and having griffins for supporters. Other armorial insignia are attached to it. Under the upper window of the south aile, is an effigy in wood, of a knight, cross-legged, with a shield on his left arm. This is supposed to represent Sir Thomas Latimer, knt. who is recorded in history, for his zeal and attachment to the sect of the Lollards, who rose up in the reign of Richard the Second, and distinguished themselves by their zealous opposition to the superstitious doctrines, and ecclesiastical tyran-ny of the papal hierarchy. His will, which bears date Sept. 13 1401, is singularly curious. " In the name .of God, &c. I Thomas Latymer, a Braybrooke, a fals knyt to God, thanking God of his merci, havyinge syche minde as he vouchittsaff desiryng that Goddes will be fulfilled in me, and in all Godys that he hath taken me to kepe; and to that make my testament in this manner. Furst, I knowlyche on unworthye to bequethyn to him any thing of my power; and therefore I pray to him mekely of his grace that he will take so pore a present as my wreeched soule ys, into his merci, through the beseching of hys blessyd Modyr and hys holy Seynts ; and my wreeched body to be buried, where that ever I dye, in the next churche yerde God vouchsafe, and nant in the chirche ; but in the utterest corner as he that ys unworthi to lyn therein, save the merci of God. And that there non manner of cost, don about my berying, neyther in mete, neyther in dryngge nor in no other thing, but it be to any such one that needeth it, after the law of God ; save twey tapersof wex; and anon as I be dede put me in the erthe, &c."* Sir Thomas died in the same year the will is dated.
In this village was born Robert de Braybrooke, who was advanced to the see of London, and afterwards was Lord Chancellor of England, for the short space of six months, and died A. D. 1404. " Braybroke Castelle, upon Wyland Water was made and embattled by license, that one Braybroke a nobleman in those days did obtaine. Mr Griphine is now owner of it, He is a man of fair landes."f
KELMARSH HALL, the seat of William Hanbury, Esq in the parish of KELMARSH, is a large mansion, the east front of which is modern, and consists of a body and two wings, connected by offices. The west front is dissimilar, older, and less ornamental. The pleasure grounds are pleasingly diversified with the contrasting effects of wood and water, The proprietor possesses a. fine collection of paintings.
In the parish of GREAT OXENDON is one of those phenomena, which confound philosophy upon its own principles, and after the minutest investigation, leaves it to ponder ever the multifarious shades of difference, that occur in the various assimilations between cause and effect. The belfry of the church-tower measures eleven feet three .inches, by nine feet three inches. In this story of the tower, where the bells are hung, this centrum phonocumpticum produces a remarkable polysyllabic echo. To a person standing at the given distance of six hundred and seventy-three feet on the western part of the elevated ground, on which the church is built, it returns distinctly thirteen syllables, uttered by the voice. A return, but not to an equal extent, is obtainable by a person speaking from the top of an adjacent hill, fronting the south side ; but scarcely "any resonancy is found on the eastern or northern sides of the tower. Morton gives a particular statement of the different effects produced at various distances and places.* To account for this, and the great variety of phonic aberrations, from the established laws of sound, would be a task referable to the oracle at Delphos. Sounds, like light, are not only extensively diffused, but frequently reflected; yet the laws of this kind of reflection, not being so easily cognizable, are not so easily understood, as those of light. All at present known is, that sound is principally reflected by hard bodies, and the circumstance of their being hollow sometimes increases the reverberation. Without this previous acquaintance of the generally supposed cause of echo, no art can make an artificial one, and some persons who have bestowed great labor and expence upon such a project, have only erected shapeless buildings, whose silence or inarticulate reverberation was a mortifying lecture upon the imbecillity of such abortive attempts. Under an arch, supported by two columns of the Corinthian order, against the south wall of the chancel, on an altar tomb, are effigies of a man and woman, with two children, and an inscription records the memory of Katharine Lady Gorges, daughter of Sir Robert Osborn, of Kelmarsh. She was first married to Edward Haslewood, Esq. and afterwards to Edward Lord Gorges, baron of Dundalk, who being the survivor, erected this monument as a tribute of his affection. She died March 10, 1633.
A plain stone slab, with a short inscription, cannot fail to read a ""siste, viator," to the votaries of science ; it is sacred to the memory of the Rev. Jo/in Morton, who was formerly rector of this parish. During his residence here, he wrote and published " The Natural History of Northamptonshire."
At ROTHWELL,* called ROWELL, a parish which gives name to the hundred, was previous to the dissolution, a Priory, for Nuns of the Augustine order. The founder is not mentioned, but probably he was one of the Clare family, whose successors in the manor, appear upon record as its patrons. This was a Considerable-market town, but the market has been long discontinued. The market-house is however still standing, and from the style of the building is an object of curiosity. It was begun by Sir Thomas Tresham, but owing to his death, was never completed ; the third or upper story, which formed part of the plan, not having been built. The remains of the present structure, which is fast going to decay, consists of a square basement story, with large pointed entrance arches to an area, constituting a market-place; and over, a suit of rooms, with wide square-headed windows. The north front has an advanced gateway, reaching to the height of the building, the whole ornamented with pilasters of the Doric order, which support an entablature, and on the architrave, under the cornice, are shields charged with the arms of many families in the county> with the following incription round the frize ; " Thomae Tres-ami militis fuit hoc opus in gratiam fluids patriae fecit suae tribusque Northamptoniae vel maxime hujusque vicini sibi pagi. Nihil •praeter bonum commune quaesivit, nihil praeter decusperenne amico-rum. Mule qui interpretatur dignus haud tanto est bono. An. Dom. millsssimo quingentessimo septuagessimo septimo." This THOMAS TRESHAM received the honor of knighthood at Kenil-worth Castle, from Queen Elizabeth ; but zealously attached to the Romish persuasion, he incurred the displeasure of the court, and he appears to have been several times taken into custody, for recusancy, and from his last detainder, was discharged December 8,1597. He studied architecture, and displayed considerable taste in that elegant science : besides this market-hall, he built Liveden-house, now demolished, and probably several others. He died in the third year of James the First. His son and successor, FRANCIS TRESHAM, was still more strenuous in the Catholic cause; and though a principal projector in the treasonable and nefarious design, termed the gun-powder plot, yet providentially became the instrument of its discovery. For he sent the letter to Lord Montegle, who had married Elizabeth Tresham, his sister,Which contained the information that first induced a suspicion, and then led to the detection of the design. Having been attainted with the other conspirators, he was apprehended and committed to the tower, where he died, as some have suspected, by means of poison.
In the church are several monumental memorials of the Tresham, Lant, Humble, Lane, and Hill families, Against the north wall of the chancel, is a white marble monument, having an arched pediments, with urns, supported by columns of the Ionic order. A tablet beneath, has an inscription sacred to the memory of Andrew Lant,Esq. of Thorpe Underwood, lord of Roth-Well manor, who died Jan. 16, 1694 ', and Judith, his wife, who died Dec. 31, 1705.
RUSHTON CHURCH contains a handsome monument, erected in 1804, commemorative of Charles, fifth Viscount, and Baron Cullen, of the county of Donegal, in Ireland, who died June 7, 1802; and Sophia, Viscountess Cullen, who died July 13, 1802. This was the tribute of filial affection from their son, the Hon. William Cockayne, whose virtues are probably recorded, by this time, on the same sepulchral remembrancer; he having died at his seat, in this place, Oct. 8. 1809.
RUSHTON HALL, in this parish, is beautifully situated on a gentle declivity, sloping to the river Ise, which passing under a handsome bridge of two arches, gives a pleasing effect to the diversified plantations. The recent spirited and tasteful occupier the Hon. William-Cockayne, second son of the late Viscount Cullen had made several alterations, and projected further improvements; but to these the arbitrator of all human events put a sudden veto, by calling him prematurely from this stage of existence.
FOX HILL, in the parish of SIBERTOfT is a remarkable elevation, encompassed with several lesser Kills. A place called Castle-yard, is supposed to be the site of an ancient castle.
The village of THORPE MALSOR, gave birth to one of our early English Antiquaries, ROBERT TALBOT, who was born here about the latter end of the fifteenth century. He received a classical education at Winchester, whence he removed to New College, Oxford, and became fellow of that society, in 1523. A prebendal stall in the cathedral of Wells, was presented to him in 1541; and in 1546, he was instituted to the rectory of his native place. In the year following, he was appointed to a prebend, with the office of treasurer in the church of Norwich, where he died the latter end of August, 1558, and was interred in the cathedral of that city. He is said to have been well skilled in English antiquities, which gained him the esteem of many learned men. He appears to have been the friend and associate of Leland, who speaks of his antiquarian knowledge, and praises him for his great care and assiduity, in collecting scarce and valuable books, manuscripts, and other literary monuments. His collection he bequeathed to New College library. Amongst others of his works, he left annotations in Latin, on that part of the Itinerary of Antoninus, that relates to Great Britain, of which Camden in his Britannia, and Burton in his Commentary, seem to have made considerable use. These have since been published by Hearne, in his edition of Leland.*
Is considerably diversified in its surface, and many of the distant views are both pleasing and extensive. Several parishes in this hundred appertained to that of Maleslea, till the twenty-fourth of Edward the First, when they became incorporated with Orlingbury, which in its present state comprises the villages of Brixworth, Broughton,, Cranley, Hanington, Hardwick, Harrowdens, Great and Little, Isham, Lamport, with the hamlet of Hanging Houghton, and chapelry of Faxton, Old or Wold, Orlingbury, Pytchely, Scaldwell, and Walgrave.
BRIXWORTH is a large respectable village, on the southern verge of the hundred. Rockingham forest, though now many miles distant, formerly extended to this parish; and in the fifteenth of Henry the Third, permission was granted to Simon Fitz-Simon, the lord of the manor, to " plant a small spinney adjoining his garden," on express condition of " not interfering with the liberties of the forest." Towards the close of the same reign, he procured for himself and heirs, the more valuable privilege of a weekly market, every Tuesday at this place; and for an annual fair, continued for three days, commencing on the eve of St. Boniface.
How long these customs existed, there is no data by which to determine, but it seems not unreasonable to suppose, they ceased with the extinction of the family, to whom they were granted. The base of a cross, on an ascent of two or three steps is still standing, and was probably the ancient butter or market cross An annual fair on the Monday after the ascension, has been revived within these few years. About half a mile to the south-west of the village, is the site of the old manor house of WOOLHAGE, in"which Sir James Harrington founded a chaun-try, and endowed it with lands in Lancashire. The church presents more of the antique in its materials than in its architecture, though the semicircular staircase projecting from the tower, is a singular and almost unique appendage. The south aile is not above half the length of the nave, but from vestiges of arches, appears originally to have run parallel with it. Under a low arch lies the mutilated figure of a knight-templar, supposed to be Sir John Verdon. A curious relic of gothic superstition has been very recently discovered over the altar tomb of Adam de Taunton, who died, possessed of this living, in 1322. A large square stone protruded from the wall, surmounted by a rude head, on removing which, a circular aperture was disclosed, wherein was deposited a wooden box, containing part of a human jaw bone, and a thick substance, slightly elastic. A chauntry was founded and endowed by William Curteys, in the chapel of the Virgin Mary, erected in the church-yard, for the " souls of himself and wife, and Simon and Maud, his father and mother." Not far from the church-yard, are slight traces of trenches and two or three tumuli are seen in the vicinity.
BRIXWORTH HALL, once the seat of the Nichols's and Rayns-ford's, but now of Walter Strickland, Esq. is a plain family mansion, surrounded by the village, from which it is screened by plantations, and enclosed within a wall,
BROUGHTON. EDWARD BAGSHAW, a bencher of the temple, and of considerable eminence in his profession, resided here, and was the author of " the Life and Death of Mr. Robert Bol-ton." 1633, 4to. a justly celebrated divine, and many years rector of this parish, EDWARD BAGSHAW, a learned polemic, was son of the above, and born here; after receiving an univercity education, he was appointed second master of Westminster school, but being discharged for disrespectful behaviour to the first master, Dr. Busby, he entered into orders, and became vicar of Ambroseden, and chaplain to the Earl of Anglesea. Chagrined by the tardy approach of preferment, or impelled by the dictates of conscience, he renounced the establishment, and settling in London, presided several years over a dissenting congregation; but was at length committed to Newgate for refusing the oath of allegiance, where he lingered nearly half a year, and died Dec. 28, 1671 He was buried in the celebrated dissenting cemetery in Bunhill Fields, where a monument has been erected to his memory, with an inscription by Dr. J. Owen, commemorative of his learning, patience, and sufferings. His publications, which are voluminous, consist of Latin dissertations and controversial tracts, and are enumerated in Wood's Athense Oxoniensis.
HANINGTON. FRANCIS GODWIN, an eminent prelate, and distinguished writer, was born here in 1561, his father, Thomas Godwin, being then rector of this parish, and subsequently Bishop of Bath and Wells. In his sixteenth year he was entered of Christ's Church Oxford, where he soon became conspicuous far native force of intellect, and unwearied assiduity in its cultivation. Whilst very young, he wrote " The Man in the Moon, or a Discourse of a Voyage thither, by Domingo Gonsales, 8vo." This was thought an highly ingenious philosophical fiction, but aware of its being fraught with ideas irreconcilable with the reigning system of the schools, his diffidence restricted its perusal to a few confidential friends, and it was not given to the world till after his decease. His " Nuncius Inanimatus, Utopia," 8vo. a Latin treatise on the modes of conveying intelligence speedily and secretly, in which is obviously anticipated the principle of the modern telegraph, is another of his juvenile productions, though many years elapsed ere he had courage to submit it to the ordeal of public opinion. At what time the history and antiquities of his native country first engaged his attention, is uncertain, but in 1590 he explored the topographical treasures of Wales in company with Camden, and haying a few years after resigned to his celebrated coadjutor the general enquiries connected with this subject, he confined himself to the ecclesiastical department, but finding, his labours even here, superseded by Fox, he limited his researches to ecclesiastical biography, and in 1601 produced " A Catalogue of the Bishops of England, since the first planting of religion in this island ; together with a brief history of their lives and memorable actions, so near as can be gathered.out of antiquity." This work formed a new era in British biography, and Queen Elizabeth very appropriately rewarded this tribute to episcopacy, by bestowing the vacant mitre of Landaff on the author, and permitting him, in consideration of its slender revenues," to retain his previous preferments. In 1617 he received from King James the more lucrative see of Hereford, which he held till his death in 1633, at the advanced age of seventy-three. He published a corrected and enlarged edition of the " Catalogue;" in 1615 reprinted it in Latin, and afterwards added " An Appendix ad Comment, &c." It was re-published, with large corrections, &c. in. 1743, by Dr. Richardson. His" Re-rum Anglicarum Henrico 8, Edwardo 6, and Maria Regnanti-bus, Annales," fol. after reaching three editions, was translated into English by his son Morgan Godwin, under the title of '' Annals of England."
GREAT HARROWDEN, an insignificant village between Wel-lingborough and Kettering, was the residence of the noble family of Vaux, for upwards of three centuries. During the bloody contention which sprung from the rival claims of the red and white rose, Sir William Vaux warmly espoused the cause of the unfortunate Henry, for which he was attainted on the accession of Edward, and his estates confiscated. They were, however, restored to his son, Sir Nicholas, by Henry the Seventh, with whom he was a great favorite. In the succeeding reign he filled various important appointments, and in 1523 was created Baron Vaux of Harrowden. He lived in great splendor, and was highly accomplished; many of the poetical pieces are ascribed to him, in " the paradise of dainty devices." His second wife was Anne, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Green, the last representative of a family long famed in this county, for their immense wealth and local influence. The title became extinct in 1681, on the demise of Edward, the fourth lord, who bequeathed his estates to Nicholas Knolles, his wife's son, by the Earl of Banbury. The present manor house, a spacious handsome edifice, pleasantly situated, has long stood unoccupied, and is the property of Earl Fitzwilliam, who inherits it from the late patriotic Marquis of Rockingham, by whose ancestor, the Honorable Thomas Wentworth, it was erected.
In the church is a neat mural monument for Lady Mary Mil-bank, daughter of the first marquis, and the names of several children of Nicholas Earl of Banbury are recorded on plain slabs in the chancel.
LAMPORT HALL, midway from Northampton to Harborough, is the seat of Sir Justinian Isham, Bart, and has been in the possession of his family from the close of the sixteenth century. The front of the house, towards the road, was designed by John Webb, son-in-law of Inigo Jones, but the one facing the village is in the Elizabethan style. On the north side of the church is a chapel, or burial-place, for the Ishams, abounding with mural mementos. In this parish is the small chapelry of FAXTON, the church of which contains a fine monument to Sir Augustine Nicoles. It is composed of black and white marble, with an effigy representing him in his judge's robes, kneeling before a desk, on which is placed a book; and on the right is a statue of Justice, and on the left another of Wisdom. He was born at Ecton, studied law in the Middle Temple, and was appointed one of the justices in the court of common pleas. He died whilst on the circuit at Kendal, in 1616.
PYTCHELY, or PIGHTESLEY HALL, a small but venerable mansion, built by the same architect as Holdenby Palace, belongs to the Rev. Sir John Knightley, Bart, and is, rented by the gentlemen of the Pytchely Hunt.
ORLINGBURY. The late REV. OWEN MANNING the son of Mr. Owen Manning of this place, was born August 11, 1721. Being educated at Queen's College Cambridge, he was elected in 1741 to a fellowship there, in right of which he had the living of St. Botolph, Cambridge. In 1760 Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Lincoln, gave him the Prebend of Milton Ecclesia in the Church of Lincoln; and in 1763 he was presented by Dr. Green, Dean of Salisbury, to the vicarage of Godalming in Surrey, where he resided in the conscientious discharge of his professional duty till his death, Sept. 9, 1801, in the 81st year of his age. The literary world are indebted to Mr. Manning for completing the Saxon Dictionary, which was begun by his friend Edward Lye, Rector of Yardley Hastings in this county who died in 1767. After several years close application, Mr. Manning published this work in 1775, having .made large additions thereto, with a preface and grammar; and, in an appendix subjoining, fragments of Ulphilas's Version of the Epistle to the Romans; sundry Saxon Charters; a Sermon on Antichrist; a fragment of the Saxon Chronicle; and other instruments. He also published Illustrations of King Alfred's Will. Great part of Mr. Manning's life was devoted to the compilation of " The History and Antiquities of the County of Surrey," which the loss of his sight prevented the completion of. Since his death, the first volume of this work has been prepared for the press, for the benefit of his family, with a continuation to the present time, by William Bray, Esq. F, S. A. who has kindly and liberally undertaken to finish this useful, but laborious publication, Two Volumes of it in folio have been published.
OR, as it is denominated in Domesday Book, Andferdsdesho, and Anvesdesou, is separated on the east from the hundred of Higham-Ferrers, by the Nen, and from that of Wimersley, by the same river on the south. This hundred contains the parishes of Doddington Great, Earl's Barton, Ecton, Holcott, Mears Ashby, Sywell, Wellingborough, and Wilby.
EARL'S-BARTON. The church of this parish is a singular and very curious example of ancient architecture. The tower, in particular, displays some very unusual, features. It is divided into four stories, each of which is constructed with upright stones, disposed like beams or wood work, with the spaces between every two filled up with small stones, mortar, and rubble; The arches and columns are also peculiar: some of the former., are very small, and formed by one stone ; whilst the latter are larger at the centre than at their bases and capitals. The western door-way, that on the south side, and a small one leading into the chancel, have all semi-circular arches, with various ancient mouldings. Many parts of the interior are also entitled to the particular notice of the architectural antiquary. The church occupies part of. the area of an ancient castle : and to.the north are some deep ditches of the keep.
ECTON In this parish is ECTON-HOUSE, the seat of Samuel Isted, Esq. The house, a handsome modern stone building, is surrounded by pleasant plantations, and grounds of a diversified appearance. This place gave birth to the REV. PETER WHAL-LEY, who was first appointed a Fellow of St. John's College Oxford ; and afterwards chosen master of the grammar-school of Christ's Hospital. Whilst engaged here, he was selected by a committee of the gentlemen of Northamptonshire, to arrange and superintend the publication of Bridges' s History of that county. This Work, after nearly fifty years preparation, was published in 2 vols. folio, 1791. [See ah account of this work in the List of Books at the end.] Mr. Whalley was also author, of " A Vindication of the Evidences and Authenticity of the Gospels." An inquiry into the learning of Shakespeare He was also editor of a Hew edition of Ben Jensen's works, with notes, in seven volumes, 8vo. He died in 1791.
THIS town, by the author of Parochial Antiquities, has been confounded with Wendlebury in Oxfordshire, and is by him supposed to derive its name from the Teutonic term, vandalen, or the Saxon wandrian, to wander, whence come the words vandali, wandaleris, &c. But with much greater probability, the place obtained its present appellation from the fountains of water, or wells, with which it abounds. A mineral spring here denominated Redwell, was formerly of considerable celebrity for its medicinal effects. It issues out at the foot,of the hill in an open field, about half a mile north-west of the town. The water is impregnated with a small portion of carbonate of iron, and is a light, sparkling, mild chalybeate. The spring was more resorted to formerly, than at present. In the year 1626, it is said that King Charles and his Queen resided in tents, a whole season, for the benefit of drinking it pure at its source.* The name being Saxon implies, the place was of some note in that period, when it appears to have been destroyed by the Danes. After the Conquest, it occurs among the numerous possessions annexed to the abbey of Croyland, in Lincolnshire; and at the suit of the monks belonging to that house, was constituted a market town by a charter from King John. It is principally situated on a red sand stone rock, of which material the houses are generally built. The town is disposed along the slope of a hill, nearly a mile to the north of the river Nen Greater part of the houses having been erected, subsequently to a dreadful fire, which happened in the year 1738, are neatly built: and from the situation of the ground, the streets are generally clean. The church is a large building, having at its west end a tower, surmounted by a handsome spire. The roofs of the ailes, chancel, and chantry chapels, are decorated with Various carved work; and on each side the chancel are three stalls, like those in cathedral choirs. The eastern window is richly ornamented with tracery, and sculpture in stone; and the window-case is enriched with several heads, and emblematic figures. In the window is some stained glass, with figures of the Virgin Mary, clad in a blue robe, with a crown on her head, and the infant Jesus on her lap. Beneath the eastern end of the church is a crypt: and against the north wall- of the chancel is a mural slab, with this inscription, " William Bat ley, Architect, All worldly fabrics are but vanity to heavenly buildings,: for eternity. Sepul. Nov. 30, 1674, aet 80." This church had a guild to the honour of the Blessed Virgin, the revenues of which fraternity amounting annually to 51. 6s 10d. were, in the second year of Edward the Sixth, appropriated towards the erection and endowment of a free grammar-school. The sti-pend for a master and usher was 20/. per annum; but in case there should be two masters, one for teaching Latin, and another for instruction in English, the former to have an annual allowance of twenty marks, and the latter of twenty nobles. Here is also a large charity school, and two meeting-houses, for the public worship of Independent Dissenters. According to the returns made to parliament, the number of houses is 662, and inhabitants 3325; of which number 848 were stated to be employed in trade. Formerly a considerable manufacture of worsted stuffs, as tammies, harrateens, &c. employed numbers of the inhabitants; but owing to war and other causes, it has long been on the decline.
HIGHAM FERRERS HUNDRED,
WHICH is bounded on the east by parts of Huntingdon and Bedford shires, was at the time of the Norman Survey called Hecham, afterwards corrupted into Hegham, and now into Higham; and receives the additional appellation from the family of Ferrers, who were its ancient lords. This hundred contains the parishes of Bozeat, Chelveston, cum Caldecot, Easton Maudit, Hargrave, Higham-Ferrers, Irchester, Newton- Bromshold, Raunds, Ringstead, Rushden, Stanwick, Strixton,and Woolaston.
East of Castle-Ashby is EASTON MAUDUIT, where was formerly a large mansion, belonging to the Yelvertons: but this has been wholly destroyed. In the church are some curious monuments to different persons of that family. One records the memory of Sir Christopher Yelverton, Knt. who died Nov. 1611, aged 76, and Margaret his lady. Their figures are placed recumbent and emblazoned with paintings. Over them are two arched canopies of marble, supported by six square pillars. Eight figures of female children, and two of male, are attached to the side of the tomb. Sir Christopher was Sergeant at Law in the time of Queen Elizabeth, and Speaker of the Parliament in the 39th year of that queen's reign.. Another monument is for Sir HENRY YELVERTON, son of the former; whose effigy represents him in judicial robes, and at his side is a figure of his Lady, Anne, daughter of Sir William Twisden. Over them is a vast canopy, with statues on the top, and supported by two large figures of Almsmen or Priests, in black gowns, with hoods, and haying great cushions on their heads. Attached to the plinth, are figures of four boys and five girls.
SIR HENRY YELVERTON, was born at this place June 29, 1566, and after studying some time at Oxford, removed to Gray's Inn, where he became celebrated for his skill in the English laws. He was first made solicitor, and soon afterwards attorney-general to King James the First. He, however, lost the court favour on several occasions; once, refusing to plead against his patron, the Earl of Somerset, who was to be tried for the sup-posed murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, he was sent to the tower, but was soon released, and reinstated in his office. Again he was discharged, fined, and committed to the tower, for having passed some clauses in the charter of the city of London, hot consonant to the royal warrant. The Duke of Buckingham, who had been his majesty's instigator on these occasions, suddenly changed his opinion of Sir Henry, visited him in prison, procured his release, obtained for him once more the king's favour, and he was first made judge of the king's bench, and then of the common pleas, in which station he died, A.D. 1625. A few writings, under his name, are extant. Several of his speeches in parliament; reports of divers special cases in the court of king's bench; Lond. 1661. The rights of the people of England, concerning impositions, Lond. 1679. From these writings he appears to have been an acute and able lawyer; and. Considering the tone and temper of the times, a friend and supporter of constitutional liberty.
On a black marble tablet, between marble pilasters of the Corinthian order, which support a monument on the north side of the chancel, is a long Latin inscription, commemorative of the Right Reverend Father in God, THOMAS MORTON, who was successively a Canon of York, Dean of Gloucester, Winchester, Bishop of Chester, Lichfield, and Coventry, and lastly of Durham; in which see he died, A.D. 1659, in the 95th year of his age, and the 44th of his episcopate.
An inscription on a tablet between two Ionic columns, records the memory of CHARLES LONGUEVILLE, Baron Grey of Ruthin, who engaged in the Civil War, died prematurely at Oxford in the year 1643; and was buried in the Chapel of Christchurch College in that university. Other mural stones are commemorative of Sir Christopher Yelverton, Knt. and Bart, who died December 4, 1654; and of Ann his wife, who died 1670. Susanna, Baroness Grey of Ruthin, who died Ja-nuary 28,1679. Charles, Lord Grey of Ruthin, who died May 17, in the same year. A neat monument records the memory of Henry Viscount Longueville, who lost his life while defending the royal cause against the rebels, in the time of Charles the First. The Church of Easton consists of a nave, two ailes, a chancel, and western tower. The latter is surmounted by a light tapering spire, which is connected to the tower by flying buttresses.
A TOWN which gives name to the hundred, is situated on a rocky elevation, abounding with springs. It is about half a mile distant from the north-eastern bank of the Nen, and is a place of considerable note and antiquity. Northward of the church, is a spot called the castle-yard, the site of a castle, which is supposed to have been erected by one of the Ferrer* family. But more probably by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, son of Edmund, younger son of Henry the Third; who obtained this lordship in the fiftieth year of that monarch's reign. In the fifth year of Edward the Second he was at the head of the associated nobility, who, under the pretext of supporting public liberty, demanded and obtained the dismissal of Piers de Ga-veston, the royal favourite. Afterwards he took the lead in the armed confederacy, which brought the two De Spensers to justice, and dethroned the king. The ground of the castle-yard is divided into two parts, by a deep foss, running from east to west. That on the south side contains about two acres: the only remains are hollows, heaps of ruins, and foundations of walls. The northern division, both in extent and strength, appears to have been the most considerable work. It comprises nearly four acres, having on the east side a very large moat, about fifty feet wide, and five hundred feet long; and another on the south side of similar dimensions. This, it is conjectured, was properly the site of the castle; arid the space to the south, the situation of the advanced and covering works.
The church, a handsome structure, consists of a nave, chancel, and ailes to the south and north. Those of the chancel are divided from it by screens, decorated with carving. On each, side the chancel are ten stalls: under the first, on the right, is a carved head of Archbishop Chichele : and on the first, to the left, an angel holding a shield, impaling the arms of Chichele, with those of the see of Canterbury. On the rest are carved various fanciful, and emblematic Devices. At the west end of the nave, on a handsome embattled tower, is raised a finely proportioned hexagonal spire, with crockets running up the angles. The greater part of the present spire is not two centuries old; for the old spire, and part of the tower falling down, the re-edification was begun in 1632, by subscription, to which Archbishop laud appears to have been a liberal contributor. In that year articles of agreement were drawn up between the Corporation and Richard Atkins, mason, of Higham Ferrers, by which the latter engaged, in consideration of receiving CXXXV/. to rebuild the steeple, then raised as far as the bell floor; so that the said steeple should be from the ground to the battlements, seventy-one feet; and thence to the top of the spire, ninety nine feet in height. This is attached to the tower, by flying buttresses at the angles. The western front of the tower displays some curious architectural features. At the base is a pointed arched doorway, with two openings beneath flattened arches. The mouldings surrounding them are charged with sculpture, of figures, foliage, &c. Immediately over these are ten circular compartments, or panels of basso-relievo, representing so many passages from the New Testament.* In the chancel, under an arch on the north side of the altar steps, is a free-stone monument, covered with a marble slab, having a brass inlaid, on which is the portrait of a man, bearing on its breast this in-scription, " fili dei miserere mei." Above, and on the sides, were placed eighteen figures of Apostles and Saints, most of which have been sacrilegiously removed. Round the frieze of the arch, " Sascipiat me Christus, qui vocavit me.---In sinu' Abrahe angeli deducant me." On the marble, beneath the portrait, " Hic jacet Laurentius de Sto Mauro, quondam rector Istius Ecce cujus anime propicietur Deus." Upon a marble in the north part of the chancel is this inscription, to the memory of the parents of Archbishop Chichele; " Hic jacet Thomas Chi-chele, qui obiit XXV0 die mensis Februarii anno dni millmo CCCC°, et Agnes uxor ejus, quorum animabus propitietur deus. Amen."
On a stone in the same chancel are engraved figures in brass, of a man, habited as a monk, and a woman in the dress of a nun, included in a niche supported by pillars; representative, as supposed, of William Chichele, brother of the archbishop, and Beatrix his wife. On various stones have been emblems and inscriptions, but most of the brasses are removed.
A COLLEGE was founded here, in the year 1422, by Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, for eight secular canons, one of whom was to be master, four clerks, one to act as gram-mar-master, another as music-master, and six choristers; for the support of which, he endowed it with various estates. By the survey made of the possessions in 1535, it was found to have an annual revenue of 204/. 5s. 6d. and after different deductions, one of which was a penny a day to thirteen poor per-sons to pray for the soul of the founder, a clear income remained of 156/. 2s. 7d. per annum. This, with the house, in the thirty-fifth year of King Henry the Eighth's reign, were surrendered to the crown. The building, which appears to have been of a quadrangular form, but now in a ruinous state, was some years since converted into an inn; and the chapel desecrated to the purposes of a kitchen. A portion of the revenues form the endowment of the present FREE-SCHOOL, the house for which is a handsome stone building, situated at the north-west end of the church, having an embattled parapet
The alms, or bead house, on the south side of the church, was also founded and endowed by Archbishop Chichele, for twelve poor men and one woman, with a daily allowance to each person of one penny. The oldest pensioner is styled the prior.
The town of Higham, is a borough by prescriptive right, and was incorporated in the reign of Philip and Mary. The Corporation comprises a Mayor, seven Aldermen, thirteen Capital Burgesses, and other inferior officers. The Aldermen are chosen out of the Burgesses, and the Mayor elected annually from the body of Aldermen. The Mayor has a right of holding a Court every three weeks, for the determining actions for debt, in any sum under forty pounds; and annually he holds a Court-leet, pre-vious to the expiration of his office. By virtue of the same charter, the place sends one member to parliament, and the elective franchise is vested in all the inhabitants, exclusive of such as receive alms.
The town is small, consisting of two streets, a lane, and what is here called the market-stead, in which stands a cross, bearing a cube at top, and on the four sides are carved in stone, different-figures, emblematic of the crucifixion. The elevated situation of the town, renders it clean and dry, and from the salubrity of the air, it is generally considered, a pleasant place for residence. By the returns under the population act, the number of houses is 125, and inhabitants 726. From its formerly having had three weekly markets, it was very probably then much more populous. Those kept on Mondays and Thursdays, have long been disused, and the one held on Saturdays, is much decayed, though here are still seven well accustomed fairs,
HENRY CHICHELE, justly the proud boast of this place, was born here, educated at Winchester School, and made by William de Wykeham, one among the first fellows of his newly-founded college, at Oxford. After having been appointed to several preferments in the church, in 1409, he was sent by King Henry the Fourth, to the council of Pisa, and was by the Pope conse-crated Bishop of St. David's, at Vienna ; and afterwards advanc-ed to the See of Canterbury, by King Henry the Fifth. From motives of policy, he refused to accept of a Cardinal's cap. Though .zealous for the spiritual power of the Romish See, and aviolent persecutor of Lollardism; yet no man in his situation, was ever a stronger asserter of the English liberties, or a more strenuous opposer of papal usurpations and encroachments, than Chichely. He made, and clearly defined the difference between State-popery and Church-popery, oppugning the one, and espousing the other. When the Parliament which met at Leicester, in the time of Henry the Fifth, formed a plan for the dis-solution of the Abbies, he artfully, by his policy rendered it abortive : satisfying the royal wishes by a grant of a large benevolence from the clergy, and promises of more. Of his love of learning, and his liberal encouragement for its diffusion, the noble institutions he founded and endowed, are strong and lasting monuments. St. Bernard's Hospital, afterwards converted by the additional bounty of Mr. White, into a college by the name of St. John's, in Oxford, was erected and supported at his expence. And if no other remained, All-soul's College, in the same university, founded by him,, in 1438, would be amply Sufficient of itself to immortalize his memory. He died in the year 1443,*
CHESTER, in the parish of IRCHESTER, receives its appellation from a Roman fortification, or camp to which the Saxons always gave the name of cestre. This, now called the burrow, was of a, parallelogramatic form, containing about eighteen acres inclosed with a wall nine feet thick, built-in the herring back fashion, and faced with flat stones. The situation is declivous: the longest diameter runs parallel with the course of the river, north and south. Various remains have been found, which indicate a Roman origin, and even Mr. Morton, whose bias on all occasions, appears in favour of Scandinavian antiquities, is constrained to acknowledge, " although it was walled about stone, that this might have been a summer camp of the Romans; the Hybernaculum or winter station, having been in the adjoining village of Irchester." The vestiges in this case Were too many, and the indications too strong for subterfuge, in favour of any hypothesis. The ruins have afforded ample proof to what people and period they ought to be assigned ; and in such cases it requires no reasoning to, ascertain a palpable fact. Various coins have been discovered, of the different mints of Faustina, Adrianus, Gratianus, Antoninus, Constantinus, &c. and some years ago, in an orchard belonging to the manor-house, were found a quantity of small brass coins, inclosed in an urn, which had a ring and chain appended to it; and among the ruins on the south side, two quadrangular pillars, about four feet in height, and two feet square, were discovered. These, though apparently uninscribed stones, were evidently sepulchral altars. Fragments of a tessellated pavement, and Roman bricks, have been turned up by the plough; all which demonstrate that this place was a encampment of the Romans, and from the immense thickness of the walls, and the river running immediately under them, it seems to have been a position of considerable importance.
RAUNDS is a village, pleasingly seated on an eminence, which, abounds with springs. One of these is of a petrifying quality. Here were formerly large quarries of rag stone, but these are either exhausted, or the working discontinued for want of proper demands. The church, on a lofty spot of ground, is a curious ancient building, and displays some interesting architectural and ornamental details. It consists of a large body, with two ailes, a spacious chancel, and at the eastern end of the south aile is a chauntry, called St. Peter's Chapel. At the western end is a lofty steeple; some of the windows in which are of the lancet shape, with clustered columns. The western elevation is divided into four tiers, and decorated with several windows, arcades, &c. and " a singular projection in the form of a W." Near the south side of the church is the base of a stone Cross, one of the steps to which is ornamented with quaterfoil panels," and the shaft contains some remains of sculpture. At Raunds was born John Grimbald, who built Trinity College Library and part of Clare Hall in Cambridge.
At MILL COTTON, a hamlet in the parish of RINGSTEAD, are the remains of a square entrenchment, consisting of lofty earthen ramparts, &c. These are nearly entire on the northern and western sides. In ploughing, various Roman coins have been turned up; and near the foss was found an urn, containing ashes: and at Mallow Cotton, not far distant, ruins of numerous buildings have been discovered. In Sir Richard Hoare's translation of Giraldus Cambrensis, is a map of the forts erected by Ostb-rius, on the river Nen, and this at Cotton Mill, is erroneously placed on the northern side of the Nen river, whereas it is on the south.
HIGHAM PARK, in the parish of RUSHDEN, anciently belonged to the Dukes of Lancaster, according to Norden. The mansion erected by one of them, was standing in his time, and then inhabited by Mr. Pemberton, who was probably one of the gentleman ushers to Queen Elizabeth. This family had considerable possessions, and were seated here for several generations. The present demesne appears to have been originally imparked in the time of Henry the Second, while the manor belonged to the crown. It is mentioned in a proclamation, issued in the 22d year of King James the First's reign, for the apprehension of persons who had committed outrages in the royal park at High-am Ferrers, by killing and stealing of the deer, and assaulting and beating the keepers. It was afterwards granted to the family of Long, and is now disparked.
In the parish of STANWICK, was formerly a remarkable spring, called Fins-well, which after running above ground for the distance of twelve perches, suddenly disappeared. Fragments of a Roman tessellated pavement were some years since discoveredat the extremity of a field, called Meadow Furlong. The tower of the parish church, is of an octangular form, with a lofty spire, and has a series of. semicircular windows to the belfry story, At this place was born Dr JOHN DOLBEN, Archbishop of York, whose father had the rectory. During the civil war, he took up arms in the royal cause, was first an ensign, and afterwards promoted to a majority. At the restoration, his services were rewarded successively, with a Canonry, Archdeaconry, Deanery, Bishopric, and at length he had conferred on him the archiepis-copal mitre of York. He died April 16, 1686, and was interred in his own cathedral.
Stanwick is also the birth-place of RICHARD CUMBERLAND, Esq. who has recently published " Memoirs of Himself," two yols. 8vo, with portraits.
Is called in the Norman survey, Hoches-laa, and a part of it distinguished by the name of Nevesland ; which in the time of Henry the Second, was also .subdivided into Suthnaveslunt, and Northnaveslunt. But these distinctions ceased in the reign of .Edward the First, and the whole, as at present, was comprehended under the name of Huckeslowe, or Huxloe. It contains the parishes of Addington Great, Addington Little, Aldwinkle, All Saints; Aldwinkle, St. Peter's; Barnwell All Saints; Barton Seagrave, Barton Lattimer, Cranford, St. Andrew: Cranford St. John; Denford, Finedon, or Thingdon, Graf ton Underwood, Ir-thingborough, Islipe, Kettering, Lilford cum Wigsthorpe, Lowickt Slipton, Sudborough, Twywell,Warkton, and Woodford.
ALDWINKLE is celebrated for having been the native place of that original and admirable poet, JOHN DRYDEN, who was bora in the rectory house here. He was educated at Westminster School, whence he was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, and after taking the degree of master, removed to London. Soon after the fire in that great city, he engaged with the proprietors, of the king's theatre, to furnish a certain number of new plays annually, for a fixed stipend. He succeeded Sir William Davenant as poet laureat, and obtained the situation of Historiographer to the king. At the revolution he lost his preferment and subsequently subsisted upon the profits of his pen. He died in 1700, and was interred in Westminster Abbey. It would be difficult perhaps to decide, whether the extent and variation of his pegasean flights were exceeded, or not, by the vast versatility of his political and religious principles. He wrote a sympathizing elegy on the death of Cromwell, and a complimentary poem to King Charles the Second, at his restoration- On the accession of James the Second, he turned Roman Catholic, and endeavoured to defend his novel faith in a poem, entitled *• The Hind and Panther." His works are too numerous to be particularised or critically discriminated here. In his dramatic writings, his chief excellence appears in tragedy ; but the haste and negligence discoverable in many of his plays, exposed him to the satire of several rival wits, whose envy indisposed them to shew him the smallest degree of lenity. His poetry is more correct, the sentiments strong, the language in general energetic, and his versification harmonious. Though he certainly believed in judicial astrology, which has been remarked as at proof of mental weakness ; yet it is not true that he by this science predicted the fate of his elder son.*
THOMAS FULLER, a celebrated ecclesiastic and historian, was horn at Aldwinkle St. Peter's, of which parish his father was rector. He was educated at Cambridge, took orders, and afterwards became lecturer of the Savoy in London. During the Civil Wars he experienced many vicissitudes in life, but reinstated at the restoration in the situations from which he had been cruelly ousted, he sat down and wrote " The Church his-tory of Britain," which was published in folio, 1655. He also wrote another voluminous work; initialed " The Worthies of England"* which was published by his son, in 1661. He was also author of " Abel Redivivas;" " The History of the Holy War;" &c. &c. &c. Of these works, Granger remarks that the " Church History" is the most erroneous; the " Pisgah Sight" the most exact; and his " History of the Worthies" the most estimable. He was unhappy in having a vein of wit, as he has taken uncommon pains to write up to the bad taste of his age, which was much fonder of conceit than sentiment. Fuller died August 15, 1661, aged 54.
In BARTON SEAGRAVE Church is a handsome white marble monument, to the memory of JOHN BRIDGES, Esq. and Elizabeth his wife. He was, as the inscription states, a scientific agriculturist, a lover of useful and ornamental planting, and the first, who introduced, into this part of the kingdom, the culture of Saintfoin, as a field crop for fodder. He died January 5, 1712, in consequence of grief for the loss of his affectionate Wife, who had been suddenly snatched from him the 24th of the preceding month.
Another inscription commemorates JOHN BRIDGES, ESQ. son of the above, and the laborious collector of materials for the history of the county. This village has generally been supposed his native place, from having been long his residence; but his monument records that he was born in the year 1666, at Binfteld, in the county of Berks. He was bred to the profession of the law, and some time previous to his death, was elected a bencher of Lincoln's Inn, Various lucrative places he enjoyed under government, prevented him paying much practical attention to his profession: for he successively filled the offices of solicitor to the customs, commissioner of the same, and cashier of the excise. He was also one of the governors of Bethlehem Hospital, and a Fellow of the Royal Society. He bad long formed the design of writing a History of Northamptonshire ; but was prevented from putting it into -execution, by various avocations. It was not, therefore, till the latter part of his life, that he began his collections, for which he visited almost every parish. " He was a gentleman truly valuable in all respects, of superior parts and learning, a great encourager ,of ingenious and learned men, and a diligent, exact, and curious searcher out of antiquities; in collecting which, in his native county of Northampton, he made so great a progress, that had providence spared his life but some few years longer, Northamptonshire would have had no temptation to have envied Hertfordshire her Chauncey, or Warwickshire her Dugdale."* He died in 1.734.
Here was formerly a castle, the residence of the Seagrave family. Sir Nicholas de Seagrave, who was Marshal of England in the reign of Edward the Second, obtained a licence from that monarch to convert his manor-house at Barton into a castle; no vestiges of which, except, the moat to the west of the church, are now traceable. The church displays some features of very ancient architecture. The parsonage is occupied by the Honorable and Reverend R. B. Stopford.
BARTON SEAGRAVE HALL, in this parish, a commodious family mansion, is the residence of Charles Tibbits, Esq. HUMFREY HENCHMAN, whom Wood says was born, as he was informed, in the parish of St.. Giles Cripplegate, in was a native of this place: having been baptised here, as appears from the .register, December 22, .1592 He was pre-bendary of Salisbury, and proved himself a, zealous loyalist, in promoting the escape of ,Charles the Second, after the disastrous battle of Worcester. At the Restoration he was made Bishop of Salisbury; and translated, in, 1663, to the see of London where he died in the year 1675
CRANFORD BRIDGE, in the parish of CRANFORD, a modern house surrounded by an extensive lawn and pleasure grounds, is the seat of Sir George Robinson, Bart.
IRTHLINGBURGH or IRTLINGBOROUGH. In this parish, John Pyel, a Lord Mayor of London, designed to found a college in the Church of St. Peter, but prematurely dying, his design was left to be executed by Joan his wife. The licence was obtained for the foundation in the forty-ninth year of King Edward the Third's reign, for a college to consist of a dean, five secular canons, and four clerks; but the institution was not completed till the eleventh year of Richard the Second. By the survey taken in 1535, the annual revenues amounted to 70/. 16s. 8d. Of this building there is now only a fragment remaining, between the body and tower of the church. The tower, separated from the church by ruins of the collegiate buildings, is square for two stories, where an octangular part rises; and the church consists of a nave, two ailes, a transept, and a lofty, spacious chancel.
At the upper end of each aile is a chantry chapel, and in the chancel are stalls, with angels and various figures carved in Wood, under the seats. On the south side of the chancel is an old tomb, with a canopy, pillars, &c. and near it another mo-nument, with two recumbent effigies supposed (for the inscription is gone) to represent John Pyel, and his wife. On the north side of the chancel is a tomb, with an alabaster statue: and adjoining it a more antique one, with a knight in armour and a figure of a female in a very old dress. In the middle of the village stands a stone cross, the shaft of which, raised upon steps, is thirteen feet in height, and is the standard for adjusting and regulating the provincial pole, that the portions or doles, as they are here termed, are measured by, in the adjacent meadows.
A POPULOUS town, situated upon a small ascent, was, in the time of the Saxons, called Cytringan and Kateringes. The lordship was granted by King Edwy, in the year 976, to his servant Elfsige. The Church, comprising a nave, north and south ailes, and a chancel, has a handsome tower, and spire at the west end. The tower consists of three stories, in each of which are large windows, or window frames, of several compartments : the angles are flanked with double buttresses; under the embattled parapet runs an ornamented fascia, and at each corner is raised a small hexangular embattled turret: the whole surmounted by a handsome hexagonal crocketted spire, with three windows, diminishing in their size upwards, on the alternate sides. At the back of the screen, which divides the north aile from the chancel, are the figures of a man with four sons, and a woman with four daughters.—Over these is an inscription in black letter, " Orate pro aiabus Willielmi Burgis et Johanne Alicie et Elizabeth uxorum ejus et animabus omnium benefactorum suorum. Amen." The following quaint prophetic promise is also inscribed here : " who so redis mi name shal have Godys blyssing and our lady ; and my wyfis doo sey the same."
Excepting the church, Kettering, has nothing to attract, or interest the antiquary. Near the middle of the town is a spacious area, surrounded by some private houses, and shops of respectable appearance. Here is a sessions house, and a well endowed free-school: also an alms-house for six poor widows; and two dissenting chapels. By the returns made to parliament in 1301, the number of houses appear* to be 641, and inhabitants 3001; of which number 1770 were reported as employed in various trades, and 221 in the labours of agriculture. It has a well supplied weekly market on Saturdays.
DR JOHN GILL, A dissenting minister, who was many years; during the last century, considered the champion of the anti-pedo-baptists, and the supra-lapsarian tenets of Calvinism, was born here in 1697. He was one of those self-taught sons of genius, who, by overcoming what are too often considered insurmountable obstacles in literature, astonish the world by the variety and extent of their acquisitions. He obtained a considerable knowledge of the -Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages; and while pastor of a baptist congregation in Southwark, the University of Aberdeen conferred on him the degree of D.D. He published several works, 'but his principal is, " The Exposition of the Bible" in nine volumes folio.
In the vicinity of this town to the westward, in a road called Staunch Lane, are found what are denominated kitcats, a kind of pellucid stones, apparently vitrifications. These, when pulverised,-are considered singularly efficacious as a styptic, and are consequently much esteemed. They are frequently discovered near the surface of the ground, bat more usually in the argillaceous strata, dug for making brick. In a spot named Stony-lands, between Kettering and Weekly woods, in quarrying for stones were found urns, bones, coins, &c.
In the Church of LILFORD are several handsome monuments, erected commemorative of the families of Elmes and Powys successively lords of this manor. In the north aile is an elegant alabaster monument, the arched entablature of which, is supported by two Ionic columns of black marble. On the right side is the figure of a boy presenting a shield, charged with the arms of Elmes; and on the left a similar figure, holding an escutcheon, impaling the same arms, with those of Hicklins. Beneath a square canopy is the effigy of a man in white marble, clad in armour, .resting his head on his right arm, a sword in bis left, and at his feet a crest. A statue of a woman, clothed in the costume of the time, is shewn, reclining her head on her tight arm. Under the canopy, an angel is represented hoveling over the effigies; and in front of the tomb are the figures of four boys and five girls, in supplicating postures. Ah inscription informs the reader, " This monument is sacred to the memory of Thomas Elmes, Esq. who died July 8, 1632; and Christian his wife, who died April 19, 1635; and four of their sons, and five daughters." In the same aile is a white marble tablet, with a Latin inscription, commemorative of Sir Thomas Elmes, who died the 15th of May, A.D. 1690. In the chancel is an elegant monument, constructed of white and grey marble, having on the upper part the arms and crest of Powys. On an altar-tomb of white marble, is the figure of a man in juridical robes, reclining his head on his right arm, and holding a roll m his left hand. At the head of this figure is a fine statue, strongly expressive of Religion: and another at the feet, equally pourtraying Eloquence. On a tablet of white marble is a long inscription, written by Matthew Prior; stating that this fine specimen of sepulchral sculpture, was erected to commemorate the virtues of Sir Thomas Powys, Knt. second son of Thomas Powys of Henley, in the county of Salop, serjeant at law. He had the successive appointments of solicitor and attorney-general, premier serjeant at law, was made one of the judges of the king's bench; and died April 4, 1719, aged 70 years.
LILFORD HOUSE, the seat of Lord Lilford, is a handsome mansion, built by Arthur Elmes, Esq. in the year 1635; but it has been subsequently much enlarged and improved by Sir Thomas Powys, afterwards lord of this manor. The principal front consists of a body, with a handsome vestibule, and square-headed windows; two wings having semi-circular ones: and the roof presents three ornamental gables, with a Venetian window in each, connected together by a balustrade: and the chimnies form a fine massy arcade in the centre. Situated on the swell of an elevated lawn, in the midst of well wooded grounds, above a river, over which is thrown an extensive bridge of several arches, the appearance has a striking effect.
In the Church of LOWICK, or LUFFWICK, are several brasses, bearing very old inscriptions; and on a tomb in the south .aile is the figure of a man, clad in armour; and round .the verge, in Latin, a request to pray for the soul of Edward Stafford, Earl of Wilton, who died March 24, A.D. 1499. Under the east window of the north aile, is a female figure, recumbent on a black marble slab, that covers an altar-tomb. This commemorates the Right Honorable Lady Mary Mordaunt, Baroness Mordaunt of Turvey, daughter of Henry, Earl of Peterborough; first married to Henry, Duke of Norfolk; and after his decease, to Sir John Germain, Knt. and Bart. She died November 17, A.D. 1705. On the north side of this, on a similar tomb, is the effigy of a man in armour, and near him the figures of three small children. An inscription states, that beneath were deposited the remains of Sir John Germain, Knt. and Bart, who died December 11, AD. 1718. The church of Lowick is a large handsome building, and appears to have been built in the sixteenth century, when the best style of church architecture was beginning to decline, The pinnacles, windows, doors, and stalls, are all highly charged with ornaments; and the latter, particularly, presents much curious and ludicrous carving.
The manorial mansion in this parish, DRAYTOJJ HOUSE, a noble antiquated structure, was supposed to have been erected about the latter end of Henry the Sixths reign, by Henry Green, Esq.* who was twice sheriff of this county. On an engraved plate of the house by Buck, in the year 1729, it is stated to have been a castle, which descended to the said Henry Green, Esq, who probably made considerable alterations; but it vet retains much of its castellated features in the embattled walls, entrance gateway, and two square towers, one at each end, surmounted by turrets, and lantern cupolas. Here is a considerable collection of pictures, and portraits, by some of the most eminent masters. The present estate, house, &c. were bequeathed, by the will of Lady Betty Germaine, in 1771, to Lord George Sackville, who then took the name of Germaine. This nobleman was .particularly distinguished in the battle ,of Minden, and on many other occasions, during the unpopular, and impolitic contest with America. From this nobleman, Drayton devolved to his son, the present Viscount Sackville. In the year 1736, a piece of a Roman tessellated pavement, about 3 feet by 1 1/2, was found near this place.
FINEDON, or THINGDON, is a pleasant and respectable village, in which is a large, handsome church, consisting of a nave, two ailes, a transept, chancel, large southern porch, and lofty tower, with a spire. Beneath the chancel is a family burying vault. West of the church is FINEDON HALL, a large mansion, belonging to Sir William Dolben, Bart; but at present occupied by the Earl of Egmont,
WARKTON, about two miles east of Kettering, is noted for the very sumptuous monuments which are preserved in the parish church, or rather in the chancel. This was built with four coved recesses in the walls, to contain as many marble monuments, but at present only three of these are occupied. The first was raised to the memory of John, Duke of Montague, who died July 6, 1749, aged 55 years. It is the design of Roubiliac, and like that artist's usual compositions, is rather too theatrical in the attitudes and expressions, given to the figures. These Consist of two statues, the size of lite, and three of children. Besides which, the composition consists of various pieces of, ordnance, artillery weapons, cannon balls, flags, trumpets, &c. The statues, representing Charity, with her children, the Duchess who raised the tomb, a medallion of the Duke, and other parts are all of fine statuary marble, which are op- posed by a back ground, pedestal, &c. of grey and yellow marble.
Another monument, by Roubiliac, is raised to the memory of MARY, DUCHESS OF MONTAGUE, daughter of John Duke of Marlborough. She died May 14,1751, aged 61.
The design consists of three figures, intended to represent the three Fates, or Destinies: Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. Also an urn on a pedestal, with two cupids, entwining it with wreaths of flowers. Here again we perceive the same theatric style of composition, which is very ill adapted to the solemn, grand, and awful occasion.
A third monument, of a most costly and splendid kind, was " designed and executed by Peter Matthias Vangelder" of London; and finished in Sept. 1781. It records the memory of '" Mary, Duchess of Montague, daughter and heiress of John, Duke of Montague," who died May 1, 1775, aged 63. The coved recess is covered with fine white statuary marble, ornamented with basso-relievi, and various architectural members. In the centre of this is a funeral urn, surrounded by statues of women and children, in the attitudes of lamenting over this benevolent benefactress An epitaph, inverse, by Henry Lyte, Esq. is couched in the highest style of panegyric. This monument is peculiarly elegant, and calculated to excite very general admiration.
WEEKLY CHURCH, about half a mile north-east of Warkton, in the Hundred of Orlingbury, contains a few old monuments to the Montagues, of Boughton. At the east end of the north aile is an altar-tomb, with two stone effigies of Sir Edward Montague, Knt. who died Jan. 26, 1601; and Elizabeth his wife, who died May 10, 1618. ' Another tomb, with a marble statue, is raised to the memory of Edward Montague, who died 1556. Other slabs and flat stones contain inscriptions, some much mutilated, to other persons of the Montague family. Near the south side of the church is an hospital for seven poor men; and at the southern extremity of the village, are traces of a moat &c. where an old castellated manor-house is supposed to hare formerly stood.
In this parish is a spring of petrifying water, from which an encrusted skull has been taken, and is preserved as a curiosity in Sydney College, Cambridge.
BOUGHTON HOUSE, in the parish of Weekly, has long been the seat of the Montague family; of whom the first who obtained any distinguished titles was Ralph, created Viscount Monthermer, and Earl of Montague, by King William the Third, A.D. 1689: Marquis of Monthermer, and Duke of Montague, by Queen Anne, 1705: " he died 1708, and the titles expired, 1749, with his son John, who almost new built the house."* Both titles were revived, 1766, in George, Earl of Cardigan, who married the surviving daughter of the former duke and duchess, This place has been much noted formerly, for its lawns and gardens: the latter are said to have comprised " 100 acres, and 130 perches" of land. These were ornamented with various water-works, a canal one mile in length, also cascades, fountains, parteres, terraces, &c. Since the late duke's decease, the house, and gardens, have - been much neglected; and though the former contains a large collection of pictures, yet these have suffered materially front the same cause. Some of the paintings have been of the first class: among which are two Cartoons by Raffaelle, which are of pre-eminent merit. One is a representation of " Ezekiel's fusion," from the first chapter of the " book of Ezekiel" and is a grand, sublime, and impressive composition. The other, called " the Holy Family" consists of eight figures,and an angel. Here are two, or three pictures, heads, and full lengths of Edward the Sixth, a half length in armour, of Lord Strafford who was beheaded in 1641.
A WOODED district, bounded oh the west by the hundreds of Rothwell and Huxloe, has its north-western, and longest boundary, formed by the river Welland, which divides it from part of Rutlandshire. At the time of the Norman Survey, it comprised two divisions, denominated Stocie and Corbie Hundreds. These are mentioned on record, as having been united tinder the present name, in the twenty-fourth year of Edward the First.. This hundred contains the parishes of Ashley, Blather-wick, Brampton-by-Dingley, Brigstock, Buhwck, Carlton, Corby, Cottingham, Deene, Deenethorpe, Dingley, Fineshade, Geddington, Gretton, Harringworth, Laxton, Middleton, Newton, Oakley Great, Oakley Little, Rockingham, Stanion, Sutton Basset, Wa-kerley, Weelcley, Weldon Great, Weldon Little, Weston-by-Wel-land, and Wilber stone.
BLATHERWICK HALL, in the parish of BLATHERWICK, the residence of Henry O'Brien, Esq. is a fine old mansion, situated in. a small park; the entrance gateway to which has a balustrade, decorated with various statues.
In BRIGSTOCK, within the limits of Rockingham Forest, is A A large mansion, which formerly belonged to the Duke of Mon--tague. A singular modification, in copyhold tenure, is constituted by the custom of this manor. If any man dies, seized of copyhold lands or tenements, which come to him by descent in fee, his youngest son is legal heir. But if such lands were pur-phased by him, then the eldest succeeds to the estate.. This tenure involves some other curious circumstances.
In the parish church of DEENE, or DEANE, are several handsome monuments, commemorative of the Brudenell family. In the south aile is an altar-tomb, with a recumbent figure of a man in a judge's robes, between two female figures, clad in the costume of the time, with their arms in a supplicating pos-At the bottom is this inscription in black letter, " Of
On a marble slab near this, are engraved figures in brass, of a man and his wife, also portraitures of their five sons and six daughters, with an inscription, stating, that this memorial was placed here in 1586, by Thomas Brudenel, Esq. for his pious and beloved parents, Sir Thomas Brudenel; Knt. and Elizabeth his wife. Several other monuments are preserved here, commemorative of different branches of this distinguished family.
DEENE-THORPE PARK, on the verge of Rockingham Forest, is the seat of James Brudenel, Earl of Cardigan. The park is large, well stocked with deer, and abounds with pleasing, though not very extensive views; but is highly diversified with the softer scenes of swelling lawns, enriched with the contrasting, and variegating effects of wood and water. On one of the eminences, at the extremity of the park, commanding a most charming prospect, is situated the House. The ground gradually rising in front, expands into a spacious lawn, bounded by large woods, which, on the left, are relieved by a fine piece of water, having an island in the centre; and on the right, are the pleasure gardens ornamented, amidst plantations, with temples, and porticos. The house is a low embattled structure, with a turret terminating each wing. The apartments, however, are spacious and lofty; particularly the hall, which is a very magnificent room, with a fine timbered roof, the height reaching to the top of the building. The windows are emblazoned with the arms of Brudenel and Montague; and the walls embellished by numerous family portraits. A small, but neat chapel, was erected by the present earl. In the library is a good collection of foreign books, and many topographical, and other manuscripts; chiefly relating to this county, collected out of records, preserved in the tower, by the first Lord Brudenel, during the confinement he suffered there, by command of the parliament, for his loyalty and attachment to the cause of Charles the First. In the billiard, drawing, bed-rooms, parlours, and other apartments, are numerous family portraits, some good pictures, and various curious pieces of tapestry.
DINGLEY HALL, late the residence of John Peach Hungerford, Esq. is a handsome mansion, partly erected in the ancient, and partly in the modern- style. The entrance to one of the fronts is by a noble portico, the entablature of which, supported by columns of the Ionic order, has on it several inscriptions, and the date 1558.
FINESHED, FINESHADE, or, as originally styled, St. Mary-Cas* tle-Hymel, Priory, occupied the site of an ancient fortress, called Castle Hymel, which was erected by one of the family of Engaine. It was, however, dismantled so early as the reign of King John. Within the castle moat Richard Engaine, or E|i-gayne, founded a monastery for black canons of the Augustine order. From a survey of the possessions belonging to this house, taken in 1535, its annual income appears to have amounted to 72/. 16s. 8d. This, with the priory, were granted in exchange for lands in Devonshire, to John Lord Russel; from whom, by purchase, they passed to Sir Robert Kirkham, Knt. A mansion, built upon the site, in which some faint traces of the original structure are visible, in columns, arches, and vaulted roofs, is the present residence of the Honorable John Monckton.
Situated in a chase about five miles long, and two broad, on the small river Ise, is the village of GEDDINGTON, in the centre of which stands one of those elegant Crosses, erected by Edward the First, to the memory of his affectionate consort, Eleanor. This is the most perfect of the remaining crosses, unincumbered with modern additions, like the one near Northampton, and not so much injured by mutilation, as that at Wai-tham. The base, on which it is raised, consists of a triangular pedestal, of eight steps. The first story is ornamented with a profusion of sculpture, of roses, and various; foliage; and is also charged with shields of arms. The second contains three niches, with crocketed pinnacles, in which are female figures: and the upper story is decorated with various tabernacle work, pinnacles, &c.
On what still is known under the name of Castle-Close, stood a royal palace, at which, in 1188, was held a Parliament for the purpose of raising money to carry OH a crusade to the Holy Land. The Church contains some ancient relics: among these are three stone seats, with a piscina in the south wall. The altar is raised on two steps, which contain inscriptions, in old letters, extending the whole width of the chancel.
In the Church of GRETTON are several monuments to the memory of the Hatton family; and in this parish stands KIRBY HALL, belonging to George Finch Hatton, Esq. but at present unoccupied. This noble mansion was erected by the celebrated Sir Christopher Hatton,* Lord Chancellor in the time of Queen Elizabeth. The date on the stables is 1590; and on the inner court of the house 1593. It is a large rectangular building, and the porch of the inner court, consists of three orders of columns, one above another. Here was once a fine collection of paintings, statues, &c. Kirby was formerly esteemed one of the best furnished houses of the kingdom. The gardens were adorned with numerous exotic, as well as indigenous plants, and the wilderness in the park, contained nearly every species of English trees. The paintings, furniture, &c, hare been sold, the gardens and grounds unaccountably neglected, and the whole is fast going to ruin and decay." Great enemy to it, and all the res
SPENSER'S FAIRY QUEEN.
LAXTON HALL, in the parish of Laxton, now rebuilding, is the seat of George Freke Evans, Esq. who, among the many alterations and improvements making on bis estates at this place, has erected several new and comfortable cottages for the humble tenants of the village.
ABBEY, in the parish of GREAT OAKLEY was Founded by William Butevileyn, for Monks of the Cistercian Order, and was very amply endowed, as appears from a survey "made in 1535, when its animal revenues amounted to 347 / 0s. 8d. Near the woods of East and West Grange foundations of old buildings point out the site of the monastery; but no other vestiges now remain.
AN inconsiderable town, consisting of one street, of 49 houses, and 918 inhabitants, is situated in the midst of Rockingham-Forest, and is said to have originated from a castle erected here by William the Conqueror, for the defence of the extensive iron works, carried on in the adjacent woodlands. This fortress occupies the top of a hill, on the declivity of which the town is built. This was an occasional residence of our early kings. In the accounts of the royal household, during the reign of Henry the Third, the sheriff is stated to have had his expences allowed, for the removal of wine on that monarch's account, from, the port of Southampton to Rockingham...
More than twenty dispatches, in the eighth year of Edward the Third, bear date at this place, which is also celebrated for the council of nobility, bishops, and clergy, who sat here in 1094, for the purpose of terminating the dispute between William Rufus and Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, respecting the right of investiture and obedience to the See of Rome. On which memorable occasion, the following question was proposed for their discussion, " Utrum salva reverentia, et obedientia sedis Apostolicse possit Archiepiscopus fidem terrens regi servare, annon ?" A question lamentably prolific of the most serious evils; and has been more or less connected with the wars which ravaged the continent of Europe for centuries. This castle was strongly fortified with double embattled walls, numerous towers, and other bulwarks ; 'and further secured by a large and strong keep. In the time of Leland, who describes it,* many of the works were standing, but in a very decayed state, and little of the original building now remains, except its grand entrance arched-gateway, flanked by two massy bastion towers. Within the court, is a spacious fine old house belonging to Lord Sondes.
The Church had its tower and part of the body destroyed by Oliver Cromwell,'during the siege of the castle, which was garrisoned for the king by the proprietor, Sir Lewis Watson, afterwards created Lord Rockingham. In the chancel, recumbent on an altar-tomb, are the figures of a man clad in armour, and a female. In different marble compartments, are figures in basso-relievo, of a youth in armour, and by the side of him, a sister and two younger brothers; and in other compartments, five sisters. This monument is sacred to the memory of Edward Watson, grandfather to Lewis, first Lord Rockingham; and Dorothy, his wife, daughter of Sir Edward Montagu, Lord Chief Justice of the King's-bench. Another monument commemorates Ann, wife of Edward, baron of Rockingham, and eldest daughter of Thomas, earl of Strafford; she died Jan. 2d A. D. 1695. Under a canopy, supported by columns, on a low pedestal, stands an elegant female figure, clad with loose drapery, and pointing to a scroll, lying at her feet. This monument commemorates the Hon. Margaret Watson, and her affectionate sister, Arabella, Lady Oxenden. A large sumptuous monument of variegated marbles, executed by P. Scheemakers, and L. Delvaux; is commemorative of Lewis, Earl of Rockingham, and Catharine, his Countess, second daughter of Sir George Sondes._ He is represented by a figure in a Roman habit, with a helmet in his hand ; and she in the dress of the times. A long inscription recounts the genealogies of both families. A large mural monument records the virtues of Grace Pelham, Lady Sondes, fourth daughter of the Right Hon. Henry Pelham, wife of Lewis, Lord Sondes, who died July 1, 1777. On each side is another monument, corresponding in design; one erected for Lewis Watson, Lord Sondes, who died March 30,1795; and the other for Lewis Thomas, Lord Sondes, who died June 21, 1806.
GREAT WELDON, or as commonly called Weldon in the Woods, a small town, containing, by the returns made to Parliament, 72 houses, and 364 inhabitants; had formerly a weekly market, which is now discontinued. The market house, over which are the sessions chambers, supported by columns of the Tuscan order, was built by Lord Viscount Hatton. This parish is famous for its quarries of rag-stone, a species of marble, which takes a high polish, and is in great esteem for chimney pieces, slabs, &c. and a tradition here states, that St. Paul's cathedral, which was destroyed in the fire of London, was constructed of Weldon stone. In the vicinity of this place, was discovered in the year 1738, "some fragments of Roman tessellated pavements, one of which was 96 feet long, and 10 broad. Connected with this, were the floors of seven rooms; the center one being the largest, and was terminated at one end with five sides of an octangular projection. Among the ruins were found several Roman coins of the lower empire?
Is distinguished in the records of territorial property, as having been, during the Saxon period, included in the eight hundreds, of which the abbey of Peterborough had been, according to legal phraseology, immemorially seized, and which previous to the inquisition then made, was confirmed by the charter of King Edgar. On the dissolution of that monastery, Henry the Eighth, settled this district and the hundreds of Huxloe and. Polebrooke, as a jointure for life, on Queen Catharine. The Hundred contains the parishes of Clapton, Pilton, Stoke Doyle, Thorpe Achurch, including the hamlet of Wigsthorpe, Thrapa-ton, Titchmarsh, and Wadenhoe
In the parish church of CLAPTON, are several monuments to the memory of the DUDLEY family. In this parish are the ruins of LIVEDEN HOUSE, which was built after a plan, as previously observed, of Sir Thomas Tresham. One of the wings is nearly entire, and serves to give a tolerable idea of the design, and execution, of the whole. The present remains, consisting of the exterior wall are decorated with religious emblems, inscriptions, and various architectural devises, in the true style of the Elizabethan age.
Major Butler, with a detachment of the parliamentarian forces, from an antipathy to the architect, as was reported, wished to demolish the house, but unable to accomplish the design, he caused the timbers to be sawn out, and removed to the town of Oundle for the erection of a house which is still standing there.
THRAPSTON, a small town on the southern bank of the Nen, contains 121 houses, and 675 inhabitants according to returns made to parliament. The houses in general, are well built, and a handsome bridge, of several arches, crosses the Nen, by which river, a considerable trade is carried on, to Lynn, Northampton, and to various other towns on its course. The river was rendered navigable to this place in the year 1737. "At the very end of "Thrapeston-bridge stand ruins of a very large hermitage, and principally well builded, but of late discovered and suppress
BOUNDED on the east by part of the county of Huntingdon, and anciently written Pochebroc, and Pokebroc, was one of the eight hundreds possessed by the abbey of Medenhamsted. It now contains the parishes of Barnwell, St. Andrew, Benefield, Hemington, Luddington, Oundle, including .the hamlet of Ash-ton, Polebrooke including the hamlet of Armston, Warmington, and
BARNWELL.; St. Andrew, derives its name from a singular custom. Near the village are seven wells, in which during the ages ' of superstition, it was usual to dip weakly infants, called berns. From whatever cause this custom was originally adopted, in the course of time some presiding angel was supposed to communicate hidden virtues to the water, and mystical and puerile rites were performed at these springs, denominated fontes puero-rum. A dark devotion was then paid to wells, which occasioned a "continual resort of persons, productive of great disorder ; so that such pilgrimages were strictly prohibited by the clergy. An inhibition of this kind appears among other injunctions of Oliver Button, Bishop of Lincoln, about the year 1290. At this place, in the reign of Henry the First, A. D. 1132 a Castle was erected by Reginald le Moine, which Leland describes under the title of " Berengarius Moynes Castel."* At various periods it received alterations and additions, became a noble baronial residence of the Montacute, and then of the Montague families. Long in an uninhabitable state, it now forms a fine and singularly curious ruin. The remains at present are four round massy bastion towers, one standing at each angle of a quadrangular court, which was inclosed by walls three feet thick. Three of these connecting curtains are entire; but that on the western side is in a dilapidated state. On the south-east, the grand gateway is still subsisting, flanked by similar circular bastion towers, As the age of this fortress has been accurately ascertained, it may be considered a rare specimen of the castellated form, of building immediately subsequent to the conquest.
The parish of BENEFIELD exhibits one of those geological phenomena, which have puzzled philosophers to ascertain the efficient cause ; and constituted the subject of various conjecture by the supporters of different systems, respecting the true theory of the earth. About a furlong westward of the village, are nine of those cavities, here, and in the north of England, called swallows; but in the south and west, swallet-holes; through which the land-flood waters flow, and disappear. These found in various parts of the island, and almost in every described part of the globe are supposed by some writers to be a kind of inland gulphs, that swallowed up the waters of the deluge ; and by means of which that immense liquid body returned to the centre of the earth; and where it has ever since forced a grand subterraneous abyss. It is not the least singular circumstance attending these swallows, that they are generally found upon the tops of mountains, or, as in the present case* upon very high land. These, like most which have been discovered, are nearly circular holes of various diameters, some having a perpendicular, and others an oblique descent, opening beneath the apertures into large spaces, that contain several smaller caves or conduits, through which the waters are evidently conveyed to some distant reservoir.
FARMING WOODS HALL, in the parish of Brigstock, is the seat and property of the Earl of Upper Ossory, to whom this Volume is inscribed. The mansion, standing on a pleasant lawn, is surrounded by fine masses of old woods; the demesne being a portion of Rockingham Forest. Part of the house has been the old Forest Lodge, to which the present noble proprietor has made some additions to render it an occasional residence, for himself and family.
Is a neat market town, situated upon a sloping ground,. on the north side of the river Nen, which, here making a horse-shoe bend, in its course, almost surrounds ,the place. Cam-den supposes it was from its situation called Avondalet the Nen, having originally been denominated Avon, and of which the present name is only a corruption. The town, however, occurs in Domesday book, under the name of Undele.
The Church consists of a nave, north and south ailes, transept, and chancel, with a square tower. The latter displays five Stories, with an octagonal turret, terminating each angle, and is crowned by an hexagonal crocketted spire. The tower measures thirty-five yards, and thence to the top of the spire thirty-
An Alms-house was founded here by Sir William -Laxton, a native of this place, grocer in London, and lord mayor in who died in 1556.
The Free Grammar School, near the: church, was also in pursuance of the will of the same beneficent person, who bequeathed estates for the endowment of both establishments/ which he placed under the superintendence of the Grocer's Company in London
Over the door of the School-house, is this inscription:
" Undellae natus Londini parta labore Laxtonus possuit, senibus puerisq; levamen."
Thus englished by Fuller, a better historian than poet,
At Oundle born what he did get, In London with great pain,
Luxton to old and young hath set A comfort to remain."
A Charity School was built here, and the foundation endowed in the year 1620, by Nicholas Latham, who was upwards of fifty years the rector of Barnwell St. Andrew's. He also founded a Guild, or hospital, for the reception of sixteen aged women, who have a weekly allowance for their support.
Two bridges over the Nen form a communication with the roads to Thrapston and Yaxley. The latter called North Bridge, is generally admired, as a handsome object; not only from the number of arches of which it consists, but also for an extensive, causeway formed on an arcade, which secures a passage to and from the place ,during the time of flood. By the returns under the population act, the number of houses was 376, and inhabitants 1950.
Among the characters of note born at this place, may be noticed WILLIAM HACKET, a religious enthusiast, who having run a wild career of infatuated eccentricity, and boldly opposed the established orders in church and state ; was arrested, tried, condemned, and executed on a gibbet, in Cheapside, in 1591.
PETER HAUSTED was also a native of this place. Though a clergyman he took up arms daring the civil wars in the time of Charles the First; and after being in several engagements, felt a sacrifice to his loyalty in defending Banbury Castle, while besieged by the rebels in the year 1643. Among other literary pieces, he published the "Rival Friends," a comedy acted in 1631; " Senile Odium" a comedy in Latin, recited before the university of Cambridge; also a humorous translation of Tho-rius's " Hymnus Tabaei,"* published in London, 1651.
Dr. JOHN NEWTON, a celebrated divine and mathematician, was also born here in the year 1622. Appointed to the living of Ross, in Herefordshire he spent the greater part of his time at that place, where he died in 1678. He published various mathematical and astronomical works; among which the principal are " Trigonometria Britannica," in folio; " Astronomia Britannica" quarto; " Geometrical Trigonometry," &c. &c. ;
TAKES its name from a stream that rises in Deane Park, and has the river Welland for its north-western boundary, which divides it from the county of .Rutland; as the river Nen does from Huntingdonshire, on the southern side. It includes the parishes of Apethorpe, Cliff-Regis, Collyweston Cotterstock, Duddington, Easton, Fotheringhay, Glapthorne, Lutton, Nassing-ton, Southwick, Tansor, Warington, Woodnewton, and Yarwell,
The Church of APETHORPE has several windows enriched with stained glass. On each side of the chancel are six stalls, like those in many cathedral churches. Near, the communiontable, a mural alabaster monument records the memory of Sir John Leigh, Knt, auditor of accounts to King James the First. Another alabaster monument commemorates Rowland Woodward, Esq. who appears to have died in defence of the parliamentarian cause, in the time of Charles the First, In the north aile, recumbent on an altar-tomb of marble are the figures of Sir Anthony Mildmay Knt. and that of Lady Grace his wife he clad in armour, she dressed in the costume of the times, and both placed in supplicating postures. This sepulchre is decor-rated with a magnificent and sumptuous monument, the lofty canopy of which is supported on one side by two statues, representative of Justice, and of Wisdom. On the other side is Charity in the act of pouring wine out of a flagon into a chalice; and Devotion resting her right hand upon a pillar. At the upper part of the east end, a virgin in folding robes, having a cross in her right hand, and a tablet in her left. At the west end is Hope raising her eyes towards heaven, her right hand placed on the breast, and her left arm reclining on an anchor. In the centre, over all, is a female figure with an infant. The whole of this gorgeous monument is well conceived, and beautifully executed; and tends to show, that although generally the art of sculpture, at the period when this was erected, had not made much progress; yet individuals in this country had attained to a most respectable degree of excellence. Sir Anthony, who died September 11,1617, had been chancellor of the exchequer, and privy .counsellor, and ambassador from Queen Elizabeth. And Lady Grace, who died July 27, 1620, was his affectionate wife for fifty years.
APTHORPE, the seat of the Earl of Westmoreland, is a n handsome edifice of free-stone,, consisting of a quadrangle, formed by a body and two wings, and the eastern side finished with an open cloister. On the south side, a statue of King James the First, commemorates a visit paid to this place by that monarch, in his journey from Scotland, in the year 1603; who is said to have contributed the timber towards the completion of the building. And here it was the king first noticed Villiers, after-wards created Duke of Buckingham. The various apartments are ornamented with numerous paintings; among which may be noticed, on the staircase, a full-length picture of James, created Duke of Richmond, in 1641; of Mary,, Countess of Westmoreland, daughter and sole heiress of Sir Anthony Mild-may; of the said Sir Anthony, and Lady Grace his wife; of Francis, first Earl of Westmoreland, in 1625; and two full-length portraits of Philip and Mary, which Bridges supposed to have been painted by Holbein.*
CLIFF-REGIS, or KING'S CLIFF,
So denominated traditionally from King John having had a hunting seat here, but more probably from the manor belonging to the crown, is a small town, whose market, formerly held on, Tuesdays, has long been discontinued. It contains 204 houses, and 876 inhabitants. At this place was born, in 1686, THE REV. WILLIAM LAW, a celebrated polemical and non-juring divine, who refusing preferments, on account of the required oaths, lived in retirement; where occasionally he composed books on devotion, and at times took up his pen in religious controversy. His successful vindication of the received doctrine of the eucharist against the heterodox notions of Bishop Hoadly, is well known; and the name of Law will go down with eclat, connected as it is with the celebrated Bangorian controversy, to the latest posterity. He early admired the works of Jacob Behmen, and the serious call to a devout and holy life; Treatise on Christian Perfection, &c. are, in some degree, tinctured with the ascetic opinions of that noted mystic. He died in 1761.
COTTERSTOCK. IN this parish, almost in a line east from Weldon. in the adjacent hundred, where it has been previously noticed, that Roman antiquities have been found, was discovered a tessellated pavement,* very little defaced, about twenty feet square, having a border seven feet broad. The work in the centre of about ten feet square, consisted of reticulated and other patterns; in the midst of which were various ornaments. In the strata of loose earth, west of this, were dug up large nails, oyster shells, and fragments of sepulchral urns, with coins, &c. together with foundation stones, and a large block of freestone converted into a watering trough. In the year 1798, another pavement was discovered in the same field: also several fragments of inferior workmanship, but much defaced.
COTTERSTOCK HALL, the seat of Lady Bootht was built by Mr, Norton, a friend of Drydens; and here that poet composed his fables, and spent the two last summers of his life.
FOTHERINGHAY, connected with the lives and fates of princes, must ever be interesting to the topographer and traveller; as it will be to the latest period, conspicuous on the page of history. Here was formerly a Castle, probably first erected by Simon St Liz second Earl of Northampton, in the time of the Conqueror, la the reign of Edward the Third, it was rebuilt by Edmund Langley, Duke of York, who made the keep in the shape of a fetter-lock, the device, or emblem, with the occasional addition of a falcon in the centre, of the York family. The same figure in stained glass, was also emblazoned in most of the castle windows. By marriage, this fortress became the property of the Scottish kings; and in the fourteenth year of King John's reign, David of Scotland was summoned to surrender the castle to the crown of England; but refusing to comply, the sheriff directed, by royal mandate, to raise the posse-comitatus to force him to submission. In the fifth year of Henry the Thirds reign, William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, took this fortress by surprise, while it was in the possession of Ranulph, Earl of Chester; and having placed a garrison in it, ravaged the adjacent country. Edward the Fourth, after having quelled the insurrection of the northern. men, in the year 1496, on his return met his queen here, who had waited his arrival. And in this fortress he had previously, in the twenty-second year of his reign, taken up his residence; when Alexander, King of Scotland, had an audience, and promised to do fealty and homage to the King of England.
The honour of Fotheringhay was settled, in dower, on Queen Catharine, by Henry the Eighth; and in the time of Elizabeth, its custody was confided to Sir William Fitzwilliams, In this Queen's reign, the castle was rendered a scene of woe, and its name will ever be associated with sentiments of horror and melancholy- Here Mary Stewart, Queen of Scots, after suffering imprisonment, was tried, condemned, and executed, in the year 1580. Respecting the justice, or injustice of this cruel and apparently unjust act, various opinions still prevail, and much has been written: but this is not a proper place to enter into the controversy. Camden, who was a contemporary, and had ample means of arriving at truth, endeavours to avoid entering into any discussion upon the point; saying, "let it be ever forgotten, if possible; but if not, let it be ever wrapped up in silence." Fotheringhay, however, notwithstanding the reserve of some, and the misrepresentation of other writers, notwithstanding the castle has been demolished, and the walls of her prison down, and the hall of judgment no more; will, to the latest posterity, transmit the deplorable event, and record in its name and site the nefarious transaction.
" And lo! where time with brightened face serene Points to yon fair, but glorious opening sky ; See, Truth walk forth, majestic, aweful queen! And Party's blackening mist before her flies.
Falsehood, unmasked, withdraws her ugly train. And Mary's virtues all illustrious shine-Yes, thou bast friends! the godlike and humane Of latest ages, injured queen, are thine.
But come ye nymphs, ye woodland spirits come, And with funeral flowers your tresses braid; While in this hallowed grove we raise the tomb, And consecrate the song to Mary's shade.
Hither ye gentle guardians of the fair, By Virtue's tears, by weeping beauty come ; Unbind the festive robes, unbind the hair, And wave the cypress bough at Mary's tomb,*
The castle, from a manuscript account, and the description given of it by Leland, must have been a noble structure, containing numerous apartments, secured by strongly fortified walls, with double ditches; the mill-brook serving for part of the inner, and the river Nen for the outer moat. But on the accession of James to the throne of England, an order Was issued for its demolition, and nothing now remains save the site, marked by the moats, with the agger on which the keep was erected; and the latter has, within a few years, been nearly levelled.
Contrary to the assertion of Pope Urban the Eighth, the body of this princess was interred in the cathedral church of Peterborough, with the accustomed regal honor, and usual ceremonies, attended by many of the nobility as mourners, the master of the wardrobe, Clarencieux, king at arms, and a train of her majesty's servants. - Mag. Brit. Vol. III. p. 474. Her corps was afterwards removed to, and interred in Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster,
At a very remote period a nunnery was founded in this vil-lage, probably by Simon St. Liz. On the site of this, Edmund Langley intended, to erect a college for seculars; but having been prevented by death, the design was carried into execution by his son Edward, Duke of York, who began it in the year 1412. The society consisted of a master, twelve chaplains eight clerks, thirteen choristers, and was incorporated and confirmed under the title of " the Master and College of the Blessed "Virgin, and All Saints in Fodringhey," which the founder and future benefactors amply endowed. At the Dissolution the .annual revenues, according to Speed, amounted to 489l 15s. 9d, After the suppression, this college was given, in the reign of Edward the Sixth, to the Duke of Northumberland; and was soon taken down. Some remains of the walls are yet visible towards the river, and part of the cloisters and arches of the choir, adjoining the south side of the conventual church. The demolition of that part of the edifice, is deeply to be regretted; for, from the description given of it, in an estimate made of the mo-nastic premises in 1558, it appears to have been a noble builds ing. " In the cloister windows, in number eighty-eightt -were painted stories much broken, which, being pulled down, would be of no value; and in the library were seven windows; and in the rooms and chambers of the cloister, were eighteen doors of free-stone, rated one with another, at iiis. ivd. a door." The part of the structure now remaining, consists of a lofty nave, two ailes, and a square tower at the west end, surmounted by an octagon tower of later erection: and the whole ornamented with elegant pinnacles, and embattled parapets. The windows were formerly embellished with painted glass, some traces of which may yet be seen. The figures of St. George, St Dennis, St. Blasids, and numerous bishops, saints, &c. were intire in 1718, when drawings were taken of them, which have been, since engraved for the history of the county. On the wall of the south aile, is the following inscription indicative of the era of the building*
" In festo Martyrii processo Martiniani, Ecclesiae prima fuit hujus petra locata; An. Xti C. quater et M. cum deca quinta, Henrici quintti * tunc immincnte secundo.'*
Near the communion table is a stone monument, bearing this inscription:
" These monuments of EDWARD, DUKE Of YORK, and Richard of York, was made in the year of our Lord God 1573. The sayd Edward was slaynd in the battle of Agincourt, in the 3d, yeare of Heary ye 5th." .
0n a similar monument is this inscription;
" RICHARD PLANTAGANET, Duke of
York, nephew to Edward, Duke of
Yorke, father to King Edward ye
4tb was slaine at Wakefield
In the 37th year of Henry ye
6th 1459. And lieth buryed
Here with Cicely his wife."
Camden observes, that " these princes had all magnificent monuments, which were thrown down and ruined, together with the upper part, or chancel of the church. But Queen Elizabeth commanded two monuments to be set up in memory of them, in the lower end of the church, now standing; which, nevertheless, (such was their narrowness who had the charge of the work,) are looked upon as very mean, for such great princes, descended from kings, and from whom the kings of England are descended." The Richard above commemorated aspiring to the crown, and attempting to obtain accession on the death of Henry the Sixth, was slain in an engagement, as above stated, by the queen's troops, under the command of the Duke of Somerset. His body was first interred at Pontefract in Yorkshire, but afterwards conveyed for sepulture to this place. Cicely, his relict, by her will, dated August 27,1495; directed her body to be buried by the side of that of her husband. And to secure the execution of her wishes, she made an interested appeal to the feelings of the cannons and engaged them to assist in the fulfilment of her request Providing her body is buried at" Fodringhay, she gives to the said colege a square canapie crymson clothe of gold, a chesibull, and twoo tenucles, and three "capes of blewe velvett, bordered with thre abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and seven processioners.*"
This village, so distinguished in history, was formerly a con-siderable town, had a market, weekly on Wednesdays, and three annual fairs. It now consists of one street, containing only 46 houses, and 307 inhabitants.
A grammar-school was founded here by Queen Elizabeth, with a yearly salary of twenty pounds to be paid out of the ex-chequer for the maintenance of a master who has a house in the churchyard, and privileged with four cows.'
RICHARD PLANTAGENET, Duke of York, afterwards King Richard the Third, was born at this place; in whose person, Ful-ler observes," Ajax and Ulysses met; possessing eloquence to talk, and valour to fight." His character, like that of Mary Queen of Scots, has been sadly and extravagantly misrepresented by various writers; some praising, but most vilifying&
NASEBURGH HUNDRED, AND PETERBOROUGH LIBERTY.
WAS anciently denominated Nasus-burgi, or the ness of Burgh * Bridges' History of Northamptonshire, Vol. II. p, 452, shape, forming 1 kind of peninsula, being, except on the west side, surrounded with water. The Nen separates it from Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire, on the east and south; the Welland does the same on the north from the county of Lincoln; on the borders of which, at Croyland, those rivers have their confluence. The great Roman road called Ermine-street passes through this district, under the provincial appellation, of High Dyke, and a vicinal branch, known by the name of the Forty Foot-way, to the north-west.
This district contains the city of PETERBOROUGH, Minster C/ose, and Borough Fen, extra parochial, and the parishes of Bainton, Barnack including the hamlets of Pilsgate and South-orpe, Castor, including the hamlet of Aleswort; Elton and Woodcraft Eyet Glinton, Helpstone Marholm, St. Martins, Stamford Baron, Maxey including the hamlet of Deeping Gate; North-borough, Paston, including the hamlet of Werrington, Peakirk, Sutton, Thormhaugh, Ufford, including the hamlet of Ashton; Upton, Wansford, Whittering, Wothorpe, and the hamlets of Gun-thorpe and Walton.
CASTOR is a village eminent for its antiquity, of which some notice has been taken in the description of the county of Hun-tington.* An extraordinary unanimity has prevailed among antiquaries respecting this place; Camden, Stukeley, and Horley having uniformly agreed to fix here the station, Du-robrovis or Durobriva mentioned in the Itinerary of Antoninus. This has been placed near the adjacent village of Chesterton, in the county of Huntingdon; and there can be little doubt, from the remains which have been discovered at each of these places, that its station and the appendages occupied both sides of the River. The.next stations to the north and south, were Durolipante, and Causennist* as mentioned in the fifth Iter. river here divides into two streams, forming a small island, which division rendered it favorable for the erection of mills, a capability the Britons would not fail to avail themselves of for the pulverization of their corn. The Romans did not, like the Saxons, generally impose new names on places in the vanquished country, but only romanized those they found already affixed. Thus Dwrbrevan, the water mills, from the British word dwr, water, and brevan, a mill, the Romans would naturally turn into Durobrivae or Durobrivis, agreeably to the genius of their language. In addition to these convincing considera-tions, a further demonstration is derived from the numerous remains, discovered at different times in the vicinity; some of which have already been described in the seventh volume of this work. The traces also of several vicinal roads to fortified posts, in the neighbourhood are visible: one just above Gunwade-Ferry, and another goes from Castor to the camp at Aldwarkton, in the county of Huntingdon. In digging up part of the camp at Castor, for the purpose of enlarging a garden, was found a small bronze statue, only three inches in length, but finely executed, representing in the Thracian manner, Jupiter Term-nales, as a man without arms, lessening gradually from the centre, and standing upon a square pyramid. This, which is embellished with various emblematic devices, was evidently one
To reconcile the distances between Durobrovis and Cansennis fixed at Ancaster, and Lindo, the next at Lincoln, Horsley supposes, that through the mistake of transcribers XXX and XXVI, the numerals in the Itinerary, have been transposed for XXXVi. and XX. See Beauties, Vol. IX. p. 762. In this case the distance of thirty-three English miles between Ancaster and this point, the river Nen, answers to the thirty-six Roman millia. The number between the next station Duroliponte is in Antoninus XXV. but in Richard of Ciren-cester XX. which latter will bring us to Godmanchester, where Stukeley was inclined to consider the site of the station ; or to Huntingdon, where it has been fixed in the present work. See Beauties, Vol. VII. p. 346. of the dii termini, which ranked among the Lares publici, et pa-trii of the Roman people. Numerous fragments of tessellated pavements have been discovered in different places; urns, and other antique fictible vessels, ruined walls, and great quantities of coins, of most of the Roman emperors, from Trajan to Valens. From a coin found belonging to the XIX Legion, it has been supposed a cohort of cavalry, from that body, was stationed here.
In the time of the Saxons, a Nunnery was founded at Castor by Kyneburga wife of Alfred, a Norman prince, and daughter of Penda, king of Mercia. The founder left the court and her consort, to superintend the devoted virgins; and the place subsequently obtained the name of Kyneburg-ceastre. The church here is dedicated to Sf Kyneburga, and it is probable that some parts of the present structure was built soon after the death of the saint. It is certainly a very curious specimen of what is commonly termed Saxon architecture. It consists of a have, north and south ailes, transept, and chancel. In the centre is a massy tower, surmounted by a pyramidal spire, and rests upon four circular arches; The battlements are decorated with curious sculpture, and the tipper part of the tower is embellished with two fascia of larger and smaller arcades, with windows, &c. The roof of the nave is constructed of wood, and the ciel-ing is ornamented with figures of angels presenting shields charged with keys saltire, the arms of the see of Peterborough, and others holding models of a church. The capitals of those columns, nearest the chancel, are enriched with the figures of men and beasts; on one is a boar pursued by dogs, and a man in the act of killing him with a spear; on another is represented one voracious animal devouring another.
The three arches on the south side of the nave, are semi- , circular, resting on massy round pillars; the opposite three are pointed and supported by hexagonal columns. The arch of the transept is semi-circular, and the pillars round with nail-head., capitals. At the east end of the north aile, is a monument said to be the shrine of St. Kyneburga, composed of five arches, under an embattled cornice, over a round arch, and below, are nine enriched quatrefoil arches under the centre of which is an em battled sarcophagus. Within a semicircular, stone frame, over the south door of the chancel, is the following inscription, in
Saxon characters " XVo. KL. MAI DEDICA; TIO— HVI
Though this inscription, is tolerably perfect, yet it is impossible to say, if the date. was originally inserted,or inscribed subsequently to the letters. It is also uncertain whether the above be the correct date ; for .the XIII. or XIIIL at the end and the C. or the letter that precedes the X are not clearly defined. Hence antiquaries are divided in opinion on the subject, and this is rendered a theme of conjecture.
Over the south porch on the outside is represented in relief an half length figure of a man, with a radiance round his head, the massy wooden door, which is very ancient, having a singularly constructed lock, is this inscription:
Ecclesiae de Gastre fe
In the north aile, a flat stone records the memory of a distinguished native. JOHN LANDEN, an eminent mathematician, and Fellow of the Royal Society, in the transactions of which society he published several papers upon the more abstruse departments of arithmetical, and geometrical investigation. He published also " Mathematical Lucubrations," and two volumes of Mathematical Memoirs; and died January 15,1790, in the seventy-first year of his age. In,the church-yard is a fragment of an old stone Cross, with sculpture.
In the vicinity of Castor, near Gunwade Ferry, are two large upright stones, provincially called Robin Hood and Little John Gunton, in his History of Peterbugh, says, they were set up as evidences that the carriages of stone from Barnack quarries, might pass this ferry without paying toll,
MILTON, called ABBEY-MILTON, because it formerly belonged VOL, XL Jan. 1810, to the Abbots of Medenhamstead, is the seat and property of Earl Fitzwilliam. The house, a large irregular edifice, has evidently been built at different titties the oldest appears about the age of Elizabeth, though the Fitz-williams's had resided here long before. When Fothinghay Castle was demolished, several pieces of stained glass were removed from the windows, there, and inserted in those at Milton. The house also contains several pictures, and other objects of beauty and rarity. Among the portraits, is one of Mary Queen of Scotts, painted, as Bridges states, in 1582. Another of James I when a boy, with an inscription: " This picture was given to Sir William Fitz-william, by Mary Queen of Scots, on the morning of her execution, for the humane treatment she had met with during her imprisomnent, at Fotheringhay, whereof he was governor."*
MARHAM CHURCH, contains several monumental memorials to different persons of the Fitzwilliam family. The chancel was built by Sir William Fitzwilliam, some time before the year 1534, as in that year he made a will requesting to be interred in the newly erected part of the church. His tomb is ornamented with various armorial insignia, with two effigies of Sir William and his lady; and this inscription:
" Sir WYLLYAM FYTZWYLLYAMS, knyght, decessyd the IX day of August in the XXVI yere of our soverayn Lorde kyng Henry the VIII. in anno. Domini M,CCCCC.XXXIIII. and lyeth beuried. under this tombe."
Another monument, with an effigy of a man in armour, tod his wife lying by his side, records the memory of Sir William Fitzwilliam, Knt. three times deputy, or lord-lieutenant of Ireland, in the time of Queen Elizabeth; and for thirty years commander in chief of her army there. He died in June 1599. Anne his wife, was daughter of Sir William Sidney, grandfather to the first earl of Leicester. Within the communion rails, another monument commemorates Winifred Fitzwilliam, wife of William Fitzwilliam, Esq. of Dosthorp, daughter of Sir Walter Mildmay, knt. of Apethorpe. She died August 10,1597.
A magnificent marble monument, with four columns, supporting an entablature, and having on one side, Grief personified, and Piety on the other. On a slab are the recumbent figures of a nobleman in his robes, and his lady. A Latin in-inscriptiori states, that it is sacred to the memory of the Right Hon. William Earl Fitzwilliam, who died December 28, A. D. 1719; and to Ann, his Countess, who died February 4,1717. This monument was executed by " Jacob Fisher, of Camber-wel"'
The font is particularly deserving of notice, as one which is referable to an early period; the basin is excavated in an hexagon entablature, supported by five round columns, and the faces of the font are ornamented by compartments, each bearing a rose, with a pendant leaf.
LOLRAM BRIDGES, in the parish of MAXEY, are considered subjects of curiosity. They are of great antiquity, and were originally designed to carry the Ermine-street, over the fenny grounds adjacent to the river Welland. This part of the road is supposed to have been made, or repaired, by Lollius Urbicus, who was propraetor in Britain, in the reigns of Hadrian, and Antoninus, A. D. 144, whence the name is probably derived. Camden observed, that in his time were to be seen eleven arches, though ruinous with age; and Morton states, there were fourteen. Here are now four bridges, two consisting of three arches each, one of four, and one of two, and these are repaired at the expense of the county. On several parts of these are names and dates, allusive to the different repairs they have undergone; but an inscription at the end of an abutment to one of the arches, though not yet deciphered, is perhaps coeval with the erection of the original structure. It is PECOT but accompanied by no date. From these bridges the Roman road extends to Cates-bridge, and thence passes nearly in a right line over the heath to Lincoln. In this vicinity numerous coins nave been dug up, and other vestiges are indicative of the Romans having been in possession of this part of the country.
The steps to the altar in the church of HELPSTON, are ornamented with fragments of tessellated pavements, brought from some place in the neighbourhood: they consist of two circles, each having five rays of different colours, proceeding from the centres to the circumference; thus forming the representation of two stars. The floor of the chancel has been repaired also with tessellae.
At Torpwell, in the parish of ASHTON, was discovered a circular hollow place, having the sides walled up with stone; which from its shape, ashes, and iron slag strewed near, and other circumstances, was probably an iron furnace in the time of the Romans.
PETERBOROUGH OR PETERBURGH,
As already noticed, was not made a city, till the reign of Henry the Eighth, who having dissolved the monasteries, deemed it an expedient act of state-policy to increase the number of sees. At an early period this place was distinguished, in the Anglo-saxon annals, for its monastery, which, was of extensive jurisdiction, and large establishment, and as the history of this is of primary consequence, it will be expedient to detail it at some length.
As early as the year 656, the foundation of a monastery was laid at Medeshamsted, by Peada, the eldest son of Penda, king of the Mercians. To complete the foundation, the monks deemed it necessary to invent a miracle; after which the establishment was endowed with lands and other revenues; about the year 664, by Wolfere, the succeeding king, with the, assistance of ,Ethelred, his brother, and his sisters Kyneburga, and Kyneswitha. The charter of this foundation was sealed and confirmed in the presence of Kings, Nobles, and Bishops, in the . 7th year of the king's reign. By this charter, the bounds of the monastic estates, were extended for a space of nearly twenty miles, east and west; and the foundation or under structure of the buildings consisted of stones of such a size, according to the old writers, that eight yoke of oxen could with difficulty draw one of them. The stone was obtained from Barnack, near Stamford. The monastery now completed, flourished during the succession of seven abbots when enriched by various privileges and immunities, it was nearly annihilated by the fire and sword of the Danes. The abbot Hedda and his monks were slain, and the country people who had fled for shelter to the monastery, were also slaughtered. The altars and monuments were demolished, and the church, with the adjacent buildings was set on fire, and continued in flames for fifteen successive days ! The monastery thus destroyed, with its abbot and monks slaughtered, its government overthrown, and its lands alienated, continued in a state of ruin for ninety-six years. Its restoration was effected in the year 970, by Athelwold, Bishop of Winchester, with the assistance of King Edgar and his Queen. The king accompanied by Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, Oswald, Archbishop of York, and most of the nobility and clergy in England, attended to lay a new foundation, and in their presence confirmed its former privileges and possessions, with oblations of land, silver, and gold. At this assembly the name of the place was changed from Medeshamsted to Burgh, and from the wealth, splendor, and privileges of the monastery, obtained the name of Gilden-burgh, or the Golden City. In reference to the Saint to whom the dedication was made; this name was afterwards exchanged for Peter-burgh. The monastery, even at this early period, had attained a. high degree of power. Kings, Lords, Bishops, and Abbots, pulled off their shoes at its gate, and entered barefooted, and its members were held in such esteem, that wherever they travelled, the respect and veneration of the neighbourhood followed their steps,
Thus re-edified, the monastery afterwards enjoyed a share of prosperity, but not unmixed with misfortunes. Amidst the former may be enumerated the various relicts of different Saints, with which the church was stored, and the addition of more real endowments by the grants of various lands and manors, Among these, Elsinus, the eleventh abbot, gave a fourth part of Whittlesea Mere, Leofric, his successor, redeemed certain lands belonging to the monastery, in Fisherton, Fleton, and Burleigh; and Brando, the succeeding abbot, while a monk, bestowed lands situated in not less than fourteen parishes. But among these grants, many heavy losses were sustained. Hoveden, in Yorkshire, and other lands were wrested from it, and its abbot Brando, who espoused the cause of Edgar Atheling, as lawful heir to the crown, compounded with the conqueror, and obtained his favour for a confirmation of his own dignity and the lands of his monastery, at the expence of 40 marks.
Under the government of Thoroldus, his successor, a Norman., the monastery suffered still more. He dispersed the lands belonging to his church, conferring sixty-two hides upon certain stipendiary knights, to defend him against Howard de Wake, and erected a castle, within the precincts of the monastery, which long retained the appellation of Mount-Thorold. During the subsequent invasion of the Danes, Heseward united with them at their entrance into the Isle of Ely, and assailed the buildings with fire carrying off every thing of value, and leaving the monastery, and one house in the town alone standing. Their wealth and reliques were transported to Denmark, on the departure of the Danes from the kingdom. The goods of the monastery estimated at 1500/. were, by the profusion of this abbot, reduced to scarcely 500/. who, at last taken by Hese-ward, ransomed himself with the payment of thirty marks of silver.
The reign of his successor was not less unfortunate. During the only year of his government, thieves from Almain, France, and Flanders, broke into the church, and stole many treasures of gold, which were never recovered. In this state the monastery continued till the year 1116, when a second, but accidental conflagration, consumed every part but the chapter house, dormitory, arid refectory, which had been newly erected. The flames, driven by the wind, communicated to the town, and consumed the greater part of that also. In the year 1118, a new church was begun by John de Salisbury, the reigning abbot, of which his death in 1125, prevented the completion. This seems to have been the origin of the present cathedral; and of this with its successive alterations and additions, an account will be given hereafter.
The buildings of the monastery were perfected under the ab-botship of Martin de Vecti, who.in the year 1144, brought the reliques and monks into the new church, twenty-three years after the .conflagration. At the dedication of it there Were present Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, the Abbots of Thorney,Croy-land, Ramsey, and others ; and to these were exhibited the arm of St. Oswald, and various other holy reliques. King Stephen afterwards honoured this arm with a visit, to which he offered his ring, forgiving the church at the same time forty marks, and confirming to it many privileges. During the reign of this abbot, the town of Peterborough is supposed to have been removed from the eastern side of the monastery, to the situation which it now occupies. Under the government of William de Waterville, the eight hundreds, of that part of the county, which had been granted, by former kings, were again restored to the abbey, The buildings already began, were still further perfected, and new ones added. The cloister was built and covered with lead, and the choir and transepts of the church, erected in the, style, in which they now appear. In the time of Benedict, the succeeding abbot, still further additions were made. The nave of the church, from the lantern to the west front, with its ceiling of wood, were newly built, and the great tower gate, leading to the monastery, with a chapel over it, were also completed about this time.
The last abbot advanced to the government of the monastery, was John Chambers, a native of Peterborough, who was elevated to that dignity in the year 1528. In 1534 the abbot, prior, and 37 monks, professed under their hands and common seal, their fidelity and obedience to the king, and acknowledged him the only supreme head of the church.
In 1535 Queen Katharine, the first wife of King Henry the Eighth, was interred in the church of this monastery between two pillars on the north side of the choir, near the altar. Her hearse, was covered with a black velvet pall, crossed with a white cloth of silver. This was afterwards exchanged for one of inferior value, which, with the escutcheons fixed to it, were taken away during the rebellion in 1643.
On the 30th of Nov. 1539, an inventory was taken of the goods belonging to the church and monastery; and in the following year both were resigned into the king's hands, the abbot retaining an annual pension of 260/. 13s. 4d In 1541 the king, by letters patent, converted the monastery into an episcopal see, and the conventual church into a cathedral. The government of it was entrusted to a bishop, a dean, and six prebendaries, ;whose jurisdiction extended over,the City of Peterborough and the County of Northampton It was ordained at the same time, that the Archdeacon of Northampton, who, together with the county, had hitherto been subject to the authority of the Bishop of Lincoln, should in future be subordinate to the jurisdiction of the new bishop.
The monastery thus dissolved, and its establishment changed, had been governed, from its foundation, by a succession of forty five abbots, who had summons to parliament as early as the reign of Henry the Third; and its revenues, during this period, had in- Creased to the annual sum of 1721/. Upon the erection of the episcopal see, these revenues were divided into three parts, two of which were afterwards considerably impaired One the king reserved for himself, another was assigned to the see for the maintenance of a bishop, and this third formed the endowment of the dean and chapter.
Of the bishops who successively filled the newly formed see, a catalogue has already been given in p.. 12; and to the preceding account, it will only be necessary to add a statement of the principal occurrences which have happened in the cathedral, from the foundation of the bishopric to the present time.
In the reign of Queen Mary this church was again submitted to the authority of the See of Rome and in 1556, Pope Paul the Fourth by a bull under his hand, and seal presented and confirmed David Pool, a papist, as bishop therein-. This appointment was not of long duration; Protestantism was again in the reign of Elizabeth, and this bishop, together the remnants of popery, were then ejected for ever.
In 1587, the funeral of Mary, Queen of Scots, was here solemnised. The body of the queen was brought from Fothering-hay Castle where she was beheaded, on the night of Sunday the 30th of July, and at two o'clock on Monday morning, was to the vault prepared for it on the south side of the dose to the bishop's throne, which was immediately Closed without the performance of any religions service. A rich hearse was erected near the grave, and the choir and church were hung with black. The performance of the funeral service took place, however, on Tuesday afternoon, and was attended by thousands of spectators, and many of the nobility, the heralds, and other officers of the crown. Those of the Kingdom of Scotland, who had thus far beheld the fate of their queen, here stopped and bade an adieu to her remains for the last time. They indignantly refused either to enter the church, or to be present at the last ceremonies
On this occasion the service was read by Fletcher the Dean, and a sermon preached by the Bishop of Lincoln, who, steering between a fear of protestantism on one hand, and a respect due to deceased.popery on the other, treated only of the miseries annexed to the vale of mortality; and in reference to the subject before him, cautiously spoke as follows.
" Let us give thanks for the happy dissolution of the high and mighty princess Mary, late Queen of Scotland, and Dowager of France, of whose life and death at this time, I have not much to say, because I was not acquainted with the one, neither was I present at the other; I will not enter into judgment further, but because it hath been signified unto me, that she trusted to be saved by the blood .of Christ, we must hope well of her salvation: For as father Luther was wont to say, many one that a papist, dieth a protestant,"of the queen did hot rest long in its grave For twenty-five years after the interment, King James, as a duty appertaining to the remains of his mother, wrote to the Church of Peterborough, and ordered the translation of her body to Westminster, which was accordingly done on the 11th of October, 1612. The epitaph suspended on the wall over the vault was afterwards taken down and cast out of the church The test act of violence which the cathedral of Peterborough sustained, was during the rebellion of 1643; a narrative of the transactions which occurred at that time, is given by Gunton in his history of this church. In that year the parliamentary forces entered the city, broke open the church doors, pulled down the stalls, trampled upon the organ, and tore in pieces whatever books they could find belonging to the church. The monuments and painted windows, with every ornamental decoration, all shared in the common destruction, In this state of ruin and desolation, the church continued for the space of eight years when the damages which it had sustained were in some measure repaired, its ornaments replaced, and so much of the building, restored, as was necessary for the performance of divine service, In 1660, Dr. Gosin, the exited dean returned, and assumed his right of government; when the service of the church was again continued, and a considerable part of its alienated lands re-covered.
Architecture, Plan, and Periods of Erection. The style of architecture prevailing ha this building is that denominated Norman, of which the circular arch and large column, form the leading characteristics. This, in the present instance, as well as in others, has erroneously obtained the denomination of Saxon, although no part of the present cathedral appears to have been erected antecedent to the year 1118, when the monastery was destroyed by fire. The plan corresponds with that of most other cathedrals: and consists of a nave with side ailes, a transept, a choir terminating at the east end semicircu-larly, and surrounded with a continuation of the side ailes of the nave, the whole terminated at the east, by what is- called the new building. In the centre is a tower, rising from the four arches, by which the several parts of the structure are connected together. The west front is formed by a portico, or porch, of three lofty arches, in the centre of which is a small Chapel. The dimensions of the building, with its several parts, are thus stated. Length of the whole cathedral externally, including the buttresses, 471 feet; of the nave from the west door, to the entrance into the choir 267 ; of the choir 117; and from the altar of the choir, to the east window 38: making in the whole 422 feet. The length of the transept, from north to south is 180 feet. The height of the nave, from the floor to the ceiling, is 81 feet; of the central tower from the floor to the summit, 135; whilst its whole height, externally, is 150 feet. The breadth of the nave, from the north wall to the south, is 78 feet; and the breadth of the west front 158 feet.
The several periods of erection of these parts of the building, may be assigned as follow. The choir with its ailes, from the circular extremity at the east, to the commencement: of the transept on the west, was begun in the year 1118, and completed in 1143. Between the years 1155 and 1177, the transept was erected; and between 1177, and 1193, the nave, with its ailes, were completed to the termination of the pillars, which divide the nave and side ailes on the west. A further addition was made about 1288, when the space between the extreme pillar, and the west door of entrance was finished, forming a projection on each side of the western extremity, and terminated by two towers.
The Lady Chapel abutting on the east side of the north transept, was built by William Parys, the Prior in the fourteenth century. This building was in a ruinated state at the time of the rebellion, and was soon afterwards taken down, and sold by the inhabitants of the place, to defray the repairs of the damages which the cathedral then sustained. At what period the west portico, with its three arches, was erected, is not precisely known. The chapel in the centre arch, assigned by Mr, Gunton to the same age as the western front is in a style of architect ture of a much later date.
The new building, at the eastern extremity of the choir, was erected by Richard Ashton in the middle of the fifteenth century, and probably completed by Abbot Kirton about 1518. This building formed the last addition made to the church, before the dissolution of the monastery by Henry the Eighth, making a period of 400 years, from the foundation of the present church in 1118, to the final completion of this addition in the year 1518. This chapel is supposed to have been designed by Sir Reginald Bray, who> in the time of Abbot Kirton, was here; and allowed by the monastery " a due proportion of diet, for a number of dishes."
The Close, west of the cathedral, is nearly surrounded by ancient monastic buildings. On the south side is a range of architecture, presenting several fine and interesting parts ; in the centre of which is a large tower-gateway, communicating to the bishop's palace. At the west end is the entrance gateway front the town, already noticed ; and to the north is the deanry, the entrance to which is through a very rich and highly ornamented gateway. This is said to have been built by Abbot Kirton, about the year 1515. South of the cathedral, was a large cloister, 138 by 131 feet, which has been almost wholly demolished.
St. John's Church, near the centre of the city, contains a large altar-piece, painted by R. K. Porter also a beautiful mo~ numental tablet, with figures, by Flaxman, R. A. SYMON GUNTON, author of the history of Peterburgh Church, was a native of this place, wherein he resided the greater part of his life, and died here in 1676.
At NORBOROUGH, about seven miles north of Peterborough, are the remains of a large, and rather curious old manor house, now belonging to Earl Fitzwilliam, but formerly possessed by the Cleypoles. In this mansion died the wife of Oliver Cromwell, whose daughter, Elizabeth, married John Cleypole of this place. Attached to the Church is a chantry called Cleypoles Chapel, in which are some mutilated monuments .to different persons of that family. ' In the parish register this entry " Eliz. relict of Oliver Cromwell, was buried Nov. 19, 1665
At MAXEY, near Lolham Bridges, was a castle or manor house, surrounded by a moat. Camden says that it belonged to the Barons of Wake : but this is questioned in Bridges's History The church has some ancient parts; and contains a few old, but mutilated inscriptions. About two miles west of this is BAIN-TON, where Bobert Henson, Esq. has a seat.
At UFFORD is a large handsome modern house, belonging to Brown, Esq."
BARNACK a village, is noted for its stone quarries, from which many fine churches have been erected. The church, at this place, contains several objects in its tower, windows, porch, chapels, fonts and tombs to attract the attention; and afford interest to the antiquary
BURLEIGH or BURGHLEY, the seat of the Cecil family, now the property of the Marquis of Exeter, a minor, may be ranked among the most splendid old houses, with spacious parks, in the kingdom and therefore a comprehensive history and description, with discriminating criticisms on its vast collection of pictures, is a literary desideratum. In the present work, we can only give a very concise account. The house, and principal part of the demesne, are within the parish of Stamford St. Martin, in the church of which, are some costly monuments to different eminent persons of the Cecil family. [See Vol. VII. p. 405, of this work ] The park was formed, and house mostly built, by Lord Treasurer Burleigh,* in the time of Queen Elizabeth : and the following inscription, over one of the entrances within a central court, records the era of this work. " w. DOM. DE BVBGHLEY, 1577-" Beneath the turret is the date of 1585, when some great additions were made to the mansion; and the present grand entrance, towards the north, appears to have been added in 1587. Since these dates, several material alterations and additions, have been made by subsequent possessors: and the whole, as a building, with its vast and varied collection of works of art, the extensive and finely wooded park, and with a large lake, may be said to vie with the most splendid seats in the kingdom. The.house surrounds a square court, to the east of which is the great hall, kitchen, various domestic offices, with spacious stables, coach-houses, &c. The south front commands a fine sloping lawn, with a broad expance of water, formed by Brown, also some interesting parts of park scenery : the western side has nearly the same views, with the advantage of distant objects in Rutlandshire, Lincolnshire, and the spires of Stamford. From the north front the ground gradually slopes to the river Welland: and from it an extensive tract of county is commended. As we cannot, on the present occasion, give a complete list of the pictures, and valuable curiosities, contained in this mansion, the reader is referred to a small volume, the title of which is specified in the list of books at the end : but a work of a superior kind has been announced for publication, by Mr. Drakard, a bookseller, of Stamford. He has also published views of the house, and entrance lodges
About two miles to the west of Burleigh, are the ruins of WOTHORP or WORTHORP HOUSE. According to Camden, a mansion of considerable size was erected here by Thomas Cecil, the first Earl of Burleigh, who jocularly said, " he built it only to retire to out of the dust, while his great house at Burleigh was sweeping." After the restoration, the Duke of Buckingham resided here for some years.
In the village of THORNHAUGH are some remains of an old manor-house, which formerly belonged to the family of St. Medard, or Semark: afterwards to the Russells. In the church is an old tomb, with an effigy in armour, and others in common dresses. It records the name, &c. of the Right Honorable William, Russel, Knt. Baron of Thornhaugh; also those of Lord Francis, Lord John, and Lord Edward