|Darwin and design: historical essay|
At the beginning of the nineteenth century in Britain, religion and the sciences were generally thought to be in harmony. The study of God's word in the Bible, and of his works in nature, were considered to be part of the same truth. One version of this harmony was presented in William Paley's Natural theology, or evidences of the existence and attributes of the deity (1802).
"There is precisely the same proof that the eye was made for vision as there is that the telescope was made for assisting it … they are made upon the same principles, both being adjusted to the laws by which the transmission and refraction of rays of light are regulated … what could a mathematician instrument maker have done more, to show his knowledge of this principle?"
Another important example of this kind of natural theology was a series of scientific books known as the Bridgewater treatises . These were financed by Francis Henry Egerton, the eighth earl of Bridgewater, whose last will and testament provided eight thousand pounds for the publication of works 'On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, as manifested in the Creation'. Eight volumes were produced between 1833 and 1840 by leading authorities in moral philosophy, natural history, astronomy, physiology, chemistry, and geology. The books were widely discussed, and extracts often appeared in sermons.
The animal had been reconstructed from fossilised remains in the early nineteenth century. Because of its massive size, and its apparently awkward proportions, some experts thought it must have been doomed to an unhappy life and a speedy decline. How could an intelligent and beneficent God have designed such an animal?
Some key fossils of Megatherium had been supplied by Darwin, who found them on the coast of Chile during the Beagle voyage. The case of Megatherium thus shows how Darwin’s earliest research helped to further the programme of natural theological science.
For Owen, God's unity of plan was expressed both in the clear morphological divisions that separated animal groups, and in underlying structures that connected these divisions into a single order of creation. Owen developed this theory of underlying structures in another set of works on the vertebrate skull and skeleton.
"The skull is a province of the whole skeleton, consisting of a series of segments or vertebrae essentially similar to those of which the rest of the skeleton is constituted. General anatomical science reveals the unity which pervades the diversity, and demonstrates the whole skeleton of man to be the harmonized sum of a series of essentially similar segments."
Owen went on to extend this theory of the human skeleton to other vertebrate animals. The bony frames of mammals, birds, reptiles, and even fishes, were thus all connected, from head to toe (or claw, or fin), thus showing the unity of plan of God’s creation.
Natural theology was also not without its own controversies. These were especially evident in geology. Discoveries of the fossil remains of extinct creatures, together with other evidence of the age of the earth presented in the work of Charles Lyell and others, challenged the literal reading of the creation story in Genesis. One reading of Genesis, for example, assigned each day of creation to a different geological epoch. Creation was viewed by some as a progressive unfolding, rather than as a single event. Further questions were raised about the role of God in relation to the operation of natural forces and laws.
Some natural philosophers and astronomers, such as William Herschell, speculated about the origins of the universe, and posed the ‘nebular hypothesis’, according to which creation was entirely governed by natural laws from the first instant. Such views held that the world was a product of divine plan and will, but they challenged belief in miracles.
Darwin’s work is usually viewed as undermining natural theology by replacing Paley’s model of an ingeniously designed creation with a theory of functional adaptations, acquired through a process of random variation, and then accumulated through natural selection.
Darwin's own view, presented in his Autobiography , seems to support this:
"The old argument from design in nature, as given by Paley, which formerly seemed to me so conclusive, fails, now that the law of natural selection has been discovered. There seems to be no more design in the variability of organic beings and in the action of natural selection, than in the course which the wind blows". (p. 50)
"The only distinct meaning of the word ‘natural’ is stated , fixed or settled ; since what is natural as much requires and presupposes an intelligent agent to render it so, i.e. to effect it continually or at stated times, as what is supernatural or miraculous does to effect it for once."
Reactions to Darwin’s work also show that its meaning as regards design in nature was far from straightforward. The correspondence Darwin received in the years following the publication of Origin reveals an extremely wide range of interpretations, from complete condemnation to subtle accommodation, to active support.
One of Darwin's most avid readers was the Anglican cleric, Charles Kingsley. Best known for his role in the Christian socialist movement, and as the author of Alton Locke and The water babies , he would later become professor of modern history at Cambridge. Kingsley wrote to Darwin shortly after the publication of Origin .
"I have gradually learnt to see that it is just as noble a conception of Deity, to believe that he created primal forms capable of self development into all forms needful pro tempore & pro loco, as to believe that He required a fresh act of intervention to supply the lacunas which he himself had made."
One of Darwin's most intimate correspondents and leading supporters was the American botanist Asa Gray, a devout Presbyterian.
Gray helped to arrange for Origin to be published in America, and wrote a series of reviews in leading journals. One point that Gray argued at some length was that natural selection was not inconsistent with natural theology. Darwin, according to Gray, said only that nature proceeded according to fixed laws; he wrote only of secondary causes, not of first causes. He left questions such as the origin of life, and the design of nature's laws open, for theologians to answer as they might.
Darwin's response was again enthusiastic. He praised Gray's reviews, and financed their publication in pamphlet form for distribution in England.
Darwin's work thus did not introduce controversy into natural theology, nor did it sweep natural theology away. But what did happen in the years following Origin , is that the public debates became more polemical, and a polarised view of science and theology was introduced by a few very vocal protagonists.
Huxley used Darwinism as a platform for a political campaign against the authority of the clergy in education. Occasionally referred to as 'Pope Huxley' by friends and critics alike, he sketched Darwin as the pontiff in a letter of 1868, giving audience to a humble believer, in the form of a German naturalist.
In many of the accounts of the encounter at the British Association meeting, observers gave the victory to Wilberforce; one Darwinian was reconverted to special creation after hearing the bishop’s speech. Wilberforce's own review of Origin suggests that he was not in fact opposed to transmutation, only to Darwin's particular explanation for it.
The political aspect of the evolution debates is of course even more pronounced today, and it is crucial to understanding how Darwin continues to be a watchword. Today we have to contend not only with pervasive misrepresentation and misquoting, but also with the strong tendency to oversimplify the issues at stake, as if we had only two choices: science or religion; evolution or belief in God. Darwin's correspondence shows that this certainly was not the case, not for Darwin, and not for his readers. The letters give a richer picture of Darwin, and of the debates in which his work was embroiled.
Persons and works referred to:
William Paley, Natural theology (1802)
Francis Henry Egerton, earl of Bridgewater; Bridgewater treatises. Treatise I, by Thomas Chalmers. The adaptation of external nature to the moral and intellectual constitution of man . 2 vols. Treatise II, by John Kidd, On the adaptation of external nature to the physical condition of man. Treatise III, by William Whewell. On astronomy and general physics . Treatise IV, by Charles Bell. The hand: its mechanism and vital endowments as evincing design . Treatise V, by Peter Mark Roget. Animal and vegetable physiology considered with reference to natural theology . 2 vols. Treatise VI, by William Buckland. Geology and mineralogy considered with reference to natural theology. 2 vols. Treatise VII, by William Kirby. On the history, habits and instincts of animals . 2 vols. Treatise VIII, by William Prout. Chemistry, meteorology, and the function of digestion .
Richard Owen, On the archetype and homologies of the vertebrate skeleton (1848)
William Herschel, Astronomer Royal, "Astronomical observations relating to the construction of the heavens" (1811)
Charles Lyell, Principles of geology (1830-33)
Hugh Miller, Footprints of the creator (1849)
Charles Kingsley, Anglican clergyman, later professor of modern history, Cambridge
Asa Gray, Harvard professor of botany
Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Oxford
Thomas Huxley, zoologist, Man's place in nature (1863)
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