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PHILIPPINE NAVY DIGEST
 
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The Philippine Marine Corps Scout Sniper Program:
Continuing Relevance and Development into the 21st Century
By: Lt Col Roberto Feliciano PN(M)(MNSA)(RES)
 

 

This paper seeks to review progress made with the Philippine Marine Corps Scout Sniper Program whose institutionalization began in 1996, with the introduction of the 5.56mm Marine Scout Sniper Rifle (“MSSR”), which evolved into the 5.56mm Designated Marksman Rifle (“DMR”) and subsequent initiatives described here.
Background:

The Philippine Marines had began its sniper program with the formation of the Reserve Marksmanship and Sniper Unit (“RMSTU”) in 1969 with Lt Cdr. Adolfo S. (“Chito”) Feliciano, PN(M) as its first commanding officer. At that time, the unit was the only one in the AFP dedicated to the development and institutionalization of marksmanship and sniping.

The lack of a dedicated sniping platform, the gradual reduction over time of the sniper program, continued Marine combat operations, and the experience of the 1989 attempted coup d’etat, convinced the PMC of the necessity to restore its sniping capability. This was undertaken through several activities, which included the development of a dedicated sniper rifle to replace the M84-equipped M-1D Garand and un-scoped M-14 rifles of the RMSTU, which had become inoperable over time.

The most visible of these efforts resulted in the 5.56mm Marine Scout Sniper Rifle (“MSSR”) which was developed through the initiative of Colonel Jonathan C. Martir, PN(M)(GSC), N-6 out of the need for a dedicated sniper rifle for the Philippine Marine Corps. This was described at length by then-Major Martir in the CiteMar6 article, The Black Rifle: A Cost Effective Sniping Arm for the Marine Rifle Company.

It is important to note that the 5.56mm MSSR is provided as part of a complete package or weapons system. This includes not just the rifle itself but a hard case for storage and transport, an Otis cleaning kit, binocular and an variable 15-35X spotting scope. Given that the system is developed in-house by the PMC, a dedicated manual was developed to cover basic care, operations and maintenance for the rifle and scope. In writing the manual, special effort was undertaken to describe the importance of cleaning and maintenance, in general, and its imperative, as it pertains to the 5.56mm MSSR/DMR, to distinguish it from the issue M16A1 service rifle.

Starting with the introduction of the 5.56mm Marine Scout Sniper Rifle (“MSSR”), this paper thus traces milestones in the development of the Marine sniper program.


5.56mm Marine Scout Sniper Rifle (“MSSR”)/Designated Marksman Rifle (“DMR”)


Since its deployment in 1996, the PMC introduced the following modifications to the 2nd and 3rd generation MSSR and DMR, respectively, to improve its handling and to meet the needs of specific users:
Receiver: Among the changes included partial removal of the M16A1 carry handle and the retention of the DPMS tri-mount on the upper receiver. Most of the carry handle was removed except for part of the rear most section on top of the charging handle. The remaining section was used to anchor the DPMS tri-mount which was mounted just in front. The rings and scope are mounted on the tri-mount. The removal of the carry handle made possible a lower mounting system for the scope directly on the receiver, which was closer to the bore axis, and improved aiming. Consequently, the Delta HBAR cheek piece was no longer necessary and was removed. In addition, M16A2 pistol grips were standardized in place of the earlier M16A1 grips.


Optics: The armored Tasco scope was replaced with a Bushnell variable 3-9X 40 scope with a Mil-dot reticle. Instead of two (2) scope rings, three (3) were installed on the tri-mount.

Barrel Assembly: With the removal of the M16A1 carry handle, the front sight and mount were removed and a DPMS gas port was installed as standard. For the PMC, barrel length remained the same at 26” with the DPMS Ultra Match Barrel, whose twist was standardized at 1 X 8” instead of the earlier 1 X 8.5” twist. Several rifles were made available for the Philippine Navy Special Warfare Group (“SWG”), with 20” barrels.

Ammunition: Originally, the issue ammunition ranged from Federal 69 grain match to 62 grain SS 109 or M855. As of this writing, ammunition has been standardized to include Federal Gold Medal 69 grain match, 75 grain from Singapore, and more recently, 69 grain match-grade loads which are hand loaded by the Marine Scout Sniper School. It is noteworthy that the School has undertaken an ammunition hand loading program for 5.56 mm and 7.62 mm loads. This is described further in this paper.


Paint Scheme: Whereas the original MSSR was unpainted, the 3rd Generation rifle was painted in the three (3) tone green and brown Marine paint scheme to enable it to blend into its operating environment.
For convenient reference, Table 2 on page 13 lists the different features of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generation 5.56mm MSSR/DMR.


Establishment of the Marine Scout Sniper School and Dedicated Training

Following the introduction of the 5.56mm MSSR in 1996 with MBLT6, 04 July 2001 witnessed the institutional return of sniping in the Philippine Marine Corps through the establishment of the Marine Scout Sniper School (“TMSSS”) at the Marine Corps Training Center after its disbandment in 1994 The event was commemorated with the graduation of the 5th Scout Sniper Course. The school was re-established after Marine scout snipers distinguished themselves during the 2000 Central Mindanao campaign, where they accounted for a large number of MILF kills and further distinguished themselves in their intelligence roles as scouts. To date, seven (7) Scout Sniper Courses were concluded and produced approximately two hundred (200) scout snipers. The MSSS continues as the only dedicated sniper school in the Philippines, and provides sniper training to other branches of the AFP and also the PNP.

With the establishment of the Marine Scout Sniper School, the methodology of sniper training was made more comprehensive and balanced to include not just long-range precision marksmanship, but fieldcraft through scouting, infiltration, concealment, reconnaissance, communications, forward observer/basic artillery and limited demolitions. This had been initiated earlier in 1996 with the Scout Sniper training program of MBLT6 at Jolo under then-Major Martir. To date, the training encompasses not just the education of the scout sniper, but also the understanding by Platoon, Battalion, and Company Commanders of the role and employment of the scout sniper to support Marine operations.

The re-establishment of the Marine Scout Sniper School was undertaken to enable it to be at the same level as the Basic, Advance and Special Schools. It further served to institutionalize the scout sniper program and the scout sniper, by making trained scout snipers available to the battalions. This translates to the inclusion in the current TO & E of Marine Rifle Battalions of a sniper squad of five (5) scout sniper teams each to provide Battalion commanders with timely and accurate reconnaissance and direct fire support, and as Forward Observers in their role as scouts.

The program ensures uniformity of training and equipment, starting with the introduction of the 5.56mm MSSR followed with the .50 cal. Barrett M95, and subsequently the 7.62mm Remington 700 sniper weapon systems.

At the same time, the program supports the competitive shooting requirements of the Marine Corps and Navy. It further provides support for the Research and Development of precision weapon systems, equipment, and techniques for Scout Sniping. An example thereof is the 5.56mm Night Fighting Weapon System, described herein.

Introduction of the Marine Scout Sniper Badge

The establishment of the TMSSS was further highlighted with the introduction and pinning of the scout sniper badge - the first and to date, the only such badge in the Armed Forces of the Philippines (“AFP”) to recognize the role of the scout sniper in Marine combat operations. The first badge was awarded posthumously to the late LCDR Adolfo S. “Chito” Feliciano PN(M) in a plaque to recognize him as the first sniper in Philippine Marine Corps history. The late LCDR Feliciano had died in a plane crash in Bataan with the late Commandant, Commodore Rudiardo M. Brown, AFP in January 1973. The award was received by the late LCDR Feliciano's sister, Mrs. Asuncion F. Richardson.

Barrett M95 12.7mm Heavy Sniper/Anti-Material Rifle

Following the introduction of the 5.56mm MSSR, the PMC procured the 12.7mm Barrett heavy sniper/anti material rifle starting in 1998. The Barrett M95 is a 5 rd. magazine-fed bolt-action rifle with a bullpup configuration, which reduces its overall length and weight compared to the semi-automatic M82A1 and A3 versions. As opposed to an anti-personnel rifle, the Barrett is also known as an Anti-Material Rifle because of its ability to penetrate hardened fortifications and light armored vehicles at ranges beyond 1,000 meters using M2 Armor Piercing (AP) or M8 Armor Piercing Incendiary (API) ammunition. In this capacity, the Barrett M95 was distinguished in operations in the April 2000 Central Mindanao Campaign where scout snipers engaged MILF bunkers and emplacements.

Remington 700P 7.62 mm Intermediate Range Day-Night Scout Sniper Rifle
In late 2004, the first Remington 700P bolt-action sniper rifles began to arrive at the Marine Scout Sniper School, representing an expanded capability for the Marine scout sniper to engage targets from 800 to 1,000 meters.
The Remington 700P is a medium weight, durable, air-cooled, bolt action, precision weapon and arrived as part of the Tactical Weapon System (TWS) package of Remington Arms Co. of Ilion, NY. Widely used as a police sniper rifle, the Remington 700P uses the same receiver used in the USMC M40A1/M40A3 and US Army M24 sniper rifles. The rifle is equipped with a variable Leupold Tactical 3-9X magnification optical sight with a 40mm objective lens and is adjustable for windage and elevation, in place of iron sights.

The rifle is equipped with a 26 inch heavy contour free-floated black oxidized stainless steel barrel with a 1 X 12 inch rifle twist in its receiver, which is screwed on a full-length aluminium bedding block mounted on a one-piece H.S. Precision Kevlar and fiberglass-reinforced synthetic stock. The H.S. Precision stock is molded with a non-slip pebbled finish and is black. It has a palm swell at the pistol grip that fills out the hand and facilitates trigger control by properly positioning the shooter’s hand. The stock has two sling swivel studs, the forward of which is for a bipod. The stock is attached to the action with Allen screws set at 65 inch pounds. The standard trigger assembly provides an excellent 3 – 3 ½ lbs. trigger pull and does not require setting between shots.



Shortly after its arrival, the PMC began to modify the 700P to meet its requirements. The first of these modifications consisted of replacement of the scope base with a one-piece Picatinny rail, which provides for flexibility in mounting a broader range of optical sights. With the PMC emphasis on developing a low light or night fighting capability, the second modification consisted of the installation of the Aurora 8010 day-night optical sight in place of the issued Leupold Tactical day scope. The Aurora 8010 is equipped with 2.5 X 10 magnification, a 56mm objective lens, and ¼ MOA clicks. When light levels drop to prohibit use of a day scope, the Aurora 8010 can be switched from a day scope to a night vision scope in less than 30 seconds with no special tools or no shift in point of impact. Its special lens coating provides optimum light transmission and uses a Mil-dot reticle for accurate day and night ranging.
At this time, the PMC will continue to evaluate and adapt the 700P to meet its own requirements as the dedicated 7.62 mm Marine Scout Sniper Rifle (“MSSR”) to complement the 5.56mm DMR. The MSSR’s role is to provide long range precision aimed fire with match-grade 168 grain BTHP ammunition out to 800 meters or 1,000 meters with the heavier 175 grain ammunition, also known in the USMC as M118LR (Long Range). This weapon system is further equipped with a plastic hard case for storage and transport, an Otis cleaning kit and an variable 15-35X spotting scope.

Developments in Match-Grade Ammunition

One of the earlier constraints in the Scout Sniper Program was the unavailability of appropriate match-grade ammunition. Match-grade ammunition is ammunition which is manufactured to much closer tolerances than regular ammunition in order to produce rounds that consistently perform to the very high standards required in a sniper rifle. The sniper rifle strictly requires match-grade ammunition in order to achieve the required consistency and accuracy.

Originally, match grade ammunition requirements for the scout snipers using the 5.56mm MSSR were met by procuring factory loaded 69 grain Gold Medal Boat Tail Hollow Point (“BTHP”) ammunition from Federal Cartridge Co. These rounds were recommended by DPMS, the DMR parts supplier. While the Federal rounds performed adequately, subsequent rounds were evaluated, including the 69 grain HSM round from Missoula, MT which was procured in sufficient quantities for use by Marine scout snipers.

Manufacture of Match-Grade Ammunition: Until recently, the AFP had no capability to manufacture match-grade ammunition for any sniper rifle in its inventory. The realization of the necessity to have adequate quantities of match-grade ammunition to sustain the scout sniper program, and the high costs of factory loaded match-grade ammunition subsequently drove the requirement for the PMC to manufacture such ammunition in-house.

To support this requirement, the PMC subsequently acquired reloaders in December 2004 to provide for the in-house manufacture of the required ammunition with components procured in more economical quantities. By early 2005, several Hornady reloaders were additionally procured to enable the Marine Scout Sniper School to manufacture its own match-grade ammunition to its own specifications. As of now, the School can manufacture 1,000 rounds a day. At the same time, Dillon 1050 reloaders were also procured to meet the ammunition requirements for the PN shooting team.

Initially, 5.56mm match-grade loads were manufactured for the 5.56mm MSSR. With the arrival of the Remington 700P sniper rifle, and the suppressed Night Fighting Weapon System, both of which are described in this paper, the range of match-grade loads was expanded to include 7.62mm, and subsonic 5.56mm ammunition, respectively.

The ability to manufacture match-grade ammunition in-house provides improved access to this type of ammunition in sufficient quantities at significantly lower costs to the PMC. At the same time, availability is improved because no special procurement procedures are required to acquire the ammunition from overseas. This capability is unique to the PMC and the PN and represents a significant achievement for it to sustain its scout sniper, special operations, and competitive shooting requirements. It may eventually enable the AFP to have more and easy access to this type of ammunition instead of acquiring the same through special procurement procedures at higher costs.

As of this writing, the Marine Corps loads Match-grade ammunition according to the following specifications:

CALIBER PROJECTILE
5.56mm 68 grain Hornady BTHP Match
  73 grain TAP BTHP Match
  68 grain Hornady BTHO Math Subsonic
7.62mm 168 grain Hornady BTHP Match
  168 grain Hornady BTHP Match Subsonic

Table 1. Match-grade ammunition loaded at the Marine Scout Sniper School


Night Fighting Capability Development:

Combat operations have shown that in counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, the enemy must be denied every means and opportunity for target acquisition. This is particularly true in night and low light conditions, where covert and clandestine operations increasingly take place. By providing the capability to identify and engage targets at night and low light conditions, the scout sniper program continues to evolve and demonstrate its relevance.

The experience accumulated to date demonstrates that the optimal configuration for a night operations capability at the company level includes the ability to for enhanced target acquisition coupled with nocturnal navigation and interception of enemy radio transmissions.

Nocturnal Target Acquisition: The first requirement calls for the ability to identify and engage enemy targets at night. It is not enough to just visually acquire the target through Night Vision Goggles (“NVGs”) or Night Observation Devices (“NODs”) but to engage them. For this purpose, the Night Vision Sight (“NVS”) is needed and is mounted on the specified weapon system. In this case, the platform in use is the 5.56mm Night Fighting Weapon System (“NFWS”), which is described here, and the Remington 700P scout sniper rifle with the Aurora day-night scope.

Enhanced Nocturnal Navigation: The enemy typically has the benefit of being more familiar with the terrain in which he operates. Global Positioning Systems (“GPS”) enable Scout Sniper and Special Operations Teams to navigate effectively at night and negate the enemy’s usual advantage from his familiarity with the terrain.

Nocturnal Acquisition of Enemy Radio Transmissions: To identify and locate enemy radio communications at night, Radio Directional Finders (RDF) are deployed at the Brigade level to detect enemy VHF transmissions. This capability enables Marines to locate, plot, triangulate, and vector Scout Sniper teams and friendly forces to enemy positions.

The 5.56mm Night Fighting Weapon System (“NFWS”)

In late 2004, Col. Jonathan C. Martir PN(M)(GSC), N-6, began development of a dedicated night fighting weapon system using the 5.56mm M16A1 service rifle as a platform. PN research and development on the NFWS resulted in a system which integrated an in-house produced sound and flash suppressor, and integrated night vision weapon sights on an M16A1 upper receiver barrel assembly. The system is most significant in developing an in-house dedicated night fighting system for the PN/PMC, and thus introduced the only such capability in the AFP. Although the system is described in further detail in a separate study, its basic features are described as follows:

Upper Receiver: The NFWS upper receiver consists of an M16 A1 flat top upper receiver, which was developed into a fully integrated sound and flash suppressed upper receiver assembly that can be mounted or removed from a DMR lower receiver assembly in the same manner as the standard M16A1 service rifle. The NFWS upper assembly has an overall length of 31 ½ inches and is slightly heavier than a DMR or M16A1 service rifle upper assembly, principally due to the weight of the Night Vision Sight and the heavier barrel and integral suppressor.

Mounting System: The NVS is mounted on a MILSPEC Picatinny rail base which is installed on the upper receiver. The NVS with its integral scope base mounts directly on the Picatinny railing and provides a secure, comfortable shooting position. This may be seen in the following photograph:


Barrel: The NFWS utilizes a 16-inch chrome moly MILSPEC 5:56 X 45mm barrel with a 1:9 inch rifling twist to enable it to stabilize standard issue M193 55 grain ball to 62 grain SS109 and 69 grain Match ammunition. The barrel is individually re-crowned and re-chambered to ensure reliability and accuracy. The barrel makes use of porting, or cross drilling, with holes drilled along its entire length, which is covered by the integral suppressor. The barrel is cross-drilled for gas bleed off as part of the suppressor/silencer design. A metal housing which incorporates a series of slots to facilitate barrel cooling replaces the issued synthetic handguards.

Integral Suppressor: The sound suppressor is an integral, all-metal unit that houses the entire barrel, gas port, and gas tube mechanism all the way up to the receiver. Proprietary designed expansion chamber(s) and baffles capture and dissipate or reduce sound generated from gases produced when the weapon is fired. Made from stainless steel for strength and durability, the baffles take into consideration the tropical and humid operating environment.

Night Vision sights

The NFWS is a dedicated night fighting system, and uses one of two (2) night vision sights: the Litton Model M845 MkII Night Vision Sight or the Night Optics D-740/760 Advanced Night Vision Weapon Sight, as described below.

The Night Optics D-740/760 Advanced Night Vision Weapon Sight:

Made by Night Optics USA, Inc., the D-740/760 Advanced Night Vision Weapon Sight uses a waterproof, light weight (1.1kg), impact resistant, nitrogen purged housing to enable long-range observation under low light conditions. It is equipped with an illuminated red on green Mil-Dot reticle on high-grade multi coated 4 X power (on the D-740 model) and 6 X power optics (on the D-760 model) for a high resolution field of view. It features ¼ Minute of Angle (MOA) elevation and windage adjustments with a detection and recognition range of 300m and 225m, respectively.

The D-740/760 series is powered by two (2) AA batteries for approximately 60 hours. It makes use of a low profile heavy duty Weaver mounting system which enables it to be used on individual and crew served weapons.

The Litton Model M845 MkII Night Vision Sight

Made by Litton Electron Devices of Arizona, USA, the M845 MkII Night Vision Sight (“NVS”) is a lightweight (1.3 kg), fixed focus self-contained passive electro-optical night vision weapons sight, which is effective at short and intermediate ranges. It has a 75mm objective lens which has a permanent focal setting at “infinity” for a wide field of view to facilitate rapid target acquisition. The adjustable reticle on high-grade multi coated 1.55 X power optics provides for a high resolution field of view. Once the target is acquired, the adjustable reticle provides the shooter with a color contrasting aiming point of reference.


Ammunition: The barrel and its 1:9 rate of twist enables the NFWS to stabilize 55grain M193 to the 62 grain M855/SS109 and 68 gr Hornady Match subsonic ammunition. As described earlier, the integral suppressor enables the NFWS to use standard supersonic ammunition, or subsonic ammunition, which is loaded by the Marine Scout Sniper School.

Overall Conclusion: The Marine Scout Sniper Program as a Force Multiplier

To date, the experience of the Marine Corps Scout Sniper Program has been instructive in demonstrating effective and cost efficient weapons systems that complement and expand the Navy and Marine Corps small arms capabilities. It provides additional flexibility for Special Operations Teams by allowing additional mission capabilities currently not available with the service rifle through the MSSR, the DMR, and more recently, the NFWS. These are consistent with and strengthen the concept of the Battalion Landing Team (Special Operations Capable) or BLT (SOC) of the Philippine Marine Corps.

The current capability thus consists of the means to identify and engage targets with a primary (up to 700m) system through the 5.56mm DMR, an intermediate (up to 1,000m) system with the 7.62mm MSSR, and a long-range (up to 1,500m and beyond) with the 12.7mm anti-material /personnel Barrett M95. It is worth noting that a similar structure also exists within the Israel Defense Forces (“IDF”), which has been combating terrorists and insurgents since its inception. The IDF employs its 5.56mm Designated Marksman Rifle using a stock M-16A2 platform, which is not as extensively developed in comparison to the PMC 5.56mm MSSR/DMR. Similar in concept is the 5.56mm Squad Advanced Marksman Rifle (“SAMR”) of the USMC, which is undergoing testing in Afghanistan and Iraq.

The development of the 5.56mm MSSR/DMR, the use of suppressors and NVS for the NFWS demonstrates initiatives to optimize existing weapons platforms within resource constraints. The complete set with carrying case excluding the M16 A1 upper receiver assembly, both of which are in inventory, the 5.56mm MSSR/DMR and the NFWS without optics cost PhP 120,000.00 and PhP 40,000.00 or US$715.00, respectively. Both are cost effective initiatives which represent force multiplier that greatly contribute to the overall capabilities of the Philippine Navy and its dedicated special operations units. Similar imported systems would cost significantly more. Local production and maintenance of the 5.56mm MSSR/DMR and the NFWS ensure a sustainable self-reliance capability.

Equally important to the success of the entire program is an awareness of the same program and its capabilities among middle and senior level officers and decision makers. Such awareness leads to the appropriate and effective employment of scout snipers to attain their objectives. This may be facilitated by the continued operation of the Marine Scout Sniper School, which to date, remains the sole institution in the Armed Forces of the Philippines that conducts sniper training and research and development for new systems and components.

The continuing efforts and experience to date in countering asymmetric threats such as terrorism and insurgency in the Philippine archipelago therefore call for continued consideration and awareness of the relevance of the Marine Corps Scout Sniper Program and its experience in training and equipping Scout Snipers, and innovating and optimizing existing weapons capabilities within prevailing resource constraints to deny the enemy its advantages and decisively defeat them. The most recent example is the use of the NFWS by Marine Scout Snipers with FRBN on (month/date), which resulted in the killing of seven (7) MBG terrorists and the recovery of seven (7) M16 service rifles and M203 grenade launchers, all done at 0430H in Jolo.

Rifle, 5.56 mm Designated Marksman

       
 
1st Generation
2nd Generation
3rd Generation
Caliber Factory 5.56mm NATO 62gr SS109 or 69 gr Federal Match Gold Medal BTHP Factory 5.56mm NATO 62gr SS109;
69 gr Federal Match Gold Medal BTHP; 69 gr. HSM BTHP Match
Handloaded 5.56mm 68 gr. Hornady or BTHP Match; 73 gr. TAP BTHP Match
Operation Gas-operated, semi-automatic Gas-operated, semi-automatic Gas-operated, semi-automatic
Sights Tasco Armored 3-9X 40 mm with Duplex reticle mounted on DPMS Tri-mount attached to carry handle. Tasco Armored 3-9X 40 mm with Duplex reticle mounted on DPMS Tri-mount on upper receiver; carry handle and front sight post removed. Bushnell 3-9X 40 mm with Mil-dot reticle, mounted on DPMS Tri-mount on upper receiver. Rear part of carry handle is retained to reinforce the DPMS Tri-mount. Front sight post removed.
Feed 20 or 30 rd box magazine 20 or 30 rd box magazine 20 or 30 rd box magazine
Weight 12 lbs. 10 lbs 10 lbs
8 lbs (PN SWG Model)
Length 42.25" (24” barrel PMC Model)

42.25" (24” barrel PMC Model)

42.25" (24” barrel PMC Model)
38.25” (20” barrel PN SWG model)

Barrel Free floated 24" (68 cm) DPMS Heavy Stainless Steel Ultra Match

Free floated 24" (68 cm) DPMS Heavy Stainless Steel Ultra Match

Free floated 24" (68 cm) DPMS Heavy Stainless Steel Ultra Match (PMC Model)
20" (50.8 cm) DPMS Heavy Stainless Steel Ultra Match
(PN NSWG Model)

Barrel Twist RH 1-8.5"

RH 1-8"

RH 1-8"

Stock Black synthetic M-16A1
With Delta cheek rest

Black synthetic M-16A2
-

Black synthetic M-16A2

Trigger J&P match trigger J&P match trigger J&P match trigger
Accuracy At least 1 MOA with 62 gr SS 109/M855 ammunition at 600m

At least 1 MOA with 62 gr SS 109/M855 ammunition at 600m

At least 1 MOA with 68 gr BTHP ammunition at 600m


Table 2. 5.56mm Marine Scout Sniper Rifle/Designated Marksman Rifle Development

 

 
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