HIST2410 / EURO2410

NINETEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE, 1815-1917:

Bourgeois Culture, Peoples’ Revolutions

 

 

Session 1, 2002

 

Subject Director : Martyn Lyons

Office: School of History, MB349

Phone:: 02 9385 3261

Fax: 02 9385 1251

e-mail : m.lyons@unsw.edu.au

 

Subject description

Themes in the political, social and cultural history of 19th century Europe. One part of the subject will deal with the great 19th century revolutions of 1830, 1848, 1871 and 1905. A second theme is the rise of the modern city, with special reference to the rebuilding of Paris. The subject also discusses aspects of dominant bourgeois culture, including the new domestic ideology and the role of women within it. Students will be expected to discuss novels and the visual arts as well as works of historical analysis.

 

Major Sequences

This is a 6-credit unit subject which counts towards a major sequence EITHER in History OR in European Studies.

 

Lecture/Seminars

Wednesdays          2 – 3    in     EE 222 (access by footbridge behind CLB)

Thursdays             11 – 1  in     QUAD GO26

 

Assessment

Research Essay  (about 4,000 words)                                        = 50%

Short Paper or Review (about 1,500 words)                               = 30%

Seminar Contribution                                                                = 20%

 

Please note that there is no exam in this subject, and students are not required to make a formal tutorial presentation.

 

Submission dates :

Short Paper                     must be submitted by                  1 May

Research Essay               must be submitted by               12 June

 

Students will be penalised for late submission of assignments (see School of History booklet) unless an extension has been approved by me BEFORE the relevant deadline date.

 

Submitting Written Assignments

You are strongly advised to photocopy written assignments before handing them in - although all care is taken, they do occasionally go astray. Please hand your assignments in personally. All assignments should be accompanied by the standard European Studies cover sheet (or the School of History cover sheet).

 

Return of Work

I guarantee to return all written assignments, with mark and comments, within four weeks of submission at the latest. Normally, short papers will be returned the week after submission, and essays three weeks following submission. This guarantee only applies to work submitted before the prescribed deadline.

 

Do you have a problem related to your studies? If so, please see me as soon as possible.

Now read on, and enjoy the course -

Martyn Lyons

 

Recommended Books

* Balzac, Honoré de        Colonel Chabert (New Directions, 1997)                S843.7/BAL/64C-F

* Berenson, Edward        The Trial of Madame Caillaux
(University of California Press, 1992)                               S364.1523092/12

* Gemie, Sharif      French Revolutions, 1815-1914: an introduction
(Edinburgh University Press, 1999)                                  S944.06/46

* Merriman, John   A History of Modern Europe: from the French
Revolution to the Present
(Norton, 1996)                         S940.2/123

* Turgenev, Ivan    Fathers and Sons (Penguin)                                            891.733/TUR/1

* means that Open Reserve has been asked to stock this item

 

Lecture/ Seminar Programme

 

Wed  6 Mar  (1h)                                                                               Introductory meeting

Thur  7 Mar (2h)                                                The bourgeois century: Europe in 1815-48

REVOLUTIONS, PART ONE

Wed 13 Mar (1h)                                   Bourbon Restoration and July Monarchy in France

Thur 14 Mar (2h)                                          Post-Napoleonic France: Le Colonel Chabert

Wed 20 Mar (1h)                                                 Class Discussion of Le Colonel Chabert

Thur 21 Mar (2h)                                                                The 1848 Revolution in France

Wed 27 Mar (1h)                                                        The 1848 Revolutions in Europe – 1

Thur 28 Mar (2h)                                                        The 1848 Revolutions in Europe – 2

Fri 29 Mar to Sun 7 April                                                                                    RECESS

Wed 10 April (1h)                                                                     The Paris Commune, 1871

Thur 11 April (2h)                                                 Karl Marx and 19th-Century Revolutions

THE MODERN CITY

Wed 17 April (1h)                                                                         Paris of Les Misérables

Thur 18 April (2h)                                             Cholera and disease in the 19th century city

Wed 24 April (1h)                                                     Discussion about written assignments

Thur 25 April                                                           ANZAC DAY HOLIDAY – No Class

**** Your first paper must be submitted by 1 May ****

Wed 1 May (1h)                                                         Haussmann’s modernisation of Paris

Thur 2 May (2h)                        Paris, spectacle of modernity & the Impressionist painters

BOURGEOIS CULTURE & THE FAMILY

Wed 8 May (1h)                                              Inventing tradition: 19th century nationalisms

Thur 9 May (2h)                                                          Antisemitism in 19th century Europe

Wed 15 May (1h)                                                                                      Women’s work

Thur 16 May (2h)                                             Women’s work and women’s consumption

Wed 22 May (1h)                                                               The Trial of Madame Caillaux

Thur 23 May (2h)                                                              Family, Duty and Transgression

REVOLUTIONS, PART TWO : RUSSIA

Wed 29 May (1h)                                       19th century revolutionary movements in Russia

Thur 30 May (2h)                                                                 Turgenev’s Fathers and Sons

Wed 5 June (1h)                                                              Russian Revolutions, 1905-17 (1)

Thur 6 June (2h)                                                              Russian Revolutions, 1905-17 (2)

**** Your second paper must be submitted by 12 June ****

Wed 12 June (1h)                                                                      Conclusion and evaluation

Thur 13 June                                                                                                     No lecture

 

Reading Assignments and Essay Questions:

 

Week 1 : 4 to 9 March : Introduction

 

Week 2 : 11 to 16 March : Post-Revolutionary Society in France & Balzac’s Colonel Chabert

Reading Assignment:

* Merriman, John   A History of Modern Europe, ch.14.                                S940.2/123

* Gemie, Sharif      French Revolutions, 1815-1914, chs 1-4.                        S944.06/46

* Balzac, Honoré de        Colonel Chabert (New Directions, 1997)                S843.7/BAL/64C-F

 

Essay Questions:

          Did the French Revolution of 1830 change anything?

 

Write a critique of the movie Colonel Chabert. In your review, compare the film with the book, to assess the cinematic adaptation; and discuss how the main social and historical themes are interpreted.

 

Discuss the painting on the front of your course guide. What does it ‘represent’? How does the artist (Delacroix) portray Revolution – realistically? romantically? Or is there a better way to describe it?

 

Further Reading:

* Magraw, Roger   France, 1815-1914: the Bourgeois Century, chs.1-2.      944.06/29

* McPhee, Peter    A Social History of France, 1780-1880, ch.6.                 S306.0944/11

* Jardin, André & Tudesq, AJ   Restoration and Reaction, 1815-48             S944.06/27A

 Balzac, Honoré de          Preface to the Human Comedy in A.Kettle, ed,
The 19th century Novel: critical essays and documents,
ch.9.                                                                                                  S809.3034

 Fortescue, William         Revolution and Counter-Revolution in France,
1815-52                                  
                                                          S944.06/34

 Margadant, Jo Burr         ‘The Duchesse de Berry and Royalist political
culture in post-revolutionary France’, History Workshop Journal,
43, 1997, pp.23-52.                                                                            S905/42

 Newman, EL        ‘The Blouse and the Frock-Coat: the alliance of the
common people of Paris with the liberal leadership and the
middle class during the last years of the Bourbon Restoration’,
Journal of Modern History, 46, 1974, pp.26-59.                                  S909.06/1

Pilbeam, Pamela    The 1830 Revolution in France                                      S944.06/39

Pinkney, David      The French Revolution of 1830                                       S944.063/9

Pinkney, David      Decisive Years in France, 1840-7,
chs.1,2 & conclusion.                                                                         S944.063/16

Savigear P   ‘Carbonarism and the French Army, 1815-24’,
History, 54, 1969, pp.198-211.                                                            S906/3

 

Week 3 : 18 to 23 March : 1848 Revolution in France

 

Reading Assignment:

* Merriman, J        A History of Modern Europe, ch.17.                                S940.2/123

* Gemie, Sharif      French Revolutions, 1815-1914, chs.5-8.                        S944.06/46

* Agulhon, Maurice         The Republican Experiment, 1848-52                   S944.07/57B

 

Essay Questions:

          What were the consequences and significance of the 1848 Revolution in France?

 

Discuss the role of either the proletariat or the peasantry in the Revolution of 1848-52.

 

How far should we accept or reject Karl Marx’s interpretation of the French Revolution of 1848 in his The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte?

 

Further Reading:

 Labrousse, Ernest ‘1789, 1830, 1848: How revolutions are born’,
in Crouzet, Chaloner & Stern, eds, Essays in European Economic History.   330.94/42

* Magraw, Roger   France, 1815-1914: the Bourgeois Century, ch.4                     944.06/29

* McPhee, Peter    A Social History of France, 1780-1880, chs.8-9                       S306.0944/11

 Marx, Karl            The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte                                      S944.07/4

 Kluchert, Gerhard ‘The Paradigm and the Parody: Karl Marx and the French
Revolution in the Class Struggles, 1848-51’, History of European Ideas,
14:1, 1992, pp.85-99.                                                                                   S940.05/4

 Merriman, John     The Agony of the Republic: the repression of the Lef
 in Revolutionary France, 1848-51
                                                              S944.07/60

* Price, Roger       The French Second Republic: a Social History                         309.14407/1

 Price, Roger         Revolution and Reaction: 1848 and the 2nd French
 Republic
(see esp articles by Amann & Tilly and Lees).                               S944.07/55

 

On the Peasants:

McPhee, Peter       The Politics of Rural Life: political mobilization in
 theFrench countryside, 1845-52
                                                       S320.94409034/1

McPhee, Peter       ‘Electoral Democracy and direct democracy in France,
1789-1851’, European History Quarterly, 16, 1986, pp.77-96.                      S940.05/1

 

 McPhee, Peter      ‘On Rural Politics in 19th century France: the example
of Rodès, 1789-1851’, Comparative Studies in Society and History,
23, 1981, pp.248-77.                                                                                    S906/13

 Margadant, Ted    French Peasants in Revolt: the insurrection of 1851                 S944.07/61

 

 

Week 4 : 25 to 28 March :        1848 Revolutions in Europe

 

Reading Assignment:

* Merriman, J                  A History of Modern Europe, ch.17.                                S940.2/123

* Sperber, Jonathan         The European Revolutions, 1848-51                               S940.285/2

 

Essay Questions:

          Does the Frankfurt Parliament deserve its reputation as an ineffectual talking-shop?

 

          Why were the Revolutions of 1848 defeated in the Habsburg Empire?

 

          How realistic were the ambitions of Italian nationalists in the 1848 Revolutions?

          (You must consider events in Piedmont, Milan and Rome for this topic).

 

Further Reading:

Evans, RJW et al, eds      The Revolutions in Europe, 1848-9:
from reform to reaction  
                                                                   S940.284/12

 Gildea, R    Barricades and Borders: Europe, 1800-1914, chs.3-4.             S940.2/107

 Hobsbawm, EJ     The Age of Capital, 1848-75, ch.1.                                 S909.81/7

 Korner, Axel         1848: a European Revolution? (See chs 2 & 11.)           S940.285/3

 Namier, Lewis      1848: the Revolution of the Intellectuals                          S940.28/1

* Price, Roger       The Revolutions of 1848                                                 S940.284/9

 Stearns, Peter N    1848: the Revolutionary Tide in Europe                         S940.284/5

 

On Germany:

 Engels, F    Revolution and Counter-Revolution: Germany                          S943.07/65

 Hamerow, T         ‘The Elections to the Frankfurt Parliament’,
Journal of Modern History, 33:1, 1961, pp.15-32.                               S909.06/1

 Sperber, Jonathan Rhineland Radicals: the democratic movement
and the Revolution of 1848-9
                                                             S943.4/2

 

On the Habsburg Empire

* Macartney, CA   The Habsburg Empire, 1780-1918                                 943.604/17

* Okey, Robin       Eastern Europe, 1740-1980, chs.3-4.                             S947.189A

 Rath, RJ               The Viennese Revolution of 1848                                    S943.6/6

* Sked, Alan          The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire chs.2-3.  S943.604/33

 Taylor, AJP          The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809-1918                            S943.6/4

 

On Italy:

 Hales, E.E.Y.        Pio Nono : a study in European politics and religion
 in the 19th century
                                                                             282.4/2

 Hearder, Harry & Woolf, Stuart         The Italian Revolutions of 1848-9      AV945/26A

 Hearder, H  Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento, ch.8                                  S945.08/49

 Smith, Denis Mack         Mazzini, ch.3                                                        S945.08/58

* Woolf, Stuart      A History of Italy, 1700-1860, ch.14                               S945.07/3

 

**** RECESS 29 March – 7 April ****

 

Week 5 : 8 to 13 April :  Paris Commune

 

Reading Assignment:

 

* Merriman, J        A History of Modern Europe, ch.19.                                S940.2/123

* Gemie, Sharif      French Revolutions, 1815-1914, ch.9.                            S944.06/46

* Schulkind, E.      The Paris Commune of 1871                                          944.081/53

 

Essay Question:

 

Explain why the Paris Commune enjoyed a mythical status in history of the European Left. How would you, as a historian, suggest that the myth should be revised?

 

Further Reading:

 

* Magraw, Roger   France, 1815-1914: the Bourgeois Century, ch.5.          944.06/29

* McPhee, Peter    A Social History of France, 1780-1880, pp.213-7.          S306.0944/11

* Rose, RB           Tribunes and Amazons: Men & Women of
Revolutionary France
, chapter 20                                    S944/331

 Edwards, Stewart The Paris Commune                                                       S944.081/54

 Gould, Roger V    Insurgent Identities: class, community and protes
 in Paris from 1848 to the Commune
,
pp.134-52 and ch.6.                                                       
S305.50944/3

 Jones, Kathleen & Vergès, F    ‘”Aux Citoyennes!” Women, Politics
and the Paris Commune of 1871’, History of European
Ideas
, 13:6, 1991, pp.711-32.                                           S940.05/4

 Marx, Karl            The Civil War in France                                                 S944.08/17

 Price, Roger         ‘Ideology and Motivation in the Paris Commune
of 1871’, Historical Journal, 15, 1972, pp.75-86.             S906/11

 

 Sowerwine, Charles        France since 1870, ch.2                                        S944.081/102

 Tombs, Robert     The War Against Paris, 1871, esp.chs.1, 10 & 11.          S944.36/14

 Tombs, Robert     ‘Warriors and Killers: Women and Violence during
the Paris Commune 1871’, in M.Lyons & R.Aldrich eds.,
The Sphinx in the Tuileries and other essays in
Modern French History
, pp.169-82.                                S944/332

 

Week 5 : 8 to 13 April :  Marx and the 19th-Century Revolutions

 

Essay Question:

In Marx’s (and Engels’) writings on the French and German Revolutions of the 19th century, they were both inspired and frustrated by contemporary events. Explain the reasons for both their inspiration and frustration. Were either of these responses justified? (Make your own selections from Marx and Engels for this topic).

 

Reading:

 Engels, F              Revolution and Counter-Revolution: Germany                S943.07/65

 Marx, Karl            The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte                            S944.07/4

 Marx, Karl            The Class Struggles in France, 1848-52                         S944.07/47

 Marx, Karl            The Revolutions of 1848, intro by D.Fernbach.                S940.284/3

 Marx, Karl            The Civil War in France                                                 S944.08/17

 Cummins, Ian       Marx, Engels and National Movements                          S322.420922/1

 Kluchert, Gerhard ‘The Paradigm and the Parody: Karl Marx and the
French Revolution in the Class Struggles, 1848-51’,
History of European Ideas, 14:1, 1992, pp.85-99.            S940.05/4

* Rose, RB           Tribunes and Amazons: Men & Women of
Revolutionary France
, chapter 20                                    S944/331

 

Week 6 : 15 to 20 April: The Importance of Cholera

 

Reading Assignment:

* Evans, Richard J ‘Epidemics and Revolutions: Cholera in 19th century Europe’, Past & Present, 120, 1988, pp.123-46.      S905/7

 

Essay Question:

What can the study of disease in the 19th-century city tell us about medicine, politics

and social relations in this period?

 

Further Reading:

Aisenberg, AR       Contagion, disease, government, and the social
question in 19thc France
                                                S306.4610944/2

Baldwin, Peter       Contagion and the state in Europe, 1830-1930              S614.4409/2

 Briggs, Asa          Collected Essays, vol.2, ch.1, Writers and Cities,
& Ch.8 on Cholera                                                          S306.0942/2/2

 Durey, Michael     The Return of the Plague: British Society
and the cholera, 1831-32
                                               S614.5140941/2

 Evans, Richard J   Death in Hamburg; society and politics in the
cholera years, 1830-1910
, try chs.4 & 5.                        S304.2709435/1

 Gill, Geoff            ‘Cholera and the fight for public health reform in
mid-Victorian England’, The Historian, no.66, 2000,
pp.10-16.                                                                        SQ905/47

* Kudlick, Catherine J      Cholera in post-revolutionary Paris:
 a cultural history
, esp. Intro. and chs 1 & 5.                   S614.5140944/1

 Rosenberg, Charles        ‘Cholera in the 19th century: a tool for social
and economic analysis’, Comparative Studies in
Society & History
, 8, 1965-6, pp.452-63.                          S906/13

* Snowden, Frank Naples in the Time of Cholera, 1884-1911                      S614.51409457(1)

 Willms, Johannes  Paris, Capital of Europe: from the Revolution to
the Belle Epoque
, pp.158-79 & 208-24.                           S944.36/67

 

On pre-Haussmann Paris:

Chevalier, Louis     Labouring Classes and dangerous classes in Paris
 during the first half of the 19th century
                          S364.94436/1

 Cobb, R.C.          Streets of Paris                                   SQ914.436/19

 Hugo, Victor        Les Misérables

 

Week 8 : 29 April to 4 May : Haussmann and the Modernisation of Paris

 

Reading Assignment:

* Clark, TJ   The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the art of Manet
and his followers
                                                                      S759.054/4

 Paris: spectacle of modernity (Open University videotape in
multimedia room)                                                                      SVID759.44361/1

 

Essay Question:

Why, and with what social and cultural consequences, was Paris "modernised" in the 19th century?

 

Further Reading:

* Merriman, J                  A History of Modern Europe, ch.19.                      S940.2/123

* Benjamin, Walter ‘Paris, Capital of the 19thc’, in his Reflections:
 Essays, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings    
          S834.9/BEN/10

* Corbin, Alain      The Foul and the Fragrant                                             S394/10

 Evenson, Norma   Paris: a century of change, 1878-1978                           SQ711.4094436/2

 Gould, Roger V    Insurgent Identities: class, community and protest
in Paris from 1848 to the Commune
, chapter 3.              S305.50944/3

Jordan, David P    Transforming Paris: the life and labours of
Baron Haussmann
                                                         P307.1216092/1

* Pinkney, David   Napoleon III and the rebuilding of Paris                        P711.094436/2

Plessis, Alain                  The Rise and Fall of the Second Empire,
1852-71
, pp.118-25.                                                       S944.07/56

 Rearick, Charles   Pleasures of the Belle Epoque: Entertainment and
festivity in turn-of-the-century France                             
S306.480944/1

 Sutcliffe, Anthony The Autumn of Central Paris                                         S711.409443/2

 Willms, Johannes  Paris, Capital of Europe: from the Revolution to the
Belle Epoque
, pp.256-300.                                              S944.36/67

 Zola, Emile           The Grog-Shop or Drunkard (L'Assommoir),
descriptions of the city in chapters 1, 3 and 12.                S843.8/ZOL/7

 

Week 8 : 29 April to 4 May : Paris and the Impressionist Painters

 

Reading Assignment:

* Clark, T.J.          The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of
Manet and his followers
                                                  S759.054/4

 

Essay Question:

Why at first did the Impressionists shock their contemporary audience?

 

The Impressionists have been regarded as the shock-troops of the first artistic avant-garde (the conventional view), as painters who recorded the advent of ‘modern life’ (Clark), and as part of an oppositional republican culture (Nord). Which interpretation do you prefer, and why?

 

Further Reading:

 

* Merriman, J        A History of Modern Europe, pp.832-4.                                     S940.2/123

 Herbert, Robert    Impressionism: art, leisure and Parisian society.                      SQ759.054/5

 Adler, Kathleen     Camille Pissaro: a biography                                                   S759.4/PIS/3

 Loyrette, Henri     Degas: Passion and Intellect                                                    S759.4/DEG/10

Mainardi, Patricia   The End of Salon Art and the State in the early 3rd Republic    S709.034/20

* Nord, Philip       Impressionism and politics: art and class in the 19th century     S759.4/71

 Rewald, John        History of Impressionism                                                          RQ759.05/2

 Richardson, J       Manet                                                                             SQ759.4/MAN/7

 Ross, Novelene    Manet’s ‘Bar at the Folies-Bergère                                         S759.4/MAN/8

 Krell, Alan            Manet and the painters of Contemporary Life                 S759.4/MAN/13

 

Week 9 : 6 to 11 May : Nationalism and Antisemitism

 

Reading Assignment:

* Anderson, Benedict      Imagined Communities                                                   S320.54/20

 

Essay Questions:

‘Nations as natural, inherent political destiny, are a myth’ (Gellner). If so, who ‘invented’ nationalisms in 19th-century Europe, and what helped to make nationalism a reality?

 

How do you account for outbreaks of antisemitism in Europe before 1914? What was ‘modern’ about anti-Jewish hatred in this period?

 

Further Reading:

* Merriman, J                  A History of Modern Europe, ch.21                                 S940.2/123

 Phillips, Roderick Society, State and Nation in 20th century Europe,
pp.1-13 & 51-61.                                                                      S940.5/69

 Ben-Amos, Avner ‘Patriotism and Popular Culture in the State Funerals
of the French 3rd Republic’, History of European Ideas,
16:4-6, 1993, pp.459-65.                                                                                                                                                                               S940.05/4

 Eley, Geoff           Becoming National: a Reader, parts 1-2.                                  S320.54/75

 Gellner, E             Nations and Nationalism                                                          S320.54/18

 Hobsbawm, EJ     The Age of Capital, 1848-1875, ch.5, ‘Building Nations’.         S909.81/7

 Hobsbawm, EJ     The Age of Empire, 1875-1914, ch.6, ‘Waving Flags’.              S909.82/121

* Hobsbawm, EJ   Nations and Nationalism since 1780: programme,
myth, reality                                                                              S320.54/34

 Hobsbawm EJ & Ranger, Terence     The Invention of Tradition, esp.chs 1 & 7.   S390/9

 Pflanze, Otto        ‘Characteristics of Nationalism in Europe, 1848-1870’,
Review of Politics,
28, 1966, pp.129-43.                                    S320.6/7

 

On Antisemitism:

* Gemie, Sharif      French Revolutions, 1815-1914: an introduction, chapter 11    S944.06/46

Blobaum, Robert ‘The Politics of antisemitism in fin-de-siècle Warsaw’,
Journal of Modern History, 73:2, 2001, pp.275-306.

 Bredin, J-D           The Affair: the case of Alfred Dreyfus                                        S944.0812/5

 Byrnes, RF           Antisemitism in modern France                                                S301.45/90/(1)

 Frankel, Jonathan  The Damascus Affair: ritual murder, politics and the Jews
in 1840
                                                                          S305.89240569/1

 Klier, JD & Lambroza, S          Pogroms: anti-Jewish violence in modern
Russian history                                                                        
S947.004924/18

* Lindemann, Albert SThe Jew Accused: Three Antisemitic Affairs                          S305.8924/63

 Marrus, Michael    ‘French Jews, the Dreyfus Affair and the crisis of French
society’ in Bezucha, RJ, ed., Modern European
Social History
.                                                                          S309.14/6

 Marrus, Michael    The Politics of Assimilation                                                       S301.451924/12

 Mosse GL            Germans and Jews                                                                   S301.451924/32

* Poliakov, Leon   The History of Antisemitism, vol.3, part 3, The Racist
Reaction & vol.4, part 1, 1870-1914.                                         S301.452/16

 Wilson, Stephen   ‘The antisemitic riots of 1898 in France’, Historical Journal,
16, 1973, pp.789-806.                                                               S906/11

 

Week 10 : 13 to 18 May :         Women’s Work

 

Reading Assignment:

* Merriman, J                  A History of Modern Europe, pp.696-8, 865-70 & 881-2. S940.2/123

* Fraisse, Geneviève & Perrot, Michelle        A History of Women, vol.4,
Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War
.
See Scott on ‘The Woman Worker’ (ch.15) &
Walkowitz on prostitution (ch.14).                                             S305.4094/8A(4)

 

Essay Questions:

 

What were the main occupations of female wage workers in the 19th century, and what problems did their work pose for European societies?

 

How did the nature of women’s paid work change between 1815-1914? How far did changes in women’s employment lead to female emancipation?

 

Further Reading:

* McPhee, Peter    A Social History of France, 1780-1880, pp.202-5.                    S306.0944/11

* Perrot, Michelle, ed      A History of Private Life, vol.4, From the Fires
 of Revolution to the Great War
. See Perrot on servants, pp.232-9.      S940.1/116B(4)

 Boxer, Marian J & Quataert, J  Connecting Spheres: women in the western
world
, see chapter 6.                                                                          S305.4509/6/(2)

 Bridenthal, R, Stuard, SM & Wiesner ME, eds      Becoming Visible:
women in European history
, chapter 11.                                             S305.4094/2C

Corbin, Alain        Women For Hire: Prostitution and Sexuality in France
 after 1850                                                                    
          S306.74209034/1

 Evans, Richard J   ‘Prostitution, state and society in imperial Germany’,
Past & Present, 70, 1976, pp.106-29.                                                 S905/7

 Hobsbawm, EJ     The Age of Empire, 1875-1914, ch.8, ‘The New Woman’.        S909.82/121

 McBride, Theresa ‘A Woman’s World: department stores and the evolution
of women’s employment, 1870-1920’, French Historical Studies,
10, 1978, pp.664-83.                                                                           S944.005/2

 Scott, Joan & Tilly, Louise       ‘Women’s work and the family in 19th-century
Europe’, Comparative Studies in Society and History,
17:1, 1975 pp.36-64.                                                                           S906/13

 Tilly, Louise & Scott, Joan       Women, Work and the Family  , chs.4-7.     S305.4300941/1

 Vicinus, Martha, ed        Suffer and Be Still: Women in the Victorian Age,
ch.5 on prostitution.                                                                  S301.412/157

 

On consumption:

* De Grazia, Victoria       The Sex of Things: Gender and Consumption
 in Historical Perspective
,
see chapter 3 by Auslander on consumption in 19thc France.                         S658.83408/1

 Miller, Michael      Le Bon Marché: bourgeois culture and the department store,
esp. chs.5-6.                                                                                      S381.12094436/1  

 O’Brien, Patricia   ‘The Kleptomania Diagnosis: Bourgeois Women and
Theft in late 19th century France’, Journal of Social History,
17, 1983, pp.65-78.                                                                                      S905/13

 

Week 11 : 20 to 25 May :         Family, Duty, Transgression

 

Reading Assignment:

* Berenson, Edward        The Trial of Madame Caillaux, esp.chs.1,3 & 4.   S364.1523092/12

 

Essay Questions:

How does an examination of the trial of Henriette Caillaux illuminate the history of gender roles and expectations in pre-1914 bourgeois society?

 

What assumptions about men and women lay behind the theory of ‘separate spheres’? How far did the theory correspond to changing social realities in 19th-century Europe?

 

Further Reading:

* Anderson, Bonnie S     A History of Their Own, vol.2, pp.129-66               S305.4059/6/(2)

 Boxer, Marian J & Quataert, J  Connecting Spheres: women in the
 western world
, see chapters 7 & 9.                                                    S305.4509/6/(2)

Branca, Patricia     Silent Sisterhood: middle-class women in the
Victorian home                                                                                           
S301.412/263

* Caine, Barbara & Sluga, Glenda       Gendering European History,
1780-1920
, chs.2,4,5.                                                                                 S305.3094/4

 Evans, Richard J, ed       The German Family (ch.2 by Hausen)                             S306.80943/1

* Fraisse, Geneviève & Perrot, Michelle        A History of Women, vol.4,
Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War
.
See chs.7, 13 & 17                                                                             S305.4094/8A(4)

 Lewis, Jane Labour and Love: Women’s Experience of Home
 and Family, 1850-1940
                                                                             S305.40941/7

 McLaren, Angus   ‘Abortion in France, 1800-1914’,
French Historical Studies, 10, 1978, pp.461-85.                                           S944.005/2

 McLaren, A          A History of Contraception from antiquity to
the present day
, ch.6.                                                                                   S363.9609/1

 Macmillan, James  Housewife or Harlot? The Place of Women in
French Society, 1870-1940
                                                                         S305.420944/6

* Merriman, J        A History of Modern Europe, pp.645-52.                                   S940.2/123

* McPhee, Peter    A Social History of France, 1780-1880, pp.251-5.                    S306.0944/11

 Nord, Philip          The Republican Moment: struggles for democracy
in 19th century France
, chapter 9                                                                 S944.081/92

 Offen, Karen        ‘Depopulation, Nationalism and Feminism in fin-de-siècle
France’, American Historical Review, 89:3, 1984, pp.648-76.                        S906/1

* Perrot, Michelle  A History of Private Life, vol.4, see Hall,
‘The Sweet Delights of Home’, pp.47-93; Perrot, ‘Roles and Characters’,
pp.167-203; Corbin, ‘Intimate Relations’, pp.590-613.                                  S940.1/116B(4)

 Phillips, Roderick Society, State and Nation in 20th century Europe, pp.31-4.        S940.5/69

 Phillips, Roderick Untying the Knot: a short history of divorce, chs.6-7.                S306.8909/1

 Smith, Bonnie       Ladies of the Leisure Class: the bourgeoises of northern
France in the 19th century
                                                                            S305.40944/5

 Sussman, George ‘The End of the Wet-Nursing Business in France, 1874-1914’,
Journal of Family History, 2, 1977, pp.237-58.                                             S301.4205/7

Vicinus, Martha, ed         Suffer and Be Still: Women in the Victorian Age             S301.412/157

Walkowitz, Judith  City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger,
ch.2  ‘Contested Terrain: New Social Actors’.                                     S364.15309421/1

 

on duelling and male honour:

 Nye, Robert A      Masculinity and Males Codes of Honour in Modern France     S305.310944/1

 

on the ‘double standard’

 Sohn, Anne-Marie ‘The Golden Age of Male Adultery : the French 3rd Republic’,
Journal of Social History
, 28:3, 1995, pp.469-90.                      S905/13

 

Week 12 : 27 May to 1 June : Turgenev’s Fathers and Sons and Russian Revolutionaries

 

Reading Assignment:

* Turgenev, Ivan    Fathers and Sons                                                           891.733/TUR/1

 

Essay Question:

Evaluate Turgenev’s interpretation of the generational conflict within the context of Russian revolutionary movements as a whole (consider the concept of ‘superfluous men’, nihilism, and the role of the intelligentsia in the revolutionary movement).

What is Turgenev’s attitude to towards his own creation, Bazarov?

 

Further Reading:

* Berlin, Isiah                  Russian Thinkers                                                  197/17
          includes

 Berlin, Isiah Fathers and Children: Turgenev and the liberal predicament
(this essay forms the preface of some editions)                          S891.733/TUR/C-11

  Freeborn, Richard         Turgenev, the novelist’s novelist: a study               891.733/TUR/C-1

  Hemmings, FWJ, ed      The Age of Realism, ch.3.                                      S809.383/5

 

On 19thc Russia in general:

Acton, Edward      Alexander Herzen and the role of the intellectual
 revolutionary
                                                                                    S947.07/46

 Berlin, I      ‘Herzen and his memoirs’ in Against the Current                       192/58

* Christian, David  Power and Privilege: Russia and the Soviet Union
in the 19th and 20th centuries
, chs 2-3.                                                S947.07/54

 Dukes, Paul   A History of Russia, chs.7-9.                                                  S947/112

 Field, Daniel         ‘Peasants and Propagandists in the Russian Movement
to the People of 1874’, Journal of Modern History, 1987, pp.415-38. S909.06/1

  Lampert, E Sons against Fathers: studies in Russian radicalism
and Revolution
, see ch.5 for portrait of the nihilist Pisarev.                  320.947/13

* Merriman, John   A History of Modern Europe, p.806-19.                           S940.2/123 

  Pipes, Richard Russia under the Old Regime, ch.10, ‘The Intelligentsia’     S947/120B

  Riasonovsky, N   A History of Russia, chs.25-30.                                        S947/41

  Stone, Norman & Willets, Harry       19th-Century Russia (audiotape).        AV947/172

  Venturi, Franco   Roots of Revolution (look up Herzen, Chernyshevsky
& nihilism)                                                                                         S947.08/12

 

Week 13 :  3 to 8 June :   Russia in Revolution

 

Reading Assignment:

* Merriman, J                  A History of Modern Europe, ch.25                       S940.2/123

* Christian, David  Power and Privilege: Russia and the Soviet Union
 in the 19th and 20th centuries
, chs 6-7.                            S947.07/54

 

Essay Question:

Why did Revolution break out (in 1905 & 1917) in the most backward society in Europe?

 

Further Reading:

 Acton, E     Rethinking the Russian Revolution                                           S947.0841/156

 Adams, AE The Russian Revolution and Bolshevik victory                          947.0841/5

 Anin, DS    ‘The February Revolution: was the collapse inevitable?’
Soviet Studies, vol.18, 1967.                                                      S947.006/1

 Carr, EH     The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-23, vol.1                                 S947.0841/7/(1)

 Dukes, Paul A History of Russia: medieval, modern, contemporary,
chs.9-10.                                                                                  S947/112

* Emsley, Clive, ed          Conflict and Stability in Europe, ch.8                    S940.2/93

 Ferro, Marc          October 1917: a social history of the Russian Revolution.S947.0841/112

  Figes, Orlando     A People’s Tragedy: the Russian Revolution,
1891-1924 
                                                                                      S947.0841/183

 Gill, Graeme         Twentieth-Century Russia, ch.2                                      S947.084/162

* Kochan, Lionel   Russia in Revolution, 1890-1918                                    S947.08/59

 Perrie, M    ‘The Russian Peasant Movement of 1905-7’, Past & Present,

no.57, 1972, pp.123-55.                                                                      S905/7

 Rogger, Hans       Russia in the age of modernisation and revolution,
1881-1917           
                                                                             S947.082/2

 Schapiro, Leonard          1917: the Russian Revolutions and the
Origins of Present-day Communism
                                                   S947.084/123

 Ulam, A      Lenin and the Bolsheviks                                                          947.0841/45

 

Summary of Essay Topics

 

Recommended for Short Paper only (about 1500 words):

 

1.     Write a critique of the movie Colonel Chabert. In your review, compare the film with the book, to assess the cinematic adaptation; and discuss how the main social and historical themes are interpreted.

2.     What was the role of Metternich in European international relations between 1815-1848?

3.     Why was the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 more of a threat to the Habsburg Empire than the Czech Revolution?

4.     Discuss the painting on the front of your course guide. What does it ‘represent’? How does the artist (Delacroix) portray Revolution – realistically? romantically? Or is there a better way to describe it?

5.     ‘A liberal Pope is a contradiction in terms’. Discuss this verdict on Pope Pius IX.

6.     Why at first did the Impressionists shock their contemporary audience?

 

Recommended for either Short Paper or Research Essay:

 

NB Make sure the topics you choose for the two assignments do not overlap

with each other. If in doubt, please ask me.

 

7   Did the French Revolution of 1830 change anything? Give reasons for your answer.

8   What were the consequences and significance of the 1848 Revolution in France?

9   Discuss the role of either the proletariat or the peasantry in the French Revolution of 1848-52.

10 How far should we accept or reject Karl Marx’s interpretation of the French Revolution of 1848 in his The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte?

11 Does the Frankfurt Parliament deserve its reputation as an ineffectual talking-shop?

12 Why were the Revolutions of 1848 defeated in the Habsburg Empire?

13 How realistic were the ambitions of Italian nationalists in the 1848 Revolutions? (You must consider events in Piedmont, Milan and Rome for this topic).

14 Explain why the Paris Commune enjoyed a mythical status in history of the European Left. How would you, as a historian, suggest that the myth should be revised?

15 In Marx’s (and Engels’) writings on the French and German Revolutions of the 19th century, they were at the same time inspired and frustrated by contemporary events. Explain the reasons for both their inspiration and frustration. Were either of these responses justified? (Make your own selections from Marx and Engels for this topic).

16 What can the study of disease in the 19th-century city tell us about medicine, politicsand social relations in this period?

17 Why, and with what consequences, was Paris "modernised" in the 19th century?

18 The Impressionists have been regarded as the shock-troops of the first artistic avant-garde (the conventional view), as painters who recorded the advent of ‘modern life’ (Clark), and as part of an oppositional republican culture (Nord). Which interpretation do you prefer, and why?

19 What were the main occupations of female wage workers in the 19th century, and what problems did their work pose for European societies?

20 How did the nature of women’s paid work change between 1815-1914? How far did changes in women’s employment lead to female emancipation?

21 How does an examination of the trial of Henriette Caillaux illuminate the history of gender roles and expectations in pre-1914 bourgeois society?

22 What assumptions about men and women lay behind the theory of ‘separate spheres’? How far did the theory correspond to changing social realities in 19th-century Europe?

23 ‘Nations as natural, inherent political destiny, are a myth’ (Gellner). If so, who ‘invented’ nationalisms in 19th-century Europe, and what helped to make nationalism a reality?

24 How do you account for outbreaks of antisemitism in Europe before 1914? What was ‘modern’ about anti-Jewish hatred in this period?

25 Evaluate Turgenev’s interpretation of the generational conflict within the context of Russian revolutionary movements as a whole (consider the concept of ‘superfluous men’, nihilism, and the role of the intelligentsia in the revolutionary movement). What is Turgenev’s attitude to towards his own creation, Bazarov?

26 Why did Revolution break out (in 1905 & 1917) in the most backward society in Europe?

 

European Studies Program