ARTICLES


*   Journal of Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences

Special Issues Arabic & Quranic Language & Literature

 

 Articles :

 

-Beauty of “In the Name of God”

Dr.S.A.Anvar

The University of Tehran

In this article after translating in poetical and prose from of the verse in the name of God, a selected commentary and gnostic interpretation of letters and words of the mentioned verse from the commentary schools of hazrat Ali and his relatives (p.b.u.lhem) and the ideas of great commentators such as Ibn Abbas, alfarez, Saadi Hafez,Moulavi and etc. and the explanation and interpretation of author has been presented. The author concludes that the best commentary is come out from the Gnostic. Commentary of Ali(A.S.).

Keywords: In the Name of God, Gnostism Commentary.

 

-The Influence of Arabic Proverbs & Maxims on Saadi’s works

 Dr. F. Harirchi

In this article the proverbs and maxims that are used in Arabic and Persian languages in common are studied. Then we consider the proverb briefly. Also we point out the Quranic proverbs and philosophy that Saadi has used in his works. In this article the poetical proverbs that Motenabbi has used in his work and influenced on Saadi have been stated. Finally we conclude that, because these two poets were living in an Islamic environment and training in Islamic culture, they have used so many proverbs in common.

 

- Manuscripts of Nahjol Balagheh

Dr. A. Dibadgy

Tehran University

One of the most Islamic famous works, which orientalists have noticed, is Nahjol Balagheh.

Seyyed Razi (D.406 A.H.) had gathered the long and short speech of Ali (A.S.) and presented them in this book. In this research we introduce the hand written copies of this book and the books, which are about Nahjol Balagheh in Tehran University libraries.

 

- Iranian in Kufa in the First Century (A.H.)

Dr. M.Dezfully

Tehran University

After the death of prophet (p.b.u.h.) the governor had an unsuitable and unjust treatment toward new non Arabic Muslims. They made them their partner less than themselves. Including these non-Arabs were Iranian who were called Mavali. The Mavali were unsatisfy from the racial and unjust treatment of the governors.

Hazrat Ali (A.S.), during his short time of government, tired to settle Islam in this real position and show the ideal Islamic treatment. He did not differentiate between races such as Arabs, Iranian, Moroccan and etc….

Keywords: Mavali,Kufa, Iranian , Hazrat Ali

 

- Innovation in the Adonis’s Literary Works

Adnan Tahmaseby

Tehran University

In this article, the thoughts and works of Adonis, the famous contemporary Arabic Critic is studied. But he believes that to catch a correct kind of criticism, paying attention to the other relative fields is an essential factor.

Adonis’s religious – literary besides his familiarity with the west schools of thought make him as a famous literary critic. Ali Ahmad Saeed’s works have been translated in Persian as well as fourteen other languages.

His works and thoughts caused many critics to write for or against him. The Adonis’s works and Poem Magazine reflect his own thoughts and beliefs.

Keywords: Poem, Criticism, Culture, Religion, Modernism, Modern Poetry.

 

- Translation & Analysis of Motanabbis’ Ode

Dr.A.Manoochehrian

Buali Sina University

This paper deals with translation plus critics on odes by Arabic poet named Abul Tayyeb Motanabbi.

The said ode forms into two parts. The first one underlined the lover and tear text and nagates the neutral reproacher and declares that the reproacher favors with the lover so as to harm his emotion by blame and rebuke whether he cannot tolerate to forget the love therefore, intermittently afflicted with run down tears, whenever the reproacher conflicts with the love competition relieves the blames.

Thereafter, poet refers to the latter one and confined it to the Seif -o- Dowlah praise and pressed on exaggerated praise of him so that has no imagine any alternatives and resemblance to him as well.

Keywords: Emotion, Love, Tear, Reproacher

 

- Euology in Motanabby’s Poems

Dr. Gholam Abbas Rezayi

Emract the: Motanabby’s position in euology is like a philosopher whose intellect prevails over his feeling, his mental attitude on death is like the view of an afflicted he does not blame death, but blames days that ravish the broad minded, feels with the bolds who dim the clear atmosphere of life.

Motanabby’s elegies are different in content, the poet, sometimes, is forced to euologize a person no disaster has made him sad, so his poem lacks emotion and kind feeling, butt sometimes he experiences great suffering cause him, even for a short time , submit emotion.

Motanabby not only has a strong morale, but also has encountered a great number of misfortunes in his life; he has forgotten the style of writing threnody, hence he tries to hide his weakness impressing longwise saying, describing patience, praising the late and his family. Sometimes, in his poem, he prides himself but blames his enemies. The age when Motanabby lives, is an age of despising women, but he doesn’t like euologizing the weak in euologizing women, he deals with them as if they are men and many times he prefers women to men.

 

- The Discovery Criterions for Aims of Quranic Verses

Dr. I. Goljani Amirkhiz

University of Imam Khomeini

There are various subjects discussed in many surahs (chapters) of Quran, which they look, at first glance, unrelated.

It is essential, therefore, to clear the wrong conception of confusing speech from the court- yard of divine revelation.

If each surah does not pertain to a certain unique message and its subjects do not intended for an ultimate goal. What is the reason for grouping a set of verses in a surah by the order of Allah and prophet?

That is why we think the proof of unity in such a plurality is necessary steps towards showing the readers of Quran that they are faced with a harmonious and well organized complex.

In the present article we intend to convey a harmonious and well-ordinated feature from every Quranic surah by offering some measures specific for discovering aims ruling over all surahs. These measures are:

1.            Omission of subordinate sentences.

2.            Analysis of place and time conditions regarding to surahs.

3.            Beginning surahs.

4.            Repetition of specific themes and subjects.

5.            Beginning and final verses in surahs.

6.            Frequency of word repetition in surah.

Keywords: The giaol of surah, the relationship of verses, the subjects of surah, the descriptive content of surahs (collectional views), measures for discovering aims of surahs.

 

- A Review of Andalusian prose in Prise of Honorable Prophet (peace be upon Him)

Dr. Sahebali akbari

Teacher Training University of Sabzevar

The books on the history of literature are usually said that: “Andalusians were imitating the east”. But one should not forget that Andalusian literature in some forms of poetry- because of natural differences between the west and the east- was richer and beautiful.

Of course this comparison can be made in special subject on the whole, the west were imitated the east and in this way they improved their poetry.

Andalusia’s literature is weaker than the literature of the east. First in depth of thought and secoundly the style. For example, we do not find in Andalusin literature the writer who is equal with JAHIZ and poet who’s Poems are similar to ABOLAL   Almoarry. In this article the writer reviews the existing strongness and weakness of Andalusian poems and compares Andalusian poets with the poets of the east.

 

- Zahriat and its Development in the Abbasid Period

Dr.F.Divsalar

Islamic Azad University

When we talk about Zahriat we means the way the poets describe the flowers, blossoms, fruit, trees, gardens and spring. So zahriat is not a new phenomenon in Arabic poems. But, since very old time it had been used, especially in Khamriat and since the poets had gone into extreme in describing it during Abbasid it became an independent phenomenon and it had improved during this period of time.

Many poets got interested in nature and describing natural scenes and wrote a lot of poems about flowers, trees and so on, and also their emotional feelings towards nature and the beauty of nature.

In primitive poems the describe the nature as a source of important factor of their lives which were dependent on, but not as the beauty of nature. In some cases the poets use nature to describe their feelings like talking about palm trees while they’re referring to the height of a lover, or talking about bamboo sticks while they’re referring to the very thin and delicate ankle, so they use the figurative phrases to describe the beauty and their feelings. And also Omavy’s poets tried this style of poems and described the nature the same as the primitive tribes, rather than describing the beauty of the nature itself.

 But Abbasids style has been affected by the development of society, so it has been more emotional and beautiful, because of this; they have created a lot of beautiful pictures and arts.

Keywords: Zahriat, description, figurative phrases, Abbasids period.

 

- The Epic of Hosseini

Dr. E. Khazali

The University of Azzahra

Dealing with the contemporary Hosseini verses, the attempt of the research is to discover new subjects, well-known symbols, the explicit differences between this kind of poem and the previous ones. It also attempts to delineate the distinguished technique and appropriate rhythm and the merits and demerits and their causes.

 The classic Hosseini poems as it was in the previous eras, were highly appreciated by people, especially in the mourning ceremony of Imam Hossein (Peace Be Upon Him) its popularity among people increased the influence and power of this technique, although some of the weak and low-class poems penetrated among it.

In spite of the fact the main dominant technique in this kind of poems has been “elegy”, the epic one overcome it in the contemporary era and has shed light on sociopolitical issues in recent decades. As a result, new subjects emerged abundantly in relation to the problems of Islamic world in general and Arabic world in particular.

Different poets from different religions, beliefs, style and geographical regions have paid attention to contemporary Hosseini poetry, with his own viewpoint concerning the event of Karbala.

Although different Hosseini poetry have different motivations and beliefs, a common feature exists among all of them and that is ecstasy, affection, love for Karbala epic and those who created this Great Event.

Keywords: Epic, Poetical Play, Entefazeh

 

- The Arabic Culture in Ancient Period

Dr. M.Zerafatkar

The Islamic Azad University

This is a research about pre-Islamic Arabic culture and civilization based on the present indications of Arabic language at this period. Therefore, it’s necessary to be interpreted theoretical in the first section. At the opening, the origin of Arabic language and people is introduced. Then the antiquity of its language, it’s scripture and the emergence of Arabic “FATH”, and also sense of “JAHELIAT”(idiotic) are interpreted. It asks for this question: “How does the understanding of this meaning to all of this meaning to all of the people conform to actual reality in this territory? This searching presents the limit of “Jaheliat” Period, interpreters it’s religions and sciences at this time. It deepness, with a precision vision, the JAHELE Poem and prose, indicates also the evolution proceeding of poetry perfection and it’s antiquity indicates the societies that were criticizing the poetry subjects, like our actual academies.

In second section, it explains the world dimension of the symbol of culture and civilization in this area, next, presents these two separate sections: the symbol of civilization and the symbol of culture. In the first one, it shows the documentary indications based on philosophy, proverb, speech, etc. indicating sophisticated culture at that age. And the other, ensures us about the existence of an Arabic civilization before Islamic period testifying the present words at that time in connection with the books, the pens, the papers, the economy, the arm, the societies, the instruments, the ships, etc…. It is necessary to indicate that, in the end of every section, the general conclusions are presented separately.

 

 

- A Glance Over the Divine Gnostic Life, of Allamah Seyyed Ghotboddin                

Dr. M.Abulhasani

Islamic Azad University

Seyyed Ghotboddin Mohammad Hossein Neirizi. One of the well known and important Gnostics and philosophers in Safavid dynasty was born in Neiriz in Fars Province in 1100 A.H. He started his education in his birthplace and then he went to Shiraz to be trained as a student of the great philosopher, Mola Shah          Mohammad Darabi.

He composed very valuable works in different fields of religion especially in Islamic mysticism.

In the present research, I have the opportunity to describe and introduce his valuable literary work “Alghasidat-al-Allaviat-al-Nahviah. Moreover an attempt is made to briefly explain Allamah Seyyed Ghotboddin’s biography and his works.

 

- “Music of Words” and Expressions and its Influences on Audiences and Readers, in the Book       of  “Assenaatein”

Dr.A.R. Mohammad Rezaee

University of Tehran

If we look at some of rules of Arabic language we will comprehend that Arabian-in similar case with another posterities- were enjoying of music of words and expressions, and were trying to harmonize words.

Aboohelal – a rhetorical critic – has spoken about internal and external worth of music of words and about influence of them. He has paid primarily in the book of Assenaatein to the poem. Because someone beyond prose.

In this article is paid to one of literary criticism cases in which Abuhelal spoken about the dependence of this criticism case to phantom. In the other way this article speak about music of words and expressions – a critical case- and music rules in eloquence.

Keywords: Music, Words, Expressions, Spirit, Influence, Audience

 

- An Introduction to Hermeneutics and Paraphrase; (Relying upon Quran and Narration)

Dr.A.Hemami

Isamic Azad University

As a general and public concept; Hermeneutics, is realization and decoding of phenomena and as a particular concept, means paraphrase and interpretation of words and utterances.

There are different elements, for understanding and realizing a text, not paying attention to which, would make us disable in better understanding. These elements are as follows: time and place of emergence, pre -and –post text components, data and location which are the purpose of narrator, direct and indirect contemporaries and addresses. The symbolic language has been available in all societies and religious texts, also has had a significant role the sample of which, can be considered employing symbolic figures and numbers (particularly seven) in Quran.

For this purpose paying attention to texts on one hand and considering external meaning, on the other hand, are necessary.

 

   - Hazrat Ali-Ibn- Abitalb (A.S.) Personality in Sahb-Ibn- Abbas Prose

Dr.F.A.Al-Qozzat

University of Sciences and Technology of Jordan

Ali Ibn Abitaleb , may God honor him, was honored by many poets including Al-Sahib Bin abbad. In his poetry Al –Sahib talked in detail about Ali, showing his virtues and noble traits.

This study aims at investigating the aspects of Ali’s personality in Al-Sahib’s poetry, and the second one is Ali’s position in Al-Sahib’s poetry. The researchers consulted various references that reveal Al-Sahib’s opinions and clarify of the meanings and connotations of his poetry.

 

- The semantic Theory of Appearance in Shi’ite Fiqh Principles

Dr.A. Afkhami

University of Tehran

The history of meaning in linguistics displays that Formal Linguistics has been going down in value, for not considering context, and having abstract approach to language. In contrast, Functional Linguistics merely was able to – to a certain extent, - to explain the meaning of language from pragmatic and paralinguistic point of view. i.e. it failed to recognize ambiguous sentences from addressee and reader’s point of view. The writers want to show when Functional Linguistics is not effective enough to descriptive efficiency within a framework of a semantic theory. Such a combinative approach is close to Leech’s theory in semantics, which has not been taken into consideration in linguistics studies. But this approach was proposed by Moslem legal theorists more than one thousand years ago, and known as the theory of Appearance, based on the important Principle of Immediacy, is one of the exhaustive theories of influence which extracts legal judgments from Islamic legal texts.

 

 

 

 

 

* Philosophy Journal

Fall & Winter 2001-2002

 

Articles:

-Myth and the Concept of Fate in the Ancient Greek Culture

Dr.Karim Mojtahedi

Although the relationship between myth and fate is not clear at first, mind has no way other than restoring to myth, since fate escapes the framework of rational reasoning. This way, it can not only show the inevitable power of fate, but also find the means of elevating and modifying it. The present article, taking into consideration the features of ancient Greek culture –not necessarily confined to philosophy –and bringing examples from poetry and prose, is bent on a thorough analysis of this issue.

The amazing point about catastrophe in Greek tragedies is that it does not descend upon the heroes unexpectedly; rather it is the inherent free will of the heroes that must face out the hardships of life. This is the cause of applause shown by the audience, and the spiritual elevation of the hero himself.

 

 

-The charge of sellf-contradiction against Aristote’s Phiosophical System

Dr.Mohammad Khansari

There is no one among early philosophers who pays as much attention as Aristotle dose to the individuall and particular facts. Moreover, he is opposed to his tutor,Plato in allmost all occasions.

Aristotle’s continual attentiveness toward the phisical world, and his detailed dicussions over the nature of body, motion , the four elements, mineralls, meteorology, and in particular zoology, all indicate his great regard for the factual world as well as the high experimental and scientific spirit dominant in his work.

This is the reaso why all the men men of thought have pictured him as realist philosopher.

Yet, in spite of such a strong conviction in facts and the particular real entities, and despite his opposition to universals existing independent of particular beings (i.e.the universals which are at the same time real and independent), Aristotle argues against the authenticity of the knowledge particular facts, and in his oppinion, the only true knowledge is the knowledge of the universals. This is the contradiction with wich the present article is concerned.

  

 

-The Features of Modern and Contemporary Philosophy in Comparison with those of Classical Philosophies

Dr.Mahmood Navali

Human actions and behaviors essentially originate in the nature of man’s thoughts and belief; in other words, one’s philosophy confers meaning on all things and events in the world and even to him as human being. It determines the type of outlook he has. The present article tries to show the purpose and intent with the classical philosophies began, the ground upon which they appeared, the way interpreted the world and the practical results they have amounted to. It has also taken into consideration, the dependence of modern philosophies and the classical ones. Concert philosophies, for instance, owe their existence to the abstract and speculative ones.

In general, mankind has to reasons for thinking: Firstly, he wants to find an answer to those things, which are unknown to him. Secondly, he is eager to lead a delightful life. Nevertheless, he has never reached an inner satisfaction and in case he has ever felt to be in such a state, it must have been a mere negligence that has caused him spiritual lethargy. Thus, man’s dynamic and inquiring attitude gave rise to the development of philosophy from its Greek character to its medieval form and then onto the philosophy of the enlightenment, that of modernity and finally of post modernity.

By comparing the classical philosophies with the modern and contemporary ones, the author means to examine both their origins and the effects they have had on the practical sphere of life.

This has always been done in a very rough and ambiguous way. Hence the author’s interest in developing a more concrete and objective attitude.

Perhaps, this comparison can give rise to new outlook, insignificant though they might be, which may cause novel interpretations and new practical attitudes to come to the stage.

 

 

-Sohrevardi’s Theory of Decisive Necessity and kripke’s QSS System

  Dr. Lotfollah Nabavi

The idea of “Decisive Necessity” is believed to be one of the most important innovations of Sheikh Shahab-a-Din Sohrevardi in the history of logical philosophical speculation, which has been stressed by the majority of Moslem logician and philosophers.

“Decisive Necessity” refers to the reduction of all modalities, i.e. necessity –possibility / contingency and impossibility, to the single mode of necessity.

The present article criticizes and evaluates this idea from the viewpoint of modern modal logic, and in particular Kripke’s QSS system.

 

 

 

-Obituaries for Three Analytic Philosophers

  Dr.Ali Paya

During the year 2001 and in the last remaining days of the year 2000, three world renowned and highly influential philosophers in the Analytic Tradition, namely W.V. Quine, Elizabeth Anscombe, and David Lewis, Passed away. To commemorate their outstanding life and achievements, I have written three short pieces outlining the main aspects of their philosophical ideas and briefly assessing their impact on the courses of philosophical thought in the twentieth century.

 

 

‍‍-The Computer Model of Mind and Artificial Intelligence

Dr.Mahmood Khatami

The computer model of mind and artificial intelligence is one of the most important subjects in philosophy of mind. The present article briefly deals with two forms of the theory of the similarity between mind and computer so as to clarify subject at issue, and proceeds to point up the Turing test, which has a fundamental role in making the theory of artificial intelligence acceptable. At the end, it concerns itself with some important objections to this test and the computer model of mind and artificial intelligence.

 

 

-What is phenomenology?

Dr.Mohammad Reza Rikhteh Garan

  In modern western philosophy, phenomenology more than anything else, reminds us of the intellectual school of the German philosopher, Edmund Husserl who also happened to be Martin Heidegger’s master.

Phenomen, regarding it’s Greek root-phainesthai- which means to show up and appear, is that which has become manifest. Husserl sought to describe the process through which the truth and essence of things is revealed to our consciousness and emerges apparent. One of the key terms in this school is the intentionality of consciousness, which refers to the fact that consciousness must be essentially related to something: consciousness is always the consciousness of something. As to other terms, one can point up the suspending of judgment (epoche), bracketing and reduction, and the intuition of essences, one has to mark off the existence of the world by brackets and suspend (epoche) the judgment about it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*  " Tarikh "

Buletin of Department of History

Articles:

1. Tajareb al – Umam Fi Akhbar- e Muluk al – Arab val –Ajam:

The Fourth Book of Hamd allah Mustufi of Qazvin

Dr.Ehsan Eshraghi, Department of History, University of Tehran

Hamd allah Mustufi of Qazvin was the author of a number of significant works Such as Tarikh-e Gozideh, Nuzhat al – Gholub and Zafarnameh.

According to a newly discovered Manuscript entitled: Tajareb al – Umam Fi Akhbar – e Muluk- al Arab val Ajam, it becomes clear that he translated the arabic text of Nehayat – al Erab Fi Akhbar – e al Muluk – val arab into Persian. This article attempts to introduce and analyse this Persian translation of the book.

Keywords: Hamd allah Mustufi Qazvini,Tajareb al Umam, Nehayat al –erab, Manuscript.

 

2. Perspolis as Takht –e Jamshid or Sulayman Mosque

 By: Heribert Busse

Transl: Dr.Azar Ahanchi, Department of History, University of Tehran

The Achaemenian king, Dariush founded the city of perspolis but after the invasion of Alexander,the name of it’s founder was neglected. The Sassanids considered perspolis as a great monument and they added some buildings to it. Perhaps during this period they attributed Perspolis to Jamshid ,the ancient Iranian King, and called it Takht – e Jamshid. According to Islamic Accounts, Perspolis was established by the Homay ,Dariush’s Mother and the daughter of Esfandiar. During the Islamic period, it was attributed to prophet Sulayman. It is an important fact that in this period not only perspolis,but also other Ancient Iranian buldings were also attributed to Sulayman ,such as the tomb of Cyrus in Passargad and the temple of Zuroastrian in Azerbaijan.

The aim of this study is to discuss the course of historical and religious esearch were significant to the changing the name of Perspolis. Also it attemps to show the impact of the Sulayman stories in The Holy Bible on the Iranian and Islamic narrations and the impact of the Arabic stories on the Jews narrations.

Keywords:Perspolis,Takht-e Jamshid,Suleyman myth,Dariush,Achaemenian.

3. The Juxtaposition and Modernism in Safavid Painting

( The shah Abbas Era 995-1038 AH.)

Dr.Y.Azhand, Department of Visual Art., University of Tehran

In the period of economic expansion and artistic revival under Shah Abbas I,many artists attented to borrow the european artistic techniques of shading or perspective. Thses artists pioneered and popularized a new genres. Both types of composition – traditional and new genres – were accored the highest respect by their contemporaries and followers who copied and adapted them. For these artists europian was art irresistible and it’s introduction ultimately changed the corse of Persian painting. In this article,I attept to understand how and why it was created.

Keywords:Safavid,Painting,Shah Abbas I,Tradition,Modernism.

4.The Rise of Crises Condition during the Constitutional Revolution of Iran

Dr. Muhammad Ali Akhbari

Department of History

University of Shahid Beheshti ,Tehran

The investigation of historical documents belonging to the years 12288-1299 SH shows that Iranian government faced considerable problems of disorders and uphevals. This object is divded or studied in two sections:first the crises condition during the first and second parliament, second ,the condition during world warI and it’s aftermath.

Also the author presents an analysis of the background and the main causes which led to these social movements and disorders.

Keywords:Contemporary history, Uphevale,First Majles, Second Majles,World warI,Constitutional Revolution.

5. Social and Cultural Comdition in Baghdad under the Ilkhanid

Dr.Shirin Bayani

Department of History

University of Tehran

After the fall of Abbasi Caliphate and the establishment of the Ilkhanid dynasty, Baghdad faced many changes in cultural and social fields. The mongol invation caused many problems ,they destroyed many buldings,and killed large numbers of religious men and scholars. But by the measures of the Iranian administrative figures,there was some restructions in that fields,especially in the cultural situation. In this article,I will study the life and the work of one of those scholars who helped the restruction, namely ,Shaykhzadeh Ahmad Suhrevardi, the calligrapher ,musican and a scholar who who lived during the Ilkhanid period.

Keywords:Ilkhanid, Baghdad, Cultural Situation, Ahmad Suhrevardi,Calligraphy, Juricprodunce.

 

6. Irano-Soviet Relationship on Shahrivar 3rd 1320 Sh/August 25 1941 

Dr. Iraj Tanhatan Naseri, Department of History, University of Tehran

Despite the declaration of neutrality in the world war II Iran was invaded and occupied by the Allied powers. For second time during the first half of the 20 centry,in contradiction to the international regulations and laws, according to the Allies estimate, Iran, as "The bridge of victory" ,was the most propitious, the loast expenture, the safest and shortest way to transfer armaments and provisions to the soviet borders. They did not consider offering any suggestion to or having any official negotiation with the Iranian government ,intended to invade and occupy Iranian territories ,but the soviets took the presence of a few hundreds German in Iran as a pretext, and represented it as a treat to the secrity of the Soviet Unions. According to the article 2 of Iran –Soviet Convention of 1921 ,assumed that they were allowed to dispatch their troops to the Iranian teritories.

Keywords:Iran- Soviet Unions, World war II, Relationship, Allied Powers.

 

7. The Tartars during the Mongol period According to the earlier Sources

Dr. AbdulRasul Khairandish

Department of History

University of Shiraz

For the first time, the Tartars appeared in Iran through the trade. The zenith of their power was the period that the tartars were able to establish a powerful state in the Khatay and Mongolian boarders. As a result the Iranians gained knowledge of Tartars. Before this significant historical event, the knowledge of Iranians abut the Tartars was restricted to informations which appeared in the geographical texts such as Hudud al-Alam.when Mahmood Kashghari composed his famous work , Divan-e- Loghat- e- Turk,he presented valuable information in this work. This article attemps to show the first accounts of the Tartars in the earliest Iranian sources during the Mongol invasion and evaluates it’s historical significance .

Keywords:Tartars, Mongols,Mosk,Kharazmid.

8. Kitab al- Maaref of Ibn Qutaiba Dinwari The first translation and Critical Edition

Dr.A.k.Golshani

Department of History

University of Tehran

9. History,Historicity and Historiography in Being and Time

David Couzenshoy

Transl.Dr.Hashen Aghajari

Dpartment of History

Tarbiat ModarresUniversity

10. Khavari Shirazi and the Consolidation of Astarabadi’s histrigraphy

Dr.Ghulam Hosayn Zargarinezhad

Department of History

University of Tehran

11. The Structure, Function and Changes of the Office of Sadarat during the Safavids

Dr.Mansur Sefatgol

Department of History

University of Tehran

12. Scientific Relations between Iran and Bizantium during the Sassanid Period

Ahmad Haji babaii

Department of History

University of Tehran

13. Shah Ismail and the Albuequerque

Dr.M.B.Vosughi

Department of History

University of Tehran

14. The Merchants Association during the Qajar Period

Dr. Soheila Torabi Farsani

 

 

 

*  Researches in Geography,

No 41, Year 33, March 2002

Contents: 

Investigation and study in handy craft (carpet weaving) in the marginal rural area in the west of Dasht-e- kawir

Dr. Masood Mahdavi

Fullprof. Dept. Of Geography, University of Tehran

Abstract

According to the country’s administration, Ievanekay is a district of Garmsar, from Semnan Province (county), whose center is Ievanekay. In this area are 11 villages with a total population about 2000.in old documents, the name of the area is written as Ievanekaif. The major villages are, Cheshme-nadi, Shorghazi, Ahmad –Abad... The severe climatic conditions, water shortage, salin soil, small plots of cultivated land and traditional methods of agriculture have restricted the agricultural activities in the area. The melon (main creo) have been found to be suited to regional condition, which the production of this crop is over local consumption, but in many cases the production of some crops such as wheats, barley, etc.isnot enough for resident consumption. There is no doubt that carpet weaving is a new phenomenon in the area. According to an interview with old people, which was carried out in the area they believe that, carpet weaving has been started since 1360.In 1365 there was more than 50 looms in the region, which has been decreased to 7 looms in 1378.

The carpets of the area are double wefted and woven with the Farsi knot. The technique of carpet weaving is similar to the Varamin carpet, their design, material and quality are approximately similar. Although there are a good potential for carpet production, but about 0.5% of population are engaged in carpet weaviny. The following suggestions are made; probabely for solving some of the difficulties in the area,

1.      To advice and help the people to organize good working conditions.

2.      To establish carpet cooperative for financial help facilities

3.      To make certain health and social services available for the weavers.

4.      To establish a nursery for helping the mothers.

Key words: Garmsar, Ievanekay, Ievankaif, Shorghazi, Cheshm-e- Nadi, Carpet weaving, Varamin, Hable –Roud, Shah Abasi Rod, Carpet Improve.

 

Medical Geography of Neoplasm of the Esophagus (A case study in Imam Khomeini Hospital statistical Period 1993-1997)  

Dr. Ahmad Pourahmad

Associate Prof., Dept. of Geography, University of Tehran

Bijan Yavar

M.A. Student in Urban Planning

  Abstract

Neoplasm of the Esophagus, is a fatal disease the cores of what are very numerous in Iran. That is why learning about it has various aspects and also informing people about it very important preventive measures. This article examines the characteristics of the patients suffering from this disease. The factors studied on the buris of geographical distribution of the patient include environmental factors, climatic and life style and the research method is descriptive. 322 medical records were studied. To make the database which were completed by interviews. Then final graphs were prepared and the data were analyzed by SPSS software. The findings of the research suggest that the rate of disease increases significantly in the northern parts of the country especially near the Caspian Sea. This demonstrates the effect of environmental context and geographical conditions.

Key words: Neoplasm of the Esophagus, Geographical distribution, Imam Khomeini hospital.

 

An Analysis on Rural planning system in Iran

  Dr.Mohammad Reza Rezvani

Assistant prof., Institute of Geography, University of Tehran

  Abstract

The development of rural regions requires planning and a system which to be desirable and efficient.

In this paper the rural planning system in Iran have been analyzed from 1948 to 1999. The results of research indicate many problems in rural planning system. The dominance of sectoral approach and top down model in planning, lack of bottom up model and unparticipation of rural people in planning process, the incomplete of planning levels, and the lack of multi-levels in rural planning system.

Furthermore, to be parallel and numerous projects, and administration careful undistinction of executive function in rural development and management are other problems. Finally some suggestions are made to solve problems.

 

Key words: Planning system, Rural Development Planning, Planning Levels, Development Planning models, Decision- making System, Iran

 

 

Numerical Classification of selected climatic Stations of Iran by Litynski Method

   Dr.Ghasem Azizi

   Assistant prof., Dept. of Geography University of Tehran

  Abstract

In this paper have been presented the numerical classification method of Lityski. Then, this climatic classification method used to classification of 48 selected stations in IRAN. Numerical ability of this method is suitable to used of SPSS suffer for calculations and operations of classification. The results of used of this method in 48 selected stations show that: climatic Data of 48 selected station located in 38 climatic subtypes. This result shows that, relatively, climatic classes are too many. This very numbers of climatic types is due to extent and geographical position of IRAN.

Keywords: Climatic classification, Numerical classification, Litynski, Precipitation, Temperature, Climatic of Iran.

 

 

An Empirical study on Rural development and development of Inequalities in rural areas (In Selected Villages of Marand township)

Dr. Ali Shakuri

Assistant prof. Faculty of Social Science, Tehran University

 Abstract

Rural development has been a major axis of development policies in the post revolutionary Iran.

This paper investigates the long-term effects of the post-revolutionary rural people by focusing on their income, wealth and well-being and through using ex-post-facto comparative method in six selected villages in the province of Eastern Azerbaijan. The study concludes that despite near two decades implementation of different rural programs, mainly due to the pre-existing geo-natural, and socio-economic structures, the process of natural change tend to benefit the villages with higher development potentialities and the villagers with higher socio-economic backgrounds.

 

Keywords: Development, Rural Development, Social change, unequity, Income, Wealth, Welfare.

 

 

Effect of Tall-buildings on Urban Land Use Case study: the city of Tehran (Zones of 1,2,3)

  Dr. Rahmatollah Farhoudi

Associate Prof., Dept of Geography, University of Tehran

Ali Reza mohammadi

M.A. in Urban Planning.Institute of Geography, University of Tehran

  Abstract

The fast and unusual growth of population from one side and the necessity of housing in large demand from the other side have made creating, tall buildings as a solution against the land problem imperatives. Now a day, the bases of many urban planning are to increase density and to build tall buildings. That is, as much as possible, to decrease the surface of ground site in order to dwell some more people and to exploit the free land for the publicly open space. Required services as well as the better use of the urban infrastructural establishment. To this aim, our cities, especially the city of Tehran are presently facing with the daily growth and expansion of the tall buildings on their land. The said events are materialized in such circumstance, that the law and regulations in this respect are not also available. The survey done on the tall buildings of the city of Tehran are indicating the numerous challenges and problems in many tall buildings. The said fact itself is the effect of nonrespecting to the urban regulation and criteria in locating and creating such building with in the city.

Keywords:high-risebuilding,urbanusage,transportation,infrastructural establishment, building density, urban space.

 

 

Study of the relation between the ethnics in Talesh mountains region

  Dr. Zahra Pishgahi Fard

Assistant prof., Dept.of Geography, University of Tehran

Hassan Samadzadeh Golestan

Abstract

All sources the world are restricted and human being has unlimited needs. Tension among human beings in the form of personal and social is because of imbalance of their needs with these God’s gifts. In the research region including: headline of the Talesh mountains and the first steeps of these mountains slope, the inhabitants of the east and west foothills because of incorrect use of these sources have caused regional ethnic tension and struggles.

Considering the increase of the ethnic differences in recent years, this research studied the importance of environmental abilities that caused competition between ethnics and describe the relation of social tensions, integration and disintegrations and the laws, which maximize these tensions. The way of research is study of existing bools and writtens with an analytic observation.

The obtained results show that the unaware interference of government authorities, nationalization law of pastures, people who want to possess and decrease of lawful relation between the ethnics in the region.

At the end of options to remove disintegration are supposed.

  Key words: Tension, Research region, Talesh mountains, Competition, between ethnics, Integration, Disintegration.

 

 

Agro climatic Zoning in Hamedan Province using GIS Technique

Based on Dry wheat

  Dr. M.Farajzadeh

Assistant prof., Dept of Geography, Tarbiat Modarres University

A. Takalo Bigash 

M.S. in physical Geography

  Abstract

One of the primitive principles for agricultural planning is the determining of the agricultural units. These units are polygons that integrate ground and climatic factors. Each of these units has different characteristics. In this study, Hamedan province, ground factors such as topography, slope gradient, land types, soil deep and structure and climatic factors such as annual rainfall, annual temperature and evapotranspiration is considered. In first, using GIS function all of used data are weighted based on dry wheat potential. Then all of data layers in GIS database are combined into final layers using overlay function. The final map indicates the potential of different areas to dry wheat agriculture. To test of accuracy, the final map is compared with wheat productivity data in the study area. Result of this work indicates that the produced map has high accuracy and GIS is powerful techniques to producing of homogenous agro climatic units.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Agroclimatology, Wheat, Hamedan.

 

 

 

 

 

*  A study on Al-Eyzah
By: Dr. Tajlil
From: The University of Tehran
The research, which, has been done by late scholar Mohaddes Ormavi about Al-Eyzah and his correction of that book, shows his great knowledge.
In this article the method of searching of researcher was studied, that is in seven chapters, and in every chapter its literary witness of Arabic poems and proverbs were mentioned. However its rhetorical and eloquent points have been examined.

 

 

 

 

 

* Arabic poems of Hatef Esfahani and his position in style of Arabic poems
By: Dr. Harirchi
From: The University of Tehran
Hatef Esfahani is of those poets who wrote three odes in Arabic language. In two of his odes, which its subject is lyric, pagan Arab and Islamic lyric influenced him, and he imitated Urvah- Ibn Hazam Ozri, Jamil Ibn Ozri and Umar Ibn Abirabia. In third ode, which is in eulogy of prophet, is influenced of poets of Fall era and Imam Bursiri.

 

 

 

 

 

* The role of tourism capabilities in economical developing of kerman
By: Dr. Pour Ahmad -  Dr. Tajali
From: The University of Tehran
Iran a country comprising of widely different areas is one of the 10 superior countries in the field of tourism attractions. On account of geographical and historical reasons, Kerman Province is one of the 5 historical of tourist important provinces in Iran.
The necessity of recognizing and surveying the tourism capabilities is of paramount importance, secure in knowledge that tourism is one of the deft means of developing of the various areas.
In this research the tourism capabilities in Kerman Province are scrutinized of categorized, then regarding its infra structures, some of effects of tourism capabilities which can have impressive role towards province’s economic developing – are mentioned. Subsequently the rate of income out of tourism industry and rate of job opportunities is counted in the mentioned province and at the end conclusion and suggestion are presented.

 

 

 

 

* An Introduction to Ibn Nobateh’s poems
By: Dr. Mogaddasi
From: The University of Tehran
In Arabic history of literature Ebn Nobateh, is located in a period which is called period of fall. In spite of his genius and ability could not hinder literature and poem of this period from falling. He was affected from Motenabbi, Toghraee, Abu Tammam and Bubasiri a great deal so that he became their imitator.
His poems are full of syntactic and prosodies terms. Because he knows about Quran very much, he has used many Quran’s testament. Although he followed Sunna, but he remembers Shiite respectfully and inclines family of prophet.
He has many elegies in favor of prophet. Some worthless subjects such as key and coal have made some part of his poems.
He is a poet who looked at the past time and stayed in past and he does not belong to the future time. His out comings are worthless and doesn’t have any value in literary point of view. Following and repetition and playing by word are main elements in his poems.

 

 

 

 

The Magnificence of explanation, its elements and dimension in prayers
By: Dr. Khanjani
From: Islamic Azad University
Prayers and preaches are important parts of the rich literature of Shiite which, from the view of content, are full knowledge and wisdom and, from the view of style, are precious and valuable signs of beauty and eloquence. Approximately all the studies conducted in prayers and preaches dealt with the contents, but the aesthetic aspects of them are ignored.
This study is an aesthetic glance at prayers and preaches of the learned men of love and Gnostic axes and everlasting symbols of devotion of Innocents (peace be upon them) whose enlightened knowledge in the beautiful structures of eloquence and rhetoric and revealed the mysteries of perfection to human beings. In this study, first the eloquence of interpretation and its necessity in prayers and preaches and also the elements of the eloquence of interpretation are discussed.
Then the 7th dimensions of the eloquence of interpretation along with examples in prayers are studied, and finally the conclusion was that the above – mentioned works are the signs of knowledge and rhetoric.

 

 

 

 

Shiit Arabic poems in Khouzestan
By: Dr. Pourabbasi
From: Islamic Azad University
In this article the province of Khozestan has been studied from historical, geographical point of view, its importance that being a valuable area and passage in great Islamic empire in early centuries of Islam. This situation has more influence on literature and of this stage; it made Arabic shiit poems to develop. In this article, in addition to study the literary movement in tenth century, poems and style also have been studied.

 

 

 

 

Security and training measures (Prevention of crimes) in View of Quran and tradition (Sonnat)
By: Dr. Rahami
From: The University of Tehran
The researcher by taking advantage of original resources and the major Islamic precepts,  the holy Quran, the tradition, presents a basic for the legitimating of the security and educative measures. He demonstrates that Islamic religion has not been neglected from the social security and dangerous offenders, and delinquents taken in western nations, the subject matter of the research, come to be performed under the title of “security and educative measures” and the broad complementary punishments, and that it has had a functional back ground in Islam and not only does the punishment of criminals fail to have a clash with their rehabilitation and prevention of crime, but also they are favored religiously.
Comparative survey of security measures and the search that writer has done for finding the principles of legitimacy of this effective constitution of criminal politics and for finding similar constitutions in Quran, tradition and votes and judgments of the jurists show that in Islamic sources, there are useful foundations under pretexts of recommending the lawful and forbidding the sinful acts, repelling corruption, reformation and training measures and so on, that sometimes are in the figure of religious decrees has modified but most of them are scattered and from day to day one can feel more necessity of codifying and legislating them.

 

 

 

 

Common features in Walt Whitman’s and Sepehri’s Poems
By: Dr. Roshanzamir
From: Sharif University of Technology, Language Center
In view of their innovation, simple but melodious language, unfettered by rhymes or rhythms, Walt Whitman and Sohrab Sepehri manifest many features in common. By juxtaposing images and concepts and by changing the scenes rapidly, they convey their thoughts and feelings wholeheartedly to the readers. Accordingly most tiles chosen by both do not reflect the rich content of their poems. Finally, the Eastern philosophy has made a tremendous impact on both leading them towards Gnosticism.

 

 

 

 

Considering parody in Persian poems and importance of Baba Faghani Shiazi poem in view of parody
By: Dr. Khalil – Dr. Ghafelebashi
From: The University of Tehran
We want to tell in brief the importance of parody’s quality and quantity.
After saying the meaning of parody’s word with a brief consideration we describe the importance, deviation, equipment and factors.
Stylistics and parody in poems also is in out consideration, then we consider one of poem of Iranian best and famous lyric poet Baba Fghani Shirazi because his ode has been considered.

 

 

 

 

Nature in Amr’ elghays’s Mu’ allagha
By: Dr. Pishvai
From: The University of Kordestan
Abul-Hareth Jondoh, the son of Hujr, known as Amr ‘ elghy’s, is one of Yamanian poet of the pre-Islamic period in Arab literature and he is also one of the innovators of rhetorical devices in Arabic poetry. Critics believe that he is the first who started composing sorrowful odes for ruined monuments and beloved’s tent. Also he has employed charming and effective images, which, later, turned out to be used as a famous model by others. The poet has presented short but meaningful descriptions of hunting sites, horses’ portraits, and camel and night in a special and skilful manner.
The most famous piece of his poetry is his Mu’ allagha. The narrators of Arab- poetry in pre- Islamic period believe that one can drive the characteristics of Amr’ elghay’s poetry from his Mu’allagha. Since his Mu’allagha contains the images language and intentions which themselves present the Facets of the poet’s era.
There are mumerous commentaries on Mu’allagha. The present paper intends to demonstrate Amr’s capabilities and skillfulness in describing the nature and its characteristics.
The present paper also intends to introduce the cause which have been effective on the poet’s viewpoint towards nature and its description, and why and how he has looked at nature in such a way.

 

 

 

 

Vothughul Hokama and his most important work
By: Dr. Barzagar Khaleghi
From: The Int. University of late Imam Komeini
Mohammad Ibrahim Ibn Mohammad Ali Sabzewari Khurasani, under the penname of “Vothugul Hokama” was given the permission of Ijtihad by the author of Jawahar and Sheykh Nuh Najafi.
Vothughul Hokama works are: the interpretation of Sahife Sajadie, the interpretation of Komeil, the description of the prey of Adile, and finally the interpretation of Golshan Raz by Sheykh Mahmoud Shabestary.
He under took the interpretation of Golshan by suggestion of one of his friend; and he made use of some of materials, which was believed by his teacher, Mulla Hadi Sabzewari.
He has interpreted lines of Golahsn by referring to Quranic verses and Sayings of mystics and suitable verses.

 

 

 

 

Linguistic similarities and variations: universal and typology
By: Dr. Golfam
From: The University of T. M.
The languages of the world show diversity of structure. At some underlying level, however the general and universal principle are at work. In this study the researcher has tried to reconsider the concept of typology so that the reader can grasp its interplay with universals.
Universals can be found at different levels of language. At semantic level, a kind of gradual hierarchy for color terms exists. The system of vowels shows a fascinating similarity in support of postulating a universal inventory. In morphology and syntax, universals can be observed in regulating the basic order of constituents in phrases and sentences. By studying universals we come up with the conclusion that at all levels of linguistic structure, the most common patterns are also the most regular.
The main objective of the study of universals is to find an explanation for their existence. Language universals are often said to be the reflection of the fact that how humans perceive the world around them, there are also some structural explanations that account for the existence of universals that refer to the ease of processing and speed of acquiring. Finally, important social distinction on the content side are said to be the basis of universal features of language.

 

 

 

 

The Determination of the Caspian Sea legality regime and regional landscape co – operation
By: Dr. Ghadiri Massom
From: The University of Tehran
The Caspian Sea is the largest lake of the world. It has located with confluence between the Central Asia, Ghafghaz and Iran with 400/000 km.
This water body is counted as a closed sea and has been surrounded by Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Russia. Until Soviet union government fall down its ruling dominated based on agreements 1920 and 1941. After collapsing former Soviet Union, and the independcency of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, these countries had many economic problems due to along time central ruling. Regarding Tosettle economic affairs and growth each of these countries concerned toward the Caspian Sea exploitation resources. Thus new geopolitics conditions need determining urgency legality regime. Unfortunately the problem still continues because of basic differences between the countries of margin of the sea. Regarding environmental damageable this sea prefer to the legality region determining all countries benefits to the Caspian Sea.

 

 

 

 

Deep perception of pleasure
By: Dr. Bazargan
From: The University of Tehran
Bahaeddin Mowlana Valad Known as Bahae – Valad (1184- 1231) is the father of Mohammad and the author of the book “Maaref” the late “Badeozzaman-e-forozanfar” accumulated and published a selection of “Bahaeddin” thoughts and ideas based on four handwriting volumes of his thoughts in (1954-5).
His thoughts are based on three main issues, which are “theology”, “cosmology”, “anthropology”. This article briefly and generally refers to a selection of his thoughts, concerning theology, cosmology and specifically talks about one of his ideas related to anthropology called: “Deep perception of pleasure and reaching ultimate sensation”. Although “Bahaeddin” had been a humble and the pious and spiritual and mystical “Sofi” and had believed in “Hanafis” doctoring followed “Asharie” school of thought he had a great desire to acquire and enjoy all the earthly pleasure (which he condemned them to be a reflection of the divine beauty). This characteristics has allowed me to compare his ideas and thoughts with those of Andre –jid (`869-1951) and closely study and examine their similarities and differences “Bahaedddin” considered the origin of human pleasure, love, and passion from a divine and a golden source and a proper means for “thought perception”.

 

 

 

 

 

View of Arab Men of Letters About Sybavih
By: Dr. Bageri Mahyari
From: Imam Hossein (A.S) University
The Arabic language grammar did not benefit from a versatility and discipline, and was not fully matured before the second century of Lunar Hejira, when scientists such as Ibn Jenni, Hammad Bin Salma, Khalil Bin Ahmad Farahidi and Sybavih came to settle it.
We can dare say that no one reviewed the Arabic language grammar and expressed it within a particular framework and categorized it in a comprehensive way before Sybavih. In fact the Arabic language was raw before the Sybavith era, and it was after him and due to his knowledge that it gained a full maturity. This article aims to discuss and deliberate Sybavih and his book from various aspects in view of the opinions of the past and present men of letters of the Arab world.

 

 

 

 

“Natural” and “Unnatural Speech”: and “Word” and “meaning” in criticism in the book of “Assanaatein”
By: Dr. Rezai
From: The University of Tehran
Abuhelal is the First Savant Who mingled the “Criticism” and “eloquence” in book of “Assanaatein” in, which he has spoken about the dependence of discourse of Phantom and Spirit are criticized.
This article is paid to two of literary criticism cases: “Nature and Manufacture” and “Word and meaning”.
Abuhelal believes in the words must be flowed on language naturally, and believes that the words must be enjoyed stamps with which could influence on audiences and readers. We paid attention to these stamps.

 

 

 

 

 

A discussion on the appearance of “Maghamat” in Arabic literature
By: Dr. Haghdadi
From: The University of Birjand
An important part of every nation’s literature consists of tales and fictions. Also, The Arabs, like many nations, had legends, which had been narrated with enthusiasm and had been enjoyable for them, during old age.
Without any doubt, these fictions depict the habits, thoughts and ideas of the people narrating them and sometime have certain delicacies. In the fourth century, a technique became common in Arabic prose, which is said to originate from the tales and fictions. Its distinctive characteristics were that the authors expressed it in a complicated framework. These techniques consist of tales, comics and some historical, philosophical and literary aspects.
This new technique, called “MAGHAMAT’, has special place in Arabic literature. Later on, many writers have written on this technique in Arabic and Persian languages.
In this article, writer is going to examine the social and cultural factors, which have provided the background for the appearance of this literary genre. I will also take in to account applied “MAGHAMAT’ for this writings.

 

 

 

 

 

Resurrection in Zoroastrianizm
By: Dr. Mahdizadeh
From: The University of Tehran
Zoroatrianism like other sonic religions believe in a person who will come in future and will save people. His name is Suoshyance. He had appeared two thousand years before his third appearance while called Hoshidar and Hoshidarmah.
During his appearance some interesting events happened before and after that. But what is important is the occurrence of resurrection with Suoshyance.
At that day the real resurrection of bodies and judgment will occur too. Also the battle between Asher and During will end too.

 

 

 

 

 

Geoffrey Chaucer (1340? – 1400) & his Canterbury Tales, a descriptive and analytical view
By: Dr. Gheitanchi
From: The University of Tehran
Geoffrey Chaucer with this vast experience and studies, as the father of English poetry, in the turn of the century, between Middle and Modern English, played a great role. The style of poetry that he started, such as rhyme royal or heroic couplet and used them in his best works became a model to the great writers after him. Spencer, Shakespeare, Milton, Dryden, Pope and a big number of the other writers used Chaucer’s style of poetry. His school education and twenty five years of service in the court and royal family, his missions to France, Italy and Spain, his meetings with such great writers as Boccaccio and Petrarch, his knowledge of Latin, French and Italian languages were good reasons for his promotion to the highest positions in the civil services and the Royal Court. His knowledge, originality, position and works have made him an eternal figure so that his works after six hundred years are still in print and studied today.
His masterpiece The Canterbury Tales, which is not complete, was written within the last fourteen years of his life. The subject of some of the tales is second hand but the general prologue is original and the style belongs to Chaucer himself. The prologue is a portrait gallery, which gives very close and insightful pictures from the life and activities of the people from every step of life. Canterbury is a city in the southeast of England, dominated by its huge cathedral. The shrine of Saint Thomas a Becket is in the same cathedral where people go on pilgrimage. Chaucer took his pilgrims to the same place in 14th century. He arranged a storytelling contest among the pilgrims on their round trip and collected their tales, which are kept as treasures for today.

 

 

 

 

“Sensation in Masnavi –i- Molavi”
By: Dr. Moazzeni
From: The University of Tehran`
It sure is that taught depends on the factors that affect on the style and language of author, poet, etc, which these cases are distinguished factors for them.
In Masnavi there is also some different factors result the mystically subjects, sensationally that they are considerable in Molavis work especially in the fields of stylistic.
For example, we can see in Masnavi character of prophet p.b.u.h and Hazrat Ali (A. S), Hosamoddin, Shams-i-Tabrizi, light, love, sun, fire, etc,… that have affected on the style of Masnavi.
In Persian literature stylistic we can name this style as “exiting style”.

 

 

 

 

 

Pioneers of Narrative Mujun in Arabic poetry
By: Dr. Tehrani
From: Islamic Azad University
Pioneered by Amr-ul Ghais, Mujun (vulgar) narrative sonnets appeared in the pre- Islamic period.
Although the Arabic poetic and literary traditions were later influenced by Islam which encouraged moral and ethical approach to poetry, only one of the non-Arab poets from Ethiopea, named Sohaim Abd Bani-al Hassadlhass, continued the Mujn rtadition, He was a follower of Amr-al Ghais in his poetic style and the way he employed meaning in Mujun vulgar poetry.
He was murdered because of his insistence on adapting Mujun tradition. After him, the tradition was preserved by Amir ibn-e Abi Rabi-ah.
These three poets of the Mujun vulgar narrative sonnets (Amr-al Ghais, Sohaim and amr) are identified by their unique impressions of body organs, love affairs, explicitness of language, vulgar images, and the way they communicate with old ages through words and phrases.
The present article presents numerous examples from their poetry to illustrate the similarities between their works in Mujun sonnets.

 

 

 

 

The analysis of prosodic rhythm of Manoochehri Damaghanis Divan and assigning its poetical meter and its rhythmical harmony with subjects
By: Dr. Keymanesh
From: The University of Tehran
In this article the author, tries to consider the first verse of every elegy, fragment, multiple poem and scattered poems of this eloquent speaker in prosodic meter and remind the meter of the poems.
Besides the assigning of rhythm of poems and rhythmical harmony with subjects, I tried to show the surprising and wonderful mind of poet and reveal the quality of composing the music of his speech with subject in his artistic creative view. The author tries to represent the refection of the poet from the musical aspect of his poems.

 

 

 

 

 

The mutual relations of culture and civilization of Iran and India (Mystical thoughts share)
By: Dr. Aria
From: Islamic Azad University
It is to the point to start my speech with a beautiful statement of “Javahar Lal Nehro” , Indian former prime minister that: Among many people and races who had relations with India, and have penetrated their life and culture, the oldest and most stable were Iranians.
The discoveries of the archeology in HARAPA and MOHANJODARO and IRAN plateau prove that the background of their relations is more than five thousand years.
Since the immigration of ARYANs to Iran and India they had common religion and language for long centuries, which it has been mentioned in RIGVEDA about and AVESTA about India.
This relation had been continued in all fields from the time Hakhamaneshian until
Susanian dynasty including architecture, painting, music and also the translation of  Kelilieh-o-Demneh to Pahlavi.
In the period of Islamic it was not the Arab fighters who spread Islam in India but the pious suphis could relate mutual relation with the people of India based on their common old culture.
Ebrahim Adham and other sophists (Mystics) of KHORASAN influenced BODAISM. HOSSEIN-E-MANSUR-E-HALAJ was enthusiastic in MONISM during his journey to India

 

 

 

“Ahkam al – Jehad va  Asbab al – Reshad”
By: Dr. Zargarinejad
From: The University of Tehran
During the year 1802/1215, Russian troops, following their unsuccessful attempts to conquer Caucasus area, begun their attack to the area. However their invasions were started since peter the Great reign.
After massacre of Ganje, Russians continued their advance to the south; meanwhile the local notables were divided into two groups according to their attitude to the Russians. Some of them decided to resist against them and the others liked to accompany the Russians.
The Qajar ruler, Fath Ali Shah, by the reciving the news of the Russian invasion, sent the forces to Azerbaijan to defate them. The commander of chief of the expeditionary forces was Abbas Mirza (Nayeb al – Saltane) and his minister was Mirza Buzurg of Farahan. The war between two sides took some years but the Russians could not access their aims. At the same time the Qajar ruler signed and agreement with France, known as Finkenstein Agreement, decided to use the French military officers and their experiences against Russians, the head of French officers was a General named General Gardan. But soon after the Finkenstein Agreement. Russia and France had signed a secret agreement. The Qajar court had some difficulties in the battlefield area especially amongst the local notables.
Therefore by the attempts of the MirzaBuzurg (Qaem Magame Awwal) they decided to resolve the crisis of the legitimacy and to draw the support of the Muslim people through the declaration of the war as a holy war. Therefore, Mulla Mohammad Bagir Kalbasi, who was an eminent religious leader, went to Atabat (shiit holy shrine in modern Iraq) and the major cities in Iran and requested the great mujtaheds to issue their fatwa for Jehad or holy war.
Regarding the importance of the defeat of the Russian enemy and to prevent their patronage on the Muslim lands, the ulama helped the Qajar court through the issuing the fatwa for Jehad, and asked the Muslim people to join the Qajar army. For them, the war was not only between two courts but also was between Islam and kufr (Blasphemy).
After the reruren of the late Kalbasi, Mirza Buzurg collected the fatwas and therefore for the first time in the modern history of Iran, he published the detailed work of Jehad literature. The title of this work was “Ahkam al – Jehad va Asbab – Reshad” or “Jdhadiyeye kabir”. These fatwas issued by the great ulama that were the famous religious leaders during their life, the name of these ulama are as follow:
1- Shaykh Mohammad Hassan of Najaf, knowns as kashef al – qeta (shaykh al – Mujtadeddin)
2- Mirza Abulqasem of Qum known as Muhaqqiq of Qum. (Allamat al – Ulama)
3- Aqa Sayyed Ali Tabatabaii, known as Sahebe Reyaz (sayyed al- Mushaheddin)
4- Sayyed Mhannad ibn Sayyed Ali Tabatabaii. Known as Mujahed (Aqa Sayyed Mohammad)
5- Shaykh Mohammad Hassan. (Qazvini)
6- Hajj Mirza Mohammad Hussain Isfahani (Sultan al – Mujtahaddin)
7- Mulla Ali Akbar Isfahani
8- Aqa Shykh Hasheme kabi
9- Mulla Muhammad Reza Hamedani
10- Akhund Mulla Ahmade Naraqi.

 

 

 

 

 

Compartive Teaching
By: Dr. M. Rahamandoost
From: The University of Tehran
This article introduces method of teaching, through comparing different live languages of the world, in order to encourage the students to learn Arabic grammar rhetoric sciences.
There are many complexities and exceptions in the rules of Arabic grammar with regard to i’lal, non-mutasarrif verbs, verbs, which are called naqic, qulub verbs, non-monsarif nouns and etc. These complexities and exceptions discourage students from learning it.
Also there are some problems like those in other languages, for example in Persian: irregularity of conjugation of verbs from past to present tense, different pronunciation of a letter in different places and etc. In English: Irregularity in some plural nouns, difficulty of pronunciation of some words, difficulty of rules of irregular verbs and etc. In German: The division of nouns to male, female and neutral and etc. And in Turkish: The ways of usage of nouns, verbs, numbers and pronouns and etc. Also these difficulties, which exist in above languages make them difficult to learn.
Therefore, if a teacher knows or at least is acquainted with the above-mentioned languages, he will be able to compare difficulties of them to Arabic ones. And also he can encourage the Arabic students of literature, which is the language of Holy Quran and the prophet descendants (P.B.U.T). In fact the Arabic language is a great tool for communication of millions of Muslims through out the world.