MACKLESFELDE

IN YE

OLDEN TIME

BY

ISAAC FINNEY,

AUTHOR OF

ANTIQUITIES OF MACCLESFIELD, GUIDE TO MACCLESFIELD,

ETC., ETC.

REPRINTED FROM THE "MACCLESFIELD ADVERTISER"

MACCLESFIELD:

J. DANIEL, PRINTER, MILL STREET.

1873.

Macklesfelde

In Ye

OLDEN TIME

CHAPTER I.

At certain periods, in the progress or development of the resources of a town, or borough, it is considered requisite to make notes of the many changes which take place consequent on the introduction of railways, and the erection of large public buildings, which cause old landmarks to be taken away, and their sites occupied by other erections, thus giving a different aspect to its former appearance.

It is then a source of gratification to look back and reflect on the mutations caused by time, and to be able to give a satisfactory account of the many occurrences that have brought about these changes, and endeavour to keep in mind its former appearance, especially in the matter of old local buildings gone from sight, but which fancy wishes, as it were to ramble back to, and think on the scenes of former days.

Generally speaking, there are few people but what are interested, more or less, in observing the many changes which time and circumstances combined have made in the aspect of the city, town, village, or even hamlet in which they have for a long time resided; and there are few places of note in England where the inhabitants cannot point to some memorial, of an historic or local nature, of which they pride themselves to be possessed.

In this matter Macclesfield stands conspicuous, both as regards ecclesiastic and other remains of a remote age, which, to a certain extent, are connected with English history. Our Old Church of St. Michael carries the mind back as far as the year 1277, and we have even documentary evidence of the connection of Macclesfield with matters ecclesiastic as early as 1234. History is silent as to when the old Saxon edifice was destroyed, but which is supposed to have occurred about the same time, as the destruction of the ancient church of Prestbury, when the Invaders made such havoc in this country.

The very ancient town, or borough, of Macclesfield - Maxfield - Maxfelde, or, as Doomsday has it, Maklesfeld, appears, previous to the Norman accession to have constituted a portion of the royal demesne of the Earls of Mercia, who held a court here for the ancient hundred of "Hamestan," hence, in the record of Doomsday, it is represented to have been one of the seats of Earl Edwin. When that survey was made it was comprised within the Earldom of Chester, of which it constituted a part until the abolition of that jurisdiction, when the hundred, Manor, and Forest of Macclesfield, lapsed to the Crown.

About the year 1100, the town was fortified, and we find that whilst it continued the residence of the Earls of Chester it was surrounded by a rampart, or walled fence, which had three principal gates, called, respectively, Jordangate, Chestergate, and Wall, or Wellgate, which names are still retained although no vestiges of the gates remain. The former, it is said derived its title from Jordan de Macklesfield living here in 1347, one of a family of Stayley, who held considerable property in this Chapelry, and the proper name of the river in this part, is by some considered to be the Jordan, but we find no mention of it under this title. The question is not very easy of solution, unless we suppose the stream flowing through Macclesfield and Sutton to be called the Jordan till its juncture with the Shrigley Brook, which perhaps, originally might be called the Bollin, giving name to Bollington and afterwards styled "The Dean," but certainly so called before 1470, as the name of Dean Row then occurs. The second gate was so called from being the principal entrance from the Chester side of the Borough. Wallgate seems to be a corruption, and the name derived from the Town Wall, or, as others assert, from a very ancient well, which formerly supplied water to the inmates of the Castle which stood here in the Fifteenth Century.

It is true we cannot in our day, point to the Palace of the Saxon Earl's, which in the Twelfth Century stood in Old Park - lane, as no remains exist (a). We find, as early as 1166, it was granted by Hugh, Earl of Chester, to Richard de Davenport, when he appointed him Grand Serjeant of the Forest of Macclesfield; and in the year 1220, we read of its being united to the Manor of Macclesfield. The Davenport family held possession of it down to the Fifteenth Century, after which it was held in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries by the Savages (b) and is reported to have been the birthplace of Thomas Savage, Archbishop of York, who founded the once splendid chapel attached to the Old Church of St. Michael in this town. Tradition still retains the name of the "Castle Field" to its supposed site, the park grounds of which extended nearly a mile to the south and south west of the town.

We have also an interesting relic of antiquity, in the remains of the castellated mansion of the renowned Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham (c) of 14th century erection; which although there is but little left, it is sufficient to show us the style of the building, and give us some idea of its extent, when we come to take a survey of the ruins, and collect the few fragments of information together, that have any reference to its former important position within this borough.

(a) "With respect to the Norman castles," observes Ormerod, "of the Earls of Chester, and their followers, Chester Castle exists as a modernised gaol, and Beeston

as a venerable rain; Shollack may yet be traced in the earthworks, but nearly every vestige of Frodsham and Macclesfield castles are destroyed, the latter was situated near the Park Lanes.

(b) The patriarch of this ancient family was John de Savage, of Sarcliffe, and Stainsley, county Derby, temp. Edward I I; when John Savage, of Clifton, jure uxor 49 Edward I I I; and who died in the reign of Richard I I. His wife was Margaret, the daughter and heir of Sir Thomas D. Anyers, alias Daniers ( in later times corrupted to Daniels ) of Over Tabley, Knight, whose second husband was Pvers Legh, of Maxfelde (Macclesfield ) and, no doubt, from this early period commenced the intimate connection of the family with this once famous little borough.

(c) Further information representing this distinguished personage will be given in a future chapter on the Wars of the Roses.

One of our old scribes (Webb or King) writing upon this matter, in the reign of James I. and Carl I. says, (speaking of the antiquities of Macclesfield) the renowned Duke of Buckingham, who, as report goeth, kept there his princely residence, about the fourth century, of whose great hospitality there, much by tradition is reported.

The ruins of this ancient mansion, consist of three sides of a very solid stone outer wall, of the dimensions of (as far as can ascertained) 140 by 39 yards. A stone gateway, facing into Mill-street. A very dilapidated pointed arch, which we might call a postern or sally post, was also remaining a few years ago, in the wall that runs down Back-Wallgate (now blocked up) also an angle of a gable with buttress dilapidated, and a portion of the projecting dress stone, or string course, with perpendicular mouldings. Directly above the arched gateway before noticed, and two stories higher, is a window with a trefoil head and square top. The gateway is wholly of the perpendicular, or Tudor style, the arch has been square-headed, the spandrils ornamented. The groined stone roof of this gateway is rather low, and the connecting bosses have the ornaments characteristic of the perpendicular period, one that is very perfect displaying the Tudor rose, and another, the acorn. The substantial character of the masonry seems even now well calculated to resist the in roads of time for a long period.

No doubt, some of our readers may remember the "old castle well," which formerly stood nearly opposite to what is now called the "Castle Inn" in Back-wallgate. It was a massive erection of stone, and covered also with a curiously constructed stone roof of great weight. In later times, after the castle was allowed to fall into decay, it became, as it were, the property of the town, and was called the "Town's Well." Some years ago. it was taken down and dwellings erected on the site, and the Old Well is now only noted among things of the past.

But little information respecting this ancient mansion is to be obtained. We find that in the year 1528, an Act was passed for the restitution in blood of Henry, eldest son and heir of Edward, Duke of Buckingham, and grandson of Shakespeare's Duke, who was also beheaded, but this restitution did not extend to honours or lands, nevertheless, Henry the VIII. of his own special grace, granted to heirs "inter-alia," the manors, tenements, and rents of Macclesfield (Maxfeld), Cryttleton Xe, all of which were parcels or possession of the before mentioned Edward, Duke of Buckingham attained. This was forty years after the great Duke, who is traditionally said to have erected the Castle of Macclesfield. Report says, that the burial place of Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham was at Bosley Church, but I find no proof of this. The only incident relative to any of the Dukes of Buckingham's connection with that place, is in a note on Bosley, where I find that the township of Bosley in olden times bore the name of Lea, and was the only township in the parish of Prestbury vested in the Crown independent of the local earldom. A branch of the Legh's of Adlington by the name of Macclesfield, are said to have been possessed of the manor, which they exchanged for the Old Castle and Palace Yard, in Macclesfield, to Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, granted to them, (the Legh's) and forfeited to the Crown at Stafford's death. The church of Bosley, was founded about the year 1400.

The subject of our present notice, namely, the Old Guild Hall of Macclesfield, or rather that of its predecessor, refers us back to the year 1261, when the first Gild Hall was erected. Macclesfield at that time would present a very different aspect

to what it does at the present day; we might picture to ourselves its almost isolated

(a) Some portions of the building are enclosed in the premises of Mr. Wood, ironmonger, Mill street.

position in what was then considered a remote part of Cheshire, and yet presenting a formidable appearance with its ramparts or walls of its remote situation in the county was not so liable to be called upon to defend itself as other places nearer Chester; we do not read of its being besieged until about the year 1643 - 4, when the Parliamentarians, under Sir William Brereton, made an attack upon it, and took it, though not until an obstinate resistance was made by Sir Thomas Acton and the soldiers under his command, to gain it for the King.

It was during this siege that the spire of St. Michael's Church was battered by the cannon of the besiegers.

CHAPTER II

On referring to ancient history, we find that Macclesfield was constituted a Free Borough at a very early date, as many may be seen by referring to the First Charter of Edward I., as Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, in the 45th of Henry III., in the year of Our Lord 1261, of which the following is a copy.

Copy of The Charter

granted by Edward Earl of Chester to the Corporation of Macclesfield;-

"Edward the illustrious firstborn of the King of England, to the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Courts, Barons, Justices, Sheriffs, Officers, Servants, Bailiffs, and all his faithful subjects - Health! Know ye, that we have granted, and by this our present Charter, have confirmed for ourselves and our heir, to our Burgesses of Macclesfield, that our town of Macclesfield may and shall be a free Borough; and that our Burgesses of the said Borough may have a Merchant's Guild (a) in the same Borough, with Liberties and free Customs belonging to the said Guild: and that they shall be free throughout all our County of Chester, as well by water as by land of Tolls (b) Passage Money (c), Pontage (d), Stallage (e), Lastage (f), and all other Customs, excepting Salt at the Wyches. And that they may have Common of Pasture, and Housebote and Haybote (g) in our Forest, as they used to have, saving to ourselves our Mast and Mast - Money; and that they shall not be impleaded nor judged in any plea out of their borough. And if any of them shall happen to be at our mercy for any forfeiture, he shall pay no more than twelvepence before judgement, and after a reasonable amercement, according to the nature of the fault, unless the forfeiture belong to our sword. The Burgesses aforesaid shall grind their corn at our Mill (h) to the twentieth grain, as they were used to do; and they may nominate their officers by our assent or appointment, or by that of our Bailiffs. They may have and hold their Burgages, and the lands belonging to them,

(a) A " Merchant's Guild" - a brotherhood of merchants or tradesmen, empowered to prohibit any person who is not admitted to their society from following any trade or traffic within the precincts granted to them, except at fairs.

(b) "Toll" - a general name for money paid for things bought publicly at a fair or market

(c) "Passage - money" was demanded at some places for leave or protection to pass quietly and safely through certain liberties; also, at some places, to pass by water

(d) "Pontage - money demanded for leave to pass over a bridge.

(e) "Stallage" - money paid for leave to erect a stall or booth.

(f) "Lastage" was a toll for goods sold by the ast.

(g) "Housebote" and "Haybote" - wood for making house and hedges.

(h) The site of the King's Mill, noticed in the Charter, was on the same ground now occupied by the silk factory of Messrs. Jackson, in Sutton; and the large open space here still retains the name of Mill - green, continued by Mill - Lane, which, in ancient times, would be continued by the old road (now Sunderland - street), for it must be borne in mind that at this time the space now occupied by Sunderland - street, and the smaller streets adjacent to it, was an open field on the western bank of the Bollin, extending along the valley and side of the hill to the end of Back - wallgate, and thus continued up the hill through the town gate, now called Wallgate. In later times, when a roadway would be formed, by the destruction of the old rampart, or walled fence, on the southern side, the new road - or, later still, the street - formed would be called Mill - street, from the circumstance of the erection of the first silk mill in Macclesfield being erected at the northern end of Park - green in the year 1756.

freely and quietly, for twelvepence a year, and may give, sell, or mortgage the same, to whomsoever they will, excepting Religious Houses, as they used to do, saving to ourselves the liberty of our Oven in the said Town. Wherefore we will and firmly command, by ourselves and our heirs, that our Burgesses aforesaid shall have all the aforesaid privileges, and enjoy all the Liberties appointed as is more fully set forth. "As witness, EDWARD DE VOLBERY, Orre, our Excheætur of Chester; HUGH DE CLIFFORD, JOHN DE BOETUR, Keepers of our Wardrobe; THOMAS DE BOTTON, and others.

"Given under our hands, at Guildhall, the 29th May, in the 45th year of the reign of our Lord Father the King (Henry III.) , A. D. 1261."

By this charter Macclesfield was raised from its comparatively obscure state as a hamlet to the dignity of a corporate town, and Prince Edward continued to favour the inhabitants with many proofs of his munificence during his residence in the County Palatine of Chester.

The privileges granted by King Edward to the burgess of Macclesfield were confirmed to their heirs and successors for ever, by Edward III., of York, on the 26th day of February, 1334, by Richard II., at Westminster, on the 14th November, 1390, and by Edward IV., January 30th, 1465. These charters were recited and confirmed by Queen Elizabeth, at Westminster, May 13th 1564, and by another charter of Elizabeth, September 1st 1595, with many additional privileges.

On referring to the First Charter to the town of Macclesfield, we observe that after enacting that it shall be a "Free Borough," it proceeds to say that they may have a "Merchant's Guild, with liberties and free customs throughout the County of Chester.

The fact of a Merchant's Guild being included in The First Charter, and by Royal Command, too, shows to us of the present day how anxious our forefathers were to blend the secular and the religions element together (the term Gild being of a religious character) and showing how desirable they considered it, that all their worldly transactions should be subject to religious influences; and as Edward I., when he came to the throne of England in conjunction with his Consort Eleanor, founded the Church of St. Michael, to succeed the Saxon edifice, which had been destroyed, we may safely conjecture that one or both of them would preside at its consecration by the Bishop of St. Asaph, he (Prince Edward) frequently having occasion to visit Chester, both in the year 1276 and also in 1277, and as he had, whilst he was Prince of Wales, conferred the Town and Manor of Macclesfield on his consort Eleanor, and which she still retained at this period, we may naturally conclude that they would be particularly interested in the welfare of the inhabitants, and also give a still further proof of their desire to cherish the religious elements, as well as to encourage the commercial interests of the "Merchants of Macclesfield".

We may here observe that the term "Merchant's Guild," or rather the word gild, is Anglo-Saxon, in which language it means "the payment of money." Hence, as a fee, at going into any club, and a yearly contribution of so much, were needed to keep it up, of whatever kind it happened to be, whether for religious purposes, or for trade, the fellowship itself from the gildæ, or money clubbed together for upholding it, was called gild.

It would seem that in early times, the Anglo - Saxons kept a holy gild, for the ninth among the canons, enacted under King Edgar, forbids any priest to deprive another of anything, either "in his minster, his shriftshire, or his gildshipe." -Ancient Laws. These gilds are of Anglo - Saxon origin, and were under them chiefly of a religious character, and also under the Norman regime, and later on in the English, they were carried out in the same belief and practice, which the Anglo - Saxon had so warmly cherished. Of the many thousand churches throughout this country, there was none, however small, but had belonging to it, always one, often many of these gilds, and the statues for their government, as well as the purpose of their foundation, were, in the sixteenth century, quite akin to those which called forth and guided the same kind of holy fellowship in its earliest forms among our Anglo - Saxon forefathers. These gilds were made up of individuals from all ranks of society, often numbering at the same time in their brotherhood, the ruling king, with his queen, great earls, noble ladies, churchmen, soldiers, the wealthy citizen, and the lowliest, workman, in the town or city where they were established; they generally chose a particular dress, to be worn, by all its members, alike whenever they were gathered together, and on certain days, or on particular feasts, would go in procession from the Gild Hall to the church, each clad in the costume of their order.

In Stowe's survey, we find in 1385, there was a guild in Norwich of this description, where, by voluntary subscriptions, they founded a Guild, which was incorporated by King Henry V., by the name of "The Aldermen, Masters, Brethren; and Sisters, of the Fraternity and Guild of St George, in Norwich, with power to clothe themselves in any livery, and yearly to hold and make a feast, in any convenient place in the city, and to have a common seal, to sue and be sued. The Prior, Mayor, Sheriffs, and Aldermen, to have power to expel or remove all members of the Gild for any bad behaviour."

It is very probable that when the First Charter was granted to Macclesfield in 1261, the first Gild Hall would be erected. This brings us to inquire as to where was its supposed site (St Michael's Church not being erected until the year 1277), as we well know that gilds in those days were chiefly of a religious nature, no secular guild was founded without its connection with sacred duties, from which we infer that the buildings would, to a certain extent, be used for religious purposes as well, and on certain feast days of the church, the members of the guild would be required to attend the Mother Church of Prestbyrie, until St. Michael's Chapel was erected.

In the year 1292, we find that Edward I. decreed that "the Chappell of Macclesfield should be subject to the Mother Church of Prestbyrie," as also appears from an order of the Chancellor of Chester, which is as follows:- "Whereas, it is sufficiently evident unto mee, John Wainwright, Doctor of Laws, Chancellor of Chester, that Macclesfield is only a chappellry, and it likewise appears to mee, upon oath, that Samuel Leah and Thomas Brickhill, late Chapel - wardens there, have in presumptuous manner, caused their names to be inscribed, or put in golden letters, as churchwardens there, which may (as I am informed) occasion some suites and differences betwixt them and their Mother Church of Prestbyrie - For the prevention thereof, and for other reasons mee thereunto moving, I do hereby order and command the present, Chappellwardens of Macclesfield, within ten days after the notice thereof to them or one of them, given sub pœna Juries et Ecclesiasticce, to cause the said word Churchwardens, which is soe inscribed over the doore, which goes out of the Chappell - yard into the over - loft or gallery of the said Chappell, to bee obliterated and razed. Given under the seal of my office the 3rd day of May, 1667

It would seem to me that the original Gild Hall would be built on what is now the open square in the Market - Place. The site on which the church now stands might have been (which is doubtful) the site of the old Saxon edifice, and consequently would not be used for other purposes. Edward I. very likely had in view a design for a chapel near the Gild Hall, and the position of the ancient cross which formerly stood in the Market - Place would seem to corroborate the idea of the Gild Hall standing in the square, or, as its ancient position would be, at the north - west corner of the building.

At the time of the change in religion in the sixteenth century, all gilds being dispensed with, the hall would be used for purposes connected with the administration of the affairs of the borough, until another was erected. In course of time the old Gild Hall would be transformed into dwellings, which we find were taken down in the years 1827 - 8. Edward I. having perhaps an intention to found a chapelry, would very probably suggest the erection of the Gild Hall contiguous to the intended site, as we have instances still remaining in various parts of England where such buildings were almost invariably erected in close proximity to the church, and sometimes even in the churchyard itself, a very low wall sufficing to mark the boundary of the "God's Acre," or burying ground, from the building, set apart as what would then be called the Gild Hall.

Our sketch of last week represents the one which appears to have been erected in the sixteenth century, though, to judge from the appearance of the building as depicted, it would seem as if the western front, had been altered from the original design, which would be intended to stand upon pillars, and arches, after the manner of similar erections of the sixteenth century, and the very uncouth representation over the door, bearing date 1785, seem to corroborate this idea (a), and seems to have been placed in that position to fill up a central window. I should imagine the original entrance would be on the ground floor, or raised step, the obtruding portion, and the steps being built to make the entrance higher up, and so obstruct the old doorway.

As before remarked these Gild Halls or Guilds, so called, were in the sixteenth century dispensed with, yet, Macclesfield had retained the name longer than most places, though, since the present building has been erected, it is generally designated as the Town Hall.

As regards the architecture and aspect of the Old Town Hall and its surroundings in the year 1817, when Mr. Corry wrote his history of Macclesfield, we cannot do better than give it as he described it at that time, where he speaks of it as "situated at the south - west angle of the Market - Place." It is a most curious piece of antiquity, built in no distinct order of architecture, either Grecian or Gothic, and may, for aught the inhabitants of Macclesfield know to the contrary, be a monument of the Aborigines. Whoever were the original architects, their work defies the power of description, and is equally admirable, as an unique specimen of human skill, and a meet receptacle for the sapient Corporation. The front of this superb building, is the western gable end, which,

(a) Mr Corry says: "Over the entrance of the old Guildhall was displayed the arms of the Corporation, representing a lion rampant, grasping a wheatsheaf, with the motto "Nec virtus nec copia sunt," in basso relievo. This beautiful piece of carved work has, according to tradition, been mistaken by a tippler for the sign of an alehouse."

from its elevated entrance commands a full view of the Market - place, and its picturesque scenery of stalls, higglers, throwsters, weavers, mill - men, and doublers. As the path to civic distinction in this ancient borough is difficult of access, and only permeable by aspiring merit, the approach to the grand vestibule of this Temple of Justice, is by a flight of steps, which affords salutary exercise to the muscular powers of the Mayor and his brethren the capital burgesses.

No doubt there may be a few yet living who remember the old erection, and perhaps some of them could relate instances of their adventures out of the path of rectitude, and

being taken by the constable of that day and thrust through the lower doorway under the steps (leading up to the hall) into a most loathsome den (called The Jail) to pass the night; and in the morning, after the case had been heard in court, to be placed in the stocks, opposite the church - yard, subject to the jeers of the townspeople. The site of the 'Old Stocks', at the time we speak of, was about midway of the southern side of the square block of building, or shops, which formerly occupied a good space in the Market square. They (the stocks) stood nearly opposite to the entry which led up to what was then called the "Debtors Jail," and the roadway on this side was called the Root Market; the east, west and north sides being taken up with stalls for different wares, such as cloth, toys, butchers, stalls, provisions, &c.

As we have noticed, all that interests us in the exterior of the Old Hall, we may now examine if any records, or mementoes of antiquity have been preserved when the new building was erected in 1823 - 4. But here we are taken aback, for on inquiry we find that these have been so little cared for in times past, that scarcely anything of importance is left to interest either the antiquary or the historian. Those that are left being in such a state of decay, that it is next to impossible to gather any information from them, which is a great misfortune, as no doubt much valuable information respecting this ancient borough is irretrievably lost. This being the case, if we wish to know anything of the great men of Cheshire, or of this borough, that have stood conspicuous, in early times, we must have recourse to other records, or to the historians of Macclesfield, in bygone days.

We must not, however omit to notice one or two items of interest to the curious, which are deposited in the custody, of Mr. Etchells, the Sergeant - at - Mace for this borough, namely, a singular relic of 1602, which was formerly used to punish scolding women, or, what was then called a "curst quene." There is also a peculiar form of straight jacket, wholly made of iron, which appears to have been used in times past for deranged persons and other refractory people. The weight of this is nearly 25 pounds.

In the Town Hall or Police Office is also deposited a very old iron chest of massive construction, and flanged together with thick plates of iron. It formerly had three locks and three keys, though only one is now used to open the lid, the other two have been used as hanging, or padlocks, for greater security: the lock is of the most curious and complicated nature, having to move four heavy catches at the same time. The three keys, it appears, have originally been held by as many trusty persons, so that one could not gain access to its contents without the presence of the other parties. It was anciently kept in the Old Church (to which it belongs) and contains the plate used in the Church service, and for greater security is now left in charge of the Sergeant - at - Mace.

The Corporation of Macclesfield possess two very handsome Maces - one of silver, and an ancient date; the other is of silver - gilt, and of a more modern pattern. We find in the sixth charter of the borough given by Queen Elizabeth, dated Westminster, September 1st, 1595, the following grant;- "A Sergeant - at - Mace for the execution of the processes, and mandates to be elected yearly by the Mayor; this Sergeant - at - Mace to carry a golden or silver mace, and with the arms of this our Kingdom of England engraved and ornamented before the Mayor of the borough." It is supposed that the small silver mace now in the custody of the chief - constable is the one prepared in accordance with the grant of the charter. It bears no date, but has the letter I. R., one on either side of the Royal armourial shield engraven upon the ends, from which it appears the first mace was not obtained until the reign of James I. This mace is 2 ft. 2 in, high and weighs 1 lb. 11 oz. Upon the large silver - gilt mace now in use is the engraved inscription:- "Ex Domo Johanis Leigh de Furnivall's June. London, Generosi, John Houghton, gent. Mayor, 1693; and on the opposite side the Macclesfield Arms, encircled with the words "Sigillum Burge De Macclesfield."

CHAPTER III.

In the annals of British history we do not find any county in England that has been more distinguished for men of chivalry and military prowess than the men of Cheshire. Their heroic exploits in the many exciting scenes that have occurred in England's early history, or from the tenth century down to the present time, are well known. In the Wars of the Roses the men of this county stand particularly prominent; indeed there is scarcely an event of importance, from the Battle of Cressy to the present day, where the names of Cheshire heroes occur more frequently than in and near the ancient Borough of Macclesfield, and boasting as it did even as early as the tenth century of its Royal Manor and Forest, and containing within its precincts at the same time the Palace of the Saxon Earls, and (later on) the princely residence of the great Dukes of Buckingham, need we be surprised that it should endeavour to maintain its dignity and importance in respect to men of renowned name, and thus hand down to future ages a long list of heroes who have fought in defence of England's greatness, from the Battle of Cressy down to the memorable times of Balaclava and Inkermann.

As no doubt an account of the principal engagements in which the men of Macclesfield and the neighbourhood have from time to time rendered themselves famous in history will be interesting, we shall endeavour to give a condensed account of each, as they occur in point of time, though, to keep to our engagement, we shall close those accounts with the early part of the sixteenth century.

The earliest memento we possess which commemorates any particular event of this description, may be found in the old Church of St. Michael (a), in Macclesfield, where, on an ancient brass - plate attached to the wall of the Legh Chapel, may be read as follows:-

"Here lyeth the Bodie of Perkin a Legh,

That for King Richard the death did dye,

Betrayed for righteousness;

And the bones of Sir Peers his sonne,

Who with King Henrie the fift did wonne

At Paris.

This Perkin served King Edward the Third, and the Black Prince his sonne, in all their warres in France, and was at the Battell of Cressie, and had Lyme given him for that

(a) For several centuries prior to the change of religion in this country, St Michael was honoured as the patron saint of Cheshire.

service; and after their deaths served King Richard the Second, and left him not in his troubles, but was taken with him and beheaded at Chester by King Henrie the Fourth."

From Hemingway's "History of Chester" we learn that "while Henry of Lancaster, who was in arms against King Richard in 1339, was at Shrewsbury, several gentlemen of the County of Chester, among whom was Sir Robert and Sir John Legh, repaired thither to tender their submission and allegiance. From thence he came to Chester, where, mustering his forces before the walls, he took undisturbed possession of the place and castle. His stay here was marked by one or two sanguinary acts of cruelty. He ordered Piers Legh of Lyme, for his faithful adherence to the unfortunate Richard, to be executed, and caused his head to be placed on one of the highest turrets of the castle. And it is also recorded by Hollinshed (a) that he imprisoned in the castle the Duke of Surrey, who had been sent to him with a message from the King."

Anyone who has made himself acquainted with Cheshire history cannot but be aware how closely the name of Legh is identified with this locality. On referring to the early history of Lyme, we find it first mentioned in connection with one of the brave worthies, Sir Thomas Danyers, Among the valiant Cestrians who did honour to themselves and their country whilst fighting at the Battle of Cressy, under the banner of the Black Prince, Sir Thomas was one of the most distinguished, and in the thickest of the fight; and at a critical period when the king had bade the Prince, "his boy to win his spurs and the honour of the day for himself" the said Sir Thomas "relieved the banner of his earl, and took prisoner the Chamberlain of France, Tankerville;" and, as a reward for this signal service, an annuity was settled upon him by the Black Prince, until a grant of land could be made, and subsequently the estate of Lyme (said to be called from the Forest, of which it was a part), was granted to Margaret, the daughter of Sir Thomas, who was then the wife of Sir Piers Legh, and hence the connection between the estate of Lyme and the family of the Leghs, a connection rendered sacred by the lapse of centuries, and which, it is to be hoped, centuries to come will not see extinguished.

The first engagement of importance in which the men of this neighbourhood took a prominent part, was at the Battle of Cressy, in the year 1346, at which time we find among other valiant Cestrians engaged were Sir Piers de Legh , of Lyme Hall, and Sir Edward Rostherne, of Mere Hall, in Cheshire, who had won fame and favour in the King's army. He was the second son of Sir John Rostherne, whose grandfather (who was neither a knight nor esquire, but a wealthy, freeholder, or franklin), had built for himself a farmhouse there in the time of Henry V., which was afterwards known as Mere Hall.

Before we notice this great battle, we would just remark that, of the many inventions or so-called improvements of later times in warlike implements, which cause such great loss of human life when brought into requisition, our younger readers will probably be acquainted; though, for their information, with respect to ancient customs of warfare, we will remind them that the victories in early times, especially in the days when the Battles of Cressy, Poictiers, and Agincourt were fought, their success in those different engagements were chiefly owing to the use of what was called in archery the long bow, used by the English yeomen. Other bows like crossbows were in use at that time, but the favourite weapon of the English was the longbow. It required only a bundle of arrows, stuck in the belt, and a light case, which adds nothing to the weight, and protected it safely from the weather. The force with which the arrow was sent may

(a) Hollinshed, the great historian, resided near Macclesfield, on what now is called "The Hollins," near the Common,

be judged from a passage in the journal of King Edward VI, in which he says that a hundred archers of his guard shot before him two arrows each, and that they shot at an inch board, which some pierced quite through and stuck into the other board, many drove the arrowheads quite through it, the board being of well - seasoned timber. The distance from the mark is not mentioned. To prevent the bow - string from striking the arm, they carried a fence of leather, and had also shooting - gloves. The bow was the same height as the man, and the arrow half the length of the bow. The English archers drew the string to the ear, which gave them a much greater power over the bow; no strength could draw the arrow to the head, if the string was brought to the breast. The English archers were accustomed to the use of the bow from the time they were children of seven years old, when they were made to practise with a little bow suited to their size and strength, and this was every year exchanged for one longer and stronger, till they were able to draw that of a full - grown man.

The famous Battle of Cressy occurred during the retreat of the English towards Ponthein, when they were pursued by the French King Philip at the head of an immense army, who were flushed with the hope of an easy conquest, and only afraid lest their prey should escape. They were destined to learn better what the English were, when Edward had found a place to his mind, he quickly prepared for the fight that he saw must take place. The night before Saturday, the 16th August, 1346, Edward, says Froisart, "made a supper to all his chief lords of his host, and made them great cheer; and when they were all departed to take their rest, then the King entered into his oratory and kneeled down before the altar, praying God devoutly that if he fought the next day that he might achieve a journey to his honour. Then, about midnight, he laid him down to rest and in the morning he rose betimes and heard mass, and the prince, his son, with him. And after the mass was said, he commanded every man to be armed, and to draw to the field, to the place appointed. Then the King caused a park to be made by the wood side, behind his host, and there were stall carts and carriages, and within the park were all his horses, for every man was afoot; and into this park there was but one entry. (We need hardly say that the prince here mentioned was him whose deeds made the very colour of his armour among men a kind of symbol of all that was heroically brave and chivalrous; that it was the Black Prince, who, in the battle of Cressy, was to give the promise of the future conqueror of Poictiers.) Edward arranged the English in three battalions, and then, "on a hobby, with a white rod in his hand, one of his martials on the one hand and the other on the other hand, he rode from rank to rank, desiring every man to take heed that day to his right and honour. And when he had thus visited all his battalions, it was then nine of the day; then he caused every man to eat and drink a little, and so they did at their leisure; and afterwards they ordered again their battles. Then every man lay down on the earth, and by him salet and bow, to be the more fresher when their enemies should come." They were thus found by the French, who came on with cries of "Down with them! let us slay them!" but as the English objected in their own peculiar way to both processes, the battle quickly commenced. The Genoese crossbow men were first ordered to advance, which they did unwillingly, as being utterly fatigued with their march. However, they went with great cries, which the Englishmen taking no notice of, they shot fiercely with their crossbows. Then the English archers stepped forth one pace, and let fly their arrows so wholly and so thick that it seemed snow." The Genoses were presently discomfited by the storm and thrown into confusion. "slay the rascals!" then called out the sage king of the French, and the French men - at - arms ran in and killed great numbers of them, while of course the English "shot wherever they saw the thickest press." The slaughter under such circumstances was terrible. As the fight thickened, the blind King of Bohemia called upon his people to lead him forward so that he might strike one stroke with his sword. They did so, and "to the intent that they might not lose him in the press, they tied all the reins of their bridles each to other, and set the king before to accomplish his desire, and so they went on their enemies." The whole party were found after the battle still united, but - in death.

The king's crest appears to have been an eagle's pinion, from which the man by whose hand he fell plucked three feathers. The very mention of the words "The Prince of Wales's Feathers," will tell us who he was, and remind us of the mode in which the event of the blind hero's death has been made memorable. But that was not the only incident of the day in which the Black Prince's courage has been recorded. His "battalion, at one period, was very hard pressed, and they with the prince sent a messenger to the king, who sat on a little windmill hill. There the knight said to the king "Sir, the Earl of Warwick and the Earl of Oxford, Sir Reynold Cobham, and others such as be about the prince your son, are fiercely fought withal, and are sore handled. wherefore they desire you, that you and your battle (battalion) will come and aid him, for if the Frenchmen increase, as they doubt they will, your son and they shall have much ado." Then the king said, "Is my son dead, or hurt, or on the earth felled?" "No sir," quoth the knight, "but he is hardly matched, wherefore he hath need of you aid." "Well," said the king, "return to him and to them that sent you hither, and say to them that they send no more to me for an adventure that falieth as long as my son is alive; and also say to them that they suffer him this day to win his spurs, for, if God be pleased, I will this journey be his and the honour thereof, and to them that about him." No wonder these words greatly encouraged the Prince and his party, and made them only repine that they had sent to him all. The battle was at last won, and the French suffered an appalling loss.

The heroic exploits of Lord Audley and his four Cheshire esquires, Sir John Delves, Sir Thomas Dutton, Sir Robert Foulshurst, and Sir John Houston, at the Battle of Poictiers, in 1358, are well known. And in the Wars of the Roses, the men of this county particularly distinguished themselves. Amongst others, we may notice the renowned Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham, whose residence in the fourteenth century was one of the principal buildings in the town of Macclesfield, the ruins of which form an interesting feature in the antiquities of the borough.

A short notice of this distinguished nobleman, who took a prominent part against the House of York in those troublesome times, will no doubt be interesting.

This civil war, which caused so much bloodshed. was what was known all over the world as the Wars of the Roses, a name said to be derived from a circumstance which took place in a dispute in the Temple Gardens, betwixt Warwick and Somerset, at an early period of the rival faction. Somerset, in order to collect the suffrages of those on the side of Lancaster, is said to have plucked a red rose from a bush and called upon every man who held with him to do the like, Warwick, for York, plucked a white rose, and thus the partisans were distinguished by these different badges. But in truth these badges were the badges of the two houses as far back as Edward III., Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, son of that king, wore the red rose, and the Black Prince the white. They were now adopted universally by the followers of the two houses, and rosettes of red or white ribbons, or even of paper, were worn by all the soldiers of these wars - red for Lancaster, white for York. They were soon to be equally dyed in a crimson torrent, such as had not yet rarely flowed in all the wars of England.

CHAPTER IV.

By mistake, the three last paragraphs in Chapter III. were wrongly inserted. By following the subject from the "Battle of Poictiers in 1358," our readers will gather the information respecting this sanguinary engagement, after which we will resume the subject on the "Wars of the Roses."

The Battle of Poictiers was fought and won by the Black Prince alone, under such circumstances of disproportion in the number of troops engaged on each side quite as remarkable as those of Cressy, while the results were still more signal. Among the prisoners after the conflict were the French King John, son of Philip of Valois. His capture is one of the most interesting as well as most important incidents of the battle. Undeterred by their frightful losses at Cressy, so directly brought on by their mismanagement and conceit, the French directed their vast army at Poiciters with the same want of skill and prudence, and, in consequence, soon found the battle going as terribly against them. And, as when the mischief was done, Philip of Valois had distinguished himself by his personal courage in the former battle, so did his son now imitate his example in this, fighting on foot, battle - axe in hand, as though doing the duty of a man - at - arms could retrieve the consequences of neglect of duty as a commander. By his side was a boy of sixteen, who, whilst his elder brethren fled, exhibited a heroism as remarkable, considering his age, as anything in the history of the great English prince, whom the boy of sixteen stood in arms with his countrymen to oppose. Keeping his eyes constantly on his father, and neglecting all thoughts of himself, he cried out, as he saw any blow about to be struck at the king, "Father guard yourself on the right, guard yourself on the left," &c. John was twice wounded, and once beaten to the ground, but he rose again, replying with fresh blows to every fresh requisition to surrender. A young French knight attached to the English army at last forced his way towards him, "by strength of his body and arms," in the hope of moving him. "Sir, yield you," he said, as he drew near. The king beheld the knight and said, " To whom shall I yield me? Where is my cousin, the Prince of Wales? If I might see him, I would speak to him." Denis answered and said, "Sir, he is not here; but yield you to me, and I shall bring you to him." "Who be you?" quoth the king. "Sir, I am Denis of Morbecque. a knight of Artois; but I served the king of England, because I am banished the realm of France and I have forfeited all I had there" Then the King gave him his right gauntlet, saying " I yield me to you." It was with great difficulty, however, and not till special assistance had been rendered, that John was brought in safety to English quarters, the whole of the knights, and others around struggling each to make him his particular conquest. The conduct of the Prince of Wales that night at supper towards his captive guest, and which was but the commencement of an unbroken series of kindly and graceful attentions, is well known. John was brought to England, and received the chivalrous courtesy by King Edward; then, after the lapse of two or three years, allowed to return to France, to see if the French people would consent to Edward's terms, which were that on full and entire sovereignty being yielded to him over Guinne, Poictiers, and Ponthein, he would renounce all other claims to France. The terms, however, being declined by John's subjects, he most honourably returned to his captivity, and died in the palace which had been assigned as his residence, the Savoy, the chief metropolitan residence of Edward's fourth son, the famous John of Gaunt.

The Black Prince, in the later period of his life, appears to have been necessitated through illness to become something more of the citizen than must have altogether suited his taste. Coventry became his favourite place of residence, a circumstance the visitor will find recorded in the remarkable St. Mary's Hall, that richest and in every way completest of specimens of English architecture of the fifteenth century. Its foundation was connected with the growth of the guilds of Coventry, which, first established in the reign of Edward III., rapidly rose into prosperity, and required a suitable place to meet in. In the reign of Henry VI., nothing less than this St. Mary's Hall would content the taste and wealth of the citizens of Coventry, and an honourable memorial truly it is of the founders. A tapestry in it, constructed in 1450, measures thirty feet by ten, contains eighty figures, and is a fine specimen of the artistical as well as of the mechanical skill of the time. The verses referring to the Black Prince, which we find in the hall, tell us that-

Edward, the flower of chivalry, whilom the Black Prince hight,

Who prisoner took the French King John, in claim of Grandame's right;

And slew King Beame (a) in field, whereby the ostrich pen

He won and wore, on crest here first, which poesie bore "Ich Dien,"

Amid these martial feats of arms, wherein he had no fear,

His bounty eke to shew, this seat he chose, and loved full dear;

The former state he got confirmed, and freedom did increase-

A president of knighthood rare, as well for was as peace.

The prince died in 1376, in his forty - sixth year. The beautiful monument in Canterbury Cathedral marks his last resting - place.

Some of our readers who have studied history need not to be informed of the state of England and its manner and custom of warfare four hundred years ago, but for the information of others not so learned we will briefly state that although Old England had its troubles in the latter half of the fifteenth century she was never more truly English than she was then. King, nobles and common people were one compact nation. Its dissension's were among nobles about the right to be king, not a strife between classes, or races, or creeds. The distinction of rank were strongly marked, not bitterly envied or contested. The blood and speech of Norman and Saxon were at length fully mingled, for it was then just as long since the Conquest as it is now since the time we speak of. Sectarian religious hate in the popular mind was reserved for the next generation; foreign influence had not begun to vary much the habits of social and domestic life. This country knew not as yet the Italian fashions of the sixteenth century, or the French manners which the Court of Whitehall borrowed from Versailles in the seventeenth. In the year 1482 - the last year of that King Edward who took to wife the fair widow of an English country gentleman - this kingdom was England indeed.

To give our readers an idea of the sort of men some of our old Cheshire heroes were, we will just request them to accompany us to one of our ancient mansions in Cheshire - namely, Mere Hall, formerly the seat of the Rosthernes in the fifteenth century, who, although at that time were not an ancient family, yet had formed good connections, and on whose escutcheon more than one heraldic emblem of genealogy was quartered; the reflection of which from the painted window are cast by the noonday sun on the stone floor of the hall, and shed a rich splendour of many hues on the plain oaken benches and tables; and on the wall above the dais we might observe more highly - prized tokens of glory in weapons and pieces of armour ranged alternately with the antlered horns of the deer, the mightier though shorter horns of the wild bull, the outspread wings of the eagle, and the gorgeous peacock's tail.

The Sir John Rostherne here noticed was an old Cestrian, a retired lawyer and judge, who had served his king and his country a long time, and at last had returned to seek

(a) The blind King of Bohemia.

for the repase of infirm old age in the green meadows of Cheshire, his favourite country seat of Mere Hall, near Knutsford.

The conversation here related occurs soon after Sir John's return home, and when he is giving instructions to his old faithful steward Simon as to what he would wish to be done. He is in company at the same time with a Master Unsworth, a particular friend and neighbour, and also the Rev. John Wynn, who at that time was the priest of Mereham hamlet and chapelry, but who, out of courtesy of the age, was usually addressed as "Sir John," or "Parson Wynn (a). They are together in the great hall or armoury.

"Simon," Sir John observed, looking at a battered suit of steel plate that hung in the centre, "thou must get this breastpiece well scoured and furbished bright; the casque, too, needs a rubbing." And, turning to Unsworth, he said, You should know, Master Unsworth, this is the suit my father, Sir Edward, wore in the French wars, about fifty years ago, Ay, Talbot and Bedford have commended the soldiers who wore those pieces of old iron. He carried back little e'se but his honour and their notice from the siege of Orleans, when that French witch and harlot who feigned to have a commission from Heaven wrought her evil spells of enchantment against us."

"That foul witch, Joan the Pucelle," answered Master Unsworth. "Yes, it was her fiendish magic alone, I have understood, that raised the spirits of the French garrison and of the French armies in the field. Else, they say, our English dominion beyond the seas would have stood where Harry of Monmouth had left it."

"Harry of Monmouth!" exclaimed Sir John. "Our brave King Henry V.! Why my father saw him, and served under him, long before the time of those disasters. Let me reckon how long ago.? My father, Edward Rostherne, first went to the wars along with Sir Piers de Legh, of Lyme Hall, on the other side of Macclesfield you know. My father was a stripling a lad, a mere boy. Look, there is the little bow he then had; there is the light sword he could just wield. I am in my fifty - fifth year. My father must have been married and settled near sixty years ago. There was my poor brother Edward before me, and Mabel and Alice, my sisters. How could that be? When was the noble fight at Agincourt, Sir Parson? - You study your history books, I know."

"Agincourt," said Parson Wynn. "was fought, as I reckon, it will be sixty - seven years ago come St. Crispin's Day this year. Your father must have come home and married young, Sir John."

"Ay, so he did, but was called away again when I lay a babe in my cradle. He had to go once more to the wars in France. But he was at Agincourt, I know - often has he told me that day." Sir John quoted a well - known popular song-

"When that day is forgot

There will be no men;

When English clothyard arrows

Slew the French like tame sparrows,

Slain by our bowmen."

"Ay," he went on. "the French were no archers. Those who had bows among them would not shoot. King Harry told our men, before the battle, that the enemy's archers had all sworn to cut their own fingers rather then be forced to fight against ours. The cowardly outlandish knaves! Their horsemen were more valiant, but what could they do, with all their numbers? Why, twelve hundred of their best - I forget the leader's name some Monseignor of Brabant came charging right down upon our bowmen,

(a) The clergy of the Catholic church were anciently designated as parsons - a title now used in reference to the Protestant clergy.

whom old Erpingham had drawn up in the shape of a wedge. We had got sharp iron pointed stakes, you know, and stuck them in the ground, which was soft and slippery with mud. We had thrown off our leather jackets, and we stood there, every man of us, naked to the waist. The enemy's knights and troopers rode in full armour; they bore down upon us with lance and battleaxe; but we stopped them, Parson Wynn! We knocked them over, Master Unsworth! By St. George, we would do it again! Ned Rostherne and his fellows were too much for the Frenchmen that day. See, there's the big bill - hook my father carried. When the French horsemen stopped, and some of them tumbled in the mud, and some turned tail before our flight of arrows, what did we do? Why, we pulled up the stakes, we slung our bows at our backs, Sirs; we took our spears, swords, and halberds; and, by George we ran out our lines and charged them in our turn! Didn't we, Parson? Didn't we go at it, just as we were bare - headed, bare - armed, bare - breasted; with spear, or hatchet, or anything, in hand! Lord bless you my father has told me. He was a tall, stout man - a proper man; wasn't he, Peter Lines? Why that's the very billhook he carried in that field.

"So that was Sir Rosthernes weapon when he fought in his youth as a yeoman" said Wynne. "Pardon me the word, Sir John; I know you are proud, as you well may be, of his earning his promotion to be squire and Knight; but if he wielded that heavy billhook at Agincourt, he must then, I should say, have been a man of full man's growth and strength. I don't see how he could have used that small bow; it is as you say, one fit for a slight youngster.

Sir John looked rather confused and puzzled to escape from his self - contradiction. "Well" he said, after a pause, "I know it was my father's bow, he told me so when he began teaching Ned and me to shoot with it, when we were boys. Perhaps it was one he had practised with at home when he was a boy, some years before he went first to the French wars. Let me see, how about the time? When was the fight you say? My father was in France all the while at Harfleaur and Rouen, and in Anjou, till Harry the Fifth died there in Paris. Then my father came back to England, when Harry of Windsor was called King and proclaimed. Then my father and mother were married. "Exactly sixty years ago" remarked Parson Wynne, "Very well; didn't I say so?" resumed Sir John. "Well, my father was made Sir Edward the year before. He was at Beauge with the king's brother, the Duke of Clarence, in the battle with the Earl of Buchan's Scotch hirelings of France. There were seven thousand Scots against fifteen hundred of us. We had no archers there; my father was a mounted squire riding near the Duke. When the Duke was ridden down and overthrown by a Scot, my father tried in vain to save his life. He was all but killed himself; he got three bad wounds that instant. All our men were killed or taken prisoners that day. He was healed and ransomed. For this he was made a Knight when our King Henry went again to France. He served under Harry's own eye, and pleased the king once more, at the capture of Meaux. That was only a few months you know before our valiant Harry died. "Sir Edward Rostherne did not then stay abroad longer" Master Unsworth enquired. "Not that time," replied Sir John. "The Duke of Bedford, that other valiant brother of the King, was governor in France and would have bidden him stay; but he had then been seven years away from home. He was then a man, I think, about your own age, Parson. He wanted to settle, and so came back with the Duke of Gloucester."

"If he was thirty. which is my age," said Wynne, "at the death of Henry V., he must have been twenty - three when he fought at Agincourt."

"Never mind that now," Sir John rather hastily answered. "King Harry's body, you know, from the castle of Vincennes, was brought through France to the sea in a funeral car with a grand show of banners, carried along by day and burning torches by night. There were five hundred chosen knights in black armour to guard it. My father was appointed for one, because the king had noticed him shortly before his end.

"And did he then come to dwell at this place?" Master Unsworth asked. "Did Sir Edward Rostherne settle at Mere Hall so long ago?"

"No indeed," replied the knight. "Mere Hall was not then built. The old place was called Mere Grange; it belonged to my Uncle John, my father's elder brother. My father was made deputy - governor for Sir John Stanley in the Isle of Man. That was when the child Henry of Windsor was called King; but it was Duke Humphrey (a) who ruled in England. My father only went over to France again after six or seven years with the fresh levies sent to help the stout Earl of Salisbury and Warwick when they laid siege to Orleans.

Master Unsworth again surveyed the armour on the wall. "There is a helmet," he observed; "with a dint in it of a shrewd blow - I should say of an axe." That helmet has been in a fierce fight.

"Ah! I can't bear to look at it" said Sir John. "It was my poor brother Ned's helmet. He wore it at the great battle of Towton. He was there with Lord Stanley, and King Edward, and the Earl of Warwick, when they beat the Lancaster party to nothing. You were there Peter Bailey; you saw what they did?"

"I saw it all your worship," replied the bailiff, who had indeed followed to that fight his warlike lord, the deceased Edward Rostherne Esq. "I saw my master Rostherne, with that great two - handed sword of his that hangs up there, fighting on foot as he did, break twice through the enemy's line, when they tried to cover the Earl of Devon, to keep him from being made prisoner. But we all put up our spears and halberts, every man of us driving straight at a man of the other side; and we ran in upon their whole line, when my master had broken it through, and down they went, so that we leaped over their bodies and made a ring all round the Earl, who was fighting like a wild man, not to be taken. He was worth a good ransom.

"And long after that," Sir John sadly remarked "my brother was killed at Tewksbury, by a lance that smote him unawares as he rode in the thick of the fight." "Well well, die we all must. My father saw thousands of men killed in France; then came home and died at home in his bed here in the old grange house, while this hall was being built. Thank God for him that he never lived to see these wars of the two princely houses in England. It would have broken his heart, for he used to say that no English blood ought to stain an English sword."

This brief account will give the reader an idea of the sort of men Cheshire has produced, and needs no further comment.

(a) Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham, of Buckingham Castle, in Macclesfield

CHAPTER V.

A BRIEF REPORT OF THE BATTLE OF AZINCOURT IN 1415, IN WHICH (AS NOTICED ON THE ANCIENT BRASS IN THE LEGH CHAPEL OF THE OLD CHURCH IN MACCLESFIELD) FELL SIR PIERS LEGH OF LYME, WITH OTHER CHESHIRE HEROES, FIGHTING FOR KING HENRY THE FIFTH.

The resemblance between the situations and the circumstances of the three great battles of those ages in France, of which this was last of the trio, is one of the most curious facts in history.

The English monarchs had set out on a precisely similar wild march across an enemy's country, careless being surrounded by infinitely superior numbers, fighting on their own soil for everything dear to them. They had been driven to the same extremity, and obliged to make a stand against odds such as no men but Englishmen would dream for a moment of opposing. Yet on every one of these occasions they had been enabled to select a position of surprising strength, and so much resembling each other that the parallel is marvellous. The same sloping ground, protected behind by woods, and flanked by the same; the approach contracted by woods or a deep lane, so that the vast hosts were useless so long as they maintained that position.

On the other hand, the French had insuperable advantages, not only of immense numbers, but of obtaining at will all necessary supplies, and that they should have overlooked these advantages in the first instance is by no means wonderful; but after the Battle of Cressy, and again of Poiciters, that they should have committed the same glaring blunder for a third time is an evidence of their lack of cool calculations at that time which is certainly astonishing. The Duke of Berri, who was at this time a very old man, who had fought in the Battle of Cressy fifty - nine years before, was one of the few individuals, at least among the commanders, who appeared to have a misgiving. He strenuously opposed any general engagement, and though he did not succeed in that important particular, he did in another nearly as important. He carried his point that the king should not command in person, as was proposed. "Better," he said, "it will be to lose the battle, than to lose the battle and the king too."

As a prelude, however, to the commencement of hostilities, the Constable of Paris planted his banner on the Calais road, a little in advance of the village of Ruiseauville, and the Dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, of Berri Alencon, and Brabant, and all the great lords planted theirs round it with loud acclamations and rejoicings that the hour was come when the English would be given up to them and all their spoil. But the joy was soon damped, for the night set in dark and rainy. The ground was a clay, which soon swam with water and became so slippery that their horses slid and stumbled about in great disorder. The pages and valets rode to and fro seeking straw to lay on the muddy ground for their officers and themselves. There was a great bustling and moving to and fro; people shouting to one another, and making much noise, but obtaining very little comfort; and it was at length observed that their horses stood silent and did not neigh, which is looked upon the eve of battle as a very bad omen. At length, however, they succeeded in lighting fires along their lines, and burst of laughter and merriment were repeatedly heard by the English, while their enemies were, no doubt calculating the value of their horses, and the arms on their backs.

The English, on their part, passed a night of serious reflection. They had made a long march under great difficulties and privations. Many of them were wasted by sickness, worn down by fatigue and scanty and unwholesome fare. They were in the presence of an immense force. But they were descendants of the heroes of Cressy, which lay not far off, and they had the utmost confidence in the bravery of their leader. They spent the early part of the night in making their wills, and in devotion. The king visited every quarter of his little camp, and sent out, as soon as the moon gave light enough, officers to arrange the plan of battle the next day, and ordered bands of music to play through the whole night.

At break of day Henry summoned the men to attend matins and mass, and then, leading them into the field, arranged them in his usual manner - in three divisions and two wings; but in such close array that the whole appeared but as one body. The archers who were his grand strength, he posted in advance of the men - at - arms, four in file, in the form of a wedge. Beside their bows and arrows, the archers were now armed each with a battleaxe and a sword. The fatal field of Bannockburn, where the archers were rendered useless by their want of side - arms when Bruce rode his cavalry amongst them, seems to have taught the English this precaution. Every man , too, bore on his shoulders the stout stake, which Henry had ordered them to provide themselves with, pointed at each end, and tipped with iron. This they planted obliquely before them, as a cheve ux de fuse, and thus opposed a formidable rampart to the French cavalry. Such a defence had never been used before in any Christian army.

Determined to rival the fame of their predecessors in most renowned fields, the bold archers of Nottingham, of York, of Lincoln, and of Kent, stripped off their jerkins of buff, laid bare their brawny arms and their broad chests to give free play to their action. Many even flung away cap and shoes, and, half naked. they are said to have presented so savage an appearance as struck awe into the enemy.

The fight on the English side being intended, as at Cressy and Poictiers. to be on foot, Henry had placed all his baggage, with the priests and the horses, in the rear, near the village of Maisoncelles, under the guard of a small body of archers and men - at - arms. He dismissed all his prisoners on their patrols to appear at Calais if he won the victory, he then mounted a grey palfrey, and rode along the lines of each division. He wore a helmet of polished steel. surmounted by a crown sparkling with jewels, and on his surcoat were emblazoned the arms of England and France. He went from banner to banner, addressing and encouraging the men. He recalled to their minds the glorious victories of Cressy and Poictiers; he told them that he was resolved to win as great a triumph or die in the field; and he declared that every man who shewed himself that day worthy of his country and his name should hence - forth be deemed a gentleman and be entitled to wear coat - armour.

Still more to excite their spirits, he told them that the French had determined to cut off three fingers of their right hands in order to ruin them for ever as bowmen, and he bade them remember what they had done at the siege of Soissons, where they had hanged 200 brave bowmen like dogs. These observations inflamed their resentment wonderfully against the enemy, and Walter Hungerford, a gallant officer of their body, said, in Henry's hearing. "Would to God we had here with us in the field some more of the good knights and brave bowmen who are sitting idle in merrie England!"

"No," replied Henry "Not a single man of them! If God gives us the victory, the fewer we are, the more honour; the fewer we are, if we lose, the less the loss to our country, But we will not lose. Fight with your usual courage, and God and the justice of our cause will protect us. Before night, the pride of our enemies shall be humbled in the dust, and the greater part of that multitude shall be stretched on the fields, or captives in our power.

The French had drawn up their host in a manner similar to that of Henry, but instead of their files being four, they were thirty - nine deep, The constable of Paris himself commanded the first division, the Dukes of Barre and Alencon the second, the Earls of Marle and Falconberg (a) the third. But in their eagerness to come at the English they had crowded their troops into a narrow field between two woods, where they

had no room to deploy, or even to use their weapons freely; and the ground was so slippery with the rain that their horses could with difficulty keep on their legs; while the English archers, who were immediately opposed to them, were not only on foot, but many of them barefooted, and, disencumbered of their clothes, were ready to make their way alertly over the soft ground.

Both the French and English commanders had ordered their men to seat themselves on the ground with their weapons before them, and thus they continued to face each other without action for some time. The constable, most probably to gain time for the arrival of the expected reinforcements, still lay quiet, and Henry took the opportunity to distribute refreshments of food and wine through his ranks. He also seized the opportunity to send off secretly two detachments, one to lie in ambush in a woody meadow at Framecourt on the left flank, and the other to set fire to some houses in their rear as soon as they were engaged to throw them into alarm

Scarcely had the king executed this manoeuvre, when he was surprised by a deputation of three French knights from D'Albert the commander. They came to offer him a free passage to Calais, if he would agree to surrender Hartfleur, and renounce his pretensions to the throne of France. Henry disdained to enter into any negotiations except on the very same terms that he had dictated before he left England; and, penetrating the real object of these overtures, that of gaining time, he immediately dismissed the matter. But the envoys were not to be so readily dispatched. One of them, the Sire de Heley, who had been a prisoner in England, and was accused of breaking his parole, introduced that matter, and offered to meet in single combat between the two armies, any man who should dare to asperse his honour. "Sir Knight," said Henry, curtly, "this is no time for single combats: Go tell your countrymen to prepare for battle, and doubt not that, for the violation of your word, you will a second time forfeit your liberty if not your life." "Sir" replied de Heley, insolently. determined to prolong the parley, "I shall receive no orders from you, Charles is our sovereign, him we shall obey, and for him we shall fight against you whenever we think proper."

"Away then, " said Henry, " and take care that we are not before you;" and instantly stepping forward he cried, "Banners, advance."

With that Sir Thomas Erpingham, a brave old warrior, threw his warder into the air, exclaiming, "Now strike!" and the English moved on in gallant style, till they came within bowshot of the French lines. Then every man kneeling down kissed the ground, a custom which they learned from the Flemish, who, at the great battle of Courtray, where they defeated the French cavalry with such brilliancy, had then each taken up a particle of earth in his mouth, while the priest in front elevated the Host. It was a sign of consecration to the great duty of the day; and having done this homage to the God of battles, they rose up with a tremendous shout, struck each man his pointed stake into the ground before him, and stepping in front of these stakes, sent a flight of arrows at their foes, and again retired behind them. The constable who well knew the terrible effect of the English archers on the French troops, had prepared a scheme similar

(a) A branch of the Falconberg family resided at Sutton Hall, near Macclesfield, in the early part of the seventeenth century, as also Sir Richard de Sutton, who was slain in a tumult at Chester, in the year 1601. A further account of this ancient baronial residence, which dates from the tenth century, will be given in a future chapter.

to that of Bruce at Bannockburn to break their line and throw them into confusion. He had few or no archers, for the French at that period adhered to the feudal notion that knights and gentlemen only must handle arms. The dreadful defeats of Cressy and Poictiers had not cured them of the foolish idea that arms must not be trusted to plebian hands. He therefore had trained a body of 1200 men - at - arms under Messire Clignet, of Brabant, who were to make a desperate charge on the archers, and break up their ranks. They came on with fierce cries of "Mountjoy! St. Denis!" but the slipperiness of the ground, and the fierce flight of arrows which struck through their visiors and their armour, threw them at once into confusion. Their horses reeled and stumbled against each other in the muddy clay, and to avoid the iron hail of arrows they turned their heads aside, and thus knew not how to guide their steeds. Of the whole 1200 not more than seven score ever reached the spiked barricade of the archers from which the few remaining horses recoiled, and the whole troup in a few minutes lay dead or wounded on the ground. Only three horses are said to have penetrated within the line of stakes, and there they fell perforated with wounds. Meantime, hundreds of wounded steeds were clashing to and fro and continually returning upon the French lines, stung to madness by their pain. All became confusion and disorder in the first division. The men - at - arms were so wedged together that they could not extricate themselves from the throng to advance or retreat. While the bravest strove to rush on the enemy, the timid endeavoured to fall back on the next division, and a bewildering and most awful chaos arose. Still the English archers poured in their arrows, dropping multitudes at each discharge; and when their arrows failed they seized their battle - axes and leaving their stakes rushed on with fierce cries At this signal the men in ambush replied with similar shouts, and falling on the flank of the French army, added immensely to the terror and disorder. While they showered their arrows in that direction, the archers in front hewed their way with their hatchets through all opposition. They dashed amid the steel clad horsemen. burst through the whole array of horses and armour, slew the commander in chief and many of his most illustrious officers, and in a very short time, without any aid whatever from the men - at - arms, dispersed the whole of the first division.

The second division opened to receive the fugitives which occasioned fresh disorder, and at this crisis the Duke of Brabant, who had hastened on before his expected reinforcements, galloped up with a fresh body of horse, and charged the advancing archers. Those indomitable men, however, speedily cut him down, destroyed his detachment, and kept on their way laying prostrate all before them. They soon arrived at the second division, who, though wallowing up to their horses girths in the middle of a ploughed field, the men on foot being sunk by the weight of their armour almost up to their knees, yet kept their ground. At this moment Henry advanced with his men-at-arms; but seeing the nature of the ground, he rallied his brave bowmen, who having no weight to carry could do active battle even on that rotten ground. At his call they speedily reformed, and under his command made a fresh charge. It was now that the real battle took place. The Duke of Alencon, who with the Duke of Barre headed this division, had made a vow to kill or take captive the King of England or to perish in the attempt. He led on his troops with desperate valour, and a mortal struggle of two long hours took place. The English archers still wielded their massive axes in the front and the French men-at-arms fought with undaunted bravery. Henry combated in the midst of his archers, who still plied their weapons with loud hurrahs and, animated by battling under the eye of the king, seemed still as active and fresh as if they were just come into the strife.. Henry's life however was repeatedly in danger. His brother, the Duke of Clarance, was thrown down near him wounded, and in danger of being killed, when Henry rushed to his assistance, strode across the body, and beat off his assailants till the prince could be removed. But no sooner was Clarance in safety than a band of eighteen knights, headed by the Lord of Croy, confronted the king. They had sworn to each other to take or kill him. One of these knights struck Henry with his battle axe, and brought him to his knees, but his brave followers closed round him instantly, and slew every one of his assailants. The Duke of Alencon then fought his way to the royal standard. With one stroke of his battle-axe he beat the Duke of York to the ground and killed him; with the next he clove the crown on Henry's helmet. At that sight every arm was raised-every weapon was directed at him. He saw his imminent danger and cried out to Henry "I yield to you; I am Alencon!" Henry held out his hand but it was already too late; the gallant duke lay dead. Here the battle may be said to have ended, for though the third division was still unbroken, at the sight of the Duke of Alencon's troops flying in all directions, they too fell back and prepared for flight. Henry's little army was too much exhausted, and too much encumbered with prisoners to pursue the flying legions. He gave orders to see to the wounded and summoning the heralds he traversed the fields accompanied by his chief barons, and saw the coats of arms of the fallen princes and knights examined and their names registered. While this was doing, and others were stripping the dead, he called to him the French king - at - arms Mountjoye, who came attended by the other heralds French and English and he said "We have not made this slaughter but the Almighty, as we believe, for the sins of France. " Then turning to Mountjoye, he asked "To whom does this victory belong?" "To the King of England," replied Mountjoye, "and not to the King of France;" "And what castle is that which I see at a distance," continued Henry. "It is called the castle of Azincourt replied the herald. "Then," said Henry, "since all battles ought to be named after the nearest castle, let this henceforth and lastingly bear the name of the BATTLE OF AZINCOURT."

CHAPTER VI.

In the early part of the great feuds which were between the Houses of York and Lancaster. in the fifteenth century, or, what is more generally known by the name of the "Wars of the Roses," none distinguished themselves more in favour of King Henry VI. than the renowned Humphrey Duke of Buckingham, whose residence at that time, known as the "Castle," formed one, if not the most principal edifice (next to the Church) within the borough of Macclesfield, and which, even now in its ruins, presents to the eye of the antiquary and the curious no mean specimen of ancient architecture and masonic skill, which no doubt at some future day, when the site comes to be thoroughly investigated will astonish those engaged in the adventure.

We find in history that Humphrey Duke of Buckingham took part in several engagements in favour of Henry VI. against the adherents of the House of York, for in the battle St. Albans, in 1456, we find him in that engagement, on which occasion he was severely wounded in the face by an arrow from one of the Yorkist.

History informs us that on the morning of the 23rd May in that year, when the royal army reached St. Albans, and as it was about to renew its progress the hills bordering on the high road were beheld covered with the troops of York. This army now for the first time displayed in resistance to the sovereign, halted in a field near the town, and sent forward an herald announcing that the three noblemen (namely the Duke of York, the Earl of Salisbury, with Warwick) were come in all loyalty and attachment to the king, but with a firm determination to remove the Duke of Somerset from his council, and demanding that he and his pernicious associates should be delivered up to them. The Yorkists declared this to be so absolutely necessary that they were resolved to destroy those enemies to the peace of the country or to perish themselves. An answer was returned by or for the king, "that he would not abandon any of the lords who were faithful to him, but rather would do battle upon it at the peril of life and crown.

It would have appeared that the royal army had a most decided advantage by being in possession of the town, which was well fortified. and where a stout resistance might have been made in the narrow streets; but, spite of this, the superior spirit of the commanders on the side of York triumphed over the royalists. York himself made a desperate attack on the barriers at the entrance of the town, while Warwick, searching the outskirts of the place, found, or was directed by some favouring persons, to a weak spot. He made his way across some gardens, burst into the city, and came upon the royal forces where he was little expected. Aided by this diversion, York redoubled his attack on the barriers, and, notwithstanding their resolute defence by Lord Clifford, forced an entrance. Between the cries of "A York! A York!" "A Warwick! A Warwick!" confusion spread among the king's forces, they gave way, and fled out of the town in utter rout: The slaughter among the leaders of the royal army on this occasion was terrible. The Duke of Somerset, the Earl of Northumberland, and Lord Clifford were slain; the king himself was wounded in the neck; the Duke of Buckingham and Lord Dudley in the face, and the Earl of Stafford in the arm. All these were arrow wounds, and it was plain that here the archers had on the day. The king was found concealed in the house of a tanner, and there York visited him, and on his knees, renewing his vows of loyal affection, congratulated Henry on the fall of the traitor Somerset. He then led the king to the shrine of St. Albans, and afterwards to his apartment in the Abbey

After this occurrence. two years seem to have passed away in apparent peace to the nation, but in the most bitter party warfare at court. The relations of Somerset, and the Earl of Northumberland, and of the other nobles slain at St. Albans, were encouraged to demand with eagerness to meet each other in the field. The Duke of York, Salisbury, and Warwick, spent the winter in arousing their partisans. Warwick called around him at Calais, the veterans who had fought in Normandy and Guienne. On the other hand, the court distributed in profusion collars of white swans, the badge of the young prince; and the friends of the king were invited by letters under the privy seal to meet him in arms at Leicester. The spring and summer had come and gone, however, before the rival parties proceeded to actual extremities.

At length, on the 23rd September, 1459, we find the Earl of Salisbury marching forth from his castle of Middleham in Yorkshire, to form a junction with York on the borders of Wales, but was met at

BLORE HEATH, IN STAFFORDSHIRE,

by Lord Audley, with a force of ten thousand men who sought to intercept his progress, but the veteran Salisbury was too subtle for his antagonist, and on the approach of Lord Audley's army, he pretended to fly at the sight of such unequal numbers, and having thus seduced Audley to pass a deep glen and torrent, he fell upon his troops when part only were over, and throwing them into confusion made a dreadful slaughter of them. Some writers contend that Salisbury had only 500 men with him, but this appears incredible when we come to consider that they left Lord Audley with 2,000 men dead on the field, and took prisoner Lord Dudley, with many knights and esquires.

We must here pause to consider the dreadful sufferings of the Cheshire men on this occasion, and to remark that the calamity was rendered greater on account of the men of Cheshire being ranged in nearly equal numbers on the side of the contending parties. Sir Hugh Venables, Sir William Troutbeck, Sir Thomas Dutton, Sir Richard Molineux, Sir John Done, Sir John Egerton, and Sir John Legh of Boothes, were left dead on the field of battle. Drayton in his Polyalbian, thus curiously records this memorable fight:-

There Dutton, Dutton kills, a Done (a.) doth kill a Done;

A Booth, (b.) a Booth, and Leigh by Leigh is over thrown:

A Venables, against a Venables doth stand,

And Troutbeck fighteth with a Troutbeck hand to hand.

There Molineux doth make a Molineux to die; And Egerton the strength

of Egerton doth try. Oh Cheshire! were thou mad of thine own native gore.

So much until this day thou never shedd'st before!

Above two thousand men upon the earth were thrown.

Of whom the greatest part were naturally thine own.

After the Battle of Blore Heath, we find the Earl of Salisbury pursuing his way to Ludlow, where York lay, and where he was joined in a few days by Warwick, with a large reinforcement of veterans under Sir John Blount and Sir Andrew Trollop.

The king, queen, and lords of their party had assembled an army of 60,000 men. With them they advanced to within half - a - mile of Ludiford, the camp of York, near Ludlow, on the 10th of October, 1459, and it was concluded by the royal party to give battle on the 13th, but they found York posted with consummate skill. His camp was defended by several batteries of cannon. which played effectively on the royal ranks as they attempted to advance. The royalists therefore deferred the engagement until the following morning, and were relieved from that necessity by Sir Andrew Trollop, who was marshal of the Yorkist army, going over in the night, with all his Calais auxiliaries, to the king. Trollop had hitherto believed the assurances of the Yorkist leaders, that they sought only Government redress, and not subversion of the throne; but something had now opened his eyes, and, as he was a staunch royalist, he acted accordingly This event struck terror and confusion through the Yorkist army. Every man was doubtful of his fellow. The confederate lords made a hasty retreat into Wales, when York and his son passed over to Ireland, and the rest followed Warwick, who hastened to Devonshire, and then escaped to Calais.

Meantime, the insurgent chiefs, though dispersed, were not crushed; it was soon found that York had great popularity in Ireland, and Warwick had a strong retreat in Calais. Need

(a.) The residence of the Done family, Utkinton Hall on the confines of the forest, was a place of considerable importance; but the corroding effects of time and the ravages of civil commotion have robbed it of most of its glory. In 1644, the family being supporters of the Parliament, it was plundered by the royalists under the command of Colonel Marrow, though the booty carried off was afterwards restored by order of the House of Commons. On several occasions the name has been associated with military prowess and heroic courage. "John Downe" was a commander in the Cheshire guard selected by Richard for his Irish expedition, and at the battle of Blore Heath. in Staffordshire, fought with frightful carnage in 1459 not less than three or four members of the family fell on the side of King Henry.

(b.) Sir Robert Booth, with whom commences the history of the Booth of Dunham Massey, so far as the connection between the family and the place is concerned. He was slain at the battle of Blore Heath, and near the altar rails in the Church of Wilmslow there are some rude brasses, representing Sir Robert and his wife Douce Venables, the knight in armour with a greyhound at his feet, and a smaller dog reposing at the feet of the lady. The memorial is interesting, as " Ormerod remarks, from the fact of its perpetuating the memory of the first Cheshire male ancestor of the Booths, and of the heiress of Dunham Massey and the Bollin; and it is the only inscription now remaining in the county relative to any of the warriors who fell at Blore Heath.

we be surprised, then, that in the spring of the year, the Yorkists, who had fled so precipitately from the royal army at Ludifoot and had seemed to vanish as a mist, were again on foot and in a daring attitude. Warwick landed in June in Kent - the great stronghold of the House of York, next to the marches of Wales. Here he was joined by Lord Cobham, with 400 men, and also by the Archbishop of Canterbury. As he advanced towards the capital people flocked to him from all sides, till his army, it is said, amounted to some 40,000 men. He entered London on the 2nd of July, and, proceeding to the Convocation, prevailed on no less than five bishops to accompany him to an interview with the king, who was lying at Coventry.

Henry advanced to Northampton, where he entrenched himself in a strong camp. On arriving before it, Warwick made three successive attempts to obtain an interview with the king, but, finding it unavailing, the legates, it appears, excommunicated the royal party, and set up the Papal banner in the Yorkist camp. Warwick gave the king notice that as he would not listen to any overtures he must prepare for battle at two in the afternoon, on the 10th of July, 1460. The royal party made themselves certain of victory, but were this time confounded by Lord Grey of Ruthryn going over to the enemy, as Sir Andrew Trollop had deserted the other party at Ludlow. Grey introduced the Yorkists into the very heart of Henry's camp, and the contest was quickly decided. Warwick ordered his followers to spare the common soldiers, and direct their attacks against the leaders, and accordingly of these there were slain 300 knights and gentlemen, including the

DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM

the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the Lords Beaumont and Egremont. Thus a second time Henry fell into the hands of his rebellious subjects, but they treated him with all respect. The queen and her son escaped into Wales, and thence into Scotland, after having been plundered on the way by their own servants.

In concluding our notice of the renowned Duke Humphrey, we may here remark that after his death the Castle in Macclesfield (in which he resided up to this time) was totally neglected and allowed to fall into decay, and no doubt its demolition would, to a great extent, be completed early in the seventeenth century, when the order was given to destroy all places of defence in this county. The materials would seem to have been used up in various erections in the town, until nothing now remains of this once splendid castellated mansion, except the few portions previously described.

It appears that the Duke of Buckingham had also another residence in this locality, in addition to the one at Macclesfield - namely, Swanscoe Park; and tradition extols his hospitality in that neighbourhood as well as in Macclesfield. He had likewise a right of shooting and other sports to a certain extent in what was then the " Forest of Macclesfield,"

CHAPTER VII.

In this affray, we find the Savages and the Stanley's at first in opposition, but before the close we see the Stanley's (father and son) deserting Richard III. and going over to Henry Earl of Richmond, (afterwards Henry VII) yet later, or in the year 1494, we read of Sir William Stanley being sent to the block by order of Henry VII. Such is life.

The Battle of Bosworth Field, would appear to have been brought about through the cruelties practised by Richard III., as well as the divisions amongst the nobility, with regard to the right of the throne, one party espousing the cause of Henry Earl of Richmond, of the House of Lancaster, who it appears had been held in captivity from the time he was five years old, and the other party who adhered to Richard III. who had been crowned king. But the cruelties he practised in order to keep his position turned a many of his nobles against him. He began his reign by popular acts of justice and clemency, and might perhaps have kept his ursurped greatness, but for the murder of the two princes of Edward VI., in the Tower. From history we learn however, that all the hopes of the nation were concentrated on Richmond, whose name Henry Tudor suggested a train of associations connected with his descent, that, though not amounting to a claim operated in his favour. A grandson of Sir Owen Tudor and the widow of the lamented Henry V., he was descendant of the Welsh sovereigns and the royal house of France. A prophecy of Henry VI. was also remembered at this time. It is related that " One day as he was washing his hands at a great feast, happening to cast his eye on Henry, then a boy, he said ' This is the lad that shall possess quietly that we now strive for; (alluding to the contest between the two Houses of York and Lancaster).

In addition to the murder of the two princes, another of Richard's cruelties, was the beheading of Colingbrooke, a gentlemen whose only crime was his being the author of a popular rythme:-

The Cat, the Rat, and Lovel our dog

Rule all England under a Hog.

alluding to Ratcliff, Catesby, Lord Lovel, and Richard, whose crest was a wild boar. But his career was soon to draw to a close. His power and influence rapidly declined. He was without money, and durst not ask supplies. Hourly he heard of his nobles passing over to Richmond. Under these wretchedly disheartening circumstances, the genius of the last; crowned Plantagenet shook off every incumbrance and displayed itself in promptitude, ability, and decision worthy of any of his great progenitors. He sent forth a proclamation, drawn up with infinite skill, according to which Henry Tudor could have no claim to the crown of England but by conquest, had bought the aid of the enemies of France by the surrender in perplexity of all those rights in France that the English had won so hardly, and by promises of gifts of all that was valuable in England, and he was coming with bands of robbers, murderers, and attainted rebels. Therefore Richard called on "all true and good Englishmen" to arm against there invaders, promising himself like a diligent and courageous prince to spare no labour or peril in their behalf. By such energetic measures, under every disadvantage, Richard was able to march towards Leicester with a large force; but, according to the Oriental metaphor, having sown the wind he was now to reap the whirlwind Deserters went over in crowds to his enemy, and Richard saw around him very few in whom he could place any faith.

Richard III. left the town and castle of Tamworth at the very same time precisely, as Henry Earl of Richmond (so soon to be crowned king in his stead) left Leicester. They there encamped during the night before the battle, Richmond (afterwards Henry VII.) at Atherston, where he heard mass early in the morning in the Chancel of the Church at Atherston, (this chapel is now separated from the church and used as a private dwelling) and Richard encamped at Bosworth, and took up their final position on Redmore plain on the morning of the 22nd August, 1485.

History informs us that during the night previous to arming for the fight, Richard experienced the direst forebodings of the issue of the event. Nevertheless, the soldiers beheld him on the following morning riding on horseback through their ranks, bravely apparelled, with the crown on his head and marshalling all in due order. When Richard saw the Earl's force had passed a morass that lay betwixt the armies, he "commanded with all haste to set upon them; then the trumpets blew and the soldiers shouted, and the king's archers let fly their arrows; the Earl's bowmen stood not still but paid them home again. The terrible spot once passed, the armies joined and came to hard strokes, where neither sword nor bill was spared; at which encounter the Lord Stanley (who headed one of the three divisions of Richard's army) joined with the Earl, having three thousand men with him." The juncture at this moment had been sagaciously planned. The movement, extending as it did through out Richard's army was completely bewildering; all was confusion and uncertainty. "Some" says Fabyan "stood hovering afar off till they saw to which side victory should fall." Of the nobility with Richard, only two were perfectly faithful to him to the last - John Howard and his son, whom Richard had created first Duke of Norfolk. This same Norfolk after the battle found in Richard's tent a scroll, on which was inscribed in the king's own hand:-

Jockey of Norfolk, be not too bold

For Dickon thy master is bought and sold.

Norfolk made a most gallant attack on the Earl's van, which might have carried victory with it had the other great leaders supported him. Sir Richard Ratcliff, Sir Robert Brackenbury, and a few other knights also fought and died nobly for their master. The fierce struggle had lasted near two hours and Richard's doom seemed certain when single handed he nearly retrieved all misfortunes. He was told that the Earl of Richmond with a small number of men-at-arms was not far off, separated it would appear from the rest of the army, and as Richard marched nearer, he recognised him ' by certain demonstrations and tokens which he had learned of others." On a sudden he spurred out of side of the range of his battle, leaving the advant - guards fighting, and like a hungry lion ran with spear in rest towards him." His attack was made with resistless might, Richmond's standard bearer was instantly slain and the standard thrown down. Sir John Cheney, a man of great force and strength met him hand to hand but was overthrown, and others who tried to stop his way to Richmond shared the same fate. Before the troops of Richmond perceived his imminent danger, the earl and the king were met, and the earl though he received the shock most bravely, was at last giving way before the deadly thrusts of Richard and beginning to despair alike of life and throne, which at that moment rested indeed upon the hazard of a die, when Sir William Stanley who, like his father had the command of three thousand of Richard's men, suddenly destroyed the last hope of Richard by turning upon him; then, and not till then, fell Richard III. "manfully fighting in the midst of his enemies." The Stanley's unquestionably caused his defeat and death, and it was Lord Stanley who on a spot now called Crown Hill, picked up his battered and blood - stained crown, and placed it on Richmond's head. We should have been glad to see more of the old chivalric generosity actuating the victor's treatment of his rival's dead body, which was stripped, flung over a horse, exposed ignominiously three days, and buried without respect in the Church of Greyfriars in Leicester. The positions of the encampments and armies on Bosworth Field may be yet distinctly traced; though the ancient barren wild, without hedge or tree, gleams and glows beneath the summer sun with the products of civilisation. The well of which it is said Richard drank during the heat of the combat, has been drained. There have been dug up at various times, shields, crossbows, arrowheads, halberds, armour, spears, skeletons, &c.

The account of Richard's death, as given in a M.S. published in the year 1813, is as follows:-

"Whan the vaward began to fight, Kynge Henry dyd full manfully; so did the Erle of Oxford, so did Sir John Savage, Sir Robert Talbert, did the like, Sir Hughe Percival also with many othar. Kynge Richard in a mariss, dyd stand numbered to XX thousand and thre undar his bannar. Sir William Stanley rememberinge the brekfast that he promysed him, downe at a banke he hyed, and set feersly on the kynge, ther countery'd together sadly. The archers let they'r arrows flye: they shot of goonns, many a bannar began to shew that was on Richard's partye; with grownd wepons they joyned; there dyed many a dowghty knyght. Then to Kynge Richard ther cam a knyght and say'd, "I hold it tyme for ye to flye; yonder Stanley his dynts be so sore, agaynst them may no man stand. Her is thy kors for to ryde, an othar day ye may worshop wyne." He sayd, 'Bring me my battayl axe in my hand, and set the crowne of gold on my hed sa hye, for, by hym that shope bothe se and sand, kynge of England this day will I dye; one foot away I will not fle, whill brethe wyll byde my brest within. As he sayn, so dyd he; he lost his lyffe. On his standard then fast they dyd light. They hewyd the crowne of gold from his hed, with dowtfull dents; his deathe was dyght."

In taking leave of Bosworth we must observe, that the contest was not on that extensive scale which we might have anticipated, considering its eventful character, involving as it did the death of Richard, and the introduction to the throne of England of the Tudor race of sovereigns.

CHAPTER VIII.

FLODDEN FIELD, AND THE MEN OF MACCLESFIELD IN 1513.

In this terrific combat, which took place between Henry VIII. of England, and James IV. of Scotland we again find the Savages and the Stanley's with some of the Burgesses of Macclesfield and other Cheshire heroes coming to the front, in defence of what they considered their country's weal. At the close of which we find Sir Edmund Savage, the Mayor of Macclesfield, and several of the Burgesses were left amongst the slain. This having a special reference to Macclesfield men, a brief account of the engagement, will, no doubt be interesting. (a).

We gather from history, that James IV. of Scotland fixed his camp on Flodden Hill, the east spur of the Cheviot Mountain, on September 6th, 1513, and in that position awaited the approach of the English army.

The Earl of Surrey, being on this occasion commanded by Henry VIII. to arm the northern counties and defend the frontier from an irruption of the Scots, then dispatched messages to all the noblemen and gentlemen of these counties to assemble their forces and meet him on the 1st of September at Newcastle-on-Tyne. He marched out of York on the 27th August, and though the weather was very wet and stormy, and the roads consequently very bad he marched day and night till he reached Durham. Receiving the banner of St. Cuthbert from the Prior of Durham, Surrey marched to Newcastle, where a council of war was held, and the troops from all parts were appointed to assemble on the 4th September at Bolton in Glendale, about twenty miles from Ford, where the Scots were said to be lying.

John Stanley (supposed of Handford) leader of Bishop Stanley's contingent, Sir Henry Kyghley, a veteran from Breton wars, and Senescha1 of Lathom, Richard Ashton of Middleton, Sir Thomas Ashton of Ashton, Sir Wilham Molyneux, Sir John Booth of Barton, Sir Thomas Butler, Richard Bold of Bold, the Baron of Kinderton shire, Richard Done of Utkington, the hereditary Bow - bearer of Delamere, and Edward Fitton of Gawsworth.

(a). From "The Ballad of Flodden Field" published by Weber in 1808, further information respecting this sanguinary contest is given, which mentions the names of other Cheshire men who fell or were taken prisoners. In Lord Derby's farewell to the chieftain, whom he conjectures to have fallen there, before their followers could have broken and fled in the manner described in the tidings first brought to the royal camp, and which seem to have related to part of the Cheshire and Lancashire men which had been separated from Sir Edward Stanley and their compatriots, and placed under the command of Edmund Howard, of whom mention is made of Sir Edward Stanley, afterwards Lord Monteagle, the young.

On the 6th September, the Earl of Surrey had reached Wooller - Haugh within three miles of the Scottish camp. Perceiving the difficulty of the ground betwixt him and them, intersected by several brooks, which united to form the river Till, Surrey anxiously enquired for an experienced guide, and the Bastard Heron, who as following the army, but in disguise, offered his services at which Surrey was greatly rejoiced, aware that he was intimately familiar with the whole neighbourhood. When Surrey came within sight of the Scottish camp, he was greatly struck with the formidable nature of James's position, and sent a messenger to him charging him with having shifted his ground after having accepted the challenge, and called upon him to come down into the spacious plain of Millfield, where both armies would contend on more equal terms, the army of Surrey only amounting to 25,000 men. James, resenting this accusation, refused to admit the herald to his presence, but sent him word that he had sought no undue advantage, should seek none, and that it did not become an earl to send such a message to a king.

This endeavour to induce James to shift his position not succeeding; on the 8th Surrey, at the suggestion of his son Lord Thomas Howard, the Lord High Admiral of England, adopted a fresh stratagem. He marched northward, sweeping round the hill of Flodden, crossed the Till near Twisell Castle, and thus placed the whole of his army between James and Scotland. From that point they directed their march as if intending to cross the Tweed and enter Scotland. On the morning of Friday, the 9th, leaving their night halt at Barmoor Wood they continued their course, till the Scots were greatly alarmed lest the English should plunder the fertile country of the Merse, and they implored the king to descend and fight in defence of his country. Moved by these representations and this being the day on which Surrey had promised to fight him, he ordered his army to set fire to their tents with all the litter and refuse of the camp, so as to make a great smoke under which they might descend unperceived by the English. But no sooner did the English perceive this, than, also availing themselves of the obscurity of the smoke, they wheeled about, and made once more for the Till. As the reek blew aside, they were observed in the very act of crossing the narrow bridge of Twisell, and Robert Borthwick, the commander of James's artillery, fell on his knees and implored his sovereign to allow him to turn all the fire of his cannon on the bridge which he would destroy, and prevent the passage of Surrey's host. But James, with that romantic love of chivalry which seems to have possessed him to a degree of insanity, is said to have replied " Fire one shot on the bridge. and I will command you to be hanged, drawn. and quartered. I will have all my enemies before me and fight them fairly.

Thus the English host defiled ever the bridge at leisure, and drew up in a long double line, consisting of a centre and two wings, with a strong body of cavalry under Lord Dacre in the rear. They beheld the Scots in like form descending the hill in solemn silence. The two conflicting armies came into contact about five o'clock in the afternoon by the mutual discharge of their artillery. The thunder and concussion were terrific. but it was soon seen that the Scots, being placed too high, their balls passed over the heads of their opponents, whilst those of the English sweeping up the hill did hideous execution, and made the Scots impatient to come to closer fight. The master gunner of Scotland was Soon slain, his men driven from their guns, whilst the shot of the English continued to strike into the very heart of the battle. The left wing of the Scots under the Earl of Huntley and Lord Home, came first into contact with the right wing of the English, and fighting on foot with long spears they charged the enemy with such impetuosity that Sir Edmund Howard, the commander of that wing, was borne down, his banner flung to the earth, and his lines broken into utter confusion. But at this critical moment Sir Edmund and his division were suddenly succoured by the Bastard Heron. who appeared at the head of a body of daring outlaws like himself: this movement was supported by the advance of the second division of the English right wing under the Lord High Admiral, who attacked Home and Huntley, and these again were followed by the cavalry of Lord Dacre's reserve. (a).

The Highlanders, under Home and Huntley, when they overthrew Sir Edmund Howard, imagined that they had won the victory, and fell eagerly to stripping and plundering the slain; but they soon found enough to do to defend themselves., and the battle then raged with desperate energy. At length the Scottish left gave way, and the Lord Admiral and the cavalry of Dacre next fell on the division under the Earls of Crawford and Montrose, both of whom were slain.

In this part of the battle Lord Home has been accused of not supporting his fellow officers as he ought to have done, but Sir Walter Scott suggests, that this from all that appears seems merely invented by the Scotch to account for the defeat by some other means than the superiority of the English.

On the extreme right wing of the Scottish army fought the clans of the Macleans, the Mackenzies, the Campbells, and Macleods, and the Earls of Lennox and Argyle. These encountered the stout bowmen of Lancashire and Cheshire under Sir Edward Stanley, who galled the half naked Highlanders so intolerably with their arrows, that they flung down their targets, and dashed forward with claymore and axe pell mell amongst the enemy. The French Commissioner, De la Motte, who was present astounded at this display of wild passion and savage insubordination assisted by other French officers, shouted, stormed and gesticulated, to check the disorderly rabble, and restrain them in their ranks. In vain! The English for a moment surprised by this sudden furious onslaught yet kept their ranks unbroken, advancing like a solid wall, flung back their disintegrated assailants, swept them before them, and dispatched them piecemeal. The Earls of Argyle and Lennox perished in the midst of their unmanageable men.

The two main bodies of the armies were now only left where James and Surrey were contending at the head of their troops, but with this difference, that the Scottish right and left were now unprotected, and those of James's centre were attacked on each side by the victorious right and left wing of the English. On one side Sir Edward Stanley charged with archers and pikemen, on the other Lord Howard, Sir Edmund Howard, and Lord Dacre were threatening with both horse and foot.

James and all his nobility about him in the main body were fighting on foot, and being clad in splendid armour they suffered less from the English archers, who were opposed to them in the ranks of Surrey. On James's right hand fought his accomplished natural son, the Archbishop of St. Andrews.

Soon the combatants became engaged hand to hand in deadly struggle with their swords, spears, pikes, and other instruments of death. Whilst hewing and cleaving each other down in furious strife - face to face, life for life - showers of English arrows fell amid the Scottish ranks, and dealt terrible destruction to the less stout panoplied. When the Earls of Bothwell and Huntley rushed to the support of the main body on one side, and Stanley, the Howards, and Dacre came to the aid of Surrey on the other, the strife became terrible beyond description, and the slaughter awful on every side of the environed Scots. Before the arrival of the reserves the Scots appeared at one time to have the best of it, and to be on the very verge of victory; and even after that, James and the gallant band around him

(a). Weber judiciously supposes that the only period during which Stanley's followers would be opposed to Huntley, at least the only period during which the banner taken from Huntley by Molyneux would be likely to be won, would be the severest portion of the contest, when the Earl (according to Lindsay of Pitscottie) separated from Home, after his first success to attempt the Royal rescue. This was the very agony of the struggle, when the final charge of Stanley and the onset of Lancashire and Cheshire under their own leader terminated the conflict.

seemed to make a stupendous effort, as if they thought their sole hope was to force their way to Surrey and cut him down. James is said to have reached within a spears length of him, when, after being twice wounded with arrows, he was dispatched by a bill.

Still the battle raged on; in the centre it was like the heart of a glowing furnace, all heat and deadly rage, whilst all around the extremities of the Scottish host a bristly circle of protruded spears pushed back the murderous foes. Neither side gave quarter, Lord Howard and his followers savagely maintained their vow; and the Scots, (says Haslewood), were so vengeful and cruel in their fighting, that the English, when they had the better of them, would listen to no reason, though the Scots often offered great sums. Night, which alone could part the maddened host, at length came down upon them and compelled them to cease their fighting, though it could not induce them to quit the ground. They rested on their arms, but stood as if they would wait the first dawn of light to again renew the sanguinary conflict. The Scottish and the English centres stood doggedly on their guard; Home and Dacre with their cavalry sternly held each other at bay; and when the morning at length dawned, it was discovered that the Scots-having had time to become aware of their immense loss, and having learnt that not only their king but almost all the nobility were slain-had intently stole away, and made their way across the Tweed at Coldstream, or over the dry marshes to their own country.

As the object of these chapters was only to review Macclesfield in the olden times, we shall now conclude our notice of these matters, although we might dilate to a great extent to similar engagements in later times, even down to the late Russian War; but we must not omit to notice the spirited display of men of this county in the victory gained over the Scots by the Earl of Hertford, in the year l544, when about sixty officers were then knighted, nearly one third of whom were gentlemen of the first families in Cheshire.

In concluding our notice of these engagements, we may be allowed to observe that as Macclesfield in times past claimed the privilege of being a royal borough, what reason is there why it should not endeavour to maintain its dignity, for it may safely be affirmed that no town in England clings more to the Throne and Constitution than the greater part of its population, and by no class more than the working men. This being the case, it has a claim to royalty equal to any town in Cheshire, and especially when we consider that in times past it was the residence of, and contained within its boundary the palace and court of the Earls of Chester, and of course, the nearest to royalty itself; and occupying as it does a part of Cheshire, which, in its neighbourhood can boast of so many residences of families of noble and ancient descent, who own and live on estates contiguous to it; and in respect to mementoes of the great who have played their part in England's History, does it not contain the bones of Cheshire heroes who did honour to themselves and their country in the momentous engagements of Cressy and Agincourt, the Leghs of Lyme, and the Savages of Rock Savage, Macclesfield, and Frodsham Castle, who figured in the sieges of Bologne, Flodden Field and Bosworth, and other important events; and does it not contain also the heart of an Archbishop of the English Church in what was once his own splendid chapel, but which, sad to say, is now almost a ruin, so little is it cared for. In comparing the past with the present our minds are apt to contemplate the changes of the town, from what we may designate as having been the seat of regal state and dignity - the lustre of a palace and court-the high position of its ancient ministers of religion-the extent and magnificence of the old Baronial residences (Sutton Hall to wit) and its fortified appearance; and now to mark the few remains of its former almost im- perial privileges, we are almost ready to write of the remaining fragments, and of the institutions and edifices of its earlier times, "Thy glory is departed. "But when we contemplate the many changes that have conduced to mark its improvements of the present day-such as the advantages of a milder government; a sovereign ruling over us by the law and not by the sword; the more secure tenure of possession by hereditary right and equitable purchase then by military service and arbitrary grant, and numerous other privileges, we are almost tempted to say we are satisfied. What is chiefly to be regretted is that at the period of the change of religion in this country, and the gloomy days of the civil wars, the temples of religion, the abodes of its ministers, the castles and residences of the noble and distinguished, and other most important and interesting memorials in this neighbourhood, were, with ruthless barbarity, mutilated and thrown down leaving only wrecks for the admiration, and no less the weepings of posterity. How many valuable manuscripts have also been either destroyed or allowed to moulder and decay which can never be replaced, although the art of printing subsequently invented under the direction of Divine Providence has done a great deal to compensate for the evils of their destruction. But, and here let it be borne in mind, that though we can boast of splendid structures in and around Macclesfield, which almost rival the magnificent buildings of former times; yet these, like their venerable predecessors, whom we have alluded to, will one day be removed by the ruthless hand of innovation or tyrannic power; or grey with years, sink into ruin, and require the assistance of the historian and artist of future time, to perpetuate the names of their founders, their origin, and character; while in perfect oblivion, penless and powerless, shall sleep the hand and heart of the humble writer on "Macclesfield in the Olden Time."

CHAPTER IX.

ON THE ANCIENT ASPECT OF THE MARKET PLACE AND TOWN OF MACCLESFIELD GENERALLY, WITH REMARKS ON THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE PEOPLE

IN OLDEN TIMES.

An old inhabitant of Macclesfield, or one who has spent a long life in it, and retains his recollections of youthful days unimpaired, how natural it is in his thoughtful moments to look back in imagination to times and things gone by; and as he sits ruminating on the many changes in the town and neighbourhood, where he has spent the early, and subsequently the latter part of his time, we might fancy we hear him exclaim:-

Come memory unbind thy written scroll

Thy treasured pictures shew me one by one

As days go by and years past years do roll!

I'd fain look back to times and loved ones gone.

And in company, what pleasure he takes in relating, or in hearing other people speak of, or make any allusion to, or comparison between those days and the present. And even the youth of the present day gifted in the least with sentimental ideas is also pleased to hear any one relate, or allude to subjects relative to the changes that have taken place in the aspect of the town, or the manners and customs of the people; even he will join us in saying

Old Customs! Oh, I love the sound,

However simple they may be,

Whate'er with time hath sunshine found

Is welcome, and is dear to me.

In taking upon myself to write on the Manners and Customs of the people in this Town and Neighbourhood in times past, I trust the learned as well as the old people, will excuse any imperfections in delineating the different instances bearing on those matters, a good few of which are given from my own experience. The older portion will at least give me credit for explaining the various incidents relative to

OLDEN TIMES.

In all communities there are some portion of its members who are remarkable and pointed out, or looked to, as singular examples of the comic - the religious - or the sentimental; which, in their various spheres of life, keep up, as it were, the traditionary character of the community in which they act a conspicuous part. Some are ever ready with jest, or remarks in their own peculiar way or dialect, more than others. Some can carry out the religious vizior, in such a singular manner, which, although in earnest, bears such a droll look, that you can scarcely keep yourselves sedate if you wish; and others again are so full of sentiment, that you can hardly allow yourself a smile although you feel disposed. Characters as well as things will be here noted, and trusting myself to the clemency of the public, I shall endeavour to please, amuse, and instruct.

For a person to form an idea of the aspect of the Market - place about sixty years ago, let him take his stand at the corner or western facade of the new Town Hall, and imagine the great part of the space between the Church - yard and the shop now occupied by Mr. Shatwell, draper, in great part taken up by a block of buildings or shops, at the north western corner of which, or nearly opposite to the "Angel Inn," gateway, formerly stood the

OLD STONE CROSS OF MACCLESFIELD.

(the site of which is still marked). Then to cast his eyes towards the northern end of the Market-place, and notice a good space of the ground opposite to what is now the grocer shop, occupied by Mr. Stevenson, taken up in a similar manner. On this site there formerly stood an ironmonger shop, which projected across the road here, just leaving room for an exit out of the town towards Jordangate. (a) Let them also imagine the quaint old Town Hall, yet standing with its picturesque surroundings, and notice also what a change had taken place in what is called Church side, where, in days gone by even some of our old townspeople can remember the old "Star Inn," where from a corner of the building projected a hugh branch of gilded grapes; this has been replaced by the Police Station. Lower down was the White Horse, another noted house, (since then rebuilt and called the Guild Hall Tavern,) and other old erections. The style of these houses and the date of erection on the Star Inn 1588, corresponding with the style of the Old Hall would seem to indicate the erection of each at the same period and about a century later we see the alteration in the western part of the hall where the steps were introduced, as represented when its demolition took place in 1823-4. Looking down Church - wallgate at this period you would have seen it almost wholly taken up with houses of the Tudor period, indeed in various parts of the town this seems to have been the prevailing style, and although many have been altered exteriorily, we find many yet remaining when we come to examine the interior construction. These sort of houses were continued all down the hill until you come to the Water's Green, which even within the last forty years has undergone an almost complete change, which is being continued in the de- molition of the old familiar house of the Cross Keys! What is now called Oldham Place was formerly taken up by very old dilapidated houses of stone. The eastern side of the Green (as it was called) though no doubt in times past it has well deserved the name has in reality lost its character) was chiefly occupied by dyehouses for silk, and the large open space here was, as it were. planted over with large high poles, on which used to be suspended on smaller poles laid from one to the other, the bundles of silk after boiling or

(a). The site where now stands the Public Weighing Machine was at that time connected with an Ironmonger Shop, the property of the Greaves family, and Mr. Dickinson our respected townsman, relates that old Pimblott of Prestbury, who lived to a good old age, informed him when a youth, that the day the man was hung from the Town Hall Steps, he was (as the old man termed it) put in his first breeches, and stood on the steps of this shop to see them throw the man over the railings when they had adjusted the rope.

dyeing to drain. Passing over the river by a small bridge led you to what is called Cuckstoolpit - hill, (of which more hereafter). Wending your way up Sunderland - street, you would then have found it, (only about fifty years ago) entirely taken up with cottage houses, scarcely a shop in the whole length. In the year 1766, we find that the space which Sunderland - street, and the adjacent smaller streets now occupied was at that time open fields on the western bank of the Bollin, and extending along the valley and sides of the hill, to the end of Back-wallgate, and at the extremity adjoining Park Green there was there only one small shed, erected by a silk twister; in fact, in the year l750, Macclesfield contained only eight streets, excepting the Market Place, namely, Mill street, Chestergate, Derby - street, or Barn - street, as it was then called, (as it was chiefly taken up with barnes and stabling) King Edward - street, or Back - street, Jordangate, Stanley street, (or Dog Lane formerly,) and Church - wallgate. In the year 1786 the population was only about 7,000! and in 1801 Macclesfield contained 1426 inhabited houses, the population in the same year being 8,043. In 1811 the population had increased to 12,299, and the year 1817, when Mr Corry wrote his History of Macclesfield we find the population was at that time given as about 14,000.

Continuing our observations, we now pass on to Park Green, which, if it was summer time we should come upon a pleasant grove of trees, extending on either side of the centre footpath nearly the whole length of the walk, from the Silk Mill at the southern end to nearly the bottom of Mill - street. These were standing within the last fifty years, but some of the wise acres of the day, took it into their heads to lop off the upper branches first, leaving them stunted at the top for a time, and an accident or two occurring through careless driving or other causes, they then took them down altogether, thus entirely spoiling the pleasant walk which many regretted. Looking round the Green (save the mark) as it was then you might have observed on its eastern side a long range of houses, which at that time were chiefly occupied by silk - weavers or other private families; the access to these houses was by a flight of steps protected by iron railings, underneath which were steps leading down to the cellars, or workshops; these have all been transformed into shops. On the site now occupied by the New Bank stood a few ancient Tudor houses.

At the south - east corner of Park Green on the site now occupied by the Free Methodists Chapel, there stood at the time we speak of, a fine old Mansion of early 18th century erection, built by the Daintry family, afterwards the property of J. Ryle, Esq., the first M.P., for the Borough of Macclesfield. In this place resided in succession the Daintrys, after them the Woods, who were large cotton manufacturers in Sutton, who were succeeded by the Wards, all families of note in Macclesfield about this period but we have now lost sight of our old gentry, with whose faces we were formerly familiar, and who formerly occupied prominent positions in the town in the early part of this century. We might enumerate whole families of note, that have entirely disappeared, namely, the Daintrys, the Ryles, the Woods the Smythes, the Wardles, and the Wards, the last of whom are now represented by one individual who formerly filled a prominent situation in the Borough but who is now living a retired life in Roe-street. The gentleman we allude to is Mr. J. Ward, who is now the only representative of any of these families who were at one time closely allied both by family ties and mutual interest as one family.

Leaving Park Green, and proceeding a little way up what is now called Park - street, formerly Park Lane, we cannot but observe the great change it has undergone, even within the last fifty years, where no doubt some of our readers will recollect the very picturesque dwelling called "The Lodge," (leading up to Park House) which formerly stood on the site now occupied by the Methodist New Connexion Chapel, and which (particularly in the Summer season) was truly a sight of rural quietude, not readily to be forgotten. The Lodge was situated just within the gate, leading to the Hall, on a rising ground within the boundary wall of the Park, which enclosed the whole of the western side of High - street, and extended a long way up Park Lane, which at that time contained very few houses. The building was of stone, the style of which bespoke great age. Over the porch door, or entrance, was carved in rude letters, the words

DREAD GOD.

Almost the whole of the front part of the house (in the summer time) was covered with the sweet smelling Rose and the Honeysuckle, and the whole beautifully embowered with trees, a good few of which were left standing as we now see them in the Chapel Yard. In particular we cannot but notice the Willow which in days gone by we little expected would in future years be made to serve as a shade over the grave of one of our townspeople.

Retracing our steps on proceeding up Mill - street you might then have observed the shops, with scarcely an exception, set out with bow - windows, one or two of which yet remain. This seems to have been the prevailing style about the commencement of the 18th century. On arriving at the top of Mill street and passing the block of buildings which formerly stood here, you would again come in sight of the Old Town Hall, where, under the arches of which, the country people met, and alighted from their trusty "Old Dobbins" Darby and Joan like, if you will, the old farmer seated in front, and his better half frequently seated on a side saddle behind him - her basket filled with butter, eggs, &c., to dispose of in one compartment under the old hall, while Darby went to the corn market to transact his business; and then perhaps they would adjourn together to refresh themselves with the good old English fare of roast beef, or an ample supply of brown bread or oatcake and Cheshire cheese, washing down the same with a glass of the best ale under the Sun, as the signboard expressed it over the door of the old timber built hostlery called the "Sun Inn," which formerly stood in Chestergate, on the site now occupied by the bank. Or sometimes you might observe a youthful roger or squire in the saddle, and a rosy lass with her hand on his shoulder seated on a pillion behind him, both as happy in their way as the Earl and Countess in theirs. This was the common mode of travelling at that time for both rich and poor. We may here remark that the farmers of late years have kept pace with the town in luxurious driving, though some of the elder portion are not so high- minded as the younger, who entertain the idea of a farmer Dobbins in olden time, who, when things were improving, is reported to have accosted his dame in words to this effect:-

"Neaw, missis, sin'th markits are dooin pratty wee'l, Auve welly made mi moind up for't beigh a tit mysel; For't keep a farmers spirits up, wen things ar gettin low, Thee'rs now't loik good Fox - huntin' un a rattlin Tally Ho."

CHAPTER X.

About the time the old farmer and his dame would be preparing to return home again, you might observe mine host of the "Old Sun Inn" assist them in mounting their trusty "Dobbin" from the steps which stood at the end of the building called the "horse-block;" and, anon, as you were looking round the market, you would see a rush of the strollers and lookers on towards the Hotel, the "Bull's Head," or the "Angel" Inn, as the guard's cheerful horn gave notice of the arrival of the London Royal Mail, the Royal Express, or the Defiance, with its spirited team, rattling over the stony pavement. These were the times for the arrival of news, especially in the days of Waterloo, or when the Parliament were discussing some particular question, religious or politic, or even then, when the mail disbursed its contents, perhaps a dozen newspapers would suffice for the whole town - you could not have your daily paper then, and a weekly could only be seen at a few hotels and principal public-houses. The price of a newspaper at that time was sevenpence and ninepence, and only about one - fourth of the size of the penny dailies of our time. It was customary in those days, when the mail coach passed the residence of a particular lady or gentleman near a town interested in the news of the day, when the guard-as guards generally did-knew of any event of importance, as a victory, a royal marriage, or a change of ministry, he was under covenant, with a reward of five shillings, or other sums, to fire of a pistol, or blow his horn. The report or sound called forth a manservant, who, with all speed, followed the coach to the inn, where the mail coach changed horses, paid the punctual guard his fee, and bore back in triumph the first newspaper which reached the town, or the first intelligence which the guard's mouth could give. It was then an aristocratic distinction to be first to hear the news of the day; now, any man for a penny can learn every morning all events of importance that happened the day before, from almost any part of the world.

A COUNTRY INN YARD

is chiefly valuable to illustrate or picture to ourselves the old coaching days. To give the reader an idea of the mode of travelling that existed in the last century, we will, as it were, glance into one of them, say early in the morning, and in the winter season, before daylight has broke upon the scene, when the ostler has risen early to prepare for the departure of the coach, which the night before has "put up"- for our forefathers would not, nor indeed durst travel in the night (a) in the latter part of the eighteenth century, and the travellers had to be aroused from their slumbers early and proceed from place to place till night came on again-in the summer time stifled with heat and almost choked with dust, or in the winter season starving or freezing with cold or choked with filthy fogs, and at nightfall again brought into their inns by torchlight when it is too late to sit up to get supper, and next morning forced into the coach so early that they can get no breakfast! In addition to which you had to ride all day with strangers, oftentimes sick and diseased persons, or young children crying, all of whose humours you had to put up with, and often nearly poisoned with their nasty smells, and crippled with the crowds of boxes and bundles; and occasionally, in some parts of the journey, to find themselves stuck fast in the foul roads, or forced to wade up to the knees in mire, and afterwards sit in the cold till teams of horses could be sent to pull the coach out. Sometimes having to travel in rotten coaches and have their tackle, or perch, or axletree broke, and then to wait three or four hours (sometimes half the day) and afterwards to travel in the night to make good their stage. Even in 1725 stage coach travelling remained invested with so much delay and expense, and with so much of that interest that a long voyage produces, that a lady published a book entitled "A Stage Coach Journey from London to Exeter." Passengers were then four days on the road; the Great Western will take us now in less than four hours. Of course (as before observed) our steady forefathers would not travel in the night, and they were too pious to travel on Sundays. In 1740, however, we find that some daring adventurers had undertaken to carry persons by night; but we should presume only when the moon was up! By 1765 the improvements had extended so far that a kind of flying coach was set up, which went from London to Dover in a day. This was drawn by eight horses. The charge for the journey was a guinea.

(a). The term "guard" seems to have originated from the early period of both pack-horses, stage-waggons, and coaches, as the guards (so called) were stout men, well armed, and provided with the means of defence to protect the passengers from robbers and vagabonds who infested the highways, and in many instances attacked the caravans to rob and plunder, and in some instances even murder if occasion required.

The following advertisement, copied from an old newspaper, called the Manchester Mercury, of May 5th, 1759, will give the reader an idea of what was considered speed in that time. It is headed

"WARRINGTON FLYING STAGE COACH,"

In Three Days,

"Sets out every Monday and Thursday morning, from the Bell Inn, in Wood - street, London, and the Red Lyon Inn, in Warrington, during the Summer Season, and arrives at the above inns every Wednesday and Saturday evenings. Each passenger to pay two Guineas - One Guinea at taking the place as Earnest, and the Remainder at taking Coach. Each Passenger to be allowed fourteen Pounds Weight of Luggage, and all above to pay Threepence a Pound. All outside passengers and Children on Lap to pay half Price. To be performed, if God permit, by

"THOMAS WHALLEY"

"ANTHONY JACKSON"

"HENRY SECRETT"

The form of these vehicles, or stage - coaches, were also of singular construction, or, at any rate, it would be thought so if one could be seen now, for, as Hogarth has depicted them, "sometimes they were like a distiller's vat, somewhat flattened, and hung equally balanced between the immense front and back springs. In other instances they resembled a violoncella case, which was, past all comparison, the most fashionable form, and then they hung in a more genteel posture, namely, inclining on to the back-springs, and giving to those who sat within the appearance of a stiff Guy Fawkes uneasily seated. The roof of the coaches in most cases rose into a swelling curve, which was sometimes surrounded by a high iron guard. The coachman and the guard (who always held his carbine ready cocked upon his knee), then sat together, not, as at present, upon a close varnished seat, but over a very long and narrow boot, which passed under a large spreading hammer - cloth, hanging down on all sides, and finished with a flowing and most luxuriant fringe. Behind the coach was the immense basket, stretching far and wide beyond the body, to which it was attached by long iron bars or supports passing beneath it, though even these seemed scarcely equal to the enormous weight with which they were frequently loaded.

Those who are not tolerably familiar with the memoir literature of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries will have some difficulty to comprehend how our ancestors moved about from place to place, and carried on the business of communication with distant inland parts. The mode of conveyance was so universal, and so established, that it rarely offers itself to any especial notice. Till the beginning of the eighteenth century we were almost an equestrian people. Harrison describes "the excellent faces" of our saddle - horses as peculiar to those of our soil, and says that "our countrymen, seeking their ease in every corner where it is to be had, delight very much in this quality. " From the days of the Wife of Baht, "girt with a pair of spurres sharp," to the days of Queen Elizabeth, we have scarcely a trace of ladies accomplishing their peregrinations in any other manner than that which Chaucer has recorded:-

"Upon an ambler easily she sat."

Luxury had its appliances ready for this almost exclusive mode of travel. "A lover of his country," who in 1673 saw that coaches would be the ruin of this kingdom, says," Before these coaches were set up travellers rode on horseback, and men had boots, spurs, saddles, bridles, saddle-cloths, and good riding suits. . . . . . Most gentlemen before they travelled in their coaches used to ride with swords, belts, pistols, holsters, portmanteaus, and hat - cases, for when they rode on horseback they rode in one suit, and carried another to wear when they came to their journey's end or lay by the way. . . . And if they were women that travelled they needed to have safeguards and hoods, side saddles and pillions, with strappings, saddle or pillion - cloths, which for the most part were either laced or embroidered." The Saving of much of this expenditure by travelling in coaches, the writer holds, is the ruin of trade, "for formerly every man that had occasion to travel many journeys yearly, or to ride up and down, kept horses for himself and his servants, and seldom rid without one or two men." In 1526, the Earl of Cumberland rode from Skipton to London with thirty - three servants. In l582, the Earl of Shrewsbury writes to a dependant, "I think my company will be twenty gentlemen and twenty yeomen, besides their men and my horsekeepers. I think to set forwards about tile 11th of September, from Wingfield to Leicester to my bed, and to make but four days' journey to London" (Lodge's Illustrations). In 1640 the wife of the last Earl of Cumberland rode from London to Londesborough, having thirty - two horses in her train, and the journey occupied eleven days. James the First of England was nearly five weeks in his padded saddle, in his royal progress from Edinburgh to London, but Sir Robert Cuney, determining to be the first to tell James that he was king of England, stole out of Richmond at three o'clock in the morning of Thursday, the 24th of March, and reached Edinburgh on the night of Saturday, the 26th, the king having gone to bed by the time he had knocked at the gate.

CHAPTER XI.

Continuing our notice of the modes of travelling practised by our forefathers, and particularly to illustrate the manners, customs, and dress of the Cheshire people in the 15th century, we cannot do better than give a brief account of the journey and arrival of Sir John Rosthern, a Cheshire knight of that period, who after thirty years' absence at Court, had come to reside on his paternal estate at Mere Hall, near Knutsford.

He had left London eleven days ago to revisit his country seat, and on a calm sweet evening of a bright summer day has arrived under Alderley Edge, a bold and high inland cliff, part of bare rock, part overgrown with oaks, firs, and bushes. This hill commands, westward, a green lowland plain where the Bollin and other small rivers flow swiftly to join the Mersey.

Sir John drew rein and stopped his ambling hack to look on that familiar landscape. He had dwelt thirty years in town, with but few and brief visits to his paternal estate, and recollections of his childhood and youth now arose and thronged to meet him.

But this momentary touch of sentiment was soon put off; for he was not alone, and he rode a good horse. In a more cheerful and vigorous spirit he looked on the country before him. He would there freely enjoy the rural pleasures which even in London he had not quite lost; for in those times the royal forests of Middlesex and Essex, or the open meadows and moors just outside the city gates, abounded in beasts and birds of chase. This learned knight dwelling in Bishopgate, had not far to go for hawking and hunting; but he hoped for better sport, where he remembered it lay in his youth, in the woods and waters of Cheshire.

He was a tall, dignified, gentlemanly person, but his shoulders were bent, either by sedentary habits or weakness of the chest. His hair was iron grey the eyebrows were still black and thick above the clear shrewed eyes. His thin pale face was scanned with lines of careful thought in the forehead, and of patient suffering round the mouth. It was shaven all over in the English fashion of that day. He wore a low - crowned hat of black cloth, with a long pendant which might be cast round the neck to keep off cold or rain, but which now hung over his right shoulder. The large sleeves too of his long overcoat, or rather gown, which was of black cloth furred with miniver, were drawn up and fastened to the shoulders for convenience of riding. A black leathern girdle, studded with silver bosses, held his purse, dagger, and pen-case for writing. The gown open at the breast, left to sight the under-vest of silk which had light sleeves to the wrist; his arms below the elbow were thrust out through wide openings in the great gown sleeves. The feet shod with the broad-toed shoes, which had replaced the long pointed shoes wore a few years before, rested comfortably in wide stirrups. The saddle also was of a shape designed for the ease and security of the horseman's seat, having a high pommel in front, a high protuberance behind, and at each side a hooked projection to clasp the back of the thigh. Such was the costume then of a respectable equestrian traveller; boots he had not; the tight pantaloons, fitting close to his ankles, and the high shoes, which were furnished with a pair of long spurs.

His companion on the road was Simon Battersey, who rode not quite by his side, but with half a horse's length between the saddles of the master and servant.

Sir John pointed with his whip to the blue smoke visible against the dark foliage of the distant woods. "See good Simon! there is Knutsford town, Altringham lies there to the right. The best part of my lands is here in view. I could see my house but for those trees. Mere Hall! so called from its mere! Simon thou knowest our Cheshire meres. See now, there they are, those fair sheets of sweet fresh water; how they shine in the sunset! Why they are like sheets of gold! Much wildfowl, Simon, haunts those pretty lakes of ours. Thou shalt see, Simon, what we have in this country. Many a day's: sport have I had on the meres with dog and cross- bow. Often have I flown my hawks over the marshes to the north, towards the Mersey, there by Timperley and Sale Moor. I knew, long since, where to track the deer in yonder forest; that way, towards Bucklow Hill. " He turned half round to the right hand, "That hill is Alderley Edge; behind, for miles and miles eastward is the great Macclesfield Forest. There is the wild bull, and there is the wild boar. There is no such game as that, Simon, in the King's Chace of Marylebone, or in the King's forests of Wathum and Epping."

"By your leave, Sir John," the steward answered, "I have heard your Worship and the gentlemen with you, say there was good sport, too, in the King's Park, near London. I mind when you lay one night at Islington, and next morning by dawn, with Sir William Stanley, you rode to Fletchley, you killed the first buck that season - a fat one he was. That was seven years ago."

"I remember it too," said Sir John, "it was just seven years ago, for when I got home, Simon, that same day, I found thy lady, my poor dear wife God bless her, she is in heaven - had given me a little daughter, my little Alice!" "He went on speaking to himself in a tender tone, "So I bade my good friend Sir William, as he left me at my house door, come and be her gossip at the christening of my child. My wife had wished it to be so. And so it was."

He now looked back rather anxiously up the hilly road down which they had come. "Why does not the litter come after us with my child and Mistress Marjory? We linger too much. I wonder at the slowness of those drivers."

The road was hidden a quarter of a mile distant by the brow of the hill. Suddenly, they heard a female shriek, followed by a confused hubbub, trampling of horses, and shouting of men.

"Heaven help us! they are set upon by robbers!" cried Sir John. "Ride, Simon, for thy life! Have out thy sword!" With spur and whip they pushed their horses sharply up the steep hill. They came in sight of the disaster which had befallen some of their party.

It was not an attack by robbers, it was the down - fall of a litter. This vehicle was a portable coach, with a light frame over it, closed with a canopy and side curtains. The head lay at the rear end. The litter was borne upon a pair of long shafts, between which two horses were harnessed - one forward the other behind. The leading horse had just now stumbled and broke his knees among the loose stones. He stood bleeding and trembling when persuaded to rise from his fall; the two drivers tried to release him from the shafts in a hurry; one shaft was snapped asunder by the shock; and the litter as they bustled about it got some awkward lurches to right and left. This frightened the other horse behind, and he began capering and staggering upon the uneven road. A woman and a child, pulling open the curtains, looked out, and with shrill cries gave vent to their alarm.

The accident was evidently not so bad as Sir John had feared. He dismounted and approached the litter. Simon Battersey, with the two footmen who bore halberds and broadswords as a guard, but now laid down those weapons, helped to disencumber the vehicle. Sir John looked fondly at his pretty little daughter, a rosy - faced, dark - eyed, dark-haired, child, who now laughed and shouted with joy to see him.

All right now my little Alice!" he said, "nobody hurt but the poor old horse. We are sorry for the poor old horse. He was so kind to carry thee and Cousin Marjory all the way. He went on with you nicely as long as he could, till he tumbled down and hurt his legs. It wasn't his fault. Come out now and say good bye to him. He can't carry you any more; thou shalt ride on my horse with me. That is my old home, thou knowest - dear old Mere Hall! Wont we be happy, thou and I, when we get there to live always?"

He lifted the little girl out of the litter. She clung about his neck and kissed his kind face. He then gave a hand to the gentlewoman, her companion and governess. This was Mistress Marjory Markwick, spinster, a poor relation of his deceased wife. As he helped her out of the litter he said kindly,

"I am sorry, good cousin Marjory, you have had to suffer this inconvenience. We had got on so well in our long journey till now. Eleven days, I think, from London, stopping two Sundays. Now we are come almost in sight of Mere Hall. We must contrive a seat on horseback for you, and hasten on quickly. The sun is about setting. We have hardly six miles to go. We shall yet be there with the daylight."

Mistress Marjory tried to smooth her clothes which were ruffled by the scramble and scratch. She was a prim looking person about fifty, with pinched nose and pursed lips, meagre and sallow. A petulant crossness was the constant expression of her face; but she had not been comfortable in the litter. This was her own fault because she had persisted in wearing her town cap. It was a tall cone of blue silk on pasteboard, with a gauze veil suspended from it. She could not with this rest her head against the cushions, so she had got a stiff neck and a spoiled temper - not that her temper was ever much to spoil. The steeple - shaped headgear was now pitiably and ridiculously smashed. Little Alice, and even the servants were forced to laugh at the sight of it. Sir John properly checked them, but with a suppressed smile on his own face.

Mrs. Marjory was vexed and disconcerted, but she had the presence of mind before speaking to take off this absurd wreck of cherished finery, and hide it in the litter. Her head was still covered by a close undercap, beneath which all the hair was gathered. There was not much of it, and that was of a stringy, hempy, quality; but ladies did not show their hair. She wore a very full gown of red bombazine, open wide at the bosom, with very short waist, a very broad girdle, a wide turned-back collar lapping on her shoulders, loose-hanging sleeves, and trailing skirts. Her bosom and neck almost up to the chin, were covered by the starched linen gorget. Her arms beneath the large open sleeves of the gown, had other sleeves of blue silk, fitting tight up to the wrist. It was the customary lady's dress of that period. She now tied a spare kerchief over her head to replace the cap which had been destroyed.

"I am sure, Sir John," she said peevishly, "I shall never get over this; I wish I had never come to this horrid, wild, savage, place. I never was so jolted and shaken. My things are all spoiled. I am quite sore all over. I know there are wild beasts, or robbers, or something horrid in these woods; I heard them, and saw them lurking there. We shall never get home alive. You men can ride on of course you don't care. Why ever did you bring us here?"

"Thou shalt ride as well as I, "the knight answered, "thou hast covered thy head snugly now. It is a fashion that becomes thee. I console with thee, truly, upon the ruin of thy stately steeple. I will give thee wherewith to rear up another which shall be quite as grand. But the ladies at Court say the fashion of tall caps will now be changed. I would not have it last till my Alice be a grown - up gentle - woman to wear such attire."

The little girl danced with glee, hanging on her father's hand. "No, no, dear father No, no Dame Margery! I'll never wear those ugly tall caps; I'll grow up quite tall, as tall as I can, and then I shan't want the cap to make me any taller." "I am sure Sir John," the governess replied, "our caps have more sense in them than those long shoes you used to wear."

"When your heads are in the caps," said the knight, "I suppose they have more sense in them than our long shoes; for sense is in the heads, if anywhere, it cannot be in the toes."

"Why, I am sure" she went on to say, "I have seen a gentleman's shoes sticking out forward eighteen inches beyond his toes. There couldn't be much sense in that."

"Not much indeed," Sir John good humouredly answered. "It was worse than the ladies' tall caps sticking up. For there is plenty of space overhead usque ad cœlum, for the steeple to rise aloft. Not, indeed, when the lady is riding in a litter, Cousin Margery. Thou wert ill advised there. But we men, walking in those long - footed shoes, had not always an unlimited space to stick them out before us. We had then to tie them up by cords to our knees. Those were follies of Court fashion; in the country we shall escape them. But now let us mount and ride on; I fear we cannot repair the litter with - out too much delay. We have not time to cut a young fir tree in these woods for a new shaft, a halberd staff is scarcely long enough to serve. Thou must ride on horseback Cousin Margery; one of the men shall lead thy horse."

"I am sure, Sir John," she said "I can't ride on a horse alone without a proper side - saddle for a lady. I could ride behind you on a pillion."

"But I must take up Alice" said the knight, "she will have a strap round her waist fastened to my girdle, and sit well on a cushion tied behind my saddle. How cans't thou manage, Simon, to carry Mistress Margory."

There was a difficulty in this which the steward explained; none of the horses there, but Sir John's, would carry double. Those used to do so with the pillions had been sent on to Mere Hall a few hours before, carrying two maid - servants with the butler and page. These servants had been detached in advance of the party to make ready the supper and beds. Such was the order of the final march. How was Mrs. Margory to get on, deprived of a suitable conveyance?

Things do sometimes happen very opportunely. The arrival of strangers at once solved the question. One was a middle - aged man; the other was his groom or manservant. Each was mounted, but the servant's horse, which had a pillion with the saddle, was plainly fit to carry a female traveller. They stopped when they saw the broken down litter.

"What, friends Good evening to you all. A sad break down here!" said the principal new comer. He distinguished Sir John as the chief, and respectably saluted him. "What can I do for your worship!" he enquired, "I ride with my man to Knutsford; shall I order you any help from the town."

"I thank you, sir, heartily," the knight answered, "for the courtesy you offer; but it is late, and will be almost dark before help from the town can reach us. My child here will be faint and tired, and perhaps chilled if we stay by the roadside so long. I would rather ask you if our two parties may ride on together for the loan of your man's horse, that my steward here," pointing to Simon, "may take this gentle - woman behind him."

"Do we travel the same road far," said the stranger, "if so, I will willingly lend the horse; my servant will ride one of yours." He scanned the face of Sir John with a curious air of doubtful recognition.

"It is but five miles along the Knutsford road, or scarcely so much," Sir John replied, "to the turning which leads to my own house. If you know this country, sir, the place I mean is:-

"Your Worship's house of Mere Hall," the other interrupted. "I have the honour of speaking to Sir John Rosthern, Knight, one of the King's Justices in London. I am Christopher Unsworth, scrivener, of Warrington. I know your Worship. I am at your service with horse and man."

"Master Unsworth, I greet you well, and thank you again," said Sir John; "but how is it you know me? I do not remember you."

"Two years ago, it will be come Lammastide," said Unsworth, "I attended my Lord Stanley for his affairs in London. There was a deed of conveyance of the manor of Beswick, to be signed jointly by my lord and his brother Sir William. I think Sir William wanted it to be seen by some one learned in the law. He brought your Worship to my lord's house on Benets - hill, by St. Paul's, when they had to sign it. I had got it drawn and fairly engrossed."

"I recollect the business now," returned Sir John, "but I had forgotten your face. My Lord Stanley and Sir William Stanley, I think, are now both with the Duke of Gloucester's army on the Scottish Border. I heard of their conducting to His Highness the forces raised in these shires of Chester and Lancaster. For me, I travel no longer as a Justice of Assize, else I should not be now here. The King's Justices of England, you know, Master Unsworth, do not come over these borders of the county palatine, under the rule of the Earl of Chester. No, I come here now as a plain country gentleman, to dwell at home in my own place. But we will talk further at leisure; you are of Warrington, in Lancashire, but just on the other bank of the Mersey, Master Unsworth; you and I are neighbours. I desire your better acquaintance."

"I am glad if we can now begin good offices to each other," said Unsworth, who had got off his horse, while his servant had likewise dismounted. "Sir John, may I offer your lady my hand to mount this easy - paced nag of mine? It carried my wife this morning to visit her father, ten miles further along the road. She is bidden to stay there, and I ride home without her as you see."

He adroitly helped Mrs. Margory to get up behind Simon Battersey, who had by this time sent away the broken litter. They all rode on together as swiftly as was safe in the condition of the road.

CHAPTER XII.

The days before the Post were days when those who left their houses for distant parts of England, were more separated from their friends than the North American emigrant of our own times. The transmission of intelligence across the Atlantic is now an easier thing than the old conveyance of a letter, two hundred miles upon a cross road. The historian of Craven, speaking of 1609, says, "At this time the communication between the North of England and the Universities were kept up by carriers, who pursued their tedious but uniform route with whole trains of

PACK HORSES.

To their care was consigned not only the packages, but frequently the persons of young scholars. It was through their medium, also, that epistolary correspondence was managed; and as they always visited London, a letter could scarcely be exchanged between Yorkshire and Oxford in less time than a month. Charles I. seems in 1635 to have resolved to remedy this evil by the establishment of the Home Post - office. In his proclamation of that year, he says that there had been no certain intercourse between England and Scotland, and he therefore commands a running post to be established between London and Edinburgh, to go thither and come back - again in six days; and for other roads there are promised the same advantages. In 1660, the

GENERAL POST OFFICE

was established by Act of Parliament, and all letters were to be sent through this office, "except such letters as shall be sent by coaches, common known carriers of goods by carts, waggons, and pack - horses respectively." The Postmaster - General and his deputies, under this statute, and no other person or persons, "shall provide and prepare horses or furniture to let to hire unto all through posts and persons riding in post, by commission or without, to and from all and every the places of England, Scotland, and Ireland, where any post - roads are." We find, by various clauses of this Act, that the Postmaster was also to furnish a guide with a horn to such as ride post; that he was to furnish horses within half - an - hour after demand; and that if he could not accomplish this, persons might hire a horse where they could and sue the Postmaster for a penalty. The country Postmaster was an ancient functionary, who had long been in the habit of attending to the wants of those who bore letters inscribed, "Haste! haste! Post haste!" He was generally an innkeeper. Taylor, the water poet, in his "Penniless Pilgrimage," from London to Scotland, in 1618, has described one that might rival any Boniface on record - "From Stamford, the next day, we rode to Huntingdon, where we lodged at the Postmaster's house, at the sign of the Crown; his name is Riggs. He was informed who I was, and wherefore I undertook this my penniless progress; wherefore he came up to our chamber and supped with us, and very bountifully called for three quarts of wine and sugar, and four jugs of beer. He did drink and begin healths like a horse - leech, and swallowed down his cups without feeling as if he had had the dropsy or nine pounds of spunge in his maw."

About the middle of the eighteenth century, Dr. Aitkin informs us that "the chapman used to keep gangs of pack - horses, and accompany them to the principal towns, with goods in packs, which they opened and sold to shopkeepers, lodging what was unsold in small stores at the inns."

The carriers of England have always been a progressive body, in more than one sense of the word. They were amongst the first in our days to see what railways would accomplish for the transit of goods and passengers. They were the first more than two centuries ago to change the mode of passenger conveyance from the riding - horse to the waggon. They brought the Oxford scholars out of the North with their pack - horses. The most famous of all the old carriers was he of Cambridge, of whom Milton wrote-

"Here lies old Hobson - Death hath broke his girt,

And here, alas! hath laid him in the dirt."

He it was that gave rise to the saying of "Hobson's choice" (that or none), for he obliged his customers for hackney - horses to take the one that stood next the stable - door (a). He was

(a). The proverb arose thus -To his trade of carrier Hobson added that of letting out horses on hire - a practice he is said to have originated. "Mr. Hobson kept a stable of forty good cattle always ready, and fit for travelling; but, when a man came for a horse, he was led into the stable where there was great choice, but he obliged him to take the horse which stood next to the stable - door, so that every customer was supplied according to his chance, and every horse ridden with the same justice; from whence it became a proverb, when what ought to be your election was forced upon you, to say, 'Hobson's choice-this or none' " - Steele, Spectator, No.509).

a pack - horse carrier. It was not till after his palmy days that the innovation of waggons came in, in which passengers were carried from city to city. These

STAGE WAGGONS,

for passenger traffic, plied regularly from town to town, some of them started from Manchester, en route for London and other parts of England. From an advertisement copied from the Manchester Mercury of the 5th May, 1759, we read the following:-

This is to Give Notice

that the

OLD STAGE LONDON WAGGONS

Set out from a Warehouse, at the King's Arms, in Deansgate, Manchester, every Saturday, and arrive at the Castle and Falcon, in Aldersgate Street, London, every Tuesday; set out from there every Wednesday, and arrive at Manchester every Thursday. Also, from the same place in Manchester every Wednesday, and arrive at the same place in London every Friday. Set out from thence every Saturday, and arrive at Manchester every Monday; and carry Goods and Passengers to and from Manchester, Rochdale, Blackburn, Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Ashton, and other places adjacent, where all Favours conferred on them will be gratefully acknowledged.

"Performed, if God permit, by {JAMES MILLS,

{JOHN BIRCHENOUGH

"The Book - keepers attend every Day in the Week to take in Goods and agree with Passengers."

Another advertisement of the same period says:-

"THE PUBLIC may be assured of having large and small Parcels carried to and from Warrington, Prescot, Liverpool, with the greatest Care and Expedition, by ADAM SMITH, who sets out regularly every Tuesday Morning and return back every Thursday Evening."

These waggons were strongly built, and in length sometimes fourteen or sixteen feet. They were covered over with sheets of tarpaulin, to keep out the wet, their Common speed being about three miles an hour; relays of horses (which were generally six, frequently eight, according to the state of the roads) were ready at different stages, in a similar manner as the stage - coaches. The passengers were accommodated with seats affixed down each side of the interior. Under the seats and over their heads was piled the passengers' luggage, and parcels which were booked and paid for at certain rates.

It would be a curious sight in these days to see the motley groups of passengers of all grades, seated round the interior of one of these conveyances, especially if we saw them in the costume of the period. And be it remembered there was no first, second, or third class here, all were accommodated alike, unless you fee'd the waggoner, for what was thought a more comfortable place, especially if it was winter time. The place of departure, and arrival of these waggons were equally of as much interest then as the stage coach; and as the driver (or waggoner, as he was called) passed through the rural districts, he occasionally blew his horn, so that any one wishing to go on as a passenger, or to send a parcel, met him on the road or left it at some inn, where the waggon passed. A journey in those days required a deal of preparation, and if it was a long distance, many people made their wills before starting, as a precaution in case of accident, or sickness, on the journey before they arrived home again. A journey that is accomplished now in a few hours, would at that time take nearly as many weeks.

Our antiquarian annalist Stow, records, that in 1605,

LONG WAGGONS

for passengers and commodities travelled from London to Canterbury and other large towns. According to this authority, they were known as early as 1564. In 1739, Mr. Andrew Thompson, of Glasgow, with a friend, left Glasgow to ride to London. He says, "there was no turnpike-road till they came to Grunthuri, within a hundred and ten miles of the metropolis. Up to that point they travelled on a narrow causeway, with an unmade soft road on each side. As strings of pack - horses met them, from time to time they were obliged to plunge into the side road, and had often difficulty in scrambling again upon the causeway, (Cleland Glasgow). In the South of England, they made more rapid strides to perfection, for in the year 1750, we find a conveyance called the "Alton and Farnham Machine," plying between these places. This clumsy vehicle, of only a century ago, carried no passengers on the roof, but had a large basket - literally a basket - swung behind, for half price passengers. The coachman had four horses in hand, and a postilion rode a pair of leaders. This was considered a magnificent equipage, and it accomplished the journey in a marvellously short time, starting at six o'clock in the morning, and arriving duly the same night.

No doubt some people now - a - days, would lift up their hands in astonishment, at what appears to them such a slow mode of travelling, but they that had occasion to do so at that time, thought a deal of a journey; and as some preferred to go by water, accommodation was provided by the

PICKFORD FLY BOATS.

on the various canals throughout the country. These boats took up passengers at Stoke; (the canal was not brought through this town until the year 1828) Leicester, and Northampton, and passengers leaving Macclesfield by the Pickford Waggon, from their offices in King Edward-street, were transferred to the Fly Boat, on their arrival at Stoke or Congleton, and although the journey might be considered tire - some, it was not without its pleasures, especially in the summer season. There was a pleasant sensation realised in riding either on the Coach, the Stage Waggon, or the Fly Boat, which is never felt in a railway train. By the former means of progression you could notice the travellers you met on the road, the people at their rural occupations - the happy little rustics playing on the village green, - gipsies encamped in nooks and corners half hidden by bramble, hazel, or hawthorne; the purple smoke of their fires curling up amongst the dense foliage; and picturesque cottages with their pretty gardens looking as if placed there purposely to adorn the old highways and vary the scene.

This it was that rendered a journey by these modes a pleasure, and so it was equally by the Fly Boat, or the rest. By the accommodation provided by the captain of the vessel you could have your cooking done, or tea prepared in the cabin, and brought to you in that portion of the boat allotted to passengers; and provisions were bought at the various shops in the towns as they passed through; and when night came, a quantity of straw was provided on which the passengers slept, and thus you proceeded on your journey; and if you were not of a very nervous temperament, you might sleep in peace only that at certain times, you would be apt to think some one was walking over where you were domiciled, and yet, the sound of their footsteps did not appear to recede, nor come nearer: this was the tread of the "Leggers," (so called) propelling the boat through a tunnel; as, when they arrived at these places, the horse was detached from the rope of the boat, and these men lay themselves down, back to back, at the forepart of the boat, and the tunnel being made only of sufficient width for the boat to pass through, they push it forward by treading against the wall on either side, to the other end of the tunnel, where they are again met by one of the boatmen, (who with the horse have walked over the tunnel) and the rope is again attached to the horse, and you proceed on your journey. Sometimes in the night perhaps, you would be aroused from your slumbers (if you could sleep) by a hard grazing of the boat as if going aground, and before you had time to recollect yourself, a tremendous concussion would cause you to conclude that the boat was surely gone aground, if not wrecked; and, as if to add to your terrors, you would directly hear a great rush of water, under and around where you were located, bubbling and as if coming into the vessel. This was all caused by the passage of the boat, up, or down one of the "Locks" on the canal, but all is soon over and you proceed, to perhaps hear the same sounds many times in the course of the journey. As no candle was allowed after the tarpaulin was drawn over the boat for the night, to nervous people it appeared anything but pleasant; but the fare being cheaper than the coach, the inconveniences were submitted to with as good grace as possible.

CHAPTER XIII.

ON THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE PEOPLE OF MACCLESFIELD

IN THE OLDEN TIMES.

The revolutions that have taken place, even within the last century, in the manners and customs of the people, in almost every conceivable way, are truly astounding. If anyone could have told us 50 years ago that coaches would be made to run without horses, we should scarcely have credited them; it is true-" Old Moore" said as much, yet nobody gave any credence to him; but, as Edwin Waugh, one of our Lancashire poets, says-

"Good lorgus days, what change there is

Uppo this mortal greawnd;

As time goes flyin' o'er one's yed,

Heaw quarely things cum reawnd.

What ups an' deawns, an' ins an' outs,

What blendin' ill or well,

There is i' one poor cratur's life

It isna fur to tell.

The great changes wrought by the many inventions of the last fifty or sixty years have given quite another aspect to our domestic comforts and conveniences, as experienced by our forefathers, which even many of us can testify. And even as regards our own town of Macclesfield, some few old people now living never expected to see the wonderful changes it has undergone, both as regards matters domestic and also in trade and commerce.

"The death of some and the marriage of others," says Cowper, "makes a new world of it every thirty years. Within that space of time the majority are displaced, and a new generation has succeeded. Here and there one is permitted to stay longer that there may be not wanting a few grave dons like myself to make the observation."

"Man is a self survivor every year,

Man, like a stream, is in perpetual flow,

Death's a destroyer of quotidian prey."- Young.

Yet, infinitely short as the term of human life is when compared with time to come, it is not so in relation to times past. A hundred and forty of our own generations carry us back to the Deluge, and nine more of antediluvian measure to the Creation - which to us is the beginning of time. They who remember their grandfather and see their grand - children have seen persons belonging to five out of that number, and he who attains the age of three - score has seen two generations pass away.

But, I think I hear some one say, "Sermonising is not what we expect now - come to the subject matter in hand" Very well. We will now prepare to see with our mind's eye,

MACCLESFIELD,

AS IT APPEARED 80 OR 100 YEARS AGO,

But, before we begin, we will, as it were, "turn down the gas," for although the "Sun" shone upon it then as it does now, yet, compared with its present appearance, a new light has come over it that does not correspond with the effect of its antiquated looks, for at the time we are speaking of the buildings and shops in and around the Market - place and the more public streets were of a very different class to what we now see. The shops were chiefly fitted up with the old - fashioned bow windows, and glazed with small diamond - shaped green glass; and if you ventured out in the evening your eyes would not be overpowered with light. If you went out to see the shops, or to walk up and down the streets, you might observe a tallow candle or two stuck up in sockets on the counter, or on the walls of the shop (a); perhaps, in a few more respectable places, a brass candlestick was used, but more commonly the iron one, with the candle burning in it; some few used an oil - lamp. And to light you in your peregrinations along the streets, you might observe at long intervals a glass globe or lamp suspended over the entrance to some noted hotel or public - house (b), a gentleman's private residence, or at the corner of a street (c). They were chiefly trimmed with cotton wicks, steeped in oil, and attended to each evening; and in some instances a solitary candle only was used. If you were not satisfied with this accommodation, you might take your own lantern with you, sometimes trimmed with oil, but more commonly a piece of candle stuck in a socket inside, the said lantern being fitted up with a kind of horn or talke (d) instead of glass, and thus you wended your way in the dark of the night, or ran the risk of breaking your blessed limbs.

Similar accommodation might be found in the various churches and chapels (e) on Sunday evenings or other times, when you might observe the ever - lasting candle stuck up in cases of tin attached to the walls and pillars, to reflect the light throughout the sacred edifice. And at certain intervals during divine service you might notice a person appointed to the office go the round of the place, supplied with a pair of snuffers on a small tray, to keep the candles in order, and prevent them from going out, or the tallow from streaming down the walls. Now and then you would see the same individual advance with stealthy step up the stairs of the pulpit, as if he wished to do his work unperceived by the preacher, who on his part would seem so intent on his subject as scarcely to notice his appearance. But when gas (f.) was introduced, the poor man might say with Othello his "occupation was gone."

At the close of the service, if it was a dark night, and the parish lantern (i.e., the moon) was not hung up, you would see those of the congregation who had a good distance to go home replenishing the lights of their lanthorns at the church or chapel doors. And if it was wet or raining you would see the ladies busy arranging their pattens before starting home, and be it remembered that pattens at this time were worn by all classes of the female sex - rich and poor - and sometimes even by younger boys, as the writer well remembers; and it may be within the memory of a few that at the time I allude to, and even within the last forty years, one of the rules of the Macclesfield Sunday School was that "the girls were not to walk with their pattens on in the school."

(a.) The last instance in which the tallow candle, stuck in an iron candlestick, was used in a public shop many years after gas was introduced, was in a large wholesale tea establishment in Chestergate (known at that time as "Miser Hall's"), next to the "Old Sun Inn." This singular personage persisted in using one solitary small candle on his counter up to the period of his death. The shop, since he died, has been converted into a private residence.

(b.) Such was formerly the "Old Globe Inn," in Jordangate, a house of very ancient date, now transformed into a private dwelling or shop, occupied by Mr Hulme, painter, &c. The premises contain, even in the present day, a very interesting carved oak staircase, running up three stories; it is apparently of sixteenth century work. It is said that this house was at one time occupied by King Charles I., on his passage through the town.

(c.) As time rolls on trifling things of one age become matters of interest to those who live in generations after, especially when those trifles retain their place in a town long after their uses are dispensed with. In this instance we allude to a remnant of the old lights of Macclesfield prior to the introduction of gas, namely, one of the iron rings projecting ever the shop window of Mr. Hadfield, druggist, at the top of Mill - street, in which was formerly suspended one of the "Oil Lamps," that anciently served to light the good old residents to and fro in the dark hours of night. We believe this is the only relic left appertaining to the old custom.

(d.) The only specimen we have left of this material, as used for windows long before the introduction of glass, is in a small window yet remaining in one of the rooms of Sutton Hall, near Macclesfield, which erection dates from the 12th century.

(e.) In the year 1763 there were only two places of worship in the town - the Old Church and a small Methodist meeting house. The population in that year was about 5,000.

(f.) In the year 1814, the royal assent was given to an Act for lighting, watching, and regulating the Police within the Borough of Macclesfield, but was delayed for some time, owing to the tardiness of the Corporation. An attempt was at last made in the winter of 1815 to illumine the principal streets with gas, but it is said to have failed; not from the want of skill in the chemist employed, but because the Corporation deviated from their plans, by which the whole loss was suffered by the ingenious but unfortunate projector.

If some of our young folks could walk down the streets of Macclesfield as they were only about 150 years ago, they would observe - at the doors of some hotel, or the residence of a person of quality - what he now would take to be long trumpets affixed on either side of the door outside, and which, in his innocence of the use of such apparatus, would naturally conclude they were put there for visitors to blow upon, or to arouse the inhabitants in case of danger. These were what were called "flambeau extinguishers," to use when any of the family returned from the theatre, or balls, &c., when the large flambeaus, which were borne before them to light them home, on their arrival were thrust into these cases and so extinguished, and the street left in utter darkness.

We have now lost sight of, or rather we do not now hear the plaintive cry of the

NIGHT WATCHMAN

as he went his lonely round, muffled up in his great top - coat, his lanthorn in the one hand, and a good stick, or perhaps something more formidable, in the other, every half hour, or oftener, calling out the time, and apprising those that were awake, by some such cry as "Past twelve o'clock, and a fine morning!"

It is now about twenty - five years, since old Thomas Bradbury, the last night watchman, who called out the time in Chestergate, died. "is watch spring broke, his rattle (g.) became useless: he then retired to his rest, and time with him was ended.

These night watchmen in the streets were, in a great measure dispensed with, when the late Sir Robert Peel obtained an Act for an increase of the police - force, in towns and also in the rural districts, which gave rise to the sobriquet of "Peelers," or "Bobbies," as Robert, or Blues, (referring to the colour of their uniform) being applied to the police when on duty. (h.)

Perhaps it may not be known by many of the younger portion, that only about forty - six years ago three constables did duty for the whole town of Macclesfield, and although at times, there might be a little frolicking going on by the young gents of the day, and sometime even by the elder; such as taking a barber's pole or sign down from over his door, and affixing it over the door of a tailor, or some contrary calling, and vice versa; yet, on the

(g.) They generally carried a large rattle to raise an alarm, if needed, in case of fire, or robbery, or assault, &c., &C.

(h.) Constables, as they were called previously, did not wear any uniform as now.

whole, I think the town was as safe as even now, with the large force we have - no disrespect to our present true blues either. At that time, this kind of mischief was easier done than now, as signboards were not used so large as now - a - days. A small sign placed just over the door being considered sufficient, except it was a swinging sign (which then were common), or over the entrance to an hotel, or wayside public - house.

We find that in the time of Henry VIII., the watchmen of that time bore a halberd, along with his lantern.

From Queen Mary's reign to the time of the Commonwealth, the watchman added a bell to his halberd and lantern, but Dekker seems to have had considerable objection to them; "a bellman" he says, "is the child of darkness, a common night walker, a man that has no man to wait upon him, but only a dog, who, at midnight would beat at men's doors, bidding them (in mere mockery) to look to their candles, when they themselves were in their dark sleeps." And so, step by step, do we get down from the picturesque watchmen of the olden times, to the comfortable looking, but not at all picturesque policemen of our days.

CHAPTER XIV.

As in our last chapter allusion was made to signs and signboards, perhaps it may interest a few to notice such things more fully before proceeding to other matters.

The History and significance of signs and

SIGN BOARDS

is a subject of very considerable interest, and one from which, not only a vast amount of sound, useful and even valuable information, but also much entertainment may be obtained.

Hundreds of people pass along the streets and bye ways of the town and country, and see here and there a sign, which for its very oddity may strike them as being curious; but few, will in addition to a passing smile, take the trouble to dive into their history, or trace out there meaning or origin. And yet there is scarcely a sign to be seen hanging in the busy town, the quiet village, or even a lonely roadside inn, but which possesses a story not only worth unfolding, but profitable to unfold. At the present day almost every little peddling shop has the name of the owner painted in large flowing letters, which, amid a meretricious display of burnished gold and colouring, tell the passers by the occupation of the resident; and education being so extended in these days, even those who run may read the names as they pass by, so that there is not the need of signs for ordinary shops as there used to be in earlier times, when the great majority of the people could not read; as it would have been useless to put up the names of the shopkeepers, or to paint them over the doors, such words as "hatter," "tailor," "bookseller," "grocer," or "draper."

Signs were then the only thing by which the different establishments were known, and every man, woman, or child, would look for, and understand the figure of a "bear," a "lion," "cat and fiddle," "pig and whistle," when they saw it painted up or carved, far better than they could read a long rigmarole of letters. They would know for instance, that at the sign of the "Grasshopper," or the "Tea Pot," or "Golden Lion," tea was to be had; and where there happened to be a street, where, perhaps, a good few sold one particular description of goods, a sign of some particular subject could be found when a child could not read the names.

Signs of this description were in general use at an earlier period, and it would seem as if the old custom was being revived, for we find not a few of the pushing tea dealers and grocers, adopting the old style; we have now the "Golden Lion," - " The Grasshopper," - "The Tea Pot," - "The Golden Canister," &c. In olden times almost everything animate or inanimate, were used as signs to distinguish one shop from another, in a similar way to the publicans and hotel - keepers, and people had less difficulty in finding out a particular shop by these signs, than reading the names.

It must be borne in mind too, that signs were not in former days, as they almost universally are now, confined to public - houses. Booksellers, grocers, tailors, apothecaries, and indeed every trade of-

Butchers and Bakers

And Candlestick makers

adopted them, and made their use universal, and people had less difficulty in singling out the shop they wanted by some such sign as, The Old Sun, The Turk's Head, The Elephant and Castle, &c., than by any other means, and certainly far better than by names which scarcely one in ten could read. The "Eagle and Child," the crest of the Stanley's illustrates one of the remarkable legends connected with that ancient family. The Golden Lion is the cognizance of the Egerton's - The Sword and Serpent, that of Legh of Booths - The White Lion floated on the banners of "the Percy out of Northumberland," - The Rose and Crown betokens the wars of York and Lancaster, and the Feathers in the old Bohemian badge appropriated at the Battle of Poictiers, by Edward the Black Prince, and Prince of Wales. We find also the "Mortar and Pestle" over the shops of druggists, the Umbrella, by makers of these articles. Over an Ironmongers shop we find sometimes a Fish suspended, to denote that tackle for the "Izaak Walton's" may be had there. A Barber hoists out a long Pole, gaily painted; the tobacconist "A Virginian!" smoking; "The Three Golden Balls," by Pawnbrokers, each and all have their particular meaning, which would be too long to dilate upon here, indeed, a large volume might be wrote on such matters.

And who has not in some lonely country walk met with the sign of "We Three Loggerheads be," represented by two faces painted side by side with the words as quoted; and if it be the first time he has met with such a sign, he will stand hesitating how this can be, when he can only see two faces, unconscious for a time, that he himself makes the third, and glad he is if he can make himself scarce, before some one interrupts him in his meditations.

It would be interesting to trace the signs of a many of the public - houses signs, for we must naturally suppose that they are not all devices to indicate that they are houses where, "good accommodation for man and horse" may be had, or houses of call for various trades, crafts, and callings, but half hidden meanings, and convey to us many curious, and valuable messages from the past.

Signs are a remarkably old and venerable institution, for we find even the Egyptians of more than three thousand years ago, put up emblems over their shops, indicative of the trade they followed. Among the Romans also they became of more frequent use, and many good examples have been discovered, both in Pompeii, Herculaneam, and other places.

As we have previously noticed the manner of going journeys abroad, in the seventeenth, and early part of the eighteenth century, we must not omit to notice the mode of the people, when only intending to go short distances. For be it remembered our good old townsfolk did not enjoy the advantage of transit which the present day affords, as will have been seen in the early stage of travelling.

It is true the gentleman of that day might mount the saddle and ride out, if he was not disposed to walk, but private carriages were then unknown.

Wheel carriages for pleasure are generally supposed to have first come into use in England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. But before that time, carriages of some kind were used, on state occasions or for the conveyance of sick persons, but they were of a very clumsy construction.

We find that as late as 1720, not more than four gentlemen's carriages, were kept in the whole of Manchester and Salford (Baines) and to use an Irish phrase, "one of them was kept by a lady."

Dr. Aitkin's account of the struggle between the old order of things and the new, the homely and the genteel, is in many parts highly amusing. One of the four private carriages of Manchester, in the reign of George I., belonged to an old lady who could not bring herself to conform to the new fashioned beverages of tea and coffee; whenever, therefore, she made her afternoon's visit her friends presented her with a tankard of ale and a pipe of tobacco.

The first carriage made use of by a resident of Macclesfield, was a chariot only, by Charles Roe, Esq., the founder of Christ Church, in this town, in the year 1770.

The most fashionable mode of conveyance for ladies, about the end of the eighteenth century, was the

SEDAN CHAIR,

which about this period was used by the gentry or ladies, to convey them out when visiting their friends, or to church, or balls and parties. They were thus carried about by two men, generally in livery; and we must needs say that they had one advantage which our present mode does not so fully allow, namely, immunity from draught and change of air, as they could be taken from the hall door to their respective places of visit, or to church, or balls and parties, and the two servants could, and did, convey them right into the room, or inside the church porch or ball room, as the case might be - the hall or other room door might be closed, and not until then was the roof or the door opened; so that the transition was as it were only from one room to another.

We have one of these singular relics still remaining in this town, and which is now deposited in the Chapel of Archbishop Savage, attached to the Old Church, it formerly belonged to Lady Catherine Roe, of Macclesfield. The chair still retains its original fittings, and the staple on either side to insert the bearing poles. It is in a tolerable state of preservation, and is undoubtedly worth a visit of the curious, and ought to be better cared for than left to moulder away in such a damp place. Such specimens are now exceedingly rare.

Tradition is handing the memory of the "Sedan Chair" down to posterity, even by the mouth of the little children of the town, who we may occasionally hear, when in their innocent moments of amusement, recite in their simple way-

"Lady Lucan (a) sits in a Sedan,

As fair as a lily, as white as a swan;

A pair of green gloves to dof and to don. (b)

My mistress desires you will read one

I can't read one without them all,

So I pray this hand decline the ball.

Sedan Chairs were then in great request, and in some instances even the gentry allowed their chairmen (as they were then called, in a similar manner as the coachmen of the present day), the privilege, on payment of a fee, to take them to a ball or party, and no doubt in some instances the sedan would be filled to perfection, and the sides of the sedan almost swelled out from the unusual pressure; and the men no doubt would soon find out that they had to do with a person both of weight and distinction, however, with steady and persevering

(a.) Referring to Lady Lucan of eccentric memory who formerly resided at Sutton Hall, near this town. It appears she used one of these Sedan Chairs to convey her to and from the Old Church in Macclesfield.

(b.) To dof meaning to pull off, to don to put on.

steps they bore the palanquin along, and deposited their freight as a richly laden argosie at the door of the assembly room; carefully they had done their duty, and the generous dame felt conscious of the service as the lid was raised and the door opened - and radiant with satisfaction she emerged into the glittering throng - a golden coin, perhaps one of George III.'s spade ace guineas rewarded the astonished and gratified bearers. Did they not, think you, drink her health in a good bumper? I fancy they did, and pocket the difference with glee.

We may here remark, that in cases where ladies were not so fortunate as to be possessed of one of these chairs, or could not obtain one for hire "the ladies had their maids to come with lantern's and pattens, to conduct them home at the close of the ball, or when they were on a visit, or from church, &c.

The sedan chair, was, in the eighteenth century a favourite mode of conveyance, not merely, as we might suppose, for delicate ladies, or scarcely less delicate gentlemen, but for general purposes, and they were very cheap considering the nature and severity of the services afforded; a shilling an hour or a guinea a week, were the common prices for the sedan and its two bearers.

The introducer of the Sedan was Prince Charles afterwards King Charles I. who, on his return from his romantic, but not very creditable love expedition into Spain with "Steenie" (Buckingham), brought back with him three sedan chairs.

CHAPTER XV.

In addition to the quaint shops and other singular appendages of the Market - place in bygone days, we must not omit to notice the

OLD STOCKS

which formerly occupied a prominent place in the square, until the demolition of the shops which stood there. Some of us can remember the stocks as a punishment for drunkards and others convicted of petty offences. The stocks were to be met with at that time in every direction, and in many places. We well remember those of Gawsworth, which (prior to the restoration - so called - of the Church), stood just outside the church - yard, as you entered the gates between the two pools. Those of Prestbury, also in a similar position outside the gates. The remains of the old stocks of Rainow still exist on a bank between the sites of the old church and the new one; indeed, at that time, you might have met with them whichever way you took. The stocks were founded on the same principle as the "Drunkard's Cloak," that of humiliating exposure, and women were equally liable with men; and we also observe that these Stocks were not used exclusively for those who had indulged too freely with "John Barleycorn," but also for the punishment and exposure of what were called Rufflers, or sturdy beggers, the upright men who were chiefly vagabond chiefs; the Priggers of Prancers, or horse - stealers the Abraham men pretended lunatics (hence the vulgar phrase of "Shamming Abraham,") and the Counterfeit Cranks who feigned sickness.

From "Harman's Caveat," a work published in the sixteenth century, we gather an interesting account of one of these Counterfeit Cranks as they were called, who feigned sickness. While the Caveat was going through the press, he informs us that one of these individuals, by name Nicholas Gennings, appeared under the author's lodgings, where he hoped for gain from some ladies. The author watched the proceedings of this man, penetrated his imposture, questioned him, and almost reduced him to confession; but at that critical point, the Crank not exactly liking his position, started off. He was taken, after a long and difficult pursuit, in the house of "an honest Kent yeoman," many miles from town. To make sure of him he was stripped naked, and merely wrapped in an old cloak. But they must be cunning who could hold him under such circumstances. He was presently running naked over the fields, and completely baffled his enemies among the wilds of metropolitan vagabondism. After two months, in a new disguise, Nicholas Gennings reappeared. The author of the "Caveat" again discovered him, and again he fled, but this time Gennings was less happy in his exertions being taken at Fleet Bridge and lodged in Bridewell. He was pilloried at Cheapside, "went in the mill while his ugly picture was a - drawing, and then was whipt at a cart's tail through London," the said picture borne before him in procession. Then followed another period of confinement in Bridewell, and after this purgatory the miserable rogue was dismissed on condition that "he would prove an honest man, and labour truly to get his living."

In many places these Stocks were often so constructed as to serve both for Stocks and Whipping Posts; the post which supported the Stocks being made sufficiently high, were furnished near the top with iron clasps to fasten round the wrists of the offenders, and hold them securely during the infliction of the punishment.

The Stocks formerly used at Macclesfield being not so constructed, the plan adopted when a case of Whipping or Flogging occurred, was to make use of the iron railings at the top of the steps leading into the Old Town Hall, where the culprit (male or female, for both sexes were whipped), was secured to the railing previous to the infliction of the punishment, so that these iron rails served both for this purpose and also for hanging, as instance, the man or deserter that was hung from them, at the time the Duke of Cumberland came through this town in 1745, in pursuit of Prince Charles Edward Stuart.

The last case of whipping in Macclesfield occurred about the year 1831, when a young man was publicly whipped in front of the Town Hall.

In alluding to the "Old Stocks," we may as well remark that after their demolition, in the year 1828, new ones were made of iron, and placed under the balcony of the New Town Hall, and were occasion ally used; but after a short time they were also dispensed with and put by as lumber, so that now the punishment is altogether abolished.

As late as the middle of the last century a number of petty punishments were in operation in this country, that have been since entirely swept away. Of these some were highly ludicrous, some barbarously cruel. Drunkards were paraded through the streets of the town, wearing a tub instead of a cloak, a hole being cut out of the sides through which the hands were drawn. This was called the" Drunkard's Cloak." Trifling offences were sometimes punished by the "Whirligig," a round wooden cage, turning on a pivot; the culprit being enclosed and whirled round with such velocity. that extreme sickness ensued; and thus it proved in reality a punishment highly distressing and dangerous, and, therefore, shamefully unsuited to the correction of slight aberrations.

A ludicrous story in connection with the Stocks, is related of Lord Camden. Being on a visit to Lord Dacre in Essex, and accompanying a gentlemen notorious for his absence of mind, in a walk, during which they came to the parish stocks. Having a wish to know the nature of the punishment, the Chief Justice begged his companion to open them so that he might try. This being done, his friend sauntered on and totally forgot him. The imprisoned chief tried in vain to release himself, and on asking a peasant who was passing by to let him out, was laughed at, and told "he wasn't set there for nothing. " He was soon set at liberty by the servants of his host; and afterwards, on the trial of an action for false imprisonment against a magistrate by some fellow whom he had set in the Stocks, on the council for the defendant ridiculing the charge, and declaring it was no punishment at all, his lord - ship leaned over and whispered, "Brother, were you ever in the Stocks." The council indignantly replied, "Never my lord;" "Then I have been," said the Chief Justice, "and I can assure you it is not the trifle you represent it."

After the dissolution of the Monasteries, whence the poor were never sent out empty away, the flagellation of vagrants was carried to a cruel extent. By an Act passed in 1530, vagrants were to be tied to the end of a cart, naked, and beaten with whips till blood was produced. In 1597, a statute was passed less severe than the preceding, which ordered that vagrants were "only to be stripped naked from the middle upwards and whipped till the body should be bloody. When the writings of John Taylor "the water poet" were published (1630), whipping posts were plentiful, for he says-

"In London, and within a mile I ween,

There are of jails, or prisons, full eighteen;

And sixty Whipping posts, and Stocks, and Cages."

In the possession of Mr. Etchells, the Superintendent of Police for Macclesfield, is deposited a singular relic of the year 1602; which, it seems was used to punish scolding women, or what was then called, a bridle for a "curst queane." It is made of plates of iron to fit on the head, with a flat piece to insert in the mouth of the offending party, which they were compelled to wear for a certain time in proportion to their offence.

Women were liable by law to be whipped, both publicly and privately, till the year 1817, when by statute 57, George III., cap. 75, the public infliction of that punishment was abolished.

Neither history nor tradition have handed down to us the exact spot where the

DUCKING STOOL

was erected, for the cure of scolding women, but the name has come down to us as Kuckstoolpit - hill, consequently we assume it would be somewhere at the foot of the hill, by the side of the River Bollin, as the waters at that time occupied a good space of what is now called "The Waters." No doubt some of our readers may remember that, prior to the North Staffordshire Railway being made, there was a large open space of water on the eastern side of the river, which served, at one time as a watering place for horses and other purposes, connected with a public - house which stood here called "The Jolly Carters," a house much frequented in those days by travellers - show folk - and townspeople, and the fact of the water from the brook having formed as it were an open pool here, would seem to indicate the spot as most likely to have been used for this pur- pose. The site is now occupied by the New Central Railway Station.

Mr. James Neild, the philanthropist, writing in the "Gentlemen's Magazine" of 1803, remarks that the wanton severity of the "Ducking Stool," used upon a woman's first admission to the House of Correction (alluding to Knutsford) is now discontinued, he observes, "it was formerly the punishment in almost every county town in Cheshire and Lancashire for scolds and brawling women." He also says, "In Cheshire the Ducking Stool for punishing women, was usually called, the "Cucking Stool." He says, his father has seen in a part of Cheshire, where he was at school in a pond called the "Cuck - stool Pond," the upright post or standard, which had been part of the apparatus for ducking women, and it was called, the Cuck Stool or Cucking Stool, and not many years ago, he says "I saw the title deeds of some property, near Macclesfield, in which it was described, as situated in the Cucking Stool - lane.

A strong presumption of the use of such a mode of punishment in comparatively modern times, is afforded by a note at the foot of Mr. Nield's remarks in which he states as follows, "What I have called a Ducking Stool, is in Cheshire called a Cucking Stool, i.e. a Choaking Stool. It is a standard fixed at the entrance of a pond ; to this is attached a long pole, at the extremity of which is fastened a chair, in this the woman is placed, and undergoes a thorough ducking thrice repeated." In the Town Hall of Macclesfield, is also deposited a particular form of "Strait Jacket" wholly made of iron. It consists of four tiers of iron about the thickness of a mans' finger, fitted with joints, and hung together with chains. On each side are cuffs to receive the hands, which would effectually defy all attempts to escape its iron grasp. It appears this was formerly used for deranged persons and other refractory people.

CHAPTER XVI.

ON THE OLD STONE CROSS OF MACCLESFIELD.

Before we take leave of the Market - place, on looking round we are reminded that one item, and that not the least, has been hitherto overlooked, which, excepting the hallowed fane of St. Michael's, is the most interesting memento we have of olden times; and, although, not standing in its original position, is yet valued by most persons interested in the history of their country, or who value such relics of antiquity.

I presume most of our readers will agree with me that all great nations live much upon the past, - pride themselves upon their ancestries! and this, in fact, is the distinguishing feature between civilised and savage nations. Memory loves to linger over the bygone scenes - and their imagination and thought build for themselves a home, and delight in clothing death with all the splendour and animation of life. There amid the ruins of an old abbey or church, or some such like remains, the grey - bearded men of old seem to come forth again from their cloisters, or cells, or their graves; and the heart bows down in veneration, before the venerable spirits who held up the lamp of knowledge in an age of darkness; and there oft in the grim shadows of the gloaming, many a cowled father will come and the monks will, as it were, again chant their sad wild requiem, over some lone forest tomb. Antiquity bears us away through deep and beamless glooms to the buried ages of departed time. Each spot of earth is consecrated by her, for every spot of the green earth is pregnant with rattling skeletons and mouldering bones; the plough turns them up in our fields, they bleach on the shore and in the whitened caverns of the deep. Our very towns are built on the remains of our ancestors, the very air we breath is laden with the dust of former ages, and its murmurings are but the sighs of antiquity.

It is said "there are sermons in stones," and if many people would be at the trouble, they might in some instances reap the benefit of a sound sermon from these silent monitors, which, although devoid of speech, the expressive manner in which they silently speak to the heart is frequently felt by people looking upon them, especially if sentiment is at all predominant in the individual so contemplating remains of antiquity.

These thoughts have suggested themselves as we reflected on the many relics of bygone days, which even Macclesfield can boast of; and what would induce such thoughts more than when we contemplate the few remaining fragments of the

OLD STONE CROSS OF MACCLESFIELD;

which if stones might speak (and speak they do) would recount some curious items of interesting matters that occurred during the many hundreds of years it stood in the Market place of Macclesfield. (a.) The very form of the remaining part of the shaft of the cross being circular, which is very rare, indicates a style which forcibly reminds us of the Old Cross of Chester, which was also circular; and as the Chester Cross was finished at the top with an elaborate tabernacle head, we presume the one at Macclesfield, which appears to have been

(a.) For further information respecting the Old Cross, see "Notes on the Antiquities of Macclesfield," by I. Finney.

erected about the same period, or during the rule of the Norman Earls of Chester, in the 12th or 13th century, would at the time of its erection be finished in a similar manner.

A true picture of England as it existed in the 14th and 15th centuries, would now be regarded only as the dream of an antiquary or enthusiast. Abbeys, churches, and crosses bristled over the land, and though for more than three centuries cruel war has been waged against them, there are yet remains of English architecture, in its glory sufficient to show anyone who will take the trouble or pains to consider what a wealth of grandeur and beauty has been swept away. Mr. Ruskin, says, even of the present day, that "the feudal and monastic buildings of Europe, and still more the streets of her ancient cities, are vanishing like dreams, and it is difficult to imagine the mingled envy and contempt with which future generations will look back to us who still possessed such things, yet made no effort to preserve, and scarcely any to delineate them." As an instance of the value of design that has been lost, we may mention that of those most beautiful crosses, the Queen Eleanor memorials, only three are left, one at Geddington; one at Northampton, and one at Waltham; twelve having been destroyed, and these three have furnished the design for nearly all modern memorial crosses.

Yet the variety of design in the few crosses that are left to us is surprising. If native English talent had only been encouraged, and if; in the place of modern tombs, we had only adhered to ancient English types, our cemeteries and graveyards might have been solemn peaceful places, wherein we could have walked without being shocked at every step, Nothing is more impressive than a recumbent knight or lady lying on a tomb, with their hands folded as if in prayer, like we see in almost any ancient parish church in England; and the tall graceful crosses that were swept away by the Puritans, are just such monuments as would make a churchyard beautiful. Statues and sensational classic groups succeeded recumbent effigies and disfigured England, during the reigns of the Georges, at enormous cost; while graceful crosses were superseded by unsightly and unmeaning obelisks.

The vast number of monuments in Westminster Abbey, that were erected during the reigns of the Georges, and even some down to our own day, are notorious for bad taste. Heroes and statesmen, with a fair accompaniment of heathen deities, would seem to be holding high revel in the venerable walls, and a stranger or foreigner, seeing the Abbey for the first time, would be apt to say with Macbeth:-

"Charnel houses, and the graves must send

Those that we bury back!

The ancient crosses of England, have been divided into memorial, market, boundary, preaching, and weeping crosses. The market cross of Winchester, is a structure of great grace and beauty. It has always been called the "Butter Cross," and indeed, some kind of distinctive name is often applied to local market - crosses; for instance, that of Salisbury is called the "Poultry Cross." Milton considers it to have been erected in the reign of Henry VI., but it probably dates back as far as Edward III. Britton writing some forty or fifty years ago, says it was suffering from the "wantonly careless practices of boys and childish men," and it is hardly credible that even in his time, so meek a plea was urged for the preservation of national monuments, This, as well as other practices of public folly and mischievousness, should be decidedly discountenanced, he says, "for when curious memorials of antiquity are once destroyed they cannot be replaced, and almost every person, sincerely, or affectedly, regrets their annihilation."

Market - crosses originated in towns where there were monastic establishments, in or near to them, and the "Order" sent a monk or friar on market - days to preach to the assembled farming people. The effect was, doubtless, good, and the theme dwelt upon was continually that they should be true and just in all their dealings. These crosses also gave the religious house a central point to collect the tolls paid by all farmers and dealers in country produce, for the privilege of selling their stuffs in the limits of the town, and until very lately, this same tax was held by certain families in England, who exacted a toll from each head of cattle that was brought into the market town for sale; indeed, it probably exists in some few remote country places, at the present time.

The original form of market crosses according to that most patient and careful investigator, Britton, was simply a stone like the one at Chester - a tall shaft on steps, but in order to shelter the divine, who, with his collector, officiated on market - days, a covering was in some instances added, and it is likely these small covered crosses were the origin of covered markets. There are several ancient market - places almost of a transitorial kind like the one at Shrewsbury, which was built in 1596, and affords space for a hundred people with their produce.

Dr. Milner (Catholic Bishop), in his "History of Winchester" says "The general intent of market crosses was to excite public homage to the religion of Christ crucified, and to inspire men with a sense of morality and piety amidst the ordinary transactions of life.

Mr. Blight, who has studied and illustrated the antiquities of Cornwall in a very careful manner, seems to say that crosses are more common in the west of this country, in consequence of the earliest preachers having come from Ireland; while in the northern parts, which were visited by Welsh missionaries, they are scarce, at any rate the similarity between the Cornish and Irish crosses is very striking.

In alluding to the Cornish crosses we are led to speak of those at Sandbach, in Cheshire, among the most perfect, and the oldest examples of crosses in England.

They are situated, as our readers are aware, in the eastern part of Cheshire, and were erected at an early part of the Saxon rule. There are carvings on them in a good state of preservation that illustrate interesting events in Saxon history. They were demolished with much pains sometime during the last century, great violence being necessary to break them down; but fortunately the remains which had been dispersed and used to ornament grottoes and doorways were collected in 1816, and rearranged according to the able advice of George Ormerod (the Cheshire historian), quite in accordance with their former appearance, and now stand as one of the most interesting groups of our national monuments.

It is the opinion of some of our earliest arcæhlogists that in the early Saxon ages market crosses were built on land given by lords of the soil, to commemorate the first preaching of the Christian religion on that spot, and where such preaching was continued until churches could be built.

They were afterwards used as "stations" in religious processions and for occasional preaching in the open air. Such would appear to have been the intention of the one we find near Gawsworth Church, as also another on the wayside as we go to Prestbury.

The Rev. J. H. B. Mountains, D.D., prebendary of Lincoln, supplies the following, "Market - crosses were to be found in most towns possessing the privilege of a market. The tolls of these markets generally belonged to some neighbouring monastery, and the crosses were erected by the friars in token of their right."

It is not improbable that the tolls, or at least a portion of the tolls of the Macclesfield market were formerly paid to the monks of the ancient Abbey of Deulacres, or Dieulacresse Abbey, near Leek, founded by Ranulph de Blondeville, sixth Earl of Chester, in 1214, for we find from what is called the cartulary of that Abbey, of the year 1234, the following extract:

"I, Roberti, Priest of Macclesfield, have yielded to the Abbot of Dieulacres all right I had in two burbages in the town of Macclesfield, which the said Abbot and Monks allege belonged to them of the bequest of Richardi de Falingbrok, my father.

Witnesses,

LORD DE ORREBY,

ROBERT DUNES, and

BENEDICT DE COUDRAY,

(Monk of the said Abbey.")

Probably this may account for the erection of the Market - cross of Macclesfield, as a memento of their right, and also as a "Preaching Cross," or preaching station, until the erection of St. Michael's Church, in 1278.

By this cursory glance at the origin of Market - crosses we can easily see that they resemble the Preaching - crosses alluded to. Boundary crosses were also a very important item in determining the limits of parishes and manors. There are many remains of these round Chester; sometimes they performed the important office of being sanctuaries also. Near Delamere Forest, in the middle of Cheshire, are several crosses that tradition asserts were for the convenience of travellers who had to pass through the dense woods, where even robbers respected them, provided the former could only reach the cross first. In addition to these there were also in ancient times "Weeping Crosses," built for the resort of those who were compelled to do penance by the parish clergyman. There is an example of one of these in Flintshire, not far from Holywell. It goes by a Welsh name, which signifies, the "Cross of Mourning," and was formerly supposed to mark the site of some lost battle, or other calamity.

We see then, from the time when crosses were introduced by the earliest preachers of Christianity into England, as also from the time when Justinian ordered them to be placed in all Christian Churches to the time when they were deliberately demolished by Act of Parliament, they were applied to many purposes and branched out into endless forms and devices. They mark each period with precision, and so great was their number that the remains which are spared to our day are numerous, and though Abbey or Market - crosses can hardly be expected to stand on the same footing as their more ancient neighbours, the Stone Rings or Roman Pavements, yet, as they are hardly less interesting and much more beautiful, let us hope that an impetus will be given to their preservation, and that the few links of antiquity we possess in our own town and immediate neighbourhood may be duly cared, and if possible restored to future generations; for, although some people may regard such remains as vestiges of ancient superstition, they should still remember, as Byron says, that-

"Even the faintest relics of a shrine

Of any worship make some thoughts divine."

CHAPTER XVII.

The contrast between the conveniences and improvements in domestic architecture, and also in household furniture and the different utensils used now, as compared with little more than a century ago, would scarcely be credited by many people, especially when we come to investigate the manner in which our forefathers conducted their family arrangements, both in the style of their dwellings, their household accommodation, their furniture, their dress, or the customs of the people generally.

In England, or speak nearer home, in Cheshire, and nearer still, in our town of Macclesfield, a man of but small fortune may cast his eyes around him, and say with truth and exultation, "I am lodged in a house that affords me conveniences and comforts which even a king could not command some centuries ago." And especially when we come to consider what the historian Smith says in his "Treatise on Cheshire," published in King's Vale Royal, about the end of the sixteenth century, and also Mr. Ormerod in his "Cheshire," vol. 1, pg. 2. What is said generally of the county, we may apply, I have no doubt to this town and neighbourhood, as illustrative of the manners and modes of living at that time.

Smith says, "In building and furniture of their houses, till of late years, they used the old manner of the Saxons. For they had their fire in the midst of the house, against a hob of clay, and their oxen under the same roof; but within these forty years it is altogether altered, so that they have builded chimneys, and furnished other parts of their houses accordingly." Speaking of the people, he says, "They are of a nature very gentle and courteous, and ready to help and further one another;" and alluding to the women, he says, "Likewise be the women very friendly and loving, painful in labour, and in all other kind of housewifery expert, fruitful in bearing children after they be married and some - times before. Touching their housekeeping, it is bountiful, and comparable with any other shire of the realm, and this is to be seen at their weddings and burials, but chiefly at their Wakes."

The change that has come about in the manner of building houses, at different periods, is both instructive and amusing, yet, while luxuriating in our well furnished houses, surrounded with all the luxuries of modern refinement, we have little idea perhaps of the contrast presented by our home life to that of a nobleman or country gentleman in the middle ages. Strange to say, but little regard seems to have been paid to comfortable dwellings, for though good living seems to have been indispensable, and the baronial board groaned under the hospitable cheer, still the lord of the manor was content to live in a roughly furnished abode, and preferred to spend his riches in the equipment of his vassals and in military display in the field, rather than in domestic comforts and the adornment of his castle. Even glass windows were unknown in the twelfth century, and only the common room or hall could boast of a fireplace. Wooden lattices, or shutters and holes in the roof, served for the admittance of air and light; and indeed not until the beginning of the thirteenth century were glass windows introduced, and then only in the upper stories. The houses of the common people were built of wood. Stone was not used in building houses before the reign of Henry VI. The number of rooms appears to have been very limited, or even so late as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the manor house contained only a parlour and entrance - hall, kitchen and offices, with one or two bedrooms above. Larger houses were constructed in the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV.

In the twelfth century, the plan of a house was often in the form of a parallelogram, which enclosed a room on the ground floor, and an upper story approached by a staircase from the outside! The furniture was of the roughest description, consisting merely of wooden tables, which were sometimes fixed, benches and forms, no chairs. These luxuries belong to a later date, and when first used were also immovable! The beds, however, were of the most luxurious nature, the mattresses being covered with rich stuffs, and quilted. Silver goblets, plates, and dishes, graced the houses of the nobility, but in ordinary houses, wooden cups, bowls, and trenchers, alone were to be seen. Later on we find pewter plates, pots, and drinking vessels. Glass, though employed in ecclesiastical, does not appear to have been in general use in domestic architecture until the 13th or 14th centuries. Wood served for housebuilding, until the fire of London, in 1666 warned the builders against the employment of such a combustible material, and stone became substituted for it.

The small number of rooms in a twelfth century house would astonish the nineteenth century reader, there being only one compartment called the hall, in which the master, his servants and followers took their meals and slept! There was seldom more than one private bedroom, in a storey above. The kitchen and offices were generally a kind of out - houses, but sometimes the cooking was done in the open air, and occasionally, later on, we hear of the kitchen being underground, which may be observed in remains of castles and baronial halls of later date.

The country houses of the fourteenth century were on a more extensive scale, wings being added of two stories at each end. A large upper bedroom extended the length and width of the house. The hall was now a more important feature of the building, occupying the centre and entire height of the house. It had a handsome roof of open timber work. The windows were very large and of the same character as some ecclesiastical windows of the present time, with carved mullions and rich canopies of stone. Our readers, will, no doubt, be amazed to hear that the glass, which was not so common as now, was taken out and put away when the family was absent from home, and replaced on their return. The walls of the hall and principal rooms were wainscoted. At the top of the hall was a raised dais, on which the high table stood. Long narrow tables extended down each side of the room. In the fifteenth century the hall underwent a complete change. It ceased to be the common room for master and servants, and consequently shrunk in its proportions, as more attention was now directed to the domestic character of the house. We may here observe that up to this period all such places had been fortified by moats, &c., as we see in many remains of houses of that period, (Old Morton Hall, near Congleton, for instance); but this precaution was now no longer necessary.

And thus we come down to the Tudor style of house - building, which, in Macclesfield, is the earliest we can boast of in domestic architecture, and indeed seems to have been the prevailing style at the time the town began to be more populated, in the early part of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; though it is conjectured that in Chestergate there was formerly some few specimens of an earlier period - Bate Hall, for instance, which is said to have had a projecting or covered way, similar to the Rows of Chester.

And here we may remark the contrast in the arrangement of the streets, they being so very narrow, as seen in some instances at the present day, and which is the distinguishing feature in discerning the more antique parts of the borough.

While we are noticing the narrow streets we must not omit to notice the narrow footpaths, and then consider the discomfort in going out at night, or even in the day time in rainy weather, as it is well known that waterspouts (as now used), were very rare about a century ago; indeed, the construction of the houses during the Tudor period, and a long time after, did not admit of their being used. It is true that later on, or in the Elizabethan period, we find them occasionally adopted, but very rare, only in large erections of that time. They were little thought of, especially in the middle or lower order of houses; consequently, in times of rain you could not walk the streets without being drenched with water from the roofs of the houses as you went along the footpaths, which, as before observed, were very narrow.

To illustrate this, or in other words, to corroborate the inconveniences alluded to even in the present day, let any one of our readers notice the narrow footpaths in what is called Stanley - street (often called Dog - lane), Derby - street (anciently called Barn - street), or King Edward - street (formerly Back - street), on the southern side, they may then form some idea of the general appearance of the streets at the time I allude to, throughout the town; and by observing the few specimens of the Tudor style of houses yet remaining in the streets before alluded to, and also in Chestergate it may be seen that water - spouts as now used could not be affixed to be of much service.

At an earlier period spouts, when first introduced, were after the manner of the gargoyle heads we see sometimes on the towers of some of our old churches. St. Michael's, in our own town, for instance, or Prestbury, Gawsworth, and others, where they were made to project out, and thus throw the water out a distance from the building. So it was with respect to dwellings. It would seem as if their introduction was brought about by a desire to throw off the rain from the entrance door, or from the window looking into the street, be that as it may; spouts as now used are but of modern introduction.

In addition also to the discomforts of that time we must not omit to say that the very convenient appendage to a persons outfit in rainy weather, namely the

UMBRELLA

so common now, was rarely used some seventy years ago, except in the entrance hall of large houses or hotels, and only used then when a visitor arrived or departed in rainy weather, to keep them from being wet as they passed to and fro from their carriages. The coffee - house keepers in London and other places provided in this way for their frequenters, but men at that time disdained to carry such a convenience through the streets. It was held very effeminate indeed to shirk a wetting. "Take that thing away" said Lord Cornwallis to a servant about to hold the house umbrella over him, "I am not sugar or salt in a shower." This originated the expression now used by some Macclesfield people, "Neer mind it, aw amna shugger nur sawt, aw shonna melt."

The umbrella as now used is supposed to be imported from China, though we read of it in name earlier than the date given above, but not used individually, only as a covering for a carriage. From a paper read at the last meeting of the Rosicrucians Society, held in Manchester, on the "Historical Memorials of the Church of Prestbury," we find an entry in the churchwarden's accounts for the year 1745,

Item-Paid for Umbrella for a Carriage £3 00 00

It is hard to imagine the Guards under fire, and using umbrellas at the same time. Such a thing, however, was seen once. During the action at the Mayor's house (a) near Bayonne, in 1813, the Grenadiers, under Colonel Tynling, occupied an unfinished redoubt near the high road. Wellington, happening to ride that way, beheld the officers of the household regiment protecting themselves from the patting rain with their umbrellas. This was too much for the great chief's equanimity, and he instantly sent off Lord A. Hill with the message "Lord Wellington does not approve of the use of umbrellas under fire, and cannot allow the gentlemen's sons to make themselves ridiculous in the eyes of the army.

(a) The word mayor is a word, according to some, derived from the Latin major, greater, in reference to his pre - eminence as a magistrate within his jurisdiction, or, as others affirm, from the British meyr, anciently the honorary distinction of the chief civil officer among the burgesses, from the British word minet, signifying Custodire, to keep and preserve the peace, &c.; whilst the old French title of maire, such as Maire de Palais, one of the ancient great officers of France, offers a more probable and more natural etymology

CHAPTER XVIII.

An expression commonly used by some people of the present day that "you may as well be out of the world as out of the fashion," would almost induce others conversant with the customs of former times to say, "Sooner than use that fashion let me go out of the world!" Of course we naturally expect that the beaus and belles of Macclesfield in those times would not be behind in such matters then no more than they are now, as it could always boast of members of the aristocratic class, who, we may be sure, would attend to this as well as other customs.

Nothing changes so much and so often as the fashion of dress; the greatest absurdities imaginable are practised and have been made use of at different periods to "adorn the human frame divine," from the time when we read of "Adam and Eve sewing fig leaves together to make themselves aprons," to the latest fashions of London and Parisian costume. And if we compare the customs of former times with the manner of adorning their persons at the present, in some instances we are apt to consider them equally as ridiculous now, and which, it must be confessed, are mere caricatures on human nature.

The dress of the English at the present day, especially of the ladies, is fantastical, and provokes severe animadversions from the lovers of the æsthetic; but in the time of Richard II. and Chaucer the most ridiculous modes of dress were in vogue, so that a Canterbury pilgrimage at that time would indeed be thought now a spectacle.

The English beau of the fourteenth century wore long pointed shoes, fastened to his knees by gold or silver chains; a stocking of one colour on one leg and of another colour on the other; a coat with one half white, the other half blue, or some other colour; a silk hood, or bonnet, buttoned under the chin, embroidered with grotesque figures of animals, and sometimes ornamented with gold and precious stones.

The ladies wore high head - dresses, drawn to a peak, or kind of horn shape, and rising an almost incredible height, and gowns with immense long trains. But in the fourteenth century peace and commerce did much to induce increased luxury in dress. In the time of Elizabeth, we gather from "Strutt" that the costume of both sexes were so similar that in many instances it was difficult to discover to which sex the wearer belonged; and even the names of different portions of the habit exhibit, to our eyes, the same kind of confusion.

The author of the "Boke of Kervynge," quoted by Strutt, says to one of the officers of Royalty, "Warm your sovereign his petticoat, his doublet, and his stomacher, and then put on his hose (stockings), and then his shoes or slippers; then straiten up his hose mannerly, and tie them up; then lace his doublet hole by hole, and so on."

The first use of the word petticoat in its present restricted sense is said to be that contained in the following passage from the history of the famous clothier, Jack of Newbury, who lived in the reign of Henry VIII. His wife's maidens, who are employed in spinning, are described as arrayed-

In petticoats of stamel red,

And milk - white kerchiefs on their head,

Their smock - sleeves like to winter's snow

That on the western mountains flow,

And each sleeve with a silken band

Was fairly tied to each hand.

Among all the fashionable absurdities of the female dress in Elizabeth's time, the ruff and wings truly stand out the most conspicuous. The best examples of these novel enormities are to be found in the well - known portraits of the Queen herself. No ordinary skill or preparation was sufficient to produce these edifices of muslin - these fortifications of lace. Up to the second year of her reign holland had been used, and when Elizabeth must have lawn and cam- bric no one could starch or stiffen them. It was a case for extraordinary exertions, and extraordinary exertions were made. Some Dutch women were sent for, who sufficed for a time, and until the advent of a greater artist in clear starching - Mistress Dingham Vauder Plasse, a Fleming, who in 1564 came to London and rose immediately into high reputation. Her lessons were of course expensive - from five pounds (of the money of the sixteenth century) a scholar, and twenty shillings in addition for instruction as to the making of the starch.

Stubbs, who in his "Anatomy of Abuses" attacks every change that does not please his very decided puritanical and imaginative tastes, speaks with amusing severity of "the liquid matter which they call starch," wherein it appears "the devil hath learned them to wash and dive (meaning to dip or starch) their ruffs." The starch it seems was made not only of different grains, as wheat - flour, bran, of roots, and other things, but also of different colours, white, red, blue, and purple. But starch alone was not sufficient - there was also a "certain device made of wires, created for the purpose, and whipped all over either with gold thread, silver, or silk," in ringlets, called an "under - propper." Upon these were erected the "stately arches of pride" - the starched ruff row upon row, till we come to the "master - devil ruff," rich beyond measure in gold, silver, or silk lace, and which sparkled all over with suns, moons, stars, and other devices.

The male fashionables had their prominent absurdity, too - the wide breeches, of which Strutt quotes from the Harlean MSS. the following ludicrous memorandum:-" That over the seats in the Parliament - house there were certain holes, some two inches square, in the walls, in which were placed poles to uphold a scaffold, round about the house within, for them to sit upon who used the wearing of great breeches stuffed with hair, like woolsacks, which fashion being left the eighth year of Elizabeth, the scaffolds were taken down and never since put up." The elegant style of slashing now began to make its appearance. Camden, in his "Remains," tells a pleasant story of a shoemaker of Norwich, named John Drakes, who, in the time of Henry VIII., coming to a tailor's and finding some fine French tawney cloth lying there, which had been sent to be made into a gown for Sir Philip Calthorp, took a fancy to the colour, and ordered the tailor to buy as much of the same stuff for him, and make him a gown of it precisely of the same fashion as the knight's, whatever that might be. Sir Philip arriving some time afterwards to be measured, saw the additional cloth, and enquired who it belonged to. "To John Drakes," replied the tailor, "who will have it made in the self - same fashion as yours is made of." "Well," said the knight, "in good time be it; I will have mine as full of cuts as thy shears can make it." And both garments were finished according to the order. The shoemaker, on receiving his gown slashed almost to shreds, began to swear at the tailor, but received for answer, "I have done nothing but what you. bade me; for, as Sir Philip Calthorp's gown is, even so have I made yours." "By my hatchet," growled the shoemaker, "I will never wear a gentleman's fashion again."- History of British Costume.

In the reign of Edward the flat cap makes its appearance, and gradually descending from grade to grade, became at last extremely popular, if not regularly worn, upon the heads of the bold "prentices" of London. The general dress of that time is preserved for us to our own day in the garb of the Blue - coat boy of Christ's Hospital, London.

Stockings of silk first made their appearance in England about the same time. Their novelty and value are shown very strikingly in the fact that Sir Thomas Gresham made a formal present of a pair to the youthful Edward. Elizabeth's reign witnessed the existence of the first pair of English manufacture, as it did also the manufacture of worsted stockings. "Stow" informs us that William Rider, apprentice to Thomas Burdett, at the foot of London Bridge, saw a pair of knit worsted stockings, at an Italian merchant's that had been brought from Mantua. He immediately borrowed them, made a similar pair (a), and presented them to the Earl of Pembroke. That was the first pair of worsted stockings knit in England.

The next step was the invention of the stocking - frame, connected with which is a somewhat tragical story. The inventor was William Lee, a gentleman and scholar. Tradition attributes the origin of his invention to a pique he had taken against a towns - woman with whom he was in love, and who, it seems, neglected his passion. She got her livelihood by knitting stockings, and with the ungenerous object of depreciating her employment, he constructed this frame, first working at it himself, then teaching his brother and other relatives. He practised his invention some time at Calverton, a village about six miles from Nottingham, and either he or his brother is said to have worked for Queen Elizabeth. - History of British Costume.

The beaus and belles of the eighteenth century thought it better to be original even in the extremest absurdities of costume than to imitate the graceful habits of their forefathers. You can hardly think of an eminent man of that time, but up rises a figure with the imposing periwig, shaking its curls before you; waistcoat descending almost to the knees, and the whole ending with breeches, stockings, and high - lows; indeed, the whole style of the adornments of the nether man were precisely those which, in humbler materials and colours, found favour among our coal - heavers. It is only about a century ago since men from the monarch downwards wore a dress of this kind.

Ladies also about the same time wore patches on their faces explanatory of their politics, and gentlemen made it a point to look like modern beadles, and carried great oaken staves, as tall as themselves, with ugly faces carved upon them. The ladies also carried long staffs, similar to the gentlemen, though of a lighter make, for we find an instance in Lady Jane Stanley, who about this period resided at Brook House, near Knutsford. She was one of those who adhered strictly to the fashions of the time, and had very strict notions of propriety and courtesies of life, and would not have them infringed. It was her custom to walk out in state with a long gold - headed cane, or rather staff in her hand; and she was very tenacious of the right which her noble birth gave her of keeping the wall from whomsoever she met. One day a countryman, who did not know her peculiarity, took the wall from her, and the lofty dame drew herself up, lifted her staff, and with a vigorous blow on the astonished countryman's shoulder, said "Take that, fellow; and remember, whenever you meet a lady, always to give her the wall."

Persons of both sexes at this time walked about with their heads in a style somewhat resembling the lawyers after leaving the flour - bags in one of our popular farces. These and a hundred other fantastic peculiarities, of which we have now not a trace left, have belonged to a time so little removed from our own; and many an aged man now living may have heard his father describe nearly the whole from his own youthful experience.

(a). It was not unusual some time back for men to knit by the hand as well as woman.

CHAPTER XIX.

Amongst other antiquated things, that have given way to the many improvements, and inventions of modern times, and which in their day, were an indispensible article of household use, and formerly occupied a prominent position even in the building of a house, we may not omit to notice, the old - fashioned

TINDER BOX AND BRIMSTONE MATCH,

which were used by many of the old farmers and country people, for some time after they were dispensed with in towns, owing to their dread of accidents about their farms and cottages.

It was customary in the erection of many of the houses of about some two centuries ago and later, to leave a vacancy, or niche in the wall, near to the fireplace, which was afterwards fitted - up as a repository for the tinder - box and matches, to keep them dry. We have an example of one of these even at the present day, in Macclesfield, in the shop occupied by Mr. Lovett, hairdresser, in Chestergate, which was originally one of these old style of houses but lately it has been modernized by the introduction of a new front, yet still retains the old locker for the tinder - box, in its original position in the wall, fitted up with a strong and well carved oaken door and framework.

The tinder - box and matches were, until about some fifty years ago - and some time after the last thing to be attended to before retiring to rest for the night. The wife, or servant, must see that the tinder was dry, and the box covered with a close lid to keep out the damp, and in another compartment of the box was kept a piece of flint and steel, and the brimstone matches ready for use in the morning, as they were the first thing to find before they could obtain a light. Many were the disturbances that took place in the family - before prayers - if the servant, or wife, or husband, had neglected to look after it, in which case Mrs. Caudle was ready with a curtain lecture, thus causing one or both to give vent to rather uncouth expressions, anything but scriptural if that had been neglected.

If, after repeated strikes with the flint and steel, the sparks ignited the tinder, a match was then taken out of a bunch - which bunch would be large enough to light a fire at the present day - and touching the tinder very cautiously with one end of the brimstone match, the light was instantly transferred to the candle. In case of failure they had to grope their way down stairs, and then you might have seen the servant girl, or others, going the round of the neighbourhood to obtain a light in the lantern, or procure the loan of a tinder - box.

As an illustration of one of the many family feuds arising from neglect of the proper precautions to keep the tinder dry, we might imagine the following colloquy to take place, after the husband had tried a long time, and could not obtain a light.

Husband: "Neaw aw thow't tha tow'd me tha dreigh'd th' tinda, last neet, aw dunna think theaw did;" to which the wife would reply, ' Yaw bor aw did; did' tna see mi put it on'th hob afore we coom' t bed." "Well," says he, " aw conna ger it t'leet neaw, so heaw aw try." Then she replies, "It's gone damp ith neet." Here the child begins to cry, and the woman arouses herself to quiet it; In the meanwhile, the husband is getting impatient with tinkle, tinkle, tinkle at the flint and steel, till his hands are tired; the child continues its cry, and the mother is doing her best to make it peaceable, and the man's patience is almost exhausted, and muttering anything but his prayers - indeed as he is not out of bed, but merely sat up, this cannot be expected - however, to complete the first act of the drama, as he sits striking the flint and steel, to obtain a light, which causes a strain on the bedding. All of a sudden, as if to make confusion worse confounded, a crash is heard, the bed - lacing has broke, and instead of being in an horizontal position, they find themselves, as it were, standing up in bed. "Theer," she says, "tha'has dun it neaw?" However, as he must obtain a light, he tries again, and after a time a spark ignites the tinder, but before he has got a match ready it goes out again, which causes him to break out again in anything but loving expressions, whilst she, poor thing, dares scarcely speak, and he is afraid of being late at his work; but no matter, he tries again, and at last succeeds, perhaps, not before many unpleasant words have past between them, and he hurries off to his work, leaving the candle lighted, and by the time he comes to his breakfast, all is made right again.

At this time, the trade of Brimstone Matches was as brisk as is now the Lucifer, the Congreve, or the Fusee. No doubt some of our elder townspeople may remember " Old William," that regularly made the tour from Macclesfield to Birmingham through Tamworth, where the writer has seen him plying his trade, in the disposal of Brimstone Matches, which if offered for sale now - a - days, would excite a smile, or perhaps a frown, on the countenance of the person to whom they might be offered, but which, at that time, could not be dispensed with.

The person we allude to, made his regular stages from town to town or village, as he went along, carrying his implements for manufacture with him, which consisted of a sharp knife, with which he cut up his wood, in strips, about five or Six inches long. These he tied up in bundles, and dipped both ends in a tin containing liquified brimstone, after which when he had prepared his stock in trade, he sallied forth into the outer world, and soon you might have heard him singing his ditty, in a sort of nasal, or street slang way.

Come buy my fine Match - ches, come buy them of mee,

They are the best Match - ches that iver you see - e,

For lighting your candles, or kindling your fie - ear,

They are the best Match - ches that you can desieur.

Another invention for eliminating light, but more modern and convenient, was used by some of the upper classes called a "Match - lock." It was in form something like a pistol, but instead of a powder pan, there was a cavity to contain tinder; one side of the flint - lock opened and contained a receptacle for brimstone matches, and to the other side was attached a small candlestick. It was generally kept ready on the dressing table at night, so that it could be conveniently taken up in the hand, and used in a similar way as a pistol, the action of which ignited the tinder - provided it was dry - from which a light was obtained by touching it with one end of the brimstone match, and transferred to the candle. A specimen of one of these old Match - locks - in good preservation - is now in the possession of Mr. William Foden, of Beech - lane, Macclesfield.

We may not omit to notice here another custom formerly practised by the good housewives, and servants in Macclesfield, in almost all classes of society, about some fifty years ago, or prior to the introduction of that useful appendage to house furniture, namely, the Door Mat. The custom observed at the time we speak of, was that of

SANDING THE FLOOR

after cleaning it, in various patterns and devices, sometimes with white, and other times red, and in many instances both colours were used. This was usually done with what was called sand - seive or tundish, and sometimes with the hand. In these different ways they marked the floor according to the whim of the cleaner, or the mistress of the house directed, some one pattern and some another. And on entering almost any dwelling, either a public - house or private residence, just inside the doorway you would have found a heap of sand laid with which you were expected to rub or clean your shoes before taking a seat.

A similar practice was observed in Staffordshire, where they use chiefly red brick for the floor, a heap of crushed bricks were laid in it some way inside the door place, and the same practice was followed here in instances where the floor was laid with red bricks; this, as before observed, was prior to the introduction of door - mats.

On Tuesdays and Friday mornings at that time you might have observed long trains of carts, coming into the town from Biddulph - Biddle moor as it was called - and other places, with white and others with red sand, and as they traversed the streets, calling out "Lely whoi," or "Red Sand." The people would come to the door provided with small barrels or baskets to obtain a supply for the week. And then it was pleasant to see the floor nicely cleaned, and the red or white sand scattered, or so disposed as to form stars, or hearts, and flowers and true love knots, as it were growing by enchantment out of the ground, and enduring, alas! how brief a time! - the work just finished with so much pains and also with pleasing intentions has been spoiled in an instant by a rude visitor, or perhaps the children of the house carelessly running in, and in the innocence of wrong defacing in a short time what has cost the mother so much trouble and perhaps if the mother's temper should get the better of her love, she would exclaim, after boxing their ears, "Neaw then dun yo see what a mess yone made o'th heause; as soon as auve cleon't it. Aw'l may yo mind."

This brings us to notice the dialect of the people, which, although a deal may be noticed even now, is not so common as it was, for, leaving out the education of the classes, the introduction of railways has helped in a great measure to dispense with a great part of it, by the inter - communion of so many varieties of speech or dialects of the neighbouring counties, which, although in many instances has not much improved, has so mixed the address of most of the townspeople, except the lower orders, and even with them, there is a marked difference to what formerly prevailed.

The dialect in Cheshire closely resembles that of the southern parts of Lancashire, except that towards the centre of the county; it is marked by a broader and harsher drawl, and has certainly fewer of original words of northern etymology. The chief distinction in the dialects of the two counties are, viz., in the former county, Cheshire, the hou or house is pronounced ayese, very hard, as in the adverb aye, being aye - ce. In Lancashire the same is pronounced heawse, the hou being pronounced heaw. The same difference occurs in cow, now, how, &C In some places cows are called keigh or keye, whereas they are keaw's in Lancashire; in pronouncing calves, kawves, they both agree; so in head, yed; hand, hond; pretty, pratty; belly, bally; rightly gradeley, reet; water, wayter; father, feyther, &c., &c.

The following short dialogue between a farmer's servant - maid, a native of Cheshire, and a young man, her fellow - servant, but a native of Lancashire, will more particularly illustrate the distinction which exists, and also the very considerable distance each particular dialect appears to be from the present English language.

All these provincialisms and remains of antiquity are fast hastening to oblivion; education will eventually destroy the ancient distinctive character in the dialects and habits of the two counties, and all who have seen or observed that a considerable degree of archness, or rustic wit prevails amongst the labouring classes in Cheshire and Lancashire and the adjoining counties, seldom continuing their conversation long without some joking or quizzing, rela- tive to courtship or marriage.

DIALOGUE.

Servant-maid: Hey, hey, Dick, wheere art a gooink e sitch a hurry, wot, connot thee stop a minnit, Aye yone bin aye't oth hayce aw neet cooartin Meg Midgleg aw con see bih yor een.

Servant-man: Neaw, I anno bin eawt oth heawse afore neaw - awm gooink after th' keaws an kawves that an brocken into eawr measter's kurn - feelt. Theaw may cut mi yed off if e ha put mi hont on Peg O Midgley sin aw clipt thee.

Servant-maid: That lung sin - aw seen a better mon than thee - thugh thinks Megg's feyther has keigh and kawves, so thee shannot tutch me ogen - go after the keigh.

Their customs at Easter, Christmas and Wakes very nearly resemble each other, exhibiting much of the Saxon character, notwithstanding the great Norman influence which for ages existed, especially in the county of Chester.

CHAPTER XX.

Amongst other customs, formerly much practised in this neighbourhood - as also other parts of Cheshire - now almost obsolete, is that of

GOING A SOULING.

This is one of very ancient origin, yet scarcely any that practice it, could tell you the reason why, only that it is a custom. It is one that may be referred back to Catholic times. In the year 1574, we find a witness testifying in a law document, relating to a castle of Earl Warren's, that in her childhood she had gathered soul - cakes there on All - Souls' Day.

Souling is, indeed, not only a remnant of the old custom of praying for the dead, but of the still more ancient practice to be traced back to the time of the Jewish people, when women made cakes for the worship of the queen of heaven; and we might even go back to a still higher antiquity in Egypt when the sacred bun, or holy bread, made of honey and fine flour was offered in the heathen temples.

The custom of going a Souling is not confined to Cheshire alone, for in various counties, the peasant girls and boys, used formerly to go round to the farmhouses singing-

Soul, soul, for a soul cake,

Pray you good mistress a soul cake.

There is another old rhyme or saying, "A soule - cake a soule - cake, have mercy on all Christian soule's for a soule cake." The rhyme generally sung by the young people was, (or is now occasionally) " A soule - cake, a soule - cake, pray good dame, and a soule - cake, and we'll never come a souling till another year."

The Soulers' song, as given in Brand's "Popular Antiquities" will no doubt be interesting to our readers, they are certainly very antique, and also similar to the ditty of our young folks in Macclesfield. They seem to have been taken down verbatim from the lips of the merry pack, who sing them from door to door, on the eve of All - Soul's Day, in Cheshire.

THE SOULER'S SONG.

"Soul day, soul day, Saul

One for Peter, two for Paul,

Three for Him who made us all.

An apple, a pear, a plum or a cherry,

Any good thing that will make us all merry.

Put your hand in your pocket and pull out your keys,

Go down into the cellar, bring up what you please;

A glass of your wine, or a cup of your beer,

And we'll never come souling till this time next year.

We are a pack of merry boys, all in a mind,

We are come a souling for what we can find,

Soul, soul, sole of my shoe,

If you have no apples, money will do;

Up with your kettle and down with your pan,

Give us an answer and let us be gone,

Halloween in Scotland, is humourously described by Burns in the same kind of rustic festival, with our Cheshire Souling Day, he ends his description with the lines:-

"Wi merry sangs, an' freindly cracks,

I wot, they did not weary;

An' unco tales, an' funny jokes,

Their sports were cheap and cheery.

Till butter'd so'ns* wi fragant lunt,*

Set a' their gabs a - steerin,

Syne wi a social glass o' strunt*

They parted off careerin!

Fu blithe that night."

*Sounes, a dish of oatmeal boiled to make an agreeable pudding; lunt, smoke; *strunt, spirits- whiskey.

In some parts of England (see Brand 1-377) the Souling Customs have nuts connected with them, and All - Souls Eve, is then named Nut - crack night. Nuts are thrown into the fire by sweethearts and their swains, to learn something of the course of true love, by the way in which the nuts burn or burst. This last custom is beautifully described by

Gay in his "Spell."

Two hazel nuts, I throw into the flame,

And to each nut I give a sweetheart's name;

This with the loudest bounce me sore amaz'd,

That in flame of brightest colour blaz'd,

As blazed the nuts so may thy passion grow,

For t'was thy nut that did so brightly glow!

The Solomons of our enlightened nineteenth century, doubtless will lift up their hands and exclaim, "What; exceedingly silly customs these are!" And silly in truth they would be, did they not tend innocently to lighten the cares that press upon young hearts, and to give them at least some moments of merriment. In this respect they are not simply harmless; they inspire a cheerful spirit, and that we are assured "maketh a continual feast."

Yea - let the proud disdain

The simple pleasures of the lowly train,

To me, more dear, congenial to my heart,

One native charm, than all the gloss of art.

Goldsmith

In a short review of this description, we might allude to a many other things, quite in character with the subject, to illustrate, or in other words to pourtray to the minds of the young people of this day, the many advantages they possess, which the youth of other days were utter strangers to. We might here remind the boys and girls of today that if they had been living then, they would not be so nicely accomodated at school in the matter of copy books, as now. The regular mode of learning to write then, was by tracing the letters in fine sand, which was put in flat cases of wood, and shook until the sand was of one even surface, and then the letters were formed by the tutor with his finger, and the pupil was taught to trace them with his finger, until he had acquired a proper mode of forming the letters. After a time, when he was considered proficient in that, he was allowed to use a copy book, which was a very course white paper, the price of which was sixpence, one as good may be had now for a penny.

Contrast also the hours of work in the factories and other departments of trade now, with the custom only about fifty or even forty years ago, when on a cold frosty morning in midwinter, the bells of the various mills, both in the cotton and also the silk departments, might be heard all over the town, summoning the workpeople of all ages from the poor child of six years of age, to the decrepid old man, to their different occupations, as early as five o'clock in the morning, to grope their way through the dark streets, not by the light of gas, as now, but only a few oil lamps here and there, few and far between; and let it be borne in mind, that this was not for the limited period of ten hours, but in many cases, - especially in the cotton mills - the hours of work were from five in the morning to eight and sometimes nine o'clock at night, and only allowed half an hour for the breakfast time, and the same time for what was called their baggin time, one hour being allowed for the dinner meal; and so urgent were they pressed to work, that in many of the cotton mills, a double quantity of hands were engaged, one set of workers being employed from five in the morning to eight o'clock at night, when another set of hands came on and worked in their place until five the next morning. And let it be known to the youth of the present day, that if they could get a good pair of clogs to go to their work in all the year round - winter and summer, it was all very well. No taking their walks in the park then, after leaving off work, and if they could only get treacle bucks (as they were called) enough, and plenty of meal porridge, they were (if not content) glad if they got sufficient of that. It is true provisions were cheaper then, but what of that when they worked for so little wages.

We find from Corry's "History of Macclesfield," that "In the year 1776 the wages paid to the mill- men and stewards was seven shillings per week, that of women employed as doublers three shillings and sixpence." Query: "How much could our girls spare out of that for dress? "Children employed in the silk mills were hired - at the age of six years - for three years, at the rate of sixpence per week for the first year, ninepence for the second, and one shilling for the third.

The market price for butter was then fourpence per pound; best cheese twopence halfpenny, and prime beef twopence. Mutton and veal were then bought by the joint, brown bread was sold for five farthings per pound, and fine flour at one shilling the peck of eight pounds weight. Milk was sold at one penny per quart.

Until the beginning of the present century, tea and coffee were special luxuries, rarely introduced only at the tables of the higher classes. In the domestic expenditure of a respectable family, where a household book was regularly kept, there is, for the first time, a charge of ten shillings in the year 1702 for luxuries.

In 1785 some Lancashire gentlemen came to Macclesfield and erected a manufactory for spinning cotton, on the banks of the Bollin (the building was burnt down a few years ago), in the part of the town called "the Waters." And the business, it seems, was carried on for some time with locked doors, and the workmen were sworn to secrecy. No person unconnected with the works was admitted; only women were permitted to gratify their curiosity with a view of the cotton spinning process, and, as the cotton manufacturer gave higher wages than the silk throwster could afford, the consequence was, a large number of the people left the silk for the cotton. To counteract this, the silk throwsters had to advance their wages, and in a short time the millmen employed in the silk mills were paid about sixteen shillings a week, on an average the doublers from eight and sixpence to ten shillings, and children 2s. 6d., 3s., 4s., and 5s. per week, according to their dexterity.

THE FIRST SILK MILL

for the manufacture of silk, it appears, was begun by the Messrs. Legh and Voce, in Back street, (now called King Edward - street), in the year 1790. Their success induced others to embark in the business; in particular, we may here mention the brothers George and James Pearson. Their success seems to have originated from the defection of one Margaret Moburn from her employers, the Messrs. Legh and Voce; she was a skilful warper and communicated the secret to James Pearson, with whom she lived several years. Other manufacturers employed weavers, and thus the broad silk trade became the staple trade of Macclesfield.

In the early part of the present century, the diet of the people here appears to have been what would be considered in the present day very low fare in- deed, for we find that in most families the breakfast consisted of water porridge, made of oatmeal, water, and a little salt, boiled thick, and poured into a large pan or dish. According to the number for break - fast, a tin can, or basin of milk, was placed round the table, for each person. The master, as well as the apprentices, or other members of the family, each one being supplied with a wooden spoon in their hands, which without loss of time they dipped into the large dish in the centre of the table, and then into their milk - can, consequently those that could bolt it hot got the most. Sometimes treacle was substituted for milk, and as soon as the repast was finished, they all returned to their work. A primitive breakfast this, truly, and partaken in a manner strikingly at variance with the usages of modern times.

So late as the sixteenth century, wheaten bread in this county was a luxury reserved for the rich; the bread which was eaten by the labourers being of the coarsest kind. Moryson, who wrote in Elizabeth's time, remarks that "The English husbandman ate barley and rye brown bread, and preferred it to white bread, as abiding longer on the stomach, but citizens and gentlemen eat pure white bread." "Of brown bread," says Harrison, "there are two sorts - one baked as it cometh from the mill, so that neither the bran nor the flour are any way diminished; the other hath little or no flour left therein at all, and it is not only the worst and weakest of all the sorts, but also appointed in olden times for servants, slaves, and inferior kinds of people to feed on." The common bread corn in the time of Charles I. was barley.

Regarding the health and diet of the people of Cheshire, we may notice what Smith says in his "Vale Royal." He says, "The ayr is very whole - some, in so much that the people of the country are seldom infected with Diseases or Sickness, neither do they use the help of the Physicians, nothing so much as in other countries; For when any of them are sick, they make him a posset, and tye a kerchief on his head; and if that will not amend him, then God be merciful to him!" He says, "The people there live till they be very old; some are Grand- fathers, their Fathers yet living, and some are Grandfathers before they be married."

As an instance of the longevity of some even in our own day, and in our own town, we have a noted example in the person of Hannah Reed, now a resident in one of the Almshouses, in Cumberland - street, Macclesfield, who, as appears by her baptismal register, will reach the extreme age of 103 years on March 25th, 1874.

In concluding this chapter, we may observe that as the town advanced in prosperity, the domestic habits and local usages did not fail to improve accordingly, and people became more particular in their manner of adorning their houses and persons. We notice this particularly with regard to an old custom formerly practised. On entering almost any house of the operative, and indeed many of the middle classes of that time, you would have observed sus- pended from the ceiling of the kitchen a large open frame of wood, interlaced from all points with a net - work of cord, called an "oatcake rack," on which were spread the oatcakes used by the family, which were reached down as required for use. This has now given way to the sanitary ideas of the present generation, and is now rarely met with, except in a few of the country places in the neighbourhood.

The times and things have changed since then,

They that were children, now are gray - haired men,

And let us hope the youth of this our day,

May pass their time more pleasantly away.

CHAPTER XXI.

FUNERAL CUSTOMS.

* * * * Mark those mounds

Upon the hills - the sheep's green pasturage;

The Roman soldiers raised them o'er their chief

And comrades battle slain. Far different now

The last sad tribute o'er the village dead;

In kindred arms they sink to rest;

By kindred hands their dying eyes are closed,

By kindred hands their bier is slowly borne,

By kindred hands the rosemary is thrown.

The custom of distributing sprigs of rosemary to friends, previous to the funeral procession leaving a house, and which were usually thrown into the grave, on the coffin, at the conclusion of the funeral ceremony, was formerly practised by both the higher and lower orders of society; but of late years, it has gradually gone out - shall we say, of the fashion and is now all but obsolete. Whether this has been brought about by the scarcity of the flower, or an old custom died out, is a question; at any rate, we rarely see it practised now, save in some few country places.

Among the beautiful and simple - hearted customs of olden times which still linger in some parts of England, are those of strewing flowers before the funeral and planting them over the graves of departed friends. This custom is of very ancient origin, and we find it much practised in different foreign countries. Of late years it has been again revived amongst us, and would have been practised more so - in fact, was, until Public Cemeteries and Burial Boards came into existence, when it was made all but impossible for the poor to pay such respect to their departed kindred, as they are compelled by their poverty to lay their dead in places, where after burial they cannot make any distinguishing mark to recognise the spot where their loved ones are laid. No mark is allowed to be made, nor even a flower to be planted to denote the place where they have laid them. This is a most cruel hardship, and one that is severely felt, thus reminding us of the lines in "The Pauper's Grave"-

There's a grim horse hearse, in a jolly round trot,

To the churchyard a pauper is going, I wot;

The road it is rough, and the hearse has no springs,

And hark to the dirge the sad driver sings-

"Rattle his bones over the stones,

He's only a pauper whom nobody owns."

Pity 'tis true, but true it is; and this being the case, it is but right and just there should be some little token of respect allowed to the poor in this matter, as they have as much regard, and would fain shew their respect to a departed relative, equally as much as those who can afford to erect unmeaning obelisks and figures in marble and stone.

The custom of strewing flowers over the graves of departed friends, is supposed to be the remains of some of the rites of the primitive Christians; but they are even of still higher antiquity, having been observed among both the Greeks and the Romans, and frequently mentioned by their writers, and were, no doubt, the spontaneous tributes of unlettered affection, originating long before art had tasked itself to modulate sorrow into song, or story it on the monument.

It has been a question frequently disputed among the learned, as to whether the Greeks were accustomed to bury their dead, or to burn them; but both customs seem to have prevailed, and coffins, in the modern sense, were no doubt, known in Greece. They were called by various names (soroi, pueloi, &c.), and they appear to have been composed of various materials, the most common being baked clay or earthenware. Their forms also varied, sometimes resembling those which we use, sometimes consisting of a narrow triangular box, the undermost side being considerably broader than the others, In Rome, the ancient practice was to bury the dead, not to burn them; though under the empire, and previous to the recognition of Christianity, the latter custom became almost universal. The coffin in Rome was called arca or loculos, and was frequently made of stone, sometimes of a peculiar kind of stone brought from Assos in Troas, which was said to consume all the body except the teeth in forty days, and which from this circumstance was called sarcophagus - an eater of flesh. Many Roman stone coffins, as also coffins of British and Celtic construction; have been found in this country, a few even in our own immediate neighbourhood have been brought to light by the indefatigable exertions of our respected townsman, Dr. Sainter, who has himself discovered several.

The simplest of all coffins appears to be those used by the British Celts and other rude nations, consisting of unhewn stones set on their edges, so as to cover the sides and end of the grave, one or more flat stones being then laid over the body to form a lid.

To these succeeded stone coffins, which were commonly used for persons of the higher classes, in Saxon times and throughout the whole of the middle ages.

From Bede, however, we learn that the Saxons occasionally employed wood, and the common people both then and in the subsequent Norman and English eras were simply wrapped in cloth, and so put into the ground. The same custom seems to have been followed with monks and other religious bodies down to a comparatively recent period.

Stone coffins were generally of a single block, commonly tapering from the upper end. In the hollow for the reception of the body, there was generally a part peculiarly fitted for the head, and a hole in the bottom to allow of the juices of the decaying body to escape. In stone coffins wherein were deposited the remains of an ecclesiastic or a bishop, we find in the portion hollowed out for the head there was a wider space left on the left side, so as to allow for the reception of a chalice, or, in that of a bishop. the crook - head, or pastoral staff, which, in some instances, were deposited along with the body.

These coffins, for the most part, were not buried deeply in the earth, and were frequently placed so near the surface that the lids were left visible, which within a church or a cathedral, often formed part of the pavement. Sometimes they were even above the ground altogether, and thus became the originals of altar - tombs. The lids of these stone coffins were often covered with elaborate sculpture, representing crosses and other ornaments, which, in many instances, were the cause of their desecration and demolition in the puritanical times in this country. We frequently meet with these stone coffins in out - of - the - way places about our old churches. Sometimes we find them used as water - troughs in some instances they are built into a wall, or laid outside a church - after having been robbed of their contents - to be observed by the curious; but we rarely meet with the lids or coverings, they having been destroyed or broken to pieces.

Leaden coffins were occasionally used in the middle ages, as those recently brought to light in the Temple Church, in London, and other places, testify; but the slight wooden cases now in common use appear to be of comparatively recent origin.

From the time when the Apostles first gave themselves the name of Christians in Jerusalem, or from the time when the early Christians met in the Catacombs of Rome, down to the present day, it has ever been the chief thought, next to the preparation for death, as to how their bodies shall be disposed of when the spirit has departed. The resting place of Christians have ever by reflecting minds been treated with the greatest respect, and few there are but what in their reflective moments will express some particular desire as to where their bodies shall rest. The spot of earth, also, where they have been interred has generally been marked in some manner so that survivors or future generations shall be able to point out to others where such or such an one's body rests.

From the greatest potentate, emperor, or king, that has ever ruled, down to the lowliest member of society, this feeling has been universally prevalent. Some have erected splendid mausoleums of marble and stone; others have scooped out holes and cavities in rocks, as in the Catacombs of Rome, Paris, and other places. In other parts a large tract of land has been set apart for the interment of the dead; these have generally been denominated cemeteries, but each and all, from the king to the peasant, are anxious that some memento or mark shall denote where they are laid.

This feeling is in a particular manner evinced by the survivors, the relatives or friends of the departed, who, in proportion as they have loved or respected them, wish to shew it by some token that the feeling is sincere.

Since the time the Christian faith was first preached in England, the monuments of the dead have been of various kinds, styles, or designs, in different ages. Some of the higher orders, such as kings or ecclesiastics of the first grade, were frequently most elaborate. In the earlier times they were chiefly buried in graves. In later times, when stone coffins were introduced in the Saxon age, they were not laid so deep. In other eases, the graves or place of interment were surmounted with costly erections; these were called tombs or vaults. In others a headstone sufficed; but even the grave of the peasant had generally some mark upon it, if it was only a cross of stone, or even wood, with the initials of the departed inscribed upon it.

This was invariably the case in the Anglo - Saxon age. On coming into this world a helpless babe, he was signed with the cross in his baptism, and in his death - grasp he clenched the emblem of his redemption, as he yielded his soul back again to its Maker's doom; and that same symbol of his belief whilst here, and of his hope for the hereafter of salvation, through Christ crucified, was afterwards upreared upon the spot of hallowed ground at his burial, and thus threw its holy shadow over his grave.

In many of our old parish churches, or even in those of Prestbury, Gawsworth, and others in our own immediate neighbourhood, some of our readers may have observed on the south side of the chancel a low narrow door; this was the case originally in old St. Michael's in this town. In some instances these doorways are now built up, and perhaps, on noticing this, the thought may have come across their minds, "What is the meaning or use of this door when the vestry is on the opposite side of the chancel?" The reason and use is supposed to be this - In ancient times, when a burial took place, and whilst the choir and others in the church were reciting what were called the "Commendatory prayers for the deceased," the priest, vested in his alb and stole, went out through this door into the churchyard, where he first made the sign of the cross over the intended grave, then sprinkled with holy water the particular spot where the dead person was to be buried, afterwards with a spade he shewed the length and breadth of the grave by digging the shape of a cross upon the ground, in the meanwhile saying aloud those words of the psalmist, "Open ye to me the gates of justice" &c., after which he returned into the church again and finished the service there. Then the people came in procession into the church - yard bringing the corpse, and the priest, standing at the head of the grave, proceeded with the burial service to the end.

The vitality of old customs is something wonderful - they survive for generations long after their origin and use have been lost in the mists of time. And what perhaps is equally surprising, they are handed down to an uninquiring but appreciative posterity without much aid from history or chronology. The boy who whips his top or plays at marbles little dreams that Greek and Roman boys did the same thing 3,000 years ago, and the Irish Celt who holds a "wake" over the body of a deceased relative or friend, scarcely imagines that he is perpetuating a ceremony which his remote ancestors in a far distant eastern land, who practised cremation, associated with a solemn religious festival. Many of our funeral rites, as well as some of our observances at marriages, are heirlooms from the extremely distant past.

A churchyard, or an old church, similar to our own St. Michael's, wherein are deposited the dust of so many illustrious dead, is, to the contemplative mind, a school of instruction. It is not always an easy task to analyse feelings, or trace the emotions we experience to their source; but surely it is not possible to approach a place dedicated to the moral and religious improvement of the living, and which is the sacred repository of the dead, without associations and impressions calculated to elevate the mind and improve the heart. The lessons of mortality taught by the silent monitors that crowd these hallowed receptacles, and the conviction that we hold our dearest enjoyments by a frail and uncertain tenure, come forcibly upon the heart which is softened to receive instruction, by the contemplation of our common home, where so many of our fore - fathers and relatives rest in peace together, who, perhaps, by their little feuds once agitated and disturbed each other; and our feelings become exalted, as the mind, dwelling on what we are, and on that event which connects time with eternity, think on what we MAY BE.

The uncouth tribute of respect paid to the departed and the humble memorials of their virtues, which abound in a country churchyard, or in many of our old parish churches in towns, however offensive to good taste, frequently excites our sympathy. They are the records of affection, and that heart must be cold indeed that can seriously condemn these lowly offerings of the Muse, even though the whimsical absurdities by which they are occasionally marked, may sometimes produce a feeling not altogether in unison with the solemnity of these homes of the departed-

Their names, their years, spelt by th' unlettered muse,

The place of Fame and Elegy supply,

And many a holy text around she strews,

That teach the rustic moralist to die."

There was a most delicate and beautiful rite observed in some remote villages, both in this county and also in Derbyshire, at the funeral of a female who had died young. A chaplet of flowers was borne before the corpse by a young girl, nearest in age, size, and resemblance, which chaplet was afterwards hung up over the accustomed seat in the church.

There was also formerly a solemn respect paid by the traveller or other people to a passing funeral which we scarcely ever see practised now. As the mourning cortege approached, people paused and uncovered whilst it passed by, and then frequently followed silently in the rear, sometimes to the grave, at other times a few hundred yards, and having paid this tribute of respect to the deceased, turned and resumed their journey.

The rich vein of melancholy which runs through the English character and gives it some of its most touching and ennobling graces, is finely evidenced in their pathetic customs, and in the solicitude shown by the common people for an honoured and a peaceful grave; in fact, we may say this wish is universal, for death must come both to rich and poor-

This world's a city full of crooked streets,

And death at every corner man he meets;

If health like merchandise a man could buy,

The rich might live, the poor must die.

The humblest peasant, whatever may be his lonely lot, while living, is anxious that some little respect may be paid to his remains; his few wants in other respects are not many, he has toiled for his daily wants, and they being supplied, he is satisfied - not like another, who has accumulated riches, and, dissatisfied at the last, causes to be inscribed on his tombstone-

I've left a world in which

I had a world to do;

Toiling and sweating to be rich-

Just such a fool as you!

The custom of decorating graves was once universally prevalent, and it is pleasing to see so ancient a custom again revived amongst us, for there is certainly something more affecting in these prompt and spontaneous offerings of nature than in the most costly ornaments of art the hand strews the flowers while the heart is warm, and the tear falls on the grave as affection is binding the osier round the sod, but pathos expires under the slow labour of the chisel and is chilled among the cold conceits of sculptured marble.

It is greatly to be regretted that customs so truly eloquent and touching have almost disappeared from general use, and only exist now in the most remote and insignificant villages; but it would seem as if poetical customs always shuns the walks of so - called cultivated society - in proportion as people grow polite we often find they cease to be poetical. They talk of poetry, but somehow they have learned to check its free impulses, to distrust its sallying emotions, and to supply its most affecting and picturesque usages by studied forms and pompous ceremonial.

Few pageants can be more stately and frigid than an English funeral in town. It is made up of show and gloomy parade - mourning carriages, mourning horses, mourning plumes, and hireling mourners, who make a mockery of grief. "There is a grave digged," says Jeremy Taylor, "and a solemn mourning, and a great talk in the neighbourhood, and when the daies are finished they shall be remembered no more."

But still with some it is not so - they love to imagine fond ideas respecting the loved ones gone before, and with a little stretch of the imagination we might join with them in repeating:-

Forget not the dead, who have loved, who have left us,

Who bend o'er us now from their bright homes above;

But believe, never doubt, that the God who bereft us

Permits them to mingle with friends they still love.

Repeat their fond words, all their noble deeds cherish,

Speak pleasantly of them who left us in tears;

From our lips their dear name's other joys should not perish,

While time bears our feet through this valley of tears.

Yea, forget not the dead, who are evermore nigh us,

Still floating sometimes round our dream - haunted bed,

In the loneliest hour, in the crowd they are by us,

Forget not the dead Oh, forget not the dead!

Among the funeral customs more hastily noticed by Mr. Brand in his "Popular Antiquities," is that of a corpse being carried to burial upon the shoulders of friends.

Quoting Durand upon the subject of the pall, he says, "The same writer informs us, in many quotations from the ancient Christian writers, that those of the highest orders of the clergy thought it no reproach to their dignity in ancient times to carry the bier, and that at the funeral of Paula bishops were what in modern language we call under - bearers."

This practice is directed by one of the Canons of the Toletan Council - deacons were to carry deacons, and priests to carry priests. Women, however, were never allowed to act as under - bearers.

It has been suggested that this practice had its origin in what is said in the Acts of the Apostles that "devout men carried Stephen to his burial, and made great lamentation over him;" but Dr. Zouch says the custom was derived from the Jews.

An old English historian, Gervase of Canterbury, assures us that in Normandy, Stephen, Earl of Blois, afterwards King of England, assisted as a bearer to the body of King Henry I., and William of Malmesbury, noticing the bringing of that king's corpse to Rouen, says that "nobles of the highest rank carried it by turns."

Sir Jonas Barrington mentions in his memoirs that his father was carried to the grave on the shoulders of his four sons as a last mark of their affection.

Other examples of this custom may doubtless be found by a diligent enquirer; indeed, it is well known that this was a custom much practised in Macclesfield formerly. The instances here cited are, at all events, sufficient to shew the practice of it, both in England and elsewhere, at different and distant periods. It seems to have been most used by the clergy, and occasionally by laymen. In later times bearing the pall appears to have been its substitute.

We might dilate on such matters to an extreme, but we are reminded that we too must expect to follow those gone before, for-

Owd time is a troublesome codger,

Keeps nudging us on to decay,

Crying out, " You're nobbut a lodger,

Get ready for going away."

In a town like Macclesfield the associations of the people, connected with the various churches and chapels, have been so strong that it is not without a pang many of the inhabitants are compelled to take their dead into strange grounds, which, although consecrated or set apart in a similar manner to the grounds attached to their respective creeds, they do not feel that attachment they did to the old familiar places; and the many annoyances and great expenses attending the new regulations induces anything but the kindly feelings that existed prior to the present regime. Many who had expected to be laid at death with their own relations in family graves feel this inconvenience very much. But this fast age in which we live leaves nothing unturned, and associations, political or religious, whether connected with the living or the dead, that have been going on for ages, must give way to the revolutionary ideas of the present day in the case of the dead as well as other things; but the attachment of the people to the old places will linger a long time round what are considered hallowed spots to those who have a tender regard for the honoured dead, who rest in the old vaults and graves in the various burial - places in Macclesfield.

ADDENDA.

In concluding my remarks on these matters, I would wish to correct an error made on a former occasion in respect of the ancient brass in Archbishop Savage's Chapel, Macclesfield.

The figures now remaining are those of Sir Rojer Legh with his six sons. The part of the brass which represented Elizabeth his wife, with the other children, has disappeared altogether. I was of opinion, with others, that it had been taken away within the last fifty years; but I find in this I was mistaken, for, by a tract entitled "A View of Popery," by one Joseph Burrows, as published in London in 1735, it appears to have been in the same mutilated condition as now, and, in describing it, he mistakes the remaining figure for a female, which error is repeated in Mr. Ormerod's history of the county, and also by myself in "Notes on the Antiquities of Macclesfield."

With respect to the brass, I would also wish to notice its most interesting feature, and one also that renders it of great value, which is the curious representation which appears above the heads of the figures. Here we have exhibited an altar, on which is placed a chalice and missal. Before it kneels a figure in a triple crown supposed to represent the Pope, who is granting the indulgence; he is vested in the priestly habit worn at the celebration of mass. Behind the altar is the figure of Our Saviour arising out of a sepulchre, the hands uplifted, as displaying the wounds of his passion.

This is a representation very common in missals, and well known to ecclesiastical art, but not found, except in the present instance, on monumental brasses. The subject has reference to a passage in the life of St. Gregory the Great, which is given in old missals in St. Gregory's day, and is often illustrated both in MSS. and in early printed copies.

It is called St. Gregory's Mass, or St. Gregory's Pity, and is an illustration of one of the many miracles performed in confirmation of the doctrine of Transubstantiation. It is thus given in the quaint English translation of the "Golden Legend:"-

"It happed that a wydowe wonte to brynge every Sonday hoostes to syng masse wyth, shold on a tyme be housled and communed. And when Saint Gregory shold give to her ye holy sacrament in saying, Corpus Domine nostre, etc., that is to say, The body of oure Lorde Jhesu Cryst kepe you to everlasting lyf, anon thys woman began to smyle tofore Saint Gregorye, and anon he wythdrew his honde and remysed the sacrament upon th'aultar. And he demanded her tofore ye people why she smiled, and she said, Because ye brede yt I have made with my proper hondes thou namest ye bodye of oure Lorde Jhesu Cryst. Anon Saint Gregorye put himself to prayer wyth the people, for to pray to God that hereupon he wolde shew his grace for to conforme our byleve. And when they were rysen from prayer, Saint Gregorye sawe the holy sacrament in figure of a pyece of fleshe as grete as the lytall of finger of an honde, and anon after that by the prayer of Saint Gregorye the fleshe of the sacrament turned in the semblance of bread as it had been tofore. And therewyth he housled the woman, which after was more relygyous, and the people were ferme in the faith."

In concluding this series of chapters, I trust my readers will excuse any imperfection in delineating the various subjects treated upon, and if the writer has contributed in ever so little to either amuse or instruct, he considers himself rewarded. And as our observations have hitherto been, as it were, confined to the town, it is intended shortly to commence a series of chapters on "Rambles round our Town and Country Churches," and a brief review of the rise and progress of the various other denominations of religion in the town and suburbs of Macclesfield.

To the clergy and gentry of the town and neighbourhood, who have expressed their gratification of my humble endeavours hitherto. I must here return them my sincere thanks for their encouragement, both in the matter of the "Antiquities of Macclesfield," and also "On the Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants in Former Times," and if I have contributed in even a trifling way to keep up the traditionary character of the borough, my exertions are amply rewarded, and beg to subscribe myself,

The public's most obedient servant,

.

I. FINNEY.

Finney

.Finney

ERRATA.

Page 6   For "4th Century" read "14 Century."
" 47   For "Perplexity" read "Perpetuity."
" 67   For "Faces" read "Paces."
" 119   For "That'' read "That's."
" 131   For "Tribute" Read "Tribute's."

cclesfield

Index To Subjects

 

Chapter Introduction Page
I. Retrospect of Early History................................. 2
II. Copy of First Charter, 1261................................ 5
  The Merchants' Gild........................................... 6
  The First Gild Hall............................................. 7
  Guild Hall of 16th Century.................................. 8
  The Stocks and Debtors' Jail............................... 9
  The Corporation Maces...................................... 9
III. Details of Battle of Cressy, 1346......................... 10
IV. Battle of Poictiers, 1358...................................... 14
V. Battle of Azincourt, 1415................................... 18
VI. Engagement at St. Alban's, 1456........................ 23
  Note on the Done and Booth Family................... 24
  Death of the Duke of Buckingham...................... 26
VII. Battle of Bosworth Field..................................... 26
  Account of Death of Richard III.......................... 27
VIII. Flodden Field, 1513............................................ 29
  Death of James IV. of Scotland........................... 31
IX. Old Aspect of the Market Place.......................... 33
X. Old Customs....................................................... 36
  Stage Coach Travelling...................................... 37
  Pack Horse Days................................................. 38
XI. Sir John Rostherne's Journey from London..........  
  to Mere Hall, near Knutsford.............................. 39
XII. On Posting Days................................................. 43
  Travelling in Coaches and Fly Boats.................. 45
XIII. Old Manners and Customs................................. 46
  Macclesfield One Hundred Years Ago................ 47
  Night Watchmen................................................ 49
XIV. Signs and Sign Boards........................................ 50
  First Gentleman's Carriage in Macclesfield........ 51
  Sedan Chairs...................................................... 51
XV. The Old Stocks................................................... 53
  The Ducking Stool............................................. 54
XVI. The Old Stone Cross of Macclesfield.................. 55
  The Sandbach Crosses........................................ 58
  Ancient Ecclesiastic Record................................ 58
XVII. On Ancient House Architecture.......................... 59
XVIII. On Fashion of Dress........................................... 62
  John Drakes, the Norwich Shoemaker................ 63
  Anecdote of Lady Stanley, of Knutsford.............. 64
XIX. On Tinder Box and Brimstone Matches.............. 65
  Old Customs of Sanding the Floor...................... 66
XX. On Souling Days................................................ 68
  The First Cotton Mill in Macclesfield................. 70
  The First Silk Mill in Macclesfield..................... 71
  Hannah Reid, the Macclesfield Centenarian....... 71
XXI. Funeral Customs................................................ 72
  British, Roman and Celtic Coffins...................... 73
  Ancient Modes of Burial..................................... 74
  Addenda............................................................. 78

Macclesfield

Benefactions to Churches

ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH

Year   £. s. d.
1613 Thomas Shrigley, of Hurdsfield,      
  yeoman, for the use of the poor of      
  Macclesfield, the interest of............. 20 0 0
1619 The Rev. Hugh Johnson, Clerk,      
  Vicar of Hackney, the interest of...... 100 0 0
1629 Thomas Oufs, of Kettleshulme, the      
  interest of........................................ 23 0 0
1647 Rojer Snelson, citizen of London,      
  in bread, the interest of.................... 30 0 0
1655 James Pickford, of Macclesfield,      
  alderman, in bread, the interest of ... 52 0 0
1666 Rev Robert Barlow.......................... 20 0 0
1668 William Bomford, grocer................. 26 0 0
1671 William Watson, gentleman............. 5 0 0
1671 Ann Sidebotham, widow.................. 5 0 0
1672 Rebecca Rowe, spinster................... 30 0 0
1674 Stephen Rowe, gentleman................ 30 0 0
1675 William Rowe, alderman................. 40 0 0
1675 Edward Johnson, alderman, in      
  bread............................................... 26 0 0
1681 William Fournhevel, yeoman, the      
  interest of........................................ 10 0 0
1683 Elizabeth Hazlehurst, of Goostry,      
  the interest of.................................. 10 0 0
1683 Mary Rowe, of Macclesfield,      
  widow, the interest of...................... 30 0 0
1683 To a sermon on St. Thomas's day.... 1 0 0
  To the poor..................................... 1 10 0
1685 Martha Mottershead, widow, the      
  interest of........................................ 30 0 0
1685 Francis Dashwood, of London, Esq. 30 0 0
  With £70 of accumulation in the      
  hands of the trustees, the interest of. 100 0 0
1686 Rev. Bradley Heyhurst, of Macc-      
  lesfield, clerk, the interest of............ 10 0 0
1686 John Graistie, grocer....................... 40 0 0
  To the Minister............................... 1 0 0
  To the Poor..................................... 1 0 0
1688 Samuel Leah, of Macclesfield,      
  alderman, the interest of................. 10 0 0
1688 William Lunt, alderman, in bread,      
  the interest of................................. 52 0 0
1688 Catherine Nixon, in clothing, the      
  interest of...................................... 60 0 0
1691 Samuel Mottershead, alderman....... 30 0 0
1691 Henry Barber, alderman................. 30 0 0
1692 Thomas Hough, gentleman............. 50 0 0
1693 Mary Haywood, spinster................ 5 0 0
1693 Thomas Oldham, gentleman........... 5 0 0
1693 James Barber, alderman................. 5 0 0
1704 Josiah Barber, alderman................. 10 0 0
1710 Rowe Dean, alderman.................... 40 0 0
1710 James Dean, gentleman.................. 40 0 0
1717 E. Bollington, gentleman................ 20 0 0
1717 Mrs Stanley, to the minister........... 20 0 0
1722 B. Clowes, citizen of London, in      
  Clothing, the interest of.................. 50 0 0
1726 Willian Bagnall, of Macclesfield.... 40 0 0
  To the Minister.............................. 1 0 0
  To the Poor.................................... 1 0 0
1752 Richard Holland............................. 10 10 0
1736 J. Oldham, of Tytherington, alder-      
  man, the interest of £20 to the      
  Minister......................................... 20 0 0
1736 John Dale...................................... 20 0 0
1744 William Mottershead, alderman, in      
  clothing the interest of.................... 50 0 0
1751 Margaret Philips............................ 20 0 0
1724 William Bostock, Leek, gentleman,      
  to the perpetual Curate of Maccles-      
  field, the Tithes of Shaltersham, in      
  the parish of Horton, Co. Stafford,      
  commuted per annum..................... 3 0 0
1793 William Norton, of Macclesfield,      
  the interest of................................. 120 0 0
  to be given in bread on Sundays to      
  such poor persons as regularly      
  attend Divine Service at the      
  Parochial Chapel      
1799 Bridget Eleanor Hayes, of Sutton,      
  widow, the interest of..................... 60 0 0
  £2 to the Minister for a sermon on      
  the Nativity of Christ every      
  Christmas Day (old style); 10s. to      
  the Clerk, and the remainder in      
  bread on the same day      
1808 Ann Norton, of Macclesfield, the      
  interest of...................................... 100 0 0
  to be given annually at Christmas      
  in gowns and cloaks to such poor      
  persons as regularly attend Divine      
  Service at the Church      
1822 Mary Hooley, of Macclesfield, the      
  interest of...................................... 120 0 0
  to be given on the anniversary      
  Feast of St. Michael, in gowns of      
  black tansey to six poor widows      
  residing within the borough and not      
  receiving parochial relief.      
1822 Matthew Clayron, of Macclesfield,      
  yeoman, bequeathed the residue of      
  his property amounting by accum-      
  ulation of interest to....................... 554 19 0
  to be placed out on security, and      
  the interest to be distributed on St.      
  Thomas's Day yearly among such      
  poor persons as are not receiving      
  parochial relief, and are proper      
  objects of this charity.      
1828 Rose Latham, of Macclesfield,      
  widow............................................ 40 0 0
  the interest to be applied in the      
  purchase of clothing for poor      
  widows.      
1834 Thomas Boden, of Macclesfield,      
  alderman........................................ 350 0 0
  the interest to be applied in support      
  of the Choir, and the further sum of 400 0 0
  in aid of any kind to be raised for      
  the purchase of a new burial      
  ground.      
1853 Mary Ann Wych, of Macclesfield,      
  spinster.......................................... 100 0 0
  the interest to be applied in repair-      
  ing and painting the fabric of      
  Parochial Chapel of St. Michael.      
  And the further sum of................... 200 0 0
  the interest to be laid out in cloth-      
  ing, coals, and flannel, for such      
  poor people from time to time as      
  may be thought proper objects of      
  charity.      
1828 The Rev. Lawrence Heapy, A.M.      
  Minister of Macclesfield, left by      
  will................................................ 600 0 0
  the interest thereof to accumulate      
  until the amount produce a clear      
  income of £30 per annum, and then      
  to be applied as follows:- To the      
  Organist and Singers for the time      
  being............................................. 15 0 0
  To interior improvements and      
  ornamental appendages.................. 10 0 0
  To the Minister and Chapel War-      
  dens of Flash Chapel, to be applied      
  in the religious education of the      
  poor............................................... 5 0 0
1841 Mrs Catherine Heapy, relict of the      
  above Rev. Lawrence Heapy, left      
  by will, viz.;- To the Minister of      
  Macclesfield for the time being, the      
  interest of...................................... 300 0 0
  To the Old Church National School      
  the interest of................................. 200 0 0
  To the Macclesfield Dispensary,      
  the interest of................................. 300 0 0
         
         
         
         
  CHRIST CHURCH      
         
1787 Mrs Mary Roe bequeathed in trust      
  to the Minister and Wardens of      
  Christ Church, for education.......... 600 0 0
  Ditto, for Bibles 100 0 0
1781 Matthew Wainwright, for distribu-      
  tion................................................ 12 0 0
1813 Mr Thomas Allen and Martha his      
  wife bequeathed in trust to the      
  Minister and Wardens of Christ      
  Church, Macclesfield, annually...... 10 0 0
  to be expended in the purchase of      
  linen for poor unmarried women      
  and widows, natives of Maccles-      
  field, and not receiving relief from      
  the poor rates, the said linen to be      
  distributed yearly on the Feast of      
  St. Thomas the Apostle.      
  In the year 1833 the premises upon      
  which the above annuity was char-      
  ged by grant and confirmed by will,      
  was given by Thomas Allen, Esq.,      
  nephew and heir of the above Mr      
  Allen, to the Wesleyan Methodists      
  of the Macclesfield Circuit. At that      
  time an informality was discovered      
  in the original deed of grant, and      
  the property having been subsequ-      
  ently conveyed without provision      
  for the fulfilment of the granter's      
  design, further payment was ref-      
  used, and the intention of the first      
  named Mr Allen thereby frustrated.      
         
         
  ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH      
         
Year   £. s. d.
1647 Roger Snelson, Citizen, and dyer      
  London, by will to be bestowed on      
  six poor people of Sutton, every      
  week for ever in bread, the interest 30 0 0
  Inhabitants (landowners) of Sutton      
  added by Subscription, to be best-      
  owed as the will of Roger Snelson      
  directs the interest of...................... 3 6 8
  Interest arising from both sums is      
  £2 per annum.      
1689 Catherine Nixon, widow, Maccles-      
  field, by will to be bestowed on the      
  poor of Sutton about the time of      
  Michaelmas, yearly for ever in      
  cloth, the interest of........................ 60 0 0
1738 Inhabitants (landowners) Sutton      
  added by Subscription to be      
  bestowed as the will of Catherine      
  Nixon, directs the interest of........... 6 13 1
  Interest arising from both sums is      
  £4, with permission of the minister      
  and wardens of St George's      
  Church, in memory of the donor      
  this tablet is inscribed, by      
  Hannah Newbold, of Foden      
  Bank, Sutton, Widow, upon      
  whom devolves the trust of      
  these charities.      
1728 Daniel Hulme, Schoolmaster,      
  Sutton, by will to be distributed      
  among poor house keepers of      
  Sutton, not being weekly      
  pensioners upon the Township,      
  a week before Christmas, yearly      
  for ever, according to the discr-      
  etion of trustees, the interest of.. 90 0 0
  Which principal sum of £90 has      
  been reduced by decree of the      
  High Court of Chancery to........ 52 15 1
  Interest arising from this sum      
  is £1 17s. 6d. per annum.      
1738 John Upton, farmer, Gaws-      
  worth, by will to be paid and      
  applied to and amongst poor      
  house keepers of Sutton, not      
  being pensioners upon the      
  Township, yearly for ever in      
  such times and in such manner      
  as trustees shall think proper      
  and convenient the interest of.... 100 0 0
  Which principal sum of £100      
  has been reduced by decree of      
  the High Court of Chancery to.. 58 12 3
  Interest arising from this sum      
  is.............................................. 2 18 0
1857 Mr Thomas Bullock, of Byron      
  Cottage, Sutton, Macclesfield,      
  made a donation of................... 200 0 0
  The interest of which sum is to      
  be given by the minister and      
  wardens in clothing to the poor      
  of this congregation annually      
  for ever.      
1862 Mrs Olivia Bullock, wife of the      
  above named Thomas Bullock,      
  also made a donation of............ 100 0 0
  The interest of which is to be      
  applied by the minister and      
  wardens for the same purpose      
  as the before mentioned dona-      
  tion by her husband.      
1828 The burial ground on the west      
  side of the Church of St.      
  George's, was the gift of the      
  late John Ryle, Esq., M.P.      
  for Macclesfield.      
         
  ST. PAUL'S CHURCH      
         
Year   £. s. d.
1844 John Powell Swanwick, Esq.,      
  gave in trust the sum of............. 200 0 0
  The interest to be paid to the      
  Organist and Choir of this      
  Church for ever.      
1851 William Briant, Esq., gave the      
  Royal Arms to this Church.      

Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield

THE ALMSHOUSES

1703 - Mrs Elizabeth Stanley erected and endowed with six pounds per annum, three Almshouses for poor aged Women of Macclesfield, which having fallen to decay, the Rev. John Thornycroft, of Thornycroft Hall, erected three on a fresh site, at a cost of £400.

Mrs Brooksbank erected three others adjoining, in the year 1863.

.Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield

The Macclesfield Infirmary

ENDOWMENT FUND

Year   £. s. d.
1859 J. Tunnicliffe, Esq., left by will      
  in Three per Cent. Consols,      
  the sum of................................ 32,229 15 0
  New three per Cent. Consols,      
  annuities................................... 3,124 9 8
    35,354 4 8
1859 Thomas Swanwick, M.D., in      
  Three per Cent, Consols,      
  annuities................................... 1,424 0 0
1873 William Barnett, Esq., gave...... 2,000 0 0
  Total............... 38,778 4 8

.Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield

DONATIONS TO

MACCLESFIELD DISPENSARY

ENDOWMENT FUND

Year   £. s. d.
1834 Thomas Boden, Esq.,................ 500 0 0
1837 D. Davenport, M.P., Capes-      
  thorne....................................... 100 0 0
1841 Mrs Heapy............................... 300 0 0
1843 Mrs Ridgway, Shrigley............. 100 0 0
1845 J.P.Swanwick, Esq.,................. 100 0 0
1854 Miss Watson (less succession      
  duty, £55 10s.) 600 0 0
1856 Miss Burgess............................ 20 0 0
1856 A Friend, per Mrs Barnett......... 52 19 0
1862 Miss Wych........................... 400 0 0
1873 Proceeds from sale of building      
  in Mill Street............................ 1,250 0 0
    3,422 19 0

.Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield, Finney, Macclesfield

NAMES OF THE

Mayors of Macclesfield

FROM THE YEAR 1768 TO 1873

1768 Brock, Thomas 1800 Newbold, Francis
69 Wright, John 1 Goodwin, Samuel
1770 Clowes, Thomas 2 Higginbotham, N.
71 Stracey, Edward 3 Stone, William
72 Rowson, Edward 4 Ayton, William
73 Ryle, John 5 Brocklehurst, Thos.
74 Brooksbank, Wm. 6 Whittaker, John
75 Mosely, John Parker 7 Critchley, Henry
76 Goodwin, Samuel 8 Wood, Charles
77 Gould, Rowland 9 Ryle, John
78 Street, Samuel 10 Downes, Edward
79 Bowles, John 11 Wardle, Henry
1780 Do. re-elected 12 Brown, John Rowles
81 Langford, E. 13 Pearson, George
82 Hawkins, J. 14 Wood, Samuel
83 Hopes, William 15 Bowden, Thomas
84 Sheldon, S. 16 Smythe, Edward
85 Dean, Ralph 17 Gould, Rowland
86 Hall, David 18 Tunnicliffe,
87 Voee, I. 19 Pearson, Samuel
88 Whittaker, J. 20 Dean, Ralph
89 Hall, Thomas 21 Harlehurst,
1790 Swanwick, John 22 Ward, Francis
91 Roe, Joseph 23 Allen, Thomas
92 Critchley, Thomas 24 Baker, George J.
93 Johnson, Robert 25 Brodrick, Thomas
94 Hoolley, Jasper 26 Johnson, William
95 Daintry, Michael 27 Pearson, Samuel
96 Daintry, J. Smith 28 Wardle, Henry
97 Beswick, Thomas 29 Dickinson, Wm. B.
98 Allen, Thomas 30 Ward, Daniel
1799 Orme, John 1831 Hopes, William
       
1832 Watts, Thomas I. 1853 Smith, John
33 Grimsditch, Thomas 54 Woodward, John
34 Fleet, John 55 Brocklehurst, W. C.
35 Thorp, Samuel 56 Bullock, William
36 Brocklehurst, Wm. 57 Jackson, Ferdinand
37 Swanwick, Thomas 58 Barton, Samuel
38 Potts, William 59 Clarke, Jeremiah
39 Wardle, Thomas 60 Do. re-elected
40 Norbury, Thomas 61 Brocklehurst, Henry
41 Stringer, Thomas 62 Do. re-elected
42 Proctor, Edward 63 Jackson, James
43 Barnett, William 64 Do. re-elected
44 Rowbotham, John 65 Higginbotham, S.
45 Wright, George 66 Wright, Joseph
46 Swinnerton, James 67 Clarke, David
47 Wright, Richard 68 Do. re-elected
48 Lallemand, Geo. F. 69 Bullock, William
49 Wardle, Henry 70 Barry, Abraham
50 Osborne, John Jas. 71 Wadsworth, J. B.
51 Firth, John 72 Clarke, Edward
1852 Adshead, William 1873 Carr, William

Reproduced by Bren & Des Griffiths, 1998

G.G.G.Granddaughter of Isaac A. Finney

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