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noise - notomelus

noise (noise) (noiz)  unwanted variations in a signal that result from imperfections in the transmission of the signal, e.g., electrical signals in electrodiagnosis other than those being studied (most often originating within the electrical apparatus). See also signal-to-noise ratio, under ratio.

end-plate n.  the monophasic type of end-plate activity.

Nolvadex (Nol·va·dex) (nol´və-deks”)  trademark for a preparation of tamoxifen citrate.

noma (no·ma) (no´mə) [Gr. nomai eating sores]  1. a gangrenous process of the mouth and face, usually seen in debilitated or malnourished children; it begins as a small vesicle or ulcer on the gingiva, rapidly becomes necrotic, and spreads to destroy large areas of the oral mucosa and tissues of the face, resulting in severe disfigurement and sometimes even death. Bacteria implicated in the etiology include fusiform bacilli, Treponema vincentii, and Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Called also cancrum oris and gangrenous stomatitis.  2. a rare condition with gangrenous erosions similar to those of noma of the face but involving the genitalia; see erosive balanitis, under balanitis, and erosive vulvitis, under vulvitis.

n. vul´vae  erosive vulvitis.

nomadic (no·mad·ic) (no-mad´ik)  wandering; unsettled; free.

nomen (no·men) (no´mən)  pl. no´mina [L.]  a name.

no´mina genera´lia  [TA]  general terminology: terms that denote a general structure type to which a number of specific structures belong.

nomenclature (no·men·cla·ture) (no´mən-kla´chər) [nomen + calare to call]  a classified system of names, as of anatomical structures, organisms, etc. See Terminologia Anatomica.

binomial n.  the nomenclature used in scientific classification of living organisms in which each organism is designated by two latinized names (genus and species), both of which must always be used because species names are not necessarily unique. NOTE: The genus name is always capitalized, the species name is not, and both are italicized, e.g., Escherichia coli. When a name is repeated the genus name may be abbreviated by its initial, e.g., E. coli.

Nomina Anatomica (No·mi·na Ana·to·mi·ca) (no´mĭ-nə an”ə-tom´ĭ-kə) [L. “anatomical names”]  the official body of anatomical nomenclature, applied specifically to that revised by the International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee appointed by the Fifth International Congress of Anatomists held at Oxford in 1950, and approved by the Sixth International Congress of Anatomists (Paris, 1955) with revisions approved by the Seventh (New York, 1960), Eighth (Wiesbaden, 1965), Tenth (Tokyo, 1975), Eleventh (Mexico City, 1980), and Twelfth (London, 1985) International Congresses of Anatomists. It has been superseded by Terminologia Anatomica [TA] (1998).

nom(o)- (nom(o)-) [Gr. nomos custom, law]  a combining form denoting relationship to usage or law.

nomogenesis (no·mo·gen·e·sis) (no”mo-jen´ə-sis) [nomo- + -genesis]  the theory of evolution according to which the course of evolution is fixed and predetermined by law, no place being left for chance.

nomogram (no·mo·gram) (nom´o-gram) [nomo- + -gram]  a figure consisting of three or more straight or curved lines, each graduated for a different variable and aligned in such a way that a straightedge crossing all of the scales cuts the scales at values of the variable that have a specified mathematical or empirical relationship. Called also nomograph.

nomograph (no·mo·graph) (nom´o-graf)  nomogram.

nomotopic (no·mo·top·ic) (no”mo-top´ik) [nomo- + top- + -ic]  occurring at a normal place; occurring normally.

non- (non-) [L non not]  a combining form meaning not.

non(a)- (non(a)-) [L. nona nine]  a combining form meaning nine.

nonadherent (non·ad·her·ent) (non”ad-hēr´ənt)  not adherent to or connected with adjacent structures.

nonan (no·nan) (no´nən) [L. nonus ninth]  recurring every ninth day, or at intervals of eight days.

nonantigenic (non·an·ti·gen·ic) (non”an-tĭ-jen´ik)  not antigenic; not eliciting an immune response in a particular animal.

nonapeptide (non·a·pep·tide) (non”ə-pep´tīd) [nona- + peptide]  a peptide containing nine amino acids.

non compos mentis (non com·pos men·tis) (non kom´pos men´tis) [L.]  not of sound mind, and so not legally responsible.

nonconductor (non·con·duc·tor) (non”kən-duk´tər)  any substance that does not readily transmit electricity, light, or heat.

nondepolarizer (non·de·po·lar·iz·er) (non”de-po´lər-īz-ər)  a muscle relaxant that produces striate muscle paralysis by competitive interference with the transmission of nerve impulses from nerve ending to muscle receptor.

nondisjunction (non·dis·junc·tion) (non”dis-junk´shən)  failure (a) of two homologous chromosomes to pass to separate cells during the first division of meiosis, or (b) of the two chromatids of a chromosome to pass to separate cells during mitosis or during the second meiotic division. As a result, one daughter cell has an extra chromosome and the other has one too few. If this happens in meiosis, after fertilization an aneuploid individual may develop, e.g., a child with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome).

Nondisjunction. Normal meiosis (A) is contrasted with failure of homologous chromosomes to separate in meiosis I (B) or of sister chromatids to separate in meiosis II (C).

Nondisjunction. Normal meiosis (A) is contrasted with failure of homologous chromosomes to separate in meiosis I (B) or of sister chromatids to separate in meiosis II (C).

nonelectrolyte (non·elec·tro·lyte) (non”e-lek´tro-līt)  a substance that does not dissociate into ions; in solution it is a nonconductor of electricity.

nonheme (non·heme) (non´hēm)  not bound within a porphyrin ring; said of iron so contained within a protein.

nonhomogeneity (non·ho·mo·ge·ne·i·ty) (non-ho”mo-jə-ne´ĭ-te)  the lack of homogeneity; the state of not being homogeneous.

nonigravida (no·ni·grav·i·da) (no”nĭ-grav´ĭ-də) [nona- + gravida]  a woman pregnant for the ninth time. Written gravida IX.

noninfectious (non·in·fec·tious) (non”in-fek´shəs)  not infectious; not spread by contact, inhalation, etc.; not able to spread disease.

noninvolution (non·in·vo·lu·tion) (non”in-vo-loo´shən)  failure of a part to return to normal size and condition after enlargement from functional activity, as noninvolution of the uterus after pregnancy.

nonipara (no·nip·a·ra) (no-nip´ə-rə) [nona- + para]  a woman who has had nine pregnancies which resulted in viable offspring. Written para IX.

nonmedullated (non·med·ul·lat·ed) (non-med´u-lāt”əd)  unmyelinated.

nonmetal (non·met·al) (non-met´əl)  any chemical element that is not a metal or a metalloid.

nonmyelinated (non·my·eli·nat·ed) (non-mi´ə-lĭ-nāt”əd)  unmyelinated.

Nonne-Milroy disease (Non·ne-Mil·roy disease) (non´ə mil´roi) [Max Nonne, German neurologist, 1861–1939; William Forsyth Milroy, American physician, 1855–1942]  see Milroy disease, under disease.

Nonne-Milroy-Meige syndrome (Non·ne-Mil·roy-Meige syndrome) (non´ə mil´roi mezh) [M. Nonne; W. F. Milroy; Henri Meige, French physician, 1866–1940]  see Milroy disease, under disease.

nonneuronal (non·neu·ro·nal) (non”ndbobr-ro´nəl)  pertaining to or composed of nonconducting cells of the nervous system, e.g., neuroglial cells.

nonnucleated (non·nu·cle·at·ed) (non-noo´kle-āt”əd)  without a nucleus; cf. anuclear.

nonocclusion (non·oc·clu·sion) (non”o-cloo´zhən)  open bite malocclusion.

nonoliguric (non·ol·i·gu·ric) (non-ol”ĭ-gu´rik)  not pertaining to, characterized by, or conducive to oliguria.

nononcogenic (non·on·co·gen·ic) (non”on-ko-jen´ik)  not giving rise to tumors or causing tumor formation.

nonopaque (non·opaque) (non”o-pāk´)  not opaque to x-rays; radiolucent.

nonose (non·ose) (non´ōs)  a monosaccharide containing nine atoms of carbon in the molecule.

nonoxynol (non·ox·y·nol) (non-ok´sĭ-nol)  nonylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol. Any of a group of compounds of the general composition C15H24O(C2H4 O)n, which are assigned numbers according to the approximate value of n: nonoxynol 4 is C15H24O(C2H4O)4, or C23H40O5; nonoxynol 9 is C33H60O10; nonoxynol 15 is C45H84O16; nonoxynol 30 is C75H144O31. Nonoxynol 4, 15, and 30 are nonionic surfactants, and nonoxynol 9 is used as a spermicide. Nonoxynol 10, in which n varies from 6 to 16, is used as a pharmaceutical surfactant.

nonparametric (non·para·met·ric) (non”par-ə-met´rik)  denoting statistical methods or tests requiring neither parameters nor distributional assumptions.

nonparous (non·par·ous) (non-par´əs)  nulliparous.

nonphotochromogen (non·pho·to·chro·mo·gen) (non”fo-to-kro´mə-jən)  a microorganism that does not produce pigment in the presence of light. The term is specifically applied to mycobacteria that do not produce carotenoid pigmentation; included in this group is the common pathogen Mycobacterium avium–intracellulare.

nonpolar (non·po·lar) (non-po´lər)  not having poles; not exhibiting dipole characteristics.

nonproprietary (non·pro·pri·e·tary) (non”pro-pri´ə-tar-e)  not protected against free competition by patent, trademark, or other means; see also generic and see under name.

non repetat. (non repetat.) [L.]  non repeta´tur (do not repeat).

nonresponder (non·re·spond·er) (non-re-spon´dər)  a person or animal that after vaccination against a given virus does not show any immune response when challenged with the virus.

nonrotation (non·ro·ta·tion) (non”ro-ta´shən) [non- + L. rotare to turn]  failure of rotation of a part to the proper position.

n. of the intestine  failure of rotation of the intestine during embryonic development, so that the small intestine lies on the right side of the abdomen and the large intestine on the left.

nonsaponifiable (non·sa·pon·i·fi·a·ble) (non-sə-pon”ĭ-fi´ə-bəl)  incapable of being hydrolyzed to give a fatty acid salt and an alcohol; said of lipids.

nonsecretor (non·se·cre·tor) (non”se-kre´tor)  an individual with A or B type blood whose saliva and other body secretions do not contain the A or B blood group antigens; see also secretor.

nonself (non·self) (non´self)  in immunology, pertaining to foreign antigens. Cf. self.

nonseptate (non·sep·tate) (non-sep´tāt)  without a septum or septa.

nonspecific (non·spe·cif·ic) (non”spə-sif´ik)  1. not due to any single known cause, as to a particular pathogen.  2. not directed against a particular agent, but rather having a general effect, as nonspecific therapy.

nonsyndromal (non·syn·dro·mal) (non”sin-dro´məl)  nonsyndromic.

nonsyndromic (non·syn·drom·ic) (non”sin-drom´ik)  not occurring as part of a syndrome.

nonunion (non·union) (non-ūn´yən)  failure of the ends of a fractured bone to unite.

nonvalent (non·va·lent) (non-va´lənt) [non- + L. valere to be able]  having no chemical valency: not capable of entering into chemical composition; said of argon, helium, and the other inert gases.

nonviable (non·vi·a·ble) (non-vi´ə-bəl) [non- + viable]  not capable of living.

nonyl (no·nyl) (no´nəl)  the monovalent radical C9H19.

Noonan's syndrome (Noo·nan's syndrome) (noo´nənz) [Jacqueline Anne Noonan, American pediatrician, born 1928]  see under syndrome.

nootropic (noo·trop·ic) (no”o-trop´ik) [Gr. noos, nous mind + -tropic]  having positive effects on organically impaired cognition or nervous system function; said of certain drugs.

NOPHN (NOPHN)  National Organization for Public Health Nursing.

nor- (nor-)  chemical prefix denoting (a) a compound (e.g., norleucine) of normal structure (having an unbranched chain of carbon atoms) that is isomeric with one (e.g., leucine) having a branched chain, or (b) a compound (e.g., norepinephrine) whose chain or ring contains one less methylene (CH2) group than does that of its homologue (e.g., epinephrine).

noradrenaline (nor·adren·a·line) (nor”ə-dren´ə-lin)  norepinephrine.

noradrenergic (nor·ad·ren·er·gic) (nor”ə-drən-er´jik)  activated by or secreting norepinephrine.

Norco (Nor·co) (nor´ko)  trademark for combination preparations of hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen.

Norcuron (Nor·cu·ron) (nor-kūr´on)  trademark for a preparation of vecuronium bromide.

nordefrin hydrochloride (nor·def·rin hy·dro·chlo·ride) (nor-def´rin)  an adrenergic agent isomeric with epinephrine, having significant central stimulant action and almost no vasoconstrictor action; the levo-isomer, levonordefrin (q.v.), is usually used when vasoconstriction is desired. Called also homoarterenol hydrochloride.

Nordette (Nor·dette) (nor-det´)  trademark for a combination preparation of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol.

Norditropin (Nor·di·tro·pin) (nor´dĭ-tro”pin)  trademark for a preparation of somatropin.

no-reflow (no-re·flow) (no-re´flo)  see under phenomenon.

norepinephrine (nor·epi·neph·rine) (nor”ep-ĭ-nef´rin)  1. one of the naturally occurring catecholamines, a neurohormone released by the postganglionic adrenergic nerves and some brain neurons; it is a major neurotransmitter that acts on α- and β1-adrenergic receptors. It is also secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to splanchnic stimulation and is stored in the chromaffin granules. It is a powerful vasopressor and is released in the body usually in response to hypotension or stress. Called also noradrenaline.  2. a pharmaceutical preparation of the same substance, usually used in the form of the bitartrate salt.

n. bitartrate  [USP]  the bitartrate salt of the levorotatory isomer of norepinephrine, having the vasoconstrictor actions of the parent compound; used to restore the blood pressure in certain cases of acute hypotension, and to improve cardiac function during decompensation associated with congestive heart failure or cardiovascular surgery, administered intravenously. Called also levarterenol bitartrate.

norethandrolone (nor·eth·an·dro·lone) (nor”əth-an´drə-lōn)  a synthetic androgen equal to testosterone in anabolic activity, but having less androgenic activity, used in the treatment of anemia; administered orally.

norethindrone (nor·eth·in·drone) (nor-eth´in-drōn)   [USP] a progestational agent having some anabolic, estrogenic, and androgenic properties; used as an oral contraceptive, alone or in combination with an estrogen component.

n. acetate  [USP]  the acetate salt of norethindrone, used in the treatment of secondary amenorrhea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and endometriosis, administered orally; also used in combination with an estrogen component as an oral contraceptive.

norethisterone (nor·eth·is·ter·one) (nor”əth-is´tər-ōn)  INN and BAN for norethindrone.

norethynodrel (nor·ethy·no·drel) (nor”ə-thi´no-drəl)   [USP] a progestin used in combination with an estrogen component as an oral contraceptive, to control endometriosis, for the treatment of hypermenorrhea, and to produce cyclic withdrawal bleeding.

Norflex (Nor·flex) (nor´fleks)  trademark for a preparation of orphenadrine citrate.

norfloxacin (nor·flox·a·cin) (nor-flok´sə-sin)  a fluorinated 4-quinolone antibacterial effective against penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae; administered orally.

Norgesic (Nor·ge·sic) (nor-je´zik)  trademark for combination preparations of orphenadrine citrate, aspirin, and caffeine.

norgestimate (nor·ges·ti·mate) (nor-jes´tĭ-māt)  a synthetic progestational agent having little androgenic activity; used in combination with an estrogen component as an oral contraceptive.

norgestrel (nor·ges·trel) (nor-jes´trəl)   [USP] a potent synthetic progestational agent used, alone or in combination with an estrogen component, as an oral contraceptive.

Norinyl (Nor·i·nyl) (nor´ə-nəl)  trademark for oral contraceptive preparations containing norethindrone as the progestational agent and either ethinyl estradiol or mestranol as the estrogen component.

Norisodrine (Nor·iso·drine) (nor-i´so-drin)  trademark for preparations of isoproterenol sulfate.

Noritate (Nor·i·tate) (nor´ĭ-tāt)  trademark for a preparation of metronidazole.

norleucine (nor·leu·cine) (nor-loo´sēn)  chemical name: 2-aminohexanoic acid. A nonessential amino acid extracted from the leucine fraction of the decomposition of the proteins of nervous tissue. It has been synthesized.

norm (norm) (norm) [L. norma rule]  a fixed or ideal standard.

norma (nor·ma) (nor´mə) [L.]  1. an outline established to define the aspects of the cranium  2. a norm or typical standard.

n. ante´rior  n. facialis.

n. basa´lis  TA alternative for n. inferior.

n. basila´ris  n. inferior.

n. facia´lis  [TA]  the outline of the skull as viewed from the front; called also anterior, facial, or frontal aspect of cranium, n. anterior, and n. frontalis [TA alternative].

(A), Norma facialis; (B), norma superior.

(A), Norma facialis; (B), norma superior.

n. fronta´lis  TA alternative for n. facialis.

n. infe´rior  [TA]  the outline of the inferior aspect of the skull, viewed from above; called also n. basalis [TA alternative] and n. basilaris.

n. latera´lis  [TA]  the outline of the skull as viewed from either side; called also temporal aspect of cranium and n. temporalis.

n. occipita´lis  [TA] ,  n. poste´rior  the outline of the skull as viewed from behind; called also occipital aspect of cranium.

n. sagitta´lis  the outline of a sagittal section through the skull.

n. supe´rior  [TA]  the outline of the superior surface of the skull; called also superior or vertical aspect of cranium and n. verticalis [TA alternative].

n. tempora´lis  n. lateralis.

n. ventra´lis  basis cranii externa.

n. vertica´lis  TA alternative for n. superior.

normal (nor·mal) (nor´məl) [L. norma rule]  1. agreeing with the regular and established type.  2. in chemistry, (a) denoting a solution containing in each 1000 mL 1 g equivalent weight of the active substance, symbol N or N; (b) denoting aliphatic hydrocarbons in which no carbon atom is combined with more than 2 other carbon atoms, symbol n-; (c) denoting salts formed from acids and bases in such a way that no acidic hydrogen of the acid remains nor any of the basic hydroxyl of the base.

normality (nor·mal·i·ty) (nor-mal´ĭ-te)  1. the state of being normal.  2. the number of gram-equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution.

normalization (nor·mal·iza·tion) (nor”məl-ĭ-za´shən)  1. the process of bringing or restoring to the normal standard.  2. in statistics, the process of transforming data so that it has no units but is expressed in terms of standard deviations from the mean.

normetanephrine (nor·meta·neph·rine) (nor-met”ə-nef´rin)  a methylated metabolite of norepinephrine excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues.

norm(o)- (norm(o)-) [L. norma rule]  a combining form meaning conforming to the rule; normal or usual.

normoblast (nor·mo·blast) (nor´mo-blast) [normo- + -blast]  1. a term often used as a synonym of erythroblast, but sometimes specifically denoting nucleated cells in a normal course of erythrocyte maturation, as distinguished from megaloblasts (q.v.); when the term is used with this meaning, the developmental stages of the nucleated cells of the erythrocytic series (q.v.) are generally named pronormoblasts (proerythroblasts) and basophilic, polychromatophilic, and orthochromatic normoblasts (see under erythroblast).  2. orthochromatic erythroblast.

acidophilic n.  orthochromatic erythroblast.

basophilic n.  a nucleated immature erythrocyte, having cytoplasm generally similar to that of the earlier proerythroblast but sometimes even more basophilic, and usually regular in outline. The nucleus is still relatively large, but the chromatin strands are thicker and more deeply staining, giving a coarser appearance; the nucleoli have disappeared. Called also prorubricyte, early n., and basophilic or early erythroblast.

early n.  basophilic erythroblast.

eosinophilic n.  orthochromatic erythroblast.

intermediate n.  polychromatophilic erythroblast.

late n. ,  orthochromatic n. ,  oxyphilic n.  see under erythroblast.

polychromatic n. ,  polychromatophilic n.  see under erythroblast.

normoblastic (nor·mo·blas·tic) (nor”mo-blas´tik)  relating to or having the character of a normoblast.

normoblastosis (nor·mo·blas·to·sis) (nor”mo-blas-to´sis)  excessive production of normoblasts by the bone marrow.

normocalcemia (nor·mo·cal·ce·mia) (nor”mo-kal-se´me-ə)  a normal level of calcium in the blood.

normocalcemic (nor·mo·cal·ce·mic) (nor”mo-kal-se´mik)  pertaining to or characterized by normocalcemia.

normocapnia (nor·mo·cap·nia) (nor”mo-kap´ne-ə)  eucapnia.

normocapnic (nor·mo·cap·nic) (nor”mo-kap´nik)  eucapnic.

normocholesterolemia (nor·mo·cho·les·ter·ol·emia) (nor”mo-kə-les”tər-ol-e´me-ə)  a normal level of cholesterol in the blood.

normocholesterolemic (nor·mo·cho·les·ter·ol·emic) (nor”mo-kə-les”tər-ol-e´mik)  pertaining to, characterized by, or tending to produce a normal level of cholesterol in the blood.

normochromasia (nor·mo·chro·ma·sia) (nor”mo-kro-ma´zhə) [normo- + Gr. chrōma color]  1. a normal staining reaction in a cell or tissue.  2. normochromia.

normochromia (nor·mo·chro·mia) (nor”mo-kro´me-ə)  normal color (hemoglobin content) of the red blood cells; see also normochromic anemia, under anemia. Called also normochromasia and orthochromia.

normochromic (nor·mo·chro·mic) (nor”mo-kro´mik)  1. having a normal color.  2. having a normal hemoglobin content; called also orthochromic.

normocrinic (nor·mo·crin·ic) (nor”mo-krin´ik)  pertaining to normal secretion or to normal endocrine action.

normocyte (nor·mo·cyte) (nor´mo-sīt) [normo- + -cyte]  an erythrocyte that is normal in size, shape, and color. Called also normoerythrocyte.

normocytic (nor·mo·cyt·ic) (nor”mo-sit´ik)  relating to or having the character of a normocyte.

normocytosis (nor·mo·cy·to·sis) (nor”mo-si-to´sis)  a normal state of the blood in respect to the erythrocytes.

Normodyne (Nor·mo·dyne) (nor´mo-dīn)  trademark for a preparation of labetalol hydrochloride.

normoerythrocyte (nor·mo·eryth·ro·cyte) (nor”mo-ə-rith´ro-sīt)  normocyte.

normoglycemia (nor·mo·gly·ce·mia) (nor”mo-gli-se´me-ə)  euglycemia.

normoglycemic (nor·mo·gly·ce·mic) (nor”mo-gli-se´mik)  euglycemic.

normokalemia (nor·mo·ka·le·mia) (nor”mo-kə-le´me-ə) [normo- + L. kalium potassium + -emia]  a normal level of potassium in the blood.

normokalemic (nor·mo·ka·le·mic) (nor”mo-kə-le´mik)  pertaining to, characterized by, or conducive to normokalemia.

normolipidemic (nor·mo·lip·i·de·mic) (nor”mo-lip”ĭ-de´mik)  pertaining to or characterized by normal levels of lipids in the blood.

normo-orthocytosis (nor·mo-or·tho·cy·to·sis) (nor”mo-or”tho-si-to´sis) [normo- + orthocytosis]  an increase in total numbers of leukocytes in the blood but with a normal proportion between the different varieties; see also absolute leukocytosis.

normoskeocytosis (nor·mo·skeo·cy·to·sis) (nor”mo-ske”o-si-to´sis) [normo- + Gr. skaios left + -cyte + -osis]  a condition of the leukocytes of the blood in which the number is normal, but many immature forms (deviation to the left) are present.

normospermia (normospermia) (nor”mo-sper´me-ə)  production of spermatozoa normal in number and motility.

normospermic (nor·mo·sper·mic) (nor”mo-sper´mik)  characterized by normospermia.

normosthenuria (nor·mo·sthen·uria) (nor”mo-sthən-u´re-ə) [normo- + stheno- + -uria]  1. the secretion of urine of varying specific gravity within the normal range.  2. normally active urination.

normotension (nor·mo·ten·sion) (nor”mo-ten´shən)  normal tone, tension, or pressure.

normotensive (nor·mo·ten·sive) (nor”mo-ten´siv)  1. characterized by normal tone, tension, or pressure, as by normal blood pressure.  2. a person with normal blood pressure.

normothermia (nor·mo·ther·mia) (nor”mo-ther´me-ə) [normo- + therm- + -ia]  a normal state of temperature, especially normal body temperature (37°C or 98.6°F).

normothermic (nor·mo·ther·mic) (nor”mo-ther´mik)  pertaining to or characterized by normal temperature; neither hyperthermic nor hypothermic.

normotonia (nor·mo·to·nia) (nor”mo-to´ne-ə)  normal tone or tension.

normotonic (nor·mo·ton·ic) (nor”mo-ton´ik)  pertaining to or characterized by normotonia.

normotrophic (nor·mo·troph·ic) (nor”mo-trof´ik)  of normal development; exhibiting neither hypertrophy nor hypotrophy.

normouricemia (nor·mo·uri·ce·mia) (nor”mo-u”rĭ-se´me-ə)  a normal value of uric acid in the blood.

normouricemic (nor·mo·uri·ce·mic) (nor”mo-u”rĭ-se´mik)  pertaining to or characterized by normouricemia.

normouricuric (nor·mo·uri·cu·ric) (nor”mo-u”rĭ-ku´rik)  pertaining to or characterized by normouricuria.

normovolemia (nor·mo·vo·le·mia) (nor”mo-vo-le´me-ə) [normo- + volume + -emia]  normal blood volume.

normovolemic (nor·mo·vo·le·mic) (nor”mo-vo-le´mik)  pertaining to or characterized by normovolemia; having a normal volume of circulating fluid (plasma) in the body.

Noroxin (Nor·ox·in) (nor-ok´sin)  trademark for a preparation of norfloxacin.

Norpace (Nor·pace) (nor´pās)  trademark for preparations of disopyramide phosphate.

Norplant (Nor·plant) (nor´plant)  trademark for a preparation of levonorgestrel.

Norpramin (Nor·pram·in) (nor´prəm-in)  trademark for a preparation of desipramine hydrochloride.

norpseudoephedrine (nor·pseu·do·ephed·rine) (nor-soo”do-ə-fed´rēn)  a nervous system stimulant chemically related to ephedrine, extracted from the leaves of the shrub Catha edulis.

Nor-QD (Nor-QD)  trademark for a preparation of norethindrone.

Norrie's disease (Nor·rie's disease) (nor´ēz) [Gordon Norrie, Danish ophthalmologist, 1855–1941]  see under disease.

Norris corpuscles (Nor·ris corpuscles) (nor´is) [Richard Norris, English physiologist, 1831–1916]  see under corpuscle.

Northern blot technique (blot analysis, blot hybridization, blot test) (North·ern blot technique (blot analysis, blot hybridization, blot test)) (nor´thərn) [facetious coinage by analogy with Southern blot technique]  see under technique.

Northrop (North·rop) (north´rop)  John Howard, 1891–1987. American chemist; co-winner, with James B. Sumner and Wendell M. Stanley, of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1946 for isolation and crystallization of enzymes and for isolating virus proteins in pure form.

nortriptyline hydrochloride (nor·trip·ty·line hy·dro·chlo·ride) (nor-trip´tə-lēn)   [USP] a tricyclic antidepressant of the dibenzocycloheptadiene class, also used to treat panic disorder and to relieve chronic, severe pain; administered orally.

Norvasc (Nor·vasc) (nor´vask)  trademark for a preparation of amlodipine besylate.

Norvir (Nor·vir) (nor´vir)  trademark for preparations of ritonavir.

Norwalk gastroenteritis, virus (Nor·walk gastroenteritis, virus) (nor´wawk) [Norwalk, Ohio, location of the outbreak from which the virus was isolated]  see under gastroenteritis and virus.

nosazontology (nos·az·on·tol·o·gy) (nos-az”on-tol´ə-je)  nosetiology.

noscapine (nos·ca·pine) (nos´kə-pēn)  an alkaloid of opium used as an antitussive, administered orally.

n. hydrochloride  the hydrochloride salt of noscapine, having the same actions, uses, and route of administration as the base.

nose (nose) (nōz) [L. nasus; Gr. rhis]  1. nasus.  2. nasus externus.

cleft n.  a developmental anomaly resulting from incomplete union of the paired nasal primordia.

collie n.  nasal solar dermatitis.

external n.  nasus externus.

saddle n. ,  saddle-back n. ,  swayback n.  concavity of the contour of the bridge of the nose due to collapse of cartilaginous or bony support, or both; it was once most often due to congenital syphilis, but is now more commonly the result of trauma, surgery, a congenital epidermal defect, or leprosy.

nosebleed (nose·bleed) (nōz´blēd)  epistaxis.

nosegay (nose·gay) (nōz´ga)  a name applied to an anatomical structure resembling a small bunch of flowers.

Riolan's n.  the group of muscles that take their origin from the styloid process of the temporal bone.

Nosema (No·se·ma) (no-se´mə) [Gr. nosēma sickness]  a genus of intracellular protozoa (suborder Apansporoblastina, order Microsporida), formerly thought to be identical to Encephalitozoon; they are parasitic in invertebrates, and especially pathogenic in insects.

N. a´pis  the etiologic agent of nosema disease of bees.

N. bomby´cis  the etiologic agent of the disease pébrine in silkworms.

N. cuni´culi  Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

N. ocula´rum  a species that causes corneal infections in humans.

nosematosis (no·se·ma·to·sis) (no-se”mə-to´sis)  1. infection with protozoa of the genus Nosema.  2. former name for encephalitozoonosis.

nosencephalus (nos·en·ceph·a·lus) (nos”ən-sef´ə-ləs) [noso- + Gr. enkephalos brain]  a fetus with cranium bifidum.

nosepiece (nose·piece) (nōz´pēs)  the portion of a microscope nearest to the stage, which bears the objective or objectives, constructed so as to permit change of the objective without disturbing the focus of the instrument.

quick-change n.  one bearing a single objective, which may be quickly attached to or removed from a microscope.

rotating n.  one bearing more than one objective, designed to permit the one selected to be rotated into place, with its axis coincident with the optical axis of the microscope.

nosetiology (nos·eti·ol·o·gy) (nos”e-te-ol´ə-je) [nos- + etiology]  the study of the causation of disease.

nosiheptide (no·si·hep·tide) (no”sĭ-hep´tīd)  a veterinary growth stimulant.

nos(o)- (nos(o)-) [Gr. nosos disease]  a combining form denoting relationship to disease.

nosochthonography (nos·och·tho·nog·ra·phy) (nos”ok-tho-nog´rə-fe) [noso- + Gr. chthōn land + -graphy]  geomedicine.

nosocomial (noso·co·mi·al) (nos”o-ko´me-əl) [noso- + Gr. komeion to take care of]  pertaining to or originating in the hospital; said of an infection not present or incubating prior to admittance to the hospital, but generally occurring 72 hours after admittance; the term is usually used to refer to patient disease, but hospital personnel may also acquire nosocomial infection. Cf. iatrogenic.

nosogenesis (noso·gen·e·sis) (nos”o-jen´ə-sis)  pathogenesis.

nosogenic (noso·gen·ic) (nos”o-jen´ik)  pathogenic.

nosogeny (no·sog·e·ny) (no-soj´ə-ne) [noso- + -geny]  pathogenesis.

nosogeography (noso·ge·og·ra·phy) (nos”o-je-og´rə-fe) [noso- + geo- + -graphy]  geomedicine.

nosography (no·sog·ra·phy) (no-sog´rə-fe) [noso- + -graphy]  a written account or description of diseases.

nosologic (noso·log·ic) (nos”o-loj´ik)  pertaining to the classification of disease.

nosology (no·sol·o·gy) (no-sol´ə-je) [noso- + -logy]  the science of the classification of diseases. Called also nosonomy and nosotaxy.

nosometry (no·som·e·try) (no-som´ə-tre) [noso- + -metry]  the measurement of the morbidity rate.

nosomycosis (noso·my·co·sis) (nos”o-mi-ko´sis)  mycosis.

nosonomy (no·son·o·my) (no-son´ə-me) [noso- + Gr. nomos law]  nosology.

nosoparasite (noso·para·site) (nos”o-par´ə-sīt) [noso- + parasite]  an organism found in conjunction with a disease which it is able to modify, but not to produce.

nosophobia (noso·pho·bia) (nos”o-fo´be-ə) [noso- + -phobia]  irrational dread of sickness or of some particular disease.

nosophyte (noso·phyte) (nos´o-fīt) [noso- + -phyte]  a pathogenic plant microorganism.

nosopoietic (noso·poi·et·ic) (nos”o-poi-et´ik) [noso- + Gr. poiein to make]  causing or producing disease.

Nosopsyllus (Noso·psyl·lus) (nos”o-sil´əs) [noso- + Gr. psylla flea]  a genus of fleas. N. fascia´tus, the common rat flea of North America and Europe, is a vector of murine typhus and probably of plague.

nosotaxy (noso·taxy) (nos´o-tak”se) [noso- + Gr. taxis arrangement]  nosology.

nosotoxic (noso·tox·ic) (nos´o-tok”sik)  pertaining to nosotoxicosis or nosotoxins.

nosotoxicosis (noso·tox·i·co·sis) (nos”o-tok”sĭ-ko´sis) [noso- + toxicosis]  toxicosis.

nosotoxin (noso·tox·in) (nos´o-tok”sin) [noso- + toxin]  a toxin that causes disease.

nosotropic (noso·trop·ic) (nos”o-trop´ik) [noso- + -tropic]  directed against or opposed to a disease; cf. prophylactic.

nostril (nos·tril) (nos´tril)  naris; see nares.

nostrum (nos·trum) (nos´trəm) [L.]  a quack, patent, or secret remedy.

notalgia (no·tal·gia) (no-tal´jə) [not- + -algia]  dorsalgia.

notancephalia (no·tan·ce·pha·lia) (no”tən-sə-fa´le-ə) [not- + an- + cephal- + -ia]  congenital absence of the posterior aspect of the skull.

notanencephalia (no·tan·en·ce·pha·lia) (no”tən-ən-sə-fa´le-ə) [not- + anencephalia]  absence of the cerebellum.

notch (notch) (noch)  an indentation or depression, especially one on the edge of a bone or other organ. See also incisura.

acetabular n.  incisura acetabuli.

angular n. of stomach  incisura angularis gastris.

antegonial n.  a notch on the mandible at the border between the body and ramus.

anterior n. of auricle  incisura anterior auriculae

aortic n.  dicrotic n.

auricular n.  incisura anterior auriculae.

n. of cardiac apex  incisura apicis cordis.

cardiac n. of left lung  incisura cardiaca pulmonis sinistri.

cardiac n. of stomach ,  cardial n.  incisura cardialis.

n. in cartilage of acoustic meatus  incisura cartilaginis meatus acustici.

cerebellar n., anterior  incisura cerebelli anterior.

cerebellar n., posterior  incisura cerebelli posterior.

clavicular n. of sternum  incisura clavicularis sterni.

coracoid n.  incisura scapulae.

costal n.’es of sternum  incisurae costales sterni.

cotyloid n.  incisura acetabuli.

dicrotic n.  a small downward deflection in the arterial pulse or pressure contour immediately following closure of the aortic valve and preceding the dicrotic wave; sometimes used as a marker for the end of systole or the ejection period.

ethmoidal n. of frontal bone  incisura ethmoidalis ossis frontalis.

fibular n. ,  fibular n. of tibia  incisura fibularis tibiae.

frontal n.  incisura frontalis.

n. of gallbladder  fossa vesicae biliaris.

gastric n.  incisura angularis gastris.

greater n. of ischium  incisura ischiadica major.

interarytenoid n.  incisura interarytenoidea.

interclavicular n.  incisura jugularis sterni.

intercondylar n. of femur  fossa intercondylaris femoris.

interlobar n.  incisura ligamenti teretis.

intertragic n.  incisura intertragica.

intervertebral n.  see incisura vertebralis inferior and incisura vertebralis superior.

ischiadic n., greater  incisura ischiadica major.

ischiadic n., lesser  incisura ischiadica minor.

ischial n., greater  incisura ischiadica major.

ischial n., lesser  incisura ischiadica minor.

jugular n. of manubrium of sternum  incisura jugularis sterni.

jugular n. of occipital bone  incisura jugularis ossis occipitalis.

jugular n. of sternum  incisura jugularis sterni.

jugular n. of temporal bone  incisura jugularis ossis temporalis.

Kernohan's n.  a groove in the cerebral peduncle caused by displacement of the brain stem against the tentorium in some cases of transtentorial herniation.

lacrimal n. of maxilla  incisura lacrimalis maxillae.

lesser n. of ischium  incisura ischiadica minor.

n. for ligamentum teres  incisura ligamenti teretis.

mandibular n.  incisura mandibulae.

mastoid n.  incisura mastoidea ossis temporalis.

nasal n. of frontal bone  margo nasalis ossis frontalis.

nasal n. of maxilla  incisura nasalis maxillae.

palatine n.  1. incisura pterygoidea.  2. incisura sphenopalatina ossis palatini.

pancreatic n.  incisura pancreatis.

parietal n. of temporal bone  incisura parietalis ossis temporalis.

parotid n.  the notch between the ramus of the mandible and the mastoid process of the temporal bone.

popliteal n.  fossa intercondylaris femoris.

preoccipital n.  incisura preoccipitalis.

presternal n.  incisura jugularis sterni.

pterygoid n.  incisura pterygoidea.

radial n. ,  radial n. of ulna  incisura radialis ulnae.

rivinian n. ,  Rivinus' n.  incisura tympanica.

sacrosciatic n., greater  incisura ischiadica major.

sacrosciatic n., lesser  incisura ischiadica minor.

scapular n.  incisura scapulae.

sciatic n., greater  incisura ischiadica major.

sciatic n., lesser  incisura ischiadica minor.

semilunar n. of mandible  incisura mandibulae.

semilunar n. of scapula  incisura scapulae.

Sibson's n.  an inward bend of the left upward limit of precordial dullness in acute pericardial effusion.

sigmoid n.  incisura mandibulae.

sphenopalatine n. of palatine bone  incisura sphenopalatina ossis palatini.

sternal n.  incisura jugularis sterni.

supraorbital n.  incisura supraorbitalis.

suprascapular n.  incisura scapulae.

suprasternal n.  incisura jugularis sterni.

tentorial n.  incisura tentorii cerebelli.

terminal n. of auricle  incisura terminalis auricularis.

thyroid n., inferior  incisura thyroidea inferior.

thyroid n., superior  incisura thyroidea superior.

trigeminal n.  a notch in the superior border of the petrosal portion of the temporal bone, near the apex, for transmission of the trigeminal nerve.

trochlear n. of ulna  incisura trochlearis ulnae.

tympanic n.  incisura tympanica.

ulnar n. ,  ulnar n. of radius  incisura ulnaris radii.

umbilical n.  incisura ligamenti teretis.

vertebral n., inferior  incisura vertebralis inferior.

vertebral n., superior  incisura vertebralis superior.

Notechis (No·tech·is) (no-tek´is)  a genus of extremely venomous Australian snakes of the family Elapidae. N. scuta´tus is the tiger snake. See table at snake.

notencephalocele (no·ten·ceph·a·lo·cele) (no”ten-sef´ə-lo-sēl”) [not- + encephalocele]  occipital encephalocele.

notencephalus (no·ten·ceph·a·lus) (no”ten-sef´ə-ləs) [noto- + Gr. enkephalos brain]  a fetus affected with notencephalocele.

Nothnagel's bodies, syndrome (Noth·na·gel's bodies, syndrome) (not´nah-gelz) [Carl Wilhelm Hermann Nothnagel, Austrian physician, 1841–1905]  see under body and syndrome.

not(o)- (not(o)-) [Gr. nōton back]  a combining form denoting relationship to the back.

notochord (no·to·chord) (no´to-kord) [noto- + chord]  the rod-shaped body, composed of cells derived from the mesoblast of the primitive knot of the embryo, defining the primitive axis of the body and acting as the center of development of the axial skeleton; it is the common factor of all species of the phylum Chordata. Called also chorda dorsalis.

notochordoma (no·to·chor·do·ma) (no”to-kor-do´mə)  chordoma.

Notoedres (No·to·ed·res) (no”to-ed´rēz)  a genus of mange mites of the family Sarcoptidae. N. ca´ti is the itch mite, which causes a persistent, sometimes fatal, mange in cats and may also infest rabbits and humans.

notoedric (no·to·ed·ric) (no”to-ed´rik)  pertaining to or caused by Notoedres.

notogenesis (no·to·gen·e·sis) (no”to-jen´ə-sis) [noto- + -genesis]  development of the notochord.

notomelus (no·tom·e·lus) (no-tom´ə-ləs) [noto- + Gr. melos limb]  a fetus with accessory limbs on the back.

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