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KYHistorical Society
Kentucky Historical Marker Database
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"Bloody Monday" and American (Know-Nothing) Party
(Marker Number: 2205)

County: Jefferson
Location: 1011 West Main St., Louisville

Description: Election day, Aug. 6, 1855, known as Bloody Monday due to riots led by "Know-Nothing" mobs. This political party was anti-Catholic and nativist. Attacks on German immigrants east of downtown and Irish in the west caused at least 22 deaths, arson, and looting. Catholic Cathedral of the Assumption & St. Martin's Church were threatened with destruction.

(Reverse) This party feared that Catholic immigrants from Germany and Ireland threatened Protestanism and democracy. By 1854, the party claimed a million members nationwide and led Jefferson Co. govt. They split over slavery and by the end of the Civil War they had vanished from politics in Louisville and Jefferson Co.

(Subjects: Catholic Church | Louisville | Immigrants | Riots)

"Little Africa"
(Marker Number: 2074)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Virginia Ave. & I-264

Description: Located west of 32nd and south of Garland Ave., "Little Africa" was original African American section of Parkland. Settled in 1870s, African Americans first called it "Needmore." "Little Africa" evolved from a shantytown into a thriving community by 1920, with several hundred homes, six churches, and various businesses and schools. Presented by African American Heritage Foundation.

(Reverse) "Little Africa" embodied the black self-help ethic. The Parkland Improvement Club helped to add items such as cinder walks and mailboxes to the community. The town of "Little Africa" disappeared ca. 1948 when work began on the Cotter Homes Project, named for early resident, poet, and educator Joseph S. Cotter (1861-1949). Presented by African American Heritage Foundation.

(Subjects: African American)

"Neighborhood House"
(Marker Number: 1974)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 428 S. First St.

Description: Begun in 1896 as first settlement house in Kentucky. The founders wanted to improve the lives of immigrants and urban residents by offering English and citizenship classes, job skills, public baths, kindergarten, and a playground. Mary Belknap donated Neighborhood House's first permanent site here, 1902. In 1996 this area park was renamed Settlement House Park.

(Reverse) Settlement Houses - Before cities addressed issues such as child labor and housing, settlement houses were started by citizens to provide some relief. Neighborhood House and its sister agencies (Cabbage Patch, Louisville Central, Presbyterian Community Center, and Wesley House) still serve Louisville's urban families with cultural and educational services.

Abraham Lincoln
(Marker Number: 101)

County: Jefferson
Location: 1 mi. E. of Eastwood, US 60, 460

Description: Two miles northeast of here Abraham Lincoln, grandfather of the president, was massacred by Indians in May 1786. Long Run Baptist Church, standing on the Lincoln land grant, marks the traditional site of the pioneer's grave. The original marker was erected by The Filson Club 1937.

(Subjects: Baptist Church | Indians)

Alice Virginia Coffin (1848-88)
(Marker Number: 1715)

County: Jefferson
Location: Jefferson St., between Preston & Floyd Sts., Louisville

Description: Born on this street, Alice Virginia was one of seven founders of P.E.O., an international philanthropic and educational organization for women. It began as a sorority at the Iowa Wesleyan College, 1869; owns Cottey College in Missouri, and provides monetary assistance for education of women. Miss Coffin designed P.E.O. seal. Presented by Ky. P.E.O. Chapters.

(Subjects: Schools)

Artist of Confederacy
(Marker Number: 681)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Cave Hill Cem.-(Section 5), US 60, 460

Description: Nicola Marschall designed the Stars and Bars, official flag of Confederacy, and gray uniform of the Southern army, March 1861. Born, 1829, St. Wendel, Germany, he came to U.S. (Alabama) in 1849 to continue professionally in art. Noted portraits: Jefferson Davis, other Confederates; Lincoln and other Presidents. In 1873 he came to Louisville where he died, 1917.

(Subjects: Artists | Confederates)

Augustus E. Willson (1846-1931)
(Marker Number: 1786)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Cave Hill Cem.-Section L

Description: As governor, 1907-1911, Willson acted to quell civil unrest caused by Night Riders in tobacco growing areas of western Ky. A native of Maysville, Willson began career in Louisville. He became the protege and law partner of U. S. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan. Active in civic affairs until death, Willson was buried in Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville.

(Subjects: Cemeteries)

Bank of Louisville
(Marker Number: 88)

County: Jefferson
Location: Main St., Louisville

Description: Designed and built by Gideon Shryock, father of Greek Revival architecture in Kentucky. Bank was chartered by General Assembly in 1832 and building completed in 1837.

(Subjects: Shryock, Gideon)

Bashford Manor
(Marker Number: 2040)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 2040 Bashford Manor Ln.

Description: Designed for J. B. Wilder by Henry Whitestone, the residence was built in 1874. Wilder named Bashford Manor after an ancestral home in Maryland. In 1887 George J. Long purchased the farm and turned it into a nationally known racing stable. It was among Kentucky's top thoroughbred horse farms until the horses were sold in 1922. Presented by The Kentucky Derby Museum.

(Reverse) Bashford Manor - Three Kentucky Derby winners, Azra (1892), Manuel (1899), and Sir Huon (1906), were born here. The peacock blue and yellow silks were carried by two Derby winners, Azra and Sir Huon. Two Kentucky Oaks, a Preakness, and a Travers winner born on this farm. The barns razed in 1970; the mansion in 1973. Only original carriage house remains. Presented by The Kentucky Derby Museum.

(Subjects: Architects | Derby Winners | Horse racing | Horses | Kentucky Derby)

Beargrass Baptist Church
(Marker Number: 1544)

County: Jefferson
Location: US 60 at Shelbyville Road Plaza

Description: Site of first known church in greater Louisville area; formed Jan. 1784, by John Whitaker, aided by James Smith. It served until 1842, when members dispersed among Beargrass Christian Church and others. Whitaker helped found most early churches near city. In 1780, he and son, Aquilla, were in George Rogers Clark's campaign against Indians. Presented by Kentucky Baptist Historical Society.

(Subjects: Baptist Church | Clark, George Rogers)

(Marker Number: 1744)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, #2 Rebel Rd., just off Brownsboro Rd.

Description: On June 17, 1835, the daughter of Zachary Taylor, Sarah Knox, married Jefferson Davis in the house that originally stood on this site. The home was owned by Zachary Taylor's sister. Soon after their marriage, while visiting Davis' relatives in Louisiana, the couple contracted malaria. In September of that year, the young bride died. The present house built ca. 1870.

(Subjects: Davis, Jefferson | Taylor, Zachary)

Belknap Campus
(Marker Number: 541)

County: Jefferson
Location: University of Louisville Campus, Louisville

Description: Originally this was site of the old Industrial School of Reform and House of Refuge, established 1860. During Civil War, institution used by Union troops as barracks and parade grounds. The property, with several original buildings, taken over by Univ. of Louisville in 1923 and called the University campus. Renamed in 1927 in honor of benefactor William R. Belknap.

(Subjects: Civil War | Schools | University of Louisville)

(Marker Number: 1982)

County: Jefferson
Location: Berrytown, Haefer Ln. & LaGrange Rd.

Description: This eastern Jefferson County community began with five acres purchased in 1874 by Alfred Berry, a freedman. Other Berrytown founders were Wm. Butler, Sallie Carter, and Kidd Williams, all of whom bought land from Samuel L. Nock, a wealthy businessman. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Reverse) Berrytown - In the 1870s, Berrytown and Griffytown were created by freed African Americans. In 1915 Anchorage PTA got a train carrying the Liberty Bell to stop at neighboring schools, including Berrytown and Griffytown. Until 1934, the Interurban Car System electric trolley transported residents into Louisville. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Subjects: African American)

Berrytown Cemetery
(Marker Number: 2032)

County: Jefferson
Location: Cem. Entrance, Berrytown Rd.

Description: This cemetery became focal point for the Berrytown community, which began when Alfred Berry purchased five acres in 1874. Berrytown Cem. was purchased on June 23, 1890, by United Brothers of Friendship Lodge #83. As trustees, Lodge members maintained cemetery and, in 1902, constructed its columns and entrance gate. Presented by Jefferson Co. Commissioner Russ Maple.

(Reverse) Berrytown Cemetery - Berrytown Cemetery's more than 300 burials include the Berry family, other early settlers, and several military graves. Since 1984, Berrytown Cemetery has been owned and operated by a corporation formed by area residents and continues to exemplify the traditions of African American community building. Presented by Jefferson Co. Commissioner Russ Maple.

(Subjects: African American | Cemeteries)

Birth of Truth in Advertising
(Marker Number: 1664)

County: Jefferson
Location: First & Main Sts., Louisville

Description: The Associated Advertising Clubs of America met at Galt House, on this site, for their fifth annual convention, 1909. Led by Samuel C. Dobbs, the convention took united action to challenge false advertising. This stand began concept of the Better Business Bureau. By 1918, the Louisville Better Business Bureau, third in the nation, received its charter.

(Subjects: Louisville)

Bottled Bourbon
(Marker Number: 2103)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, ___

Description: Before 1870 Louisville distillers sold bourbon by the barrel to taverns and retailers who made their own blends. Doctors who used whiskey for medical purposes complained of unreliable quality. As a solution, Geo. Garvin Brown created Old Forester, first bourbon sold only in bottles by wholesaler, thus insuring dependable quality. Presented by Brown-Forman Corporation.

(Reverse) Old Forester Bourbon - Old Forester bourbon was developed in 1870 by J.T.S. Brown and Bro. Company at 322 W. Main St. in Louisville. Innovations included selling the product only in sealed bottles and registering the brand name under the U.S. Trademark Act. Brand has been continuously marketed by Brown family company, known today as Brown-Forman Corp. Presented by Brown-Forman Distillery.

Bowman Field
(Marker Number: 1676)

County: Jefferson
Location: Bowman Field, Taylorsville Rd., KY 155

Description: Kentucky's oldest civil airport was first used in 1919. Army Air Corps Reserve unit established three years later. Double hangars (west) housed 325th Observation Squadron. Terminal building, erected in 1929, was used by airlines through 1947. Concrete runways were installed in 1938. Operated by Louisville and Jefferson County Air Board since 1928. Presented by Ky. Aviation Association, Inc.

(Reverse) Bowman Field - Land first owned by pioneer Col. John Floyd, later by German Baron von Zedwitz. Confiscated as alien property during World War I. Local businessman and aviation enthusiast Abram H. Bowman founded flying service with Robt. H. Gast on this site in 1920. Property purchased by City of Louisville in 1928 for development as municipal airport. Presented by Ky. Aviation Association, Inc.

(Subjects: Airports | Aviation | Floyd, John | Louisville | World War I)

Bowman Field-East
(Marker Number: 1901)

County: Jefferson
Location: Sidney Park St. near corner of Cannon Lane, Louisville

Description: The east side of Bowman Field airport was expanded in 1940 to become the Bowman Field Air Base. It was a training facility with 124 buildings used by the U.S. Army Air Force throughout World War II. One hangar survives. Bowman Field was first used to train bomber crews and later was assigned to the first troop carrier command. Presented by WW II Flight Nurses Assoc., Inc.

(Reverse) Bowman Field-East - Troop carrier units were organized and combat glider pilots trained at Bowman Field. Only school of Air Evacuation in Air Force here, 1942-44. It taught surgeons, flight nurses, and medical technicians the procedures for the care of patients in the air. Some gave their lives caring for sick and wounded soldiers worldwide. Presented by WW II Flight Nurses Assoc., Inc.

(Subjects: Airports | World War II)

Brown-Forman Established
(Marker Number: 2105)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, ____

Description: George Garvin Brown and his half brother J.T.S. Jr. founded J.T.S. Brown and Bro. Co. in 1870, producing bourbon whiskey for doctors and pharmacies, later for general public. Company became Brown-Chambers, then Brown-Thompson. Current name adopted in 1890 at 117 W. Main when Geo. Brown partnered with George Forman. Presented by Brown-Forman Corporation.

(Reverse) George Garvin Brown - Distiller George Garvin Brown was born 1846 in Munfordville and attended school in Louisville. An innovator in whiskey industry, he advocated for product qualtiy and brand advertising. Created Old Forester, his company's premier bourbon, and was first president of Nat'l Liquor Dealers' Assoc., 1894. Died 1917; buried Cave Hill Cem. Presented by Brown-Forman Corporation.

Calvary Baptist
(Marker Number: 1845)

County: Jefferson
Location: 28th & Woodland Ave., Louisville

Description: Black members of Walnut Street Baptist Church formed own congregation by 1829, and began worshipping on Market St. They acquired lot on Fifth & York, 1833; held services there until 1957. The church played an especially prominent role under the ministry of educational and civil rights leader C. H. Parrish, 1885-1931. Present site purchased, 1958. Presented by The Versatilia Club of Calvary.

(Subjects: African American | Baptist Church | Civil Rights)

Calvary Episcopal Church
(Marker Number: 1695)

County: Jefferson
Location: 821 S. Fourth St., Louisville

Description: Calvary's congregation was derived from Sehon Methodist Chapel; it was admitted as an Episcopal parish at Diocesan Convention of 1861. The church was incorporated by Ky. General Assembly in 1869. Outstanding rectors have included W. H. Platt, James G. Minnegerode, and F. Elliott-Baker. Over. Presented by Calvary Episcopal Church.

(Reverse) Calvary Episcopal Church - This building was erected in two stages (1872-76, 1886-88) and is the product of two architects, W. H. Redin and Henry P. McDonald. One of only two cut stone spires in the United States caps the south tower. Calvary Episcopal Church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, 1978. Presented by Calvary Episcopal Church.

(Subjects: Architects | Episcopal Church | Methodist Church | National Register of Historic Places)

Camp Zachary Taylor
(Marker Number: 2126)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 4016 Poplar Level Rd.

Description: Near this site at Taylor Ave. and Poplar Level Rd. was headquarters of Camp Zachary Taylor. The WW I training camp named for President Zachary Taylor became one of 16 national army camps in the U.S. Begun in June 1917 and built in 90 days on 2,730 acres, the camp contained some 1,700 buildings and housed over 40,000 troops. The first troops arrived in Sept. 1917.

(Reverse) Camp Zachary Taylor - Over 125,000 men were trained here. The 1918 influenza epidemic struck Camp Taylor, killing hundreds of soldiers and hospitalizing thousands of others. By mid-1918 most of the troops were gone. The camp was officially closed in 1920. The land was auctioned off in 1,500 parcels by May 12, 1921. Presented by Stock Yards Bank and Trust Company.

(Subjects: Camps | Taylor, Zachary | World War I)

Cathedral of the Assumption
(Marker Number: 1639)

County: Jefferson
Location: 443 S. Fifth St., Louisville

Description: Parish first gathered in 1805; founded by Father Stephen Badin, the first Roman Catholic priest ordained in U.S. Congregation moved to this site, 1830. In mid-1830s Catherine Spalding founded orphanage and academy here. In 1841, center of America's oldest inland diocese transferred from Bardstown to Louisville.

(Reverse) Cathedral of the Assumption - Benedict Flaget, "First Bishop of the West," moved here and is buried in crypt. Present church was begun in 1849 under leadership of Bishop Martin John Spalding and dedicated, October 3, 1852. Building was planned by architect William Keely. Cathedral witnessed 1855 Bloody Monday riot and Civil War funeral services. On the National Register of Historic Places, 1977.

(Subjects: Architects | Bishops | Catholic Church | Flaget, Bishop Benedict Joseph | National Register of Historic Places)

Cedar Creek Baptist Church
(Marker Number: 1891)

County: Jefferson
Location: 7709 Bardstown Rd., Fern Creek

Description: First named Chenoweth Run, church formally organized June 16, 1792, about 12 mi. S.E. of Louisville. Log church built in 1798 on land given by William Fleming to Moses Tyler, trustee. Moved to this community after changing name to Cedar Creek, 1846. Present church completed in 1962. Congregation continuously active since 1792 organization. Presented by Cedar Creek Baptist Church.

(Subjects: Baptist Church | Cemeteries)

Center Street C.M.E. Church (Chestnut St. C.M.E. Church)
(Marker Number: 1677)

County: Jefferson
Location: At Church, 809 W. Chestnut St., Louisville

Description: Center Street C.M.E. was outgrowth of M.E. Church South. Became first of denomination in Louisville during early 1870s and hosted 3rd General C.M.E. Conference in 1874. Under leadership of Dr. L. H. Brown, church moved to present site in 1907 and became Chestnut St. C.M.E. Last known work of Gideon Shryock. Presented by the Trustee Board.

(Reverse) Brown Memorial C.M.E. Church - In May 1954, congregation renamed church Brown Memorial C.M.E. as a tribute to Dr. Brown, minister. Two pastors became bishops: C. H. Phillips and C. L. Russell. Edifice built for Chestnut Street M.E. South, 1863-64. Architecture blends Romanesque and Greek Revival styles. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, 1979. Presented by the Trustee Board.

(Subjects: Architects | Bishops | Methodist Church | National Register of Historic Places | Shryock, Gideon)

Charles H. Parrish, Jr. (1899-1989)
(Marker Number: 2008)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, U of L, Belknap Campus, Parrish Ct.

Description: In 1950-51 University of Louisville campus was integrated. One African American professor came from Louisville Municipal College, where only blacks had previously been enrolled. Charles H. Parrish, Jr., a noted sociologist and a lifelong civil rights activist, became the first black professor at a white southern school. U of L Bicentennial Committee.

(Reverse) Charles H. Parrish, Jr. - In 1959 Parrish became first black department head at U of L, chairing the sociology department. He studied under the noted American sociologist George Herbert Meade at the University of Chicago. His work as an activist yielded friendships with many Civil Rights era luminaries. This place of gathering is named in his honor. U of L Bicentennial Committee.

(Subjects: African American | Civil Rights | Louisville | University of Louisville)

Charles W. Anderson, Jr. 1907-1960
(Marker Number: 1964)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 600 W. Jefferson St., in front of Hall of Justice

Description: First African American elected to a southern state legislature in 20th century; six consecutive terms in Gen. Assembly, beginning in 1935. A Republican from Louisville, he sponsored repeal of Ky.'s public hanging law; funds for African Americans to attend graduate school outside Ky.; and employment of African Americans in government.

(Reverse) Charles W. Anderson, Jr. - Received Lincoln Institute Key (1940) for outstanding service to African Americans. Anderson served two terms as president of National Negro Bar Association, beginning in 1943. Assistant Commonwealth's Attorney for Jefferson Co., 1946. President Eisenhower appointed him to serve as an alternate U.S. Delegate to United Nations General Assembly in 1959. Over.

(Subjects: African American)

Chenoweth Massacre
(Marker Number: 992)

County: Jefferson
Location: Jct. US 60 & English Station Rd.

Description: One mile north. Scene of one of many Indian raids which plagued this area from time of earliest settlements to 1795. On July 17, 1789 Shawnees attacked the fort-springhouse built (1785) by one of Louisville's founders, Richard Chenoweth. Five were massacred-one, Bayless, burned at stake and Chenoweth's wife scalped; however, she survived and lived to age 80.

(Subjects: Indians)

Churchill Downs
(Marker Number: 1885)

County: Jefferson
Location: Ky. Derby Museum, 704 Central Ave., Louisville

Description: Organized in 1874 as Louisville Jockey Club by sportsman Col. M. Louis Clark. Track built on land leased from Clark's uncles, John and Henry Churchill. Twin-spired grandstand, a National Historic Landmark, first used in 1895. Col. Matt Winn (1861-1949) assumed management in 1902, saving track from bankruptcy. Under his leadership, Churchill Downs known worldwide as Ky. Derby site.

(Reverse) Kentucky Derby - Referred to as the "Run for the Roses," the first Kentucky Derby was run on this track, May 17, 1875. Black jockey Oliver Lewis rode H. P. McGrath's Aristides to victory. The 11/4 mile race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds is the oldest continuously run stakes race in America, "greatest two minutes in sports," and the first jewel in racing's Triple Crown.

(Subjects: African American | Horses | Kentucky Derby | Louisville)

City of Audubon Park
(Marker Number: 1996)

County: Jefferson
Location: Main entrance to Audubon Park, 3100 Preston Highway, KY 61

Description: The city was built on land granted to Col. William Preston in 1773 for service in French and Indian War. Its residential development (1912-45) proceeded from Audubon Country Club's incorporation, 1908. Credit is given to James L. Smyser of Audubon Realty Co. as "Father of Audubon Park" for his vision and promotion of this area. Presented by City of Audubon Park.

(Reverse) A Natural Garden Spot - To give Audubon Park the best features of both country and city life, N. Y. developer Clifford B. Harmon was hired. Naming of the park after naturalist John James Audubon reflected Back-to-Nature Movement in land use of early 20th century. Its shaded streets with planned green spaces, fresh air, and high ground made the park a place of permanent recreation.

Civil Rights Struggle, 1954 / Wades: Open Housing Pioneers
(Marker Number: 2144)

County: Jefferson
Location: Shively, Clyde Drive and S. Crum's Lane, east of I-264 underpass

Description: Louisville suburbs were racially segregated when African Americans Andrew and Charlotte Wade moved to Rone Court on May 15, 1954, two days before the Supreme Court condemned school segregation. Neighbors burned a cross and shot out windows, and the Wades endured harassment until June 27, when the house was dynamited.

(Reverse) Amid Cold War fears, the Wades’ civil rights were ignored. Focus shifted to alleged communism of whites Anne and Carl Braden, who had bought, then transferred house after no one would sell to the Wades. A sensationalized sedition trial ensued; street was renamed; culprits were never prosecuted. By 2000, however, 4010 Clyde Dr. was part of diverse neighborhood.

(Subjects: Civil Rights | Louisville)

Dr. James Bond (1863-1929)
(Marker Number: 1663)

County: Jefferson
Location: 930 W. Chestnut St., Louisville

Description: Born in Woodford County during slavery, James Bond was raised in Knox Co. He led a young steer to Berea College for his tuition. In 1896, became a trustee of Berea. After Day Law passed, he joined college's staff as fund raiser for Lincoln Institute. Served as Dir. of State YMCA for blacks and the first Dir. of Kentucky Commission on Interracial Cooperation. Over.

(Reverse) Early Leader and Educator - James Bond, a student of theology, obtained his B.D. from Oberlin in 1895 and D.D. from Berea in 1901. He was YMCA Service Director at Camp Taylor during World War I, traveled state in civil rights endeavors and facilitated compromise which established Chickasaw Park. Bond was the Kentucky delegate to YMCA Convention in Finland, 1926. Over.

(Subjects: African American | Berea College | Camps | Civil Rights | World War I)

Early Blacksmith Shop
(Marker Number: 1766)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 3612 Brownsboro Rd.

Description: This historic property has served as a blacksmith shop, wagon making shop and general store. Begun by John and Barbara Bauer in 1870, their businesses flourished here, on a main turnpike to Louisville, and finally in 1918 evolved into the Bauer family restaurant. This building was erected 1868-1869. Renovated in 1984.

Early Fourth Street
(Marker Number: 1723)

County: Jefferson
Location: Near south entry to the Galleria, Louisville

Description: Louisville's earliest map (1779) included Fourth Street. At first a street of residences and churches, it had become by the early 1900s the dominant commercial and social avenue of the city. Here arose prominent landmarks: Kaufman's (1903) and Stewart's (1907); the Seelbach (1905) and the Brown (1923) hotels; Starks Building (1912). Presented by the City of Louisville.

(Reverse) Later Fourth Street - On Fourth Street in 1870s stood a Polytechnic Library and in 1880s a Renaissance Customs House. In 1920s, "Movie Row" grew here with such "palaces" as Mary Anderson, Rialto, and Loew's theaters. Many U.S. presidents have paraded here, including Theodore and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Down Fourth "Avenue" Louisvillians marched to war and celebrated peace. See over.

(Subjects: Hotels | Library | Louisville | National Register of Historic Places | Railroads)

Early Jewish Congregations
(Marker Number: 1923)

County: Jefferson
Location: 5101 Brownsboro Rd. at corner of Lime Kiln, Louisville, US 42

Description: The Temple was created in 1976 by uniting Reform congregations Adath Israel and Brith Sholom. Adath Israel was chartered by Kentucky in 1842; it was the oldest Jewish congregation in Ky., 7th Reform in U.S., a founder of Union of American Hebrew Congregations. Ritual of Isaac M. Wise, founder of Reform Judaism, adopted in 1855. Presented by Jean and Jacques Morris.

(Reverse) Early Jewish Congregations - Brith Sholom formed 1880 by German Jews wishing a traditional service but tending toward reform. They joined UAHC, 1920. Jewish families moving farther east led to the relocation of site and 1976 consolidation. This temple was dedicated 1980. Cemetery is on Preston Highway. See over. Presented by Jean and Jacques Morris.

(Subjects: Jewish)

Enid Yandell (1869-1934)
(Marker Number: 2133)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Jct. 2100 Eastern Parkway & 1400 Cherokee Rd.

Description: Challenged the role of women in the art world as a renowned sculptor. Born 1869 in Louisville and graduated Cinn. Art Acad. in 1889. Gained prominence sculpting caryatids for Woman's Building at 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. In 1897, the Tennessee Centennial Exposition chose her to sculpt a 25' Athena in Nashville. Presented by Ky. Foundation for Women and Enid: Generations of Women Sculptors.

(Reverse) Renowned Woman Sculptor - Enid Yandell established studios in N.Y. and Paris. Studied with Rodin and MacMonnies. Inducted into National Sculpture Society in 1899 as one of first women members. She founded Branstock summer art school in Edgartown, Mass. Two noted works in Louisville: Daniel Boone Monument and Hogan's Fountain. Buried in Cave Hill Cem. Presented by the families of David Yandell Wood and Ian Yandell Henderson.

(Subjects: Artists | Sculptors | Women)

(Marker Number: 174)

County: Jefferson
Location: Jct. Bardstown Rd. & Wendell St., US 31-E, Louisville

Description: Historic residence completed by John Speed in 1810 from designs by Thomas Jefferson. Abraham Lincoln was a guest here of his close friend Joshua Speed in 1841. Open to the public.

(Subjects: Jefferson, Thomas | Lincoln, Abraham)

(Marker Number: 2231)

County: Jefferson
Location: 3033 Bardstown Road, Louisville

Description: Historic residence completed 1816 for John and Lucy (Fry) Speed. The Jefferson-inspired plan by Paul Skidmore includes octagonal rooms, rare in 19th c. Kentucky. As many as 64 African Americans enslaved at Farmington worked the 550-acre hemp plantation. Abraham Lincoln spent three weeks here in 1841 as guest of the family of his closest friend, Joshua Speed.

(Reverse) After his visit, Lincoln described a group of shackled slaves he saw on his steamboat trip home. Later he called the memory a “continual torment to me.” During the Civil War the Speeds supported the Union and Joshua’s ties to Lincoln helped secure Kentucky for the Union. Lincoln appointed James Speed Attorney General in 1864.

(Subjects: African American | Architects | Civil War | Hemp | Lincoln, Abraham | Slavery)

Farnsley-Moremen House
(Marker Number: 2141)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Riverside, The Farnsley-Mormen Landing, 7410 Moorman Rd.

Description: For most of the 19th century this house was center of prosperous Ohio River farm with an active riverboat landing. Built circa 1837 by Gabriel Farnsley (1800-1849). House and 200-acre farm site purchased, 1862, by Alanson Moremen (1803-90). Riverboat landing known as "Soap Landing" in late 1800s. Presented by Riverside, the Farnsley-Moremen Landing, Inc.

(Subjects: Ohio River | Rivers)

Father Herman Felhoelter
(Marker Number: 2092)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 639 South Shelby St., St. Martin of Tours Church

Description: Herman Gilbert Felhoelter was born in Louisville, July 17, 1913. Ordained a catholic priest by Order of Franciscans, 1939. Commissioned a captain in Chaplain Corps of U.S. Army, 1944. Awarded Bronze Star for service under fire, World War II. He was appointed an assistant pastor in Cincinnati after war and recommissioned in army, July 1948. Presented by St. Martin of Tours Church.

(Reverse) Sacrifice in Korea - During the Korean War battle for Taejon, Father Herman Felhoelter volunteered to stay behind with the wounded of 19th Infantry. These men were soon overcome and killed by enemy, July 16, 1950. Felhoelter posthumously awarded Distinguished Service Cross. Honored by National Chaplains Memorial in Arlington. Buried Louisville, St. Michael Cem. Presented by St. Martin of Tours Church.

(Subjects: Catholic Church | Korean War | World War II)

Fern Creek High School
(Marker Number: 2058)

County: Jefferson
Location: Fern Creek, 9115 Fern Creek Road, [500 ft. off US 31E]

Description: Built on land purchased from S.A. Stivers; school opened with 25 pupils, Sept. 17, 1923. Established as alternative to distant Louisville schools, Fern Creek was a two-year school at first but later adopted a four-year program. The first four-year class graduated in 1927. The current building constructed, 1941. Presented by Fern Creek Woman's Club and Community Organizations.

(Subjects: Schools)

First Unitarian Church
(Marker Number: 2173)

County: Jefferson
Location: York Street, Louisville

Description: Founded in 1830, First Unitarian Church has been active in civil- rights movements as well as community-wide initiatives. Several fires have damaged the church, including one in 1985 which left only the stone walls. Each time it has been rebuilt by the congregation & continues to support many civil rights issues. See over.

(Reverse) On January 12, 1895, Susan B. Anthony & Carrie Chapman Catt spoke at First Unitarian Church. This was a stop on their southern tour promoting women’s suffrage. Anthony’s speech on gender equity & political action was given in the church’s Sunday school room. Twenty-five years later women were granted the right to vote.

(Subjects: Civil Rights | Women)

Floyd's Station
(Marker Number: 1060)

County: Jefferson
Location: Breckinridge Ln. at Hillsboro Ave., Louisville

Description: This pioneer fort, begun in 1779, one of five on Beargrass Creek, was situated 500 ft. west. Three were owned by Col. John Floyd who made his headquarters here. He served as first County Lieut. of Jefferson County, 1780 until killed by Indians, 1783. From these forts, of defense and refuge, war was carried on against the British and the Indians in Ohio.

(Subjects: Floyd, John | Forts and Stations | Indians)

Forest Home Cemetery
(Marker Number: 2094)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 3650 Petersburg Rd.

Description: Forest Home Cemetery evolved from an old slave burial ground and is final resting place of Eliza Curtis Hundley Tevis (ca. 1802-84) and other early settlers of Petersburg community. Tevis was born a slave but gained freedom in 1833. She and her husband Henry purchased 40 acres in 1851 in Wet Woods, where Tevis had lived for many years. Presented by African American Heritage Foundation.

(Reverse) Forest Home Cemetery - Tevis was a significant African American landowner in antebellum Jefferson County. After the Civil War, the Tevis property and 40 adjacent acres purchased by Peter Laws were subdivided by 1880 to form rural African American community of Petersburg. Forest Home Cemetery is located near site of Tevis home and is one of oldest dedicated African American burial grounds in Ky.

(Subjects: African American | Cemeteries | Slavery)

Fort Southworth
(Marker Number: 1810)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 4522 Algonquin Parkway

Description: Here was westernmost fort of 11-fort system designed to protect Louisville from the Confederates during Civil War. Construction began August 1, 1864; almost complete at war's end. Funded by the city and the federal government, Fort Southworth, 19,000 sq. ft., was composed of earth and designed by John R. Gillis. Presented by Louisville-Jefferson Co. Metropolitan Sewer District.

(Subjects: Civil War | Forts and Stations)

Fort William
(Marker Number: 974)

County: Jefferson
Location: St. Matthews, Jct. US 60, 460 & Whipps Mill Rd.

Description: Established in 1785 by William Christian and his wife, Anne, a sister of Patrick Henry. On this site one of earliest stone houses in Kentucky was a famous tavern, The Eight Mile House, on Harrods Trace to Falls of the Ohio. From here, Col. Christian directed the defense of Jefferson County. Killed by Indians, 1786. Buried on Middle Fork of Beargrass. Over.

(Reverse) Col. William Christian - Pioneer leader, prominent in the development of Virginia, Kentucky. Born Virginia, 1743. Officer in French and Indian War, in Dunmore's War, the Revolution and defense of the frontier. He brought his family to Kentucky, 1785. Developed Bullitt Lick Saltworks, Kentucky's first industry. Trustee of Transylvania Seminary. County Lieut. Christian County named for him, 1796. Over.

(Subjects: Dunmore, John Murray | Forts and Stations | Henry, Patrick | Indians | Salt Works | Transylvania University)

Founding of Jefferson Seminary
(Marker Number: 2007)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, U of L, Belknap Campus, near Grawemeyer Hall, off 3rd St.

Description: April 3, 1798, is the university's symbolic founding date. On this date, eight Louisvillians pledged financial support for a new school. The 1798 benefactors were: William Croghan, Alexander S. Bullitt, James Meriwether, John Thruston, Henry Churchill, Richard Anderson, William Taylor, and John Thompson. U of L Bicentennial Committee.

(Reverse) Founding of Jefferson Seminary - From this commitment to higher education came Jefferson Seminary, which evolved into University of Louisville. The Louisville Medical Institute opened 1837; merged in 1846 with Louisville College, an outgrowth of Jefferson Seminary. A law school was added, and the new entity named the University of Louisville in 1846. U of L Bicentennial Committee.

(Subjects: Louisville | Schools | University of Louisville)

Fourth Street
(Marker Number: 1724)

County: Jefferson
Location: Near north entry to the Galleria, Louisville

Description: During Civil War, "Newspaper Row" stood in this area along Green (Liberty) St. On north side was pro-Union Journal; on south side, pro-southern Courier. Union Army Hq. was on west side of Fourth near Walnut. Macauley Theater opened in 1873 near Fourth and Walnut. It hosted Sarah Bernhardt in 1880. Mark Twain spoke in the area, 1885. Presented by the City of Louisville.

(Reverse) A Civil War Compass - From Galleria, all compass points have Civil War personality ties. One block west, Abe Lincoln visited James Speed's law office (1841). One block east is Christ Church, whose rector, Rev. Ashe, married Jeff Davis and Sarah Knox Taylor (1835). One block south, U. S. Grant visited Henry Watterson (1879). One block north, John Wilkes Booth performed on stage (1864). Over.

(Subjects: Actors | Civil War | Clemens, Samuel Langhorne (Mark Twain) | Courier-Journal (Louisville) | Davis, Jefferson | Episcopal Church | Grant, Ulysses S. | Lincoln, Abraham | Louisville | Newspapers)

George Rogers Clark
(Marker Number: 1753)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Cave Hill Cem.-Section P

Description: In 1776, Clark, delegate to Va. Gen. Assembly, prompted recognition of Ky. as county of Va. By 1778, he set up outpost on Corn Island, at Falls of Ohio, from which he launched invasion of Northwest. He captured three British forts, reduced Indian power, and crippled English strategy, thus helping secure territory for U.S. Over. Presented by Louisville-Thruston Chap., Ky. Soc. S.A.R.

(Reverse) George Rogers Clark - After fall of Ruddle's and Martin's stations, Clark led expeditions against Indians in 1780 and 1782. In later years Clark was plagued by poor health and war debts incurred for his country. He died at Locust Grove, his sister's home. Buried there and afterwards reinterred in Cave Hill Cem., 1869. Outpost he founded grew into Louisville.

(Subjects: Cemeteries | Clark, George Rogers | Falls of the Ohio | Forts and Stations | Indians | Kentucky County (Virginia))

Gilded Age Mansions / Chateauesque Architecture
(Marker Number: 2166)

County: Jefferson
Location: 1228 S. Third St., Louisville

Description: In the late 1800s, Louisville had gained a reputation as the “City of Beautiful Homes”—many of the city’s prominent citizens making their homes on fashionable Third Avenue. The collection of grand mansions and comfortable homes constitutes one of the richest examples of Victorian domestic architecture in the U.S.

(Reverse) Alongside the impressive examples of Romanesque, Victorian Gothic, Italianate, Queen Anne, Beaux Arts and Eclectic styles found in Old Louisville is Chateauesque, a rare, French-inspired design exemplified by steep-pitched gables, heavy ornamentation & intricate detail. Architects often added Moorish elements & terra-cotta arabesques.

(Subjects: Architects | Louisville)

Governor Thomas E. Bramlette
(Marker Number: 2234)

County: Jefferson
Location: Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville

Description: Lawyer, legislator, soldier, and governor, he was born on Jan. 3, 1817, in present Clinton County. During Civil War he raised and was colonel of 3rd Ky. Union Inf. In 1862, Pres. Lincoln appointed him US Dist. Attorney for Ky. The next year he became governor after an election rife with Union military interference. Over.

(Reverse) During the war, resisted Confed. guerrillas & Lincoln over black troops, habeas corpus, & civilian arrests. Governor until 1867, he supported pardons for ex-CSA and fought Freedmen's Bureau, 14th & 15th constitutional ammend. Estab. Ag. & Mech. College, forerunner to Univ. of Ky. After term was a Louisville lawyer. Died 1875.

(Subjects: Civil War | Confederates | Governors | Lincoln, Abraham | Louisville | University of Kentucky)

Grave of Steamboat Captain
(Marker Number: 1778)

County: Jefferson
Location: Bank St., W. of 34th St. at entrance to Portland Cem.

Description: Mary M. Miller of Louisville, a pioneer among women, was issued license as master of a steamboat on inland waters, Feb. 16, 1884, in New Orleans. License authorized her to navigate waters of Quachita, Mississippi, Red, and other western rivers. She and her husband George, a pilot and master, owned steamboat SALINE, built nearby. Died 1894; buried in Portland Cem.

(Subjects: Cemeteries | Steamboats)

Green Street Baptist Church
(Marker Number: 1693)

County: Jefferson
Location: 519 East Gray St., Louisville

Description: This church was constituted on Green Street, Sept. 29, 1844, with Brother George Wells as pastor. A noted trustee and treasurer was Ben Duke, who lived to age 110. Present church built 1930 by Samuel Plato under pastorate of H. W. Jones. Scene of August 1967 rally led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., to promote voter registration. Presented by Mr. Till Lecian.

(Subjects: Civil Rights | King, Rev. Martin Luther, Jr.)

(Marker Number: 1983)

County: Jefferson
Location: Griffytown, 401 Old Harrods Creek Rd.

Description: The Louisville and Frankfort Shortline railroad, which arrived in eastern Jefferson County through Hobbs Station (now Anchorage) in 1848, created a cluster of communities which would be known as Anchorage, Berrytown, and Griffytown. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Reverse) Griffytown - Local tradition holds that, in 1879, freedman Dan Griffith bought the cabin of early Middletown settler Minor White from his family. He moved the cabin to Old Harrod's Creek Road, founding the settlement known today as Griffytown (originally spelled Griffeytown). Cabin burned, 1956. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

Grotto & Garden of Our Lady of Lourdes
(Marker Number: 2179)

County: Jefferson
Location: 2301 Bradley Street, Louisville

Description: The Grotto (D.X. Murphy & Bros., Architects) was dedicated in 1927 as a place for contemplation on St. Joseph Infirmary grounds. Two-story, half-domed, concrete apse is faced on inside with stones and rubble. Modeled on natural grotto at Lourdes, SW France, where Virgin Mary appeared to Bernadette Soubirous in 1858.

(Reverse) Their statues adorned Louisville Grotto. Masonry walls enclose Grotto’s Garden. Fourteen arched niches, since filled in, held mosaics of Stations of the Cross, events from end of Jesus’ life. Dwane Beckhart painted modern replacements. Named state landmark by Ky. Heritage Council, 2001.

(Subjects: Catholic Church)

Harrod's Creek
(Marker Number: 2038)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, NE corner of Shirley Ave. & Salt River Rd.

Description: James Taylor (1885-1965) was chiefly responsible for the modern Harrods Creek community. Ambitious entrepreneur, Taylor purchased land from Mary Shirley Helm in 1919 and began to sell lots to other African Americans in 1923. The Taylor Subdivision became the nucleus for a thriving suburban African American community. Presented by African American Heritage Foundation.

(Reverse) Harrod's Creek - African American community near Harrods Creek developed after Civil War when large estates were subdivided and African Americans settled in southern Oldham Co., along Harrods Cr., in Prospect, and in "The Neck" near Hoskins Rd. The Jacob School, built 1916 and named for former slave Jefferson Jacob, is a surviving landmark. Presented by African American Heritage Foundation.

(Subjects: African American | Creeks | Schools)

(Marker Number: 1818)

County: Jefferson
Location: 3000 Bunker Hill Dr., Louisville

Description: This Greek Revival mansion was the home of world-renowned botanist Dr. Charles Wilkins Short from 1847 to 1863. Front section of Hayfield built by Col. George Hancock ca. 1834. Rear L-shaped part of house dated by some as late 1700s. Among the first property owners were Col. John Thruston, a trustee of Louisville, and David L. Ward, a prominent landowner.

Henry Watterson (1840-1921)
(Marker Number: 1719)

County: Jefferson
Location: 525 W. Broadway, Louisville

Description: Born in Washington, D.C., son of a Congressman and editor, Watterson gained wide newspaper experience. He succeeded Prentice as the editor of Louisville Journal, which merged with W. N. Haldeman's Courier and the recently acquired Democrat, 1868. For most of "Marse Henry's" 51-year tenure, the Courier-Journal was at Fourth and Liberty. It attained prominence under Watterson. Over.

(Reverse) Journalist-Politician - Watterson was a major force in Democratic Party. He enlisted in the Confederate Army, but believed in Union; was foe of sectionalism and often blasted it in writings. He opposed prohibition and League of Nations. His style influenced three generations; editorials hailing U.S. declaration of war earned him a Pulitzer Prize, 1917. He retired to "Mansfield" in Jeffersontown, 1919.

(Subjects: Courier-Journal (Louisville) | Journalists | Louisville | Newspapers | World War I)

Home of Founder
(Marker Number: 1229)

County: Jefferson
Location: 202 E. Chestnut at Brook St., Louisville

Description: Home of Col. Reuben T. Durrett, 1876-1913. Founder of The Filson Club and author of its first publication, in 1884, John Filson, the First Historian of Kentucky, and the Centenary of Kentucky, 1892. Designed by Henry Whitestone, noted Kentucky architect. Built by Dr. Thomas Edward Wilson and his wife, Caroline Bullitt, after 1856. Later, The Home of the Innocents.

(Reverse) The Filson Club - Named for John Filson, author of first history of Kentucky, The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke, 1784. Founded by Col. Reuben T. Durrett. Formed in his home here May 15, 1884 by: Reuben T. Durrett, George M. Davie, John Mason Brown, Basil W. Duke, Thomas W. Bullitt, Alex P. Humphrey, Wm. Chenault, James S. Pirtle, Richard H. Collins, Thomas Speed.

(Subjects: Architects | Books)

Home of I. Willis Cole
(Marker Number: 1998)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 2217 West Muhammad Ali

Description: Louisville pioneer in civil rights movement, Cole fought against segregation in public parks and on street cars. Ran for state senate on Lincoln Party ticket in 1922. Black votes provided necessary margin to get 19 bond issues passed which financed founding of Madison and Jackson Junior High Schools and Louisville Municipal College. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Reverse) I. Willis Cole, 1887-1950 - Militant editor and sole owner of The Louisville Leader and I. Willis Cole Publishing Co. (1917-1950). A race paper boasting, "We print your news, we employ your people, we champion your cause." Cole wielded power of the press to combat racism. A noted business and civic leader, devout churchman, and inductee of the National Negro Press Hall of Fame.

(Subjects: African American | Civil Rights | Germans | Louisville | Newspapers | Schools)

Irene Dunne (1898-1990)
(Marker Number: 1899)

County: Jefferson
Location: Ky. Center for the Arts, Louisville

Description: Born in Louisville, this actress appeared on Broadway in 1920s and then starred in forty-one comedy, dramatic, and musical films of the 1930s and 40s. Nominated five times for an Academy Award. Her noted films included "Show Boat" (1936), "Anna and the King of Siam" (1946), and "I Remember Mama" (1948). Irene Dunne received Kennedy Center Honors in 1985.

(Subjects: Academy Award | Actors | Films)

Isaac Hite's Home
(Marker Number: 1435)

County: Jefferson
Location: 12215 Lucas Ln., Anchorage

Description: This log house, which appears as Hite's house on John Filson's map printed in 1784, was on the plantation, Cave Spring, owned by Isaac Hite, an early surveyor. Hite (1753-1794) was born in Virginia. He came to Kentucky in 1773 in Capt. Thomas Bullitt's party which was the first to survey Jefferson Co. and the land on which Louisville now stands.

(Reverse) Isaac Hite - In 1775 Isaac Hite represented the Boiling Spring Settlement at Transylvania Convention that met at Boonesborough in first attempt to form government in Ky. He fought beside Boone, Todd and Stoner defending Boonesborough, being wounded on April 24, 1777. He served with Gen. George Rogers Clark in the Indian Campaigns of 1780 and 1782. Hite died in 1794.

(Subjects: Boone, Daniel | Boonesborough | Clark, George Rogers | Indians | Transylvania University)

James Guthrie (1792-1869)
(Marker Number: 1994)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 4th & Guthrie

Description: This statesman and entrepreneur fostered Louisville's growth from small town in 1810 to nation's 10th largest city in 1850. Promoted building of Portland Canal and the first R.R. bridge over Ohio River. As president of the University of Louisville, he established its Medical College and Academic Dept. Presented by Clan Guthrie-USA.

(Reverse) James Guthrie (1792-1869) - Guthrie served in the state legislature, 1827-40. In 1849 he presided over the third Kentucky Constitutional Convention. Pres. Franklin Pierce named him Secretary of U.S. Treasury, 1853-57. As president of L & N Railroad, 1860 to 1868, he was instrumental in keeping Ky. in Union during Civil War. He was U.S. senator, 1865-68. Presented by Clan Guthrie-USA.

(Subjects: Civil War | Louisville and Nashville Railroad | Ohio River | Schools | University of Louisville)

Jefferson County
(Marker Number: 1441)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Courthouse lawn

Description: One of three original counties formed when Kentucky Co., Virginia, was divided by Va. act in 1780. Other 2 counties were Lincoln and Fayette. Jefferson included 19 present-day counties; parts of 11 others. By 1811 reduced to present boundaries. Named for Thomas Jefferson, then governor of Va.; author of Declaration of Independence; and third U. S. President, 1801-1809.

(Subjects: Jefferson, Thomas | Kentucky County (Virginia))

Jefferson County Courthouse
(Marker Number: 1697)

County: Jefferson
Location: Sixth & Jefferson Sts., Louisville

Description: Designed by Gideon Shryock in the Greek Revival style. Construction began ca. 1837, and building first used by city and county, 1842. Completed in 1860 by Albert Fink and Charles Stancliff, it housed legislature briefly during Civil War. Structure renovated by Brinton Davis after 1905 fire. Seven U.S. Presidents have spoken here. On National Register of Historic Places, 1972.

(Reverse) City and County Named - Louisville, at the Falls of the Ohio, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark. Site first served as a military outpost; the city which developed was named for Louis XVI. Kentucky Co., Virginia, was divided in 1780 into Jefferson, Fayette, and Lincoln counties. Jefferson County was named for Governor Thomas Jefferson, who signed the first town charter of Louisville. Over.

(Subjects: Architects | Civil War | Clark, George Rogers | Courthouses | Falls of the Ohio | Kentucky County (Virginia) | Louisville | National Register of Historic Places | Shryock, Gideon)

Jennie Benedict
(Marker Number: 2142)

County: Jefferson
Location: 1830 South Third Street, Louisville

Description: Noted chef, caterer, and author was born 1860 in Louisville. She began her career in 1893 and in 1900 opened Benedict's restaurant and tearoom on South 4th Street. Entrepreneur Benedict was invited to join Louisville Board of Trade, 1903. Best known as creator of "benedictine," a sandwich spread that remains a Kentucky food specialty.

(Reverse) A founder of Louisville's Business Women's Club by 1899; published Blue Ribbon Cookbook 1902. As social reformer for women and the poor, Benedict collaborated with Jennie Casseday in founding King's Daughters & Sons Training School for Nurses at City Hospital; and an infirmary for women.

(Subjects: Hospitals | Louisville | Women | Benedict, Jennie)

Jerome Clarke ("Sue Mundy")
(Marker Number: 540)

County: Jefferson
Location: 18th & Broadway, Louisville

Description: Born in Franklin, Kentucky, 1844, Jerome Clarke enlisted in Company B, Fourth Regiment, Kentucky Confederate Orphan Brigade, 1861. Captured at Fort Donelson, he escaped from Camp Morton. Clarke saw action at Chickamauga and then became one of "Morgan's men." After Morgan's death, this Confederate raider became notorious as woman marauder "Sue Mundy." Over.

(Reverse)"Sue Mundy" Executed - Jerome Clarke, 20, was captured in March 1865, and tried and convicted for guerrilla activities as Sue Mundy. He claimed to have been operating as a Confederate soldier rather than a lawless guerrilla. In the block bounded by Broadway, Magazine, 17th and 18th streets, Clarke was hanged on March 15, 1865. A crowd of several thousand witnessed his death. See over.

(Subjects: Camps | Civil War | Forts and Stations | Morgan, John Hunt | Sue Mundy)

John B. Castleman-Soldier
(Marker Number: 1629)

County: Jefferson
Location: Near Gen. John B. Castleman monument, Cherokee Rd., Louisville

Description: Castleman, one of Morgan's men, led attempt in 1864 to free CSA prisoners at Camp Morton. He was imprisoned until end of the war, exiled, then pardoned by President Johnson. A native of Fayette Co., he came here in 1867. Colonel, Louisville Legion, lst Regt., Ky. State Guard, reorganized in 1878. Served with lst Regt. as Brigadier General in Puerto Rico, 1898-99.

(Reverse) John B. Castleman-Citizen - After the Civil War, Castleman studied law and graduated from University of Louisville in 1868. Known as Father of Louisville Park System, he was responsible for Cherokee, Shawnee, Iroquois and Central parks. Castleman also organized and was president of American Saddle Horse Assn., 1892. Appointed Adjutant General by both governors Knott and Beckham.

(Subjects: Beckham, J.C.W. | Camps | Civil War | Knott, J. Proctor | Louisville | Morgan's Raiders | University of Louisville)

John Floyd's Grave
(Marker Number: 146)

County: Jefferson
Location: Breckinridge Ln. at Hillsboro Ave., Louisville

Description: Grave of John Floyd, near here. Pioneer and surveyor. Born Amherst County, Virginia, 1750. Killed when ambushed by Indians in Jefferson County, District of Kentucky, 1783. Colonel of Militia and County Lieutenant of Jefferson County.

(Subjects: Floyd, John | Indians)

Kentucky Fugitives to Canada
(Marker Number: 2072)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Main at corner of 4th St.

Description: Thornton and Lucie (also called Ruthy) Blackburn were slaves in Louisville, 1830-31. Thornton was hired out to Wurts and Reinhard's store at 4th and Main. When Lucie was sold to Virgil McKnight, the two escaped by steamboat. They were claimed two years later in Detroit by owners. The couple was rescued in "The Blackburn Riots of 1833," Detroit's first racial riot.

(Reverse) Lucie and Thornton escaped to Canada. Two attempts to extradite them were refused. They moved to Toronto and began the first taxi service in Upper Canada while continuing to assist other fugitive slaves. Thornton died in 1890 and Lucie in 1895. Designated "Persons of National Historic Significance" by the Canadian Government. Presented by African American Heritage Foundation and the Ky. African American Heritage Commission.

(Subjects: African American | Slavery)

Kentucky Railway Museum
(Marker Number: 1720)

County: Jefferson
Location: Ormsby Station, on Dorsey Lane at LaGrange Rd., Louisville

Description: Officially designated Kentucky Railway Museum by Act of General Assembly. Began, 1954, on River Rd. Search for new location started after 1964 flood; moved here, 1977. Exhibits of rail relics given by many regional railroads and industries. One engine, L & N No. 152, pulled Theodore Roosevelt's campaign train; listed on National Register of Historic Places.

(Subjects: Museums | National Register of Historic Places | Railroads)

Knights of Pythias Temple
(Marker Number: 1662)

County: Jefferson
Location: 930 W. Chestnut St., Louisville

Description: The Knights of Pythias Lodge was organized in 1893 and the state headquarters built, 1915, at a cost of $130,000. The same prominent leaders organized the Lodge and Chestnut Street YMCA. Among those founding fathers were Albert Mack, W. H. Wright, and Albert Meyzeek. Known for their social and civic activities, the Pythians served as role models for black youths. Over.

(Reverse) Hub of Culture and History - The Pythias Temple housed many professional offices and facilities for serving the community. It included USO for blacks and office of James Bond, civil rights leader. Some 25,000 blacks attended the National Pythian Convention in this city, 1925. Lodge declined after Depression; Temple sold to Chestnut St. YMCA, 1953. Listed on National Register of Historic Places, 1978.

(Subjects: African American | National Register of Historic Places)

Lewis & Clark Expedition
(Marker Number: 1451)

County: Jefferson
Location: At the Wharf, 4th St., Louisville

Description: Exploration of the Northwest Territory was the first expedition undertaken by U.S. Government. Planned by President Thomas Jefferson. Led by Army Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Lewis began voyage at Pittsburgh; descended River to falls of the Ohio, Louisville, where he met Clark. On Oct. 26, 1803, they set out on historic journey westward. Over.

(Reverse) William Clark (1770-1838) - Brother of George Rogers Clark. Born in Va. Came to Louisville in 1785. He was commissioned Lt. in Army in 1792 and served four years, two years in same division with Meriwether Lewis. After leaving Army, he returned to Louisville. From 1803 to 1806 was with Lewis on expedition. In 1807, he moved to St. Louis. Named Gov. of Missouri Territory, 1813. Over.

(Subjects: Clark, George Rogers | Clark, William | Falls of the Ohio | Jefferson, Thomas | Lewis and Clark Expedition)

Lewis and Clark in Kentucky - Locust Grove
(Marker Number: 2086)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 561 Blankenbaker Ln.

Description: Meriwether Lewis and William Clark celebrated the expeditions' success and Clark's return home with family gathering here. Only known existing structure west of Appalachians related to expedition. Clark sent seeds and wrote 4 letters to sister Lucy and husband during travels. Presented by Falls of the Ohio Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Committee.

(Reverse) George Rogers Clark At Locust Grove - George Rogers Clark moved to Locust Grove in 1809 following amputation of his right leg. He lived here with sister Lucy and her husband William Croghan until Clark's death in 1818. Clark recognized by Va. in 1812 for his exploits and valor in Revolutionary War and awarded a ceremonial sword. Over. Presented by Historic Locust Grove.

(Subjects: Clark, George Rogers | Clark, William | Lewis and Clark Expedition | Revolutionary War)

Lewis and Clark in Kentucky - Mulberry Hill
(Marker Number: 2087)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Filson Ave. at George Rogers Clark Park

Description: Home of William Clark from 1785 to 1803, who was a leader of Lewis and Clark Expedition to the west 1803-6. Also home to York, his slave who went with the Corps of Discovery on the expedition. Over. Presented by Falls of the Ohio Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Committee.

(Reverse) Mulberry Hill - Home of John and Ann Clark and their family, which included sons George Rogers and William Clark. Clarks built house ca. 1785 and family lived here until 1860s. Remains of house and outbuildings razed in 1917 for WWI facility Camp Zachary Taylor. Family cemetery remains with graves of John and Ann Clark and other family members. Presented by Metro Parks of Louisville and Jefferson Co.

(Subjects: Clark, George Rogers | Clark, William | Lewis and Clark Expedition | Slavery | World War I)

Lewis and Clark in Kentucky - Trough Spring
(Marker Number: 2085)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Trough Springs Ln. & Dundee Rd.

Description: While on the Corps of Discovery's expedition to the Pacific Ocean, coleader William Clark wrote six letters to his brother Jonathan at Trough Spring. In 1805 he sent over 30 expedition artifacts here for family and friends. See over. Presented by The Filson Historical Society.

(Reverse) Trough Spring - Built under Wm. Clark's supervision on site selected by George R. Clark for their brother Jonathan when he moved to Ky., 1802. Jonathan was Rev. War veteran and major gen. of Va. Militia. Trough Spring remained his home until death, 1811. House has had many owners and several names. Appearance has been altered but original core of house remains. Presented by The Filson Historical Society.

(Subjects: Clark, George Rogers | Clark, William | Lewis and Clark Expedition | Revolutionary War)

Lewis and Clark in Kentucky- Field Brothers
(Marker Number: 2210)

County: Jefferson
Location: 11311 Mitchell Hill Rd., Louisville

Description: Joseph and Reuben Field were two of the most important members of the 1803-1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific Ocean. Born in Virginia, they were raised in the present Okolona, Fairdale, and Valley Station areas. Over.

(Reverse) Two of the first three recruits of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, they were two of the best hunters and received special praise from Meriwether Lewis for their service. Reuben returned to Ky. after the journey. Joseph was killed in 1807. Over.

(Subjects: Lewis and Clark Expedition | Louisville)

Lewis and Clark in Kenucky - York
(Marker Number: 2119)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, at end of Fourth St. on the Wharf

Description: This enslaved African American, who lived most of his life in Louisville, went on Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific, 1803-6. York was the first African American to cross the U. S. coast to coast and made important contributions to the success of the expedition.

(Reverse) York - York, a Clark family slave born ca. 1772, moved with them to Jefferson Co. from Va. in 1785. Inherited by Wm. Clark from father John in 1799. After return from expedition to the West, York lived in Louisville and worked as a wagon driver. Freed after 1815. Clark reported that York died in Tenn. before 1832. Sponsored by The Filson Historical Society and the African American Heritage Foundation.

(Subjects: African American | Clark, William | Lewis and Clark Expedition | Louisville | Slavery)

Locust Grove:1-1/2 miles, Northwest
(Marker Number: 835)

County: Jefferson
Location: US 42 & Blankenbaker Ln., Louisville

Description: Home of Gen. George Rogers Clark from 1809 until his death, 1818. William and Lucy Clark Croghan built it about 1790. Visited by Presidents Monroe, Jackson, Taylor. Clark and his 175 frontiersmen defeated British-Indians during Revolution: won Northwest for U.S. He built first outpost at Falls of Ohio, 1778. Founder of Louisville.

(Subjects: Clark, George Rogers | Falls of the Ohio | Jackson, Andrew | Louisville | Taylor, Zachary)

Long Run Massacre
(Marker Number: 991)

County: Jefferson
Location: Eastwood, US 60

Description: One mile south. Scene of massacre, undoubtedly the bloodiest in early Kentucky, which took place, 1781. A Miami Indian party killed over 60 pioneers en route from Squire Boone's Painted Stone Station to safety of forts at Falls of Ohio. Next day, reinforced by British Capt. McKee's Hurons, they killed 16 of 25 militia led by Col. John Floyd to bury massacre victims.

(Subjects: Boone, Squire | Floyd, John | Forts and Stations | Indians)

Louis D. Brandeis (1856-1941)
(Marker Number: 2006)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, U of L, Belknap Campus, Wilson Wyatt Hall, off 3rd St.

Description: At this site rest cremated remains of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, who served on the Court from 1916-39. His support for the Law School, now named in his honor, is best shown by gift of his papers, which include more than 250,000 items. He is famous for cross-disciplinary "Brandeis brief" method of arguing socially significant cases. U of L Bicentennial Committee.

(Reverse) Louis D. Brandeis (1856-1941) - Brandeis is also remembered for his early commitment to donated legal services, an area in which this school has been a leader. Brandeis was an opponent of the growing "bigness" of American institutions. He also wrote that "the right to be let alone" is fundamental. Remains of his wife, Alice Goldmark Brandeis, were placed here in 1945. U of L Bicentennial Committee.

(Subjects: University of Louisville)

Louis Dembitz Brandeis, 1856-1941
(Marker Number: 1880)

County: Jefferson
Location: Entrance to Univ. of Louisville Law School, Louisville

Description: U.S. Supreme Court Justice, 1916-1939, born on Center Street (now Armory). Brandeis attended public school in Louisville and later Harvard Law School. Pres. Woodrow Wilson nominated him for Supreme Court, 1916. He actively supported rights of speech and assembly, consumer protection, and women's rights. See over.

(Reverse) U.S. Supreme Court Justice - Brandeis was first Jew named to high court. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. was often his ally there. Brandeis championed such causes as low-cost life insurance through savings banks; opposed trusts, monopolies, and "the curse of bigness" in government and business. Brandeis Univ. in Mass. named for him. His ashes interred at Univ. of Louisville Law School.

(Subjects: Jewish | University of Louisville)

Louisville and Nashville Railroad
(Marker Number: 1350)

County: Jefferson
Location: 10th and Broadway, Louisville

Description: Chartered by the Kentucky General Assembly, March 5, 1850. First track was laid near here in July, 1855. First train ran in August, 1855. First passenger station dedicated at 9th and Broadway in 1858. From it in 1859 ran first through train from Louisville to Nashville. During Civil War L & N was Western sector's only North-South rail link, a vital part of Union supply route. Used by Generals Grant and Sherman to move men and supplies as Union rolled deeper into South. It was prime target for marauding Confederate units. Gen. John Hunt Morgan raided extensively along its tracks and bridges. But despite difficulties the railroad continued to operate.

(Reverse) L & N Expansion

First Train

  • 1859: Louisville to Nashville (Map showing 1867 Memphis expansion)
  • 1872: Birmingham, Montgomery
  • 1880: New Orleans, St. Louis, Pensacola, Mobile
  • 1881: Cincinnati
  • 1902: Knoxville
  • 1905: Atlanta
  • 1957: Paducah, Chattanooga
  • 1969: Chicago

(Subjects: Civil War | Grant, Ulysses S. | Louisville and Nashville Railroad | Morgan, John Hunt | Sherman, William T.)

Louisville Bar Association
(Marker Number: 2051)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Courthouse lawn

Description: Roots traced to 1871, with meetings of lawyers advocating legal reform. Those efforts led to state law guaranteeing that a witness could not be barred from testifying on basis of race or color. Officially established on January 13, 1900, the LBA is Kentucky's oldest, continuously operating bar association. Presented by Louisville Bar Association.

(Reverse) Louisville Bar Association - The LBA, with the Louisville Women's Club, was instrumental in establishing Louisville's Legal Aid Society in 1921, to provide legal aid for the poor. The LBA was also active in securing passage of the judicial article of 1975, which article barred non-lawyers from serving as judges and created a unified court system. Presented by Louisville Bar Association.

(Subjects: Louisville)

Louisville Cemetery
(Marker Number: 1992)

County: Jefferson
Location: Eastern Pkwy. at Poplar Level Rd., property owned by Louisville Cem.

Description: Original 31 acres incorporated Mar. 23, 1886, by prominent black citizens Bishop W. H. Miles, H. C. Weeden, J. Meriwether, A. J. Bibb, W. P. Churchill, William H. Gibson, Sr., and Felix Johnson. Buried here are Dr. Robert B. Scott, cofounder of Louisville Red Cross Hospital; educator Atwood S. Wilson; blues guitarist Sylvester Weaver; and community activist Bessie Allen.

(Reverse) William Walker, Sr. (1860-1933) - Born a slave in Woodford County, jockey William "Uncle Bill" Walker won 1877 Kentucky Derby on Baden-Baden. Churchill Downs' leading rider between 1875 and 1878, he retired from saddle in 1896. An expert on Thoroughbred pedigree in America, Walker was instrumental in developing modern racehorse. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Subjects: African American | Cemeteries | Horse racing | Horses | Kentucky Derby | Louisville)

Louisville City Hall
(Marker Number: 1704)

County: Jefferson
Location: Sixth & Jefferson, Louisville

Description: This building, a merger of the French Second Empire and Italianate style, was erected, 1871-73, from plans of John Andrewartha. Mansard clock tower designed by Henry Whitestone to replace one that burned in 1875. The Annex was added in 1909; its architect was Cornelius Curtin. Louisville City Hall Complex was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, 1976. Over.

(Reverse) Sixth and Jefferson - This area has been Louisville's civic center since 1784, when log courthouse was begun on south side of Jefferson near Sixth. In 1788 it was replaced by a stone structure. Brick courthouse stood here, 1811-1837. Across Sixth Street was "gaol," whipping post and pillory. Abraham Lincoln visited Pirtle and Speed law offices nearby in summer of 1841.

(Subjects: Architects | Lincoln, Abraham | Louisville | National Register of Historic Places)

Louisville Convention, 1845
(Marker Number: 1694)

County: Jefferson
Location: Fourth St., between Market & Jefferson, Louisville

Description: The Methodist Episcopal Church was first church to divide over issues which led to Civil War. Fourth St. Church, formerly at this site, hosted Lousville Convention in May 1845. Delegates of southern and southwestern conferences formed the M.E. Church, South, following separation plan adopted by General Conference, 1844. Presented by Southeastern Jurisdiction Historical Society.

(Reverse) United Methodist Church - National leaders Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun saw M.E. separation as significant rift in American society. This was largest religious denomination in USA. Efforts to reconcile began in Louisville in 1874 at another site. Division healed, 1939. These branches of Methodism became parts of United Methodist Church in 1968. Presented by S.E. Jurisdiction Historical Society.

(Subjects: Clay, Henry | Methodist Church)

Louisville Free Public Library
(Marker Number: 1654)

County: Jefferson
Location: Fourth & York Sts., Louisville

Description: Louisville Library Company founded in 1816 by Mann Butler and 4 others but failed, 1822. Later library attempts: Franklin Lyceum, 1840; Public Library of Ky., 1871, and the Polytechnic Society, 1876. Louisville Free Public Library was founded, 1903. Building on York St. given by Andrew Carnegie opened, 1908. North Building opened, 1969. Presented by Friends of the Library.

(Reverse) Representative Louisville Authors from Ky. Collection - John Mason Brown, Madison Cawein, Joseph Seaman Cotter, Mrs. George Madden Martin, Clark McMeekin, Alice Hegan Rice, Cale Young Rice, Henry Watterson, Annie Fellows Johnston, Robert Emmett McDowell, Gwen Davenport, John Jacob Niles, Eleanor Mercein Kelly, Abraham Flexner and Amelia B. Welby. Presented by Friends of the Library.

(Subjects: Authors | Library | Louisville | Poets)

Louisville Girls High School
(Marker Number: 1851)

County: Jefferson
Location: Second & Lee Sts., Louisville

Description: Serving girls' education for almost 100 years, school was originally known as Female High School and provided women of Louisville with a strong educational base. Opened on April 7, 1856 at Center and Walnut, school functioned on 1st Street and at 5th and Hill before moving to this site in 1934. Architect was J. M. Colley. It consolidated with DuPont Manual Boys School in 1950.

(Subjects: Architects | Schools)

Louisville Legion
(Marker Number: 1589)

County: Jefferson
Location: Near Gen. John B. Castleman monument, Cherokee Rd., Louisville

Description: The founding of this Legion dates to 1837, when a company was formed as the "Louisville Guards." The next year three more companies were organized. They were the "Washington Grays." These military organizations were combined into the Louisville Legion by a charter enacted by the Kentucky Legislature in 1839.

(Reverse) Louisville Legion - This organization served the nation under various designations. They participated in many conflicts, among which were: the Mexican War, 1846-47; the Civil War, 1861-64; Spanish-American War, 1898-99; Mexican Border, 1916; World War I, 1917-19; World War II, 1942-45; and Vietnam War, 1968-69. Legion is now represented by Hqs. XXIII Corps Arty. and 138th Arty. Group.

(Subjects: Civil War | Louisville | Mexican War | Spanish-American War | Vietnam War | World War II | World War I)

Louisville Medical College
(Marker Number: 1737)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 101 West Chestnut St.

Description: Founded in 1869, the college was one of four medical institutions in city which merged with Medical Dept. of University of Louisville, 1908. College built this limestone Richardsonian Romanesque structure 1891-1893. Building was designed by firm of Clarke and Loomis. It housed U of L School of Medicine, 1909-1970. Listed on National Register of Historic Places, 1975.

(Subjects: Architects | Louisville | National Register of Historic Places | Schools | University of Louisville)

Louisville Municipal College
(Marker Number: 2020)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 7th & Ky. Sts.

Description: Located on original site of Simmons University and Bible College, a black institution. Opened on Feb. 9, 1931, as the segregated branch of University of Louisville in response to black political activism. It was third municipally supported college for blacks in the U.S., offering liberal arts and pre-professional programs. Presented by Louisville & Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Reverse) Louisville Municipal College - University of Louisville trustees voted to desegregate university in April 1950, closing Louisville Municipal College in 1951. One faculty member, Dr. Charles H. Parrish, Jr., son of president of Simmons University, joined U. of L. as first black faculty member of a white university in the south. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Subjects: African American | Louisville | Schools | University of Louisville)

Louisville Western Branch Library
(Marker Number: 1545)

County: Jefferson
Location: 604 South Tenth St., Louisville

Description: This Carnegie-endowed library was one of the first in the nation to extend privileges to the black community. The library was first in William M. Andrews' residence at 1125 West Chestnut, now gone. The present library was designed by the architectural firm of McDonald and Dodd and was opened in October of 1908.

(Reverse) Louisville Western Branch Library - Thomas F. Blue (1866-1935), a theologian by training, joined the branch in 1908 as librarian. He designed a training program for blacks in library science which was instituted on a national scale. The library has served also as a community and cultural center for many years.

(Subjects: African American | Architects | Library | Louisville)

Louisville's Steamboat Era
(Marker Number: 1681)

County: Jefferson
Location: At the Wharf, 4th St., Louisville

Description: River navigation in 18th century was by flatboat and keelboat. First steamboat, NEW ORLEANS, arrived in Louisville in autumn of 1811. City soon became steamboat center with six lines operating here. Hundreds of these boats were built in area. Wharf teemed with traffic through Civil War. Eight U.S. presidents arrived on this wharf or "levee." Presented by The Louisville Historical League.

(Reverse) Visitors at Louisville Wharf

  • James Monroe - June 1819
  • Andrew Jackson - June 1819
  • Alexis de Tocqueville - Dec. 1831
  • Washington Irving - Sept. 1832
  • Abraham Lincoln - Sept. 1841
  • Charles Dickens - Apr. 1842
  • Walt Whitman - Feb. 1848
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson - June 1850
  • Oliver W. Holmes - Sept. 1855
  • Herman Melville - Jan.1858

Presented by Bellarmine College Alumni Association.

(Subjects: Jackson, Andrew | Lincoln, Abraham | Louisville | Steamboats)

Low Dutch Station
(Marker Number: 1848)

County: Jefferson
Location: At Jct. of Brown's Ln., Bowling Pkwy., & Kresge's Way, St. Matthews

Description: In 1780 Hendrick Banta led large group of Dutch pioneers from Pa. They rented land from John Floyd and built Low Dutch (New Holland) Station here, one of six pioneer forts on Beargrass Creek. Fleeing from Indians, group later bought land from Squire Boone in Henry and Shelby counties. This property was acquired in 1810 by James Brown of Md., a leading agriculturalist.

(Subjects: Boone, Squire | Creeks | Floyd, John | Forts and Stations | Indians)

(Marker Number: 1474)

County: Jefferson
Location: Lyndon, KY 146

Description: An early settler, Alvin Wood, named this community in 1871. One of America's oldest military schools, Ky. Military Institute, founded, 1845; moved here, 1896. Points of interest in area: Central State Hospital, founded on site of Isaac Hite's home, and Oxmoor, home of Alexander Scott Bullitt, who helped draft first Ky. State Constitution. Presented by Lyndon Homemakers Club.

(Subjects: Constitutional Convention (1792))

Memorial Auditorium
(Marker Number: 1692)

County: Jefferson
Location: Fourth & Kentucky Sts., Louisville

Description: Construction began in 1927 as a tribute to Louisvillians who died in First World War. Architect of the Greek Revival building was Thomas Hastings, assisted by E. T. Hutchings. On Decoration Day, May 30, 1929, the War Memorial Auditorium was dedicated. Within its walls Louisville's cultural life flourished, despite the dismal years of the Great Depression.

(Reverse) Performers at Memorial

  • Sergei Rachmaninoff - Nov. 1931
  • Ignace Paderewski - Mar. 1933
  • George Gershwin - Feb. 1934
  • George M. Cohan - Feb. 1935
  • Helen Hayes - Mar. 1935
  • Ethel Barrymore - Oct. 1935
  • Marian Anderson - Dec. 1939
  • Artur Rubinstein - Feb. 1948
  • Mikhail Baryshnikov - Nov. 1978
  • The Peking Opera - Oct. 1980

Presented by Bellarmine College Students.

(Subjects: Actors | Louisville | World War I)

Merriwether House
(Marker Number: 2079)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 6421 River Rd.

Description: On Jan. 6, 1891, Harry Merriwether purchased 1.5 acres overlooking Harrods Creek from Allison family. Property transferred to his grandson, Harry Hall Merriwether, May 3, 1898, who built the unique house that stands today. The Merriwether family engaged in farming and built and managed docks and cottages for vacationers on Harrods Creek. Presented by African American Heritage Foundation.

(Reverse) Merriwether House - Harry and Isaac Merriwether were the first African American landowners in the Harrods Creek area. After Harry Hall Merriwether's death in 1954, his wife, Elenora, maintained the property. Merriwether House is only surviving structure of this early African American community and remains in the Merriwether family. Presented by African American Heritage Foundation.

(Subjects: African American)

Murray Atkins Walls - Civil Rights Pioneer
(Marker Number: 2134)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 2105 Lexington Rd.

Description: Born in 1899 in Indianapolis, Walls earned an M.A. from NY's Columbia Univ. As a teacher, she developed an early black history program in Indiana. In 1930s, Walls worked to secure public housing for blacks in Louisville. In 1940s, she led demonstrations at the whites-only main library and helped hire black clerks in a dept. store.

(Reverse) Murray Atkins Walls - Civil Rights Pioneer - Murray Walls led the movement that integrated Girl Scout programs and camps by 1956. She was a Girl Scout trainer, the first black woman to serve on the Girl Scout Board of Directors, and the Ky. State Board of Education. Walls died in 1993. See over. Presented by Girl Scouts of Kentuckiana.

(Subjects: African American | Civil Rights)

Noted School Site
(Marker Number: 1898)

County: Jefferson
Location: 550 W. Kentucky St., Louisville

Description: Designed in 1873 by B.J. McElfatrick, architect, as first black public school in Ky. Central Colored School served as cultural and educational center for city's black community until 1894. Then, because of overcrowding, Central relocated. Education continued here for eight more decades. From 1916 to 1970, this was the Mary D. Hill School, named for kindergarten pioneer.

(Subjects: African American | Architects | Schools)

Old Catholic High School
(Marker Number: 1793)

County: Jefferson
Location: 428 S. 8th St., Louisville

Description: Site of Kentucky's only Catholic high school for blacks. It existed at this location from 1928-1958, operated by the Archdiocese of Louisville. Founded in 1921, the school was administered by pastors of St. Augustine and St. Peter Claver churches, with Sisters of Charity of Nazareth and lay staff as teachers. Desegregation led to the school's closing in 1958.

(Subjects: African American | Catholic Church | Schools | Sisters of Charity of Nazareth)

Our Lady Church
(Marker Number: 1312)

County: Jefferson
Location: Rudd Ave. at Cedar Grove Terrace, Louisville

Description: Congregation organized in 1837-38 by Father Stephen Badin, the first priest ordained in US. He saw to Portland's spiritual welfare when it was first a community of French immigrants. Also helpful in forming church were Bishop Flaget, first bishop west of Alleghenies, and Bishop Chabrat, first to be ordained in Ky. Bricks in original church, 1841, used for this one. Over.

(Reverse) Portland - French immigrants established a community here in 1806. In 1814 it was surveyed and platted. By 1837 it was incorporated as a suburb of Louisville. It was an early river port and boatbuilding center-41 steamers had been built by 1855. Portland was site of first tramway in US, connecting it with Louisville, and once famous hostelry of South, St. Charles Hotel. Over.

(Subjects: Bishops | Catholic Church | Flaget, Bishop Benedict Joseph)

(Marker Number: 983)

County: Jefferson
Location: St. Matthews, S. side US 60, 460, E. of Watterson Overpass

Description: Built by Alexander Scott Bullitt and his wife, Priscilla, daughter of William Christian. Located on the 1000-acre Ware tract, surveyed by John Floyd in 1774. Bullitt born, Va., 1762; came Ky., 1783. With George Nicholas drafted first Ky. constitution, 1791. President 1799 Constitutional Convention. First Ky. Lieut. Gov. Died in 1816. Bullitt County named for him, 1796.

(Subjects: Constitutional Convention (1792) | Constitutional Convention (1799) | Floyd, John)

Perryville Prelude
(Marker Number: 548)

County: Jefferson
Location: W. of Middletown, US 60, 460

Description: Two largest skirmishes of Civil War in Jefferson County occurred here Sept. 27 and 30, 1862. CSA forces, already in control of the State Capital, were threatening Louisville. In first clash the Confederates were driven back to Floyds Fork. Three days later CSA again halted at Union line. Both were preliminary to Battle of Perryville on Oct. 8, 1862.

(Subjects: Civil War | Perryville, Battle of)

(Marker Number: 1988)

County: Jefferson
Location: Petersburg/Newburg Community, Indian Trail & Petersburg Rd.

Description: Named Petersburg after freedman Peter Laws built log cabin in area after Civil War. Oral tradition holds that freed slave Eliza Curtis Hundley Tevis farmed here from about 1820. She and her husband bought 40 acres at Indian Trail and (now) Petersburg Rd., 1851. As a land and slave owner, Tevis prospered and became a strong religious influence in the community. Over.

(Reverse) Newburg - Newburg ("new town" in German) was settled in 1830s by four German immigrant families. Located near Poplar Level and Shepherdsville Roads, it became a coach stop to Louisville in 19th century. It had a post office, hotel, shops, and homes. Descendants of freed slaves remain in the area today. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Subjects: African American)

Prentice School
(Marker Number: 542)

County: Jefferson
Location: 525 S. 6th St., Louisville

Description: On this site stood the George D. Prentice School, which was one of nineteen in Louisville that were commandeered for use as hospitals during Civil War. Worden Pope, an early Louisville civic and political leader, built his home here ca. 1830. It housed the Kentucky School of Medicine from 1887-1914 and later the Stevens School for Retarded Children.

(Subjects: Civil War | Hospitals | Schools)

Presentation Academy
(Marker Number: 1702)

County: Jefferson
Location: 861 S. Fourth St., Louisville

Description: The city's first Catholic school and Louisville's oldest existing school, founded 1831, by Mother Catherine Spalding. Recognized as co-founder of Sisters of Charity of Nazareth with Bishop J. B. David, she began a hospital and city's first orphan asylum at school's original site on Fifth St. during the 1830s cholera epidemic. In Memory of Joe Valla by Marlene Valla Bohn.

(Reverse) Presentation Academy - The actress Mary Anderson attended classes at Presentation Academy in the 1870s. In 1892, the Sisters bought Thomas Jacobs house on this site. The new Presentation, erected in 1893 and designed by D.X. Murphy in Richardsonian Romanesque style, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It observed school's sesquicentennial in 1981. In Memory of Joe Valla by Marlene Valla Bohn.

(Subjects: Actors | Cholera | Louisville | National Register of Historic Places | Orphanages | Schools | Sisters of Charity of Nazareth)

Preston Park Seminary
(Marker Number: 1680)

County: Jefferson
Location: At Bellarmine College, Newburg Rd., Louisville

Description: This land was part of a grant for French-Indian War service. Surveyed in 1774 by Wm. Preston, it was granted to James McCorkle by Gov. Thomas Jefferson in 1779. Bought by Bishop Wm. McCloskey, 1869, as site of diocesan seminary, which functioned until 1910. Orphanages of St. Vincent (1892-1901) and St. Thomas (1910-1938) were also here. Presented by Bellarmine College Alumni Association.

(Reverse) Bellarmine College - Founded by Archbishop John A. Floersh, Bellarmine opened as a Catholic men's college in 1950. Merged with Ursuline College in 1968 and became coeducational. The international Thomas Merton Studies Center housed on campus. College visitors have included John F. Kennedy, Thomas Merton, Karl Rahner and Henry Cabot Lodge. Presented by Bellarmine College Alumni Association.

(Subjects: Jefferson, Thomas | Orphanages)

Rebecca Rosenthal Judah; National Council of Jewish Women
(Marker Number: 2221)

County: Jefferson
Location: 3600 Dutchmans Lane, Louisville

Description: Rebecca Rosenthal Judah organized the National Council of Jewish Women, Louisville Section, and served as their president from 1896 to 1910. She worked to win women's right to vote and was also vice president and treasurer of the Kentucky Equal Rights Association. Over.

(Reverse) Louisville Section founded in 1895 to further human welfare through education, philanthropy, service, and social action. NCJW helped run the city's free public baths and first kindergarten. Also supported immigrant aid programs, hospitals, libraries, child welfare initiatives. Over.

(Subjects: Jewish | Women)

Restoration Project
(Marker Number: 1028)

County: Jefferson
Location: Downtown Jeffersontown, KY 155

Description: Cemetery of the German Reformed Presbyterian Church 1799-1909. A Community Service Project of the Rotary Club of Jeffersontown. Commenced 1964. Completed 1967. Marker presented by Rotary Club of Jeffersontown.

(Subjects: Cemeteries)

Rev. William H. Sheppard
(Marker Number: 2055)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Jct. Hancock & Jacob Sts.

Description: Born in Waynesboro, Virginia, in 1865, Sheppard attended Hampton and Stillman Institutes. Sent to the Belgian Congo in 1890, he served as missionary in Africa until 1910. Became a fellow of the Royal Geographic Society of London in 1893 for his explorations. Sheppard denounced the Belgian colonists' cruelty in the Congo. Presented by Alderman George Unseld.

(Reverse) Rev. William H. Sheppard - Returning from Africa, Sheppard was pastor of Grace Presbyterian Church in Louisville from 1912 until his death in 1927. One of the city's most respected African American leaders, he was known for his work in the Smoketown community. Sheppard Park (1924) and Sheppard Square Housing Project (1942) named in his honor. Presented by Alderman George Unseld.

(Subjects: African American | Presbyterian Church | Schools)

Rosa Phillips Stonestreet 1859-1936
(Marker Number: 2196)

County: Jefferson
Location: 10007 Stonestreet Rd., Louisville

Description: Born in Jefferson Co., Stonestreet was the first woman to be elected superintendent of Jefferson Co. schools. An 1877 graduate of Nazareth Academy, she became a teacher in 1889. In 1897 she was elected superintendent by 845 votes, defeating two men. This was 14 years before women could vote in school elections.

(Reverse) As superintendent 1898-1910, she streamlined fiscal management and shifted authority from board of trustees. She died on April 7, 1936, and is buried at Cave Hill Cemetery in an unmarked grave next to her husband, Charles. In 1994, Stonestreet Elementary School was renamed in her honor.

(Subjects: Cemeteries | Schools | Women)

Ruff Memorial - Wheelmen's Bench
(Marker Number: 1997)

County: Jefferson
Location: Wayside Park, Third St. & Southern Pkwy., Louisville

Description: Erected 1897 by Ky. Div. of League of American Wheelmen to honor cycling pioneer A. D. Ruff (1827-96) of Owingsville, Ky. The League's oldest member, he had bicycled to Yellowstone National Park in 1893. Marble fountain and stone bench, known to generations of cyclists as "Wheelmen's Bench," designed by famed sculptor Enid Yandell.

(Reverse) Cycle Carnival, 1897 - On October 8, 1897, a parade of 10,000 cyclists passed here to celebrate a new cinder bicycling path along Southern Parkway. Viewed by 50,000 spectators, parade began at Third and Broadway and ended at Iroquois Cycle Club. Many cyclists were in costume; ladies wore bloomers. Bugles and cannon fire marked the parade's progress. Presented by The Louisville Bicycle Club - 1997.

(Subjects: Sculptors)

Russell Neighborhood
(Marker Number: 2017)

County: Jefferson
Location: 21st & Chestnut, SW corner, Louisville

Description: Named, 1926, for Harvey C. Russell, Sr. (1883-1949), prominent African American educator. Boundaries extend from 9th to 31st, between Broadway and Market Sts. For generations, Russell neighborhood was the center of African American business and professional and social life around Louisville. Presented by African American Heritage Foundation.

(Reverse) Russell Neighborhood - By the 1830s, free blacks began buying property west of 9th St. African Americans began moving west of 21st St. after World War I. Predominantly black by the 1930s, Russell includes a large number of Victorian mansions, antebellum churches, Western Branch Library, businesses, and historic schools. Presented by African American Heritage Foundation.

(Subjects: African American | Library | Louisville)

Saint Joseph Infirmary
(Marker Number: 2042)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Eastern Pkwy., W. from Preston St.

Description: In 1836, the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth founded a hospital on Jefferson St. called St. Vincent Infirmary. When facility moved to Fourth St. in 1853, the name changed to St. Joseph Infirmary. To meet growing needs, a new 325-room facility opened here in 1926. Internationally renowned surgeon Dr. Irvin Abell Sr. based his practice at St. Joseph.

(Reverse) St. Joseph Infirmary - The School of Nursing, which graduated 1,540 nurses, operated here, 1926-1971. The facility was sold to Extendicare, 1970, and main building razed ten years later. Services moved to Audubon Medical Center on Poplar Level Rd. The surrounding St. Joseph Neighborhood is named after infirmary. Presented by St. Joseph Neighborhood Association, CARITAS Medical Center, and the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth.

(Subjects: Hospitals | Sisters of Charity of Nazareth)

Schnitzelburg / Dainty—A Schnitzelburg Street Game
(Marker Number: 2162)

County: Jefferson
Location: 1000 Goss Ave., Louisville

Description: Once part of Germantown, area’s growth occurred after completion of 1891 Goss Texas Ave. streetcar loop. Part of Alexander Spotswood 1000-acre land grant; region platted 1866 by D.H. Meriwether. Landmarks include Louisville Cotton Mills, St. Elizabeth’s Church, Heitzman’s Bakery. #1 Citizen honored annually.

(Reverse) Introduced to Louisville in 1800 by German immigrants, Dainty is played with a 5” stick, and a 3’ stick. The 5” stick is placed on the ground, hit with the longer, then hit, airborne, as far as possible. Game revived in 1971 by George Hauck & Charlie Vettiner. The World Championship Dainty Contest is celebrated each July.

(Subjects: Louisville)

Scottish Rite Temple
(Marker Number: 1739)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 200 East Gray St.

Description: Home of Grand Consistory of Ky., a branch of Freemasonry. Chartered 1852 in Louisville by Supreme Council of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction of U.S. of America. Oldest Body under Supreme Council in continued existence. John C. Breckinridge was the first Ky. Sovereign Grand Inspector Gen. Presented by The Louisville, Ky., Scottish Rite.

(Reverse) Grand Consistory of Kentucky - Albert G. Mackey, Sec.-Gen. of Supreme Council, issued warrant "To open and hold Consistory of Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret" for Ky. in Louisville, Aug. 21, 1852. A dispensation was given to H. Gray, Grand Cmdr.; H. Hudson, lst Lt. Cmdr.; J. H. Howe, 2nd Lt. Cmdr.; J. Cromie, Grand Treas.; and F. Webber, Grand Sec., to serve as Charter Officers of the Grand Consistory.

(Subjects: Breckinridge, John Cabell)

Second African Baptist Church
(Marker Number: 1949)

County: Jefferson
Location: First St. between Market and Main Streets, Louisville

Description: Second African Baptist Church, now Green Street Baptist Church, was formally organized here, Sept. 29, 1844. As was usual in the years of slavery, the founding members had the sponsorship of a protection committee, appointed by First Baptist Church (now Walnut Street). The first pastor was Elder George Wells, 1844-1850. See over. Presented by Green Street Baptist Church.

(Reverse) Second African Baptist Church - The church was more than a religious experience for African Americans. It was also a school, a social center, and a training ground in group cooperation. In 1848 the church relocated to Green Street (now Liberty) and took its current name in 1860. Church moved to its new edifice at 519 East Gray Street, September 29, 1930. Over. Presented by Green Street Baptist Church.

(Subjects: African American | Baptist Church)

Simmons University
(Marker Number: 1661)

County: Jefferson
Location: 1018 S. 7th Street, Louisville

Description: School proposed by Gen. Assoc. of Colored Baptists in Kentucky and chartered through legislature in 1873 as Ky. Normal and Theological Institute. Frankfort was the first site suggested but Assoc. selected Louisville. Charter amended in 1882, changing name to State Univ. Became Simmons Univ. in 1919 in honor of Wm. J. Simmons, eminent president from 1880 to 1890. Over.

(Reverse) Simmons University - By 1919 Simmons had grown from 3 to 10 departments, including Music, Theology, Law, Insurance, Social Service and Industrial Education. Medical School founded, 1888. First site at 7th and Kentucky sold to University of Louisville for Municipal College in 1930. Simmons moved to Dixie Highway, 1935, and to 1811 Dumesnil, 1949. Name changed to Simmons Univ. Bible College, 1967.

(Subjects: African American | Baptist Church | Schools | University of Louisville)

Since 1842
(Marker Number: 1336)

County: Jefferson
Location: Frankfort Ave., Louisville

Description: The Kentucky School for the Blind, third such state-supported school in U.S. Dr. Samuel G. Howe, of Boston, a pioneer educator of blind, was invited to Kentucky to give public demonstration with his own pupils. Displayed before Kentucky Legislature and in Louisville demonstrating they could be trained for useful life, "free from crushing weight of dependence, ever their lot." Over.

(Reverse) Since 1858 - American Printing House for the Blind, the oldest non-profit agency for blind in US and largest publishing house for blind in world. Since 1879, the official school-book printery for all such students in US. The only institution devoted solely to publishing literature and developing and manufacturing manual aids for them. See over.

Slave Trading in Louisville
(Marker Number: 1990)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, S.E. corner of 2nd & Main

Description: By the 1850s, Kentucky was annually exporting between 2500 and 4000 of its slaves down river to the large plantations farther south. To prevent runaways, traders operating near the Ohio River kept slaves shackled together in pens when not being displayed to buyers. Slave traders were often social outcasts avoided by all but fellow traders.

(Reverse) Garrison Slave Pen Site - Matthew Garrison was a well known Kentucky slave speculator in the Deep South. A white abolitionist leader, Rev. Calvin Fairbank, wrote in 1851 that four slave markets, including Garrison's and Arterburn's, sold men, women, and children "like sheep." Slavery abolished by 13th Amendment, 1865. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Subjects: African American | Slavery)

Slavery Laws in Old Kentucky
(Marker Number: 1989)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, First St., between Market & Jefferson Sts.

Description: Ky.'s 1792 Constitution continued legalized enslavement of blacks in the new state; 1800 tax lists show 40,000 slaves. U.S. banned African slave trade in 1808 but selling of men, women and children in South continued. By 1830, blacks made up 24% of Ky. population. Kentucky Nonimportation Act of 1833 halted the transfer of blacks for resale. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Reverse) Site of Arterburn Brothers Slave Pens - After Kentucky's Nonimportation Act repealed in 1849, Louisville slave markets expanded. The Arterburns advertised cash for farm hands and others. Iron-barred coops held people to be shipped south. Chained, they marched up Main Street to board boats in nearby Portland. Some died of shock or disease on the trip south.

(Subjects: African American | Slavery)

(Marker Number: 1985)

County: Jefferson
Location: Smoketown, Hancock St. & E. Broadway

Description: This historically black community began to flourish following end of slavery in 1865, when thousands of African Americans moved to Louisville. Shotgun-type houses on closely spaced streets and alleys allowed both black and white landowners to profit from the dense settlement. Washington Spradling, Jr., a prominent African American, owned vast real estate in area.

(Reverse) Historic Area - Many in Smoketown worked in tobacco warehouses as cutters, processors, and haulers. Community had one of city's first African American public schools, founded 1874. Smoketown is only post-Civil War neighborhood settled mainly by African Americans that remains in city of Louisville. Presented by Louisville and Jefferson County African American Heritage Committee, Inc.

(Subjects: African American)

Soldier's Retreat
(Marker Number: 1968)

County: Jefferson
Location: Nottingham Pkwy. & Seaton Springs, off Hurstbourne

Description: Home of Colonel Richard C. Anderson 1750-1826, American Rev. patriot. Aide to Lafayette, wounded at siege of Trenton and Savannah, captured at Charleston, fought at Yorktown, where surrender of Lord Cornwallis to Washington in 1781 completed the Revolution. Married Elizabeth Clark, sister General George Rogers Clark. Second wife Sarah Marshall, cousin Chief Justice John Marshall. Over.

(Reverse) Soldier's Retreat - Completed by Anderson in 1794, with massive walls of limestone over two feet thick, it was a refuge from possible Indian attack. Damaged by earthquake 1811 and lightning 1840, the homestead was later dismantled. Distinguished by 1983 listing on National Register Historic Places, Soldier's Retreat reconstructed by L. Leroy Highbaugh, Jr. Presented by City of Hurstbourne.

(Subjects: Clark, George Rogers | Lafayette, Marquis de | National Register of Historic Places | Revolutionary War)

Soldier's Retreat
(Marker Number: 534)

County: Jefferson
Location: E. of St. Matthews, US 60, 460

Description: Home of Richard Clough Anderson, Revolutionary hero, built before 1785 half-mile south. Anderson, who served on staff of Lafayette, is buried in cemetery near home, which burned 1842. The birthplace, in 1805, of Robert Anderson who, as commander of Fort Sumter in April, 1861, was first Union hero of Civil War. Commander Dept. of Ky. Sept., 1861.

(Subjects: Forts and Stations | Lafayette, Marquis de)

Spring Fort Built Before 1782
(Marker Number: 26)

County: Jefferson
Location: McCready Ave. &Trinity, Louisville

Description: The rock spring on Beal's Branch 800 feet south marks Spring Fort. One of the pioneer "Beargrass settlements" contemporary with the founding of Louisville. When its commander, Richard Steele, was wounded in an Indian attack at Floyd's first fort, his wife seized her baby and, riding through the night amid shots from the red men, sped up what is now Story Avenue across Beargrass Creek and Lexington Road and through the fort's hastily opened gateway to the succor of her husband.

(Subjects: Floyd, John | Forts and Stations | Indians)

St. Andrew's Catholic Church
(Marker Number: 2129)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 7500 St. Anthony Church Rd., 1 mi. off St. Andrew's Church Rd.

Description: On this site in 1848-51, one of the first rural Catholic churches in Jefferson County was built on Cardinal Hill by German and French immigrants. It was on 1.3 acres donated to the Archdiocese of Louisville by Prussian immigrant John Jacob Wiser. First service held Janaury 4, 1851. See over. Presented by St. Paul Church.

(Reverse) Early Catholic Church - St. Andrew's featured a frescoed ceiling with gilded stars, stations of the cross written in English, German, and French, and a painting of St. Andrew behind the altar. Replaced, 1909, by St. Paul Church, which maintains graveyard and records. Some stones from St. Andrew's were used in construction of the present St. Paul. Over.

(Subjects: Catholic Church)

St. John's Evangelical Church
(Marker Number: 1546)

County: Jefferson
Location: 637 East Market St., Louisville

Description: German congregation founded, 1843. The first local church to join Evangelical Church Society of the West, 1856, pioneer of Evangelical Synod of North America. Hosted first general conference of Society, 1859, at church on Hancock Street, built, 1848. Maintained school, 1849-1882; from 1869, in schoolhouse on site of present Parish Hall. Over. Dedicated to memory of Rev. Theodore S. Schlundt, D.D.

(Reverse) St. John's Evangelical Church - Cornerstone laying for present Gothic structure, June 24, 1866. Completion and dedication were in October, 1867. English services begun, 1893. Longest of the 14 pastorates was held 1936-67 by the Reverend Theodore S. Schlundt, D.D. Denominational mergers in 1934 and 1957 brought present membership in The United Church of Christ. See over. Dedicated to memory of Rev. Theodore S. Schlundt, D.D.

(Subjects: Germans)

Sturgus Station
(Marker Number: 984)

County: Jefferson
Location: St. Matthews, S. side US 60, 460, E. of Watterson Overpass

Description: Named for Peter A'Sturgus, early Kentucky pioneer, who settled on 2,000-acre tract of land surveyed, 1774, and granted to Col. William Christian by patent dated June 2, 1780. One of the five important pioneer stations on Middle Fork of Beargrass Creek shown on John Filson's 1784 map. In 1780 it was a considerable fort and settlement of some twenty to forty families.

(Subjects: Forts and Stations)

The Discovery of the Ohio River
(Marker Number: 22)

County: Jefferson
Location: S. end of George Rogers Clark Mem. Bridge at north end of 2nd St., Louisville

Description: In A.D. 1669 Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle, commissioned by the French officials of Louis XIV at Quebec, seeking a water route to China and Japan, guided by an Indian and accompanied by a party in canoes, descended this river, called by the Iroquois Indians the Ohio, meaning the beautiful river. Sponsored by The National Society of the Colonial Dames of America.

(Subjects: Indians | Ohio River)

The Filson Club Historical Society
(Marker Number: 1976)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 1310 S. Third St.

Description: Founded in 1884 and named for John Filson (1753-88), Kentucky's first historian, this institution collects, preserves, and publishes historical material pertaining to Ky. and adjoining states. The collections of books, manuscripts, art, photographs, and artifacts are available to everyone. Over.

(Reverse) The Ferguson Residence - At the time the most expensive home in Louisville, the residence was built for businessman Edwin Hite Ferguson (1852-1924) between 1902 and 1905 and is the finest example of residential Beaux Arts architecture in the city. In 1986 it became the headquarters for The Filson Club Historical Society.

The Galt House
(Marker Number: 535)

County: Jefferson
Location: Second & Main Sts., Louisville

Description: A world-famed inn operated here from 1835 until it burned in 1865. Host to notables, such as author Charles Dickens, it was scene of assassination of USA Gen. Wm. Nelson, Sept. 1862, by USA Gen. J. C. Davis. Sherman and Grant met here March 1864, to plan invasion that led to the "March to the Sea." Traditions carried on at new Galt House at lst and Main, 1869-1921.

(Subjects: Authors | Civil War | Grant, Ulysses S. | Nelson, William | Sherman, William T.)

Thomas Edison Butchertown House
(Marker Number: 1713)

County: Jefferson
Location: 729 E. Washington St., Louisville

Description: Designated the official Edison Museum in the Commonwealth of Ky. by an Act of the General Assembly, 1982. Thomas A. Edison lived in Louisville, 1866-67. Moved to N. J. where he perfected the incandescent light. Edison returned to Louisville in 1883 for opening of Southern Exposition, where 4600 of his lights were on display. See over.

(Reverse) Thomas Edison Butchertown House - Edison (1847-1931) rented a room in this house. As a young man he conducted experiments, often all night, then walked to his job as a telegraph operator at 58 West Main Street. Experimenting at work, he spilled acid and was fired. He left Louisville and later developed over 1000 patents for such devices as phonograph and microphone. Over.

(Subjects: Inventors | Museums)

Thomas Merton (1915-68)
(Marker Number: 2004)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, 461 Fourth Ave.

Description: Trappist monk, poet, social critic, and spiritual writer. Born in Prades, France. After education at Cambridge and Columbia Univ., he entered Abbey of Gethsemani, Trappist, Ky., 1941; ordained as priest, 1949. His autobiography, The Seven Storey Mountain (1948), earned international acclaim. He is buried in abbey cemetery. Presented by Thomas Merton Center Foundation.

(Reverse) A Revelation - Merton had a sudden insight at this corner Mar. 18, 1958, that led him to redefine his monastic identity with greater involvement in social justice issues. He was "suddenly overwhelmed with the realization that I loved all these people...." He found them "walking around shining like the sun." Conjectures of a Guilty Bystander. Presented by Thomas Merton Center Foundation.

(Subjects: Books | Catholic Church)

Trainer and Jockey
(Marker Number: 1475)

County: Jefferson
Location: Town Square at Jeffersontown

Description: Roscoe Goose, 1891-1971, rode the 1913 Derby Winner Donerail, which paid biggest odds in Derby history. Born near here, Goose became a trainer and aided many jockeys. Active in all aspects of racing. One of first 10 men named to Ky. Athletic Hall of Fame, March 14, 1957. Pres., Kentucky Thoroughbred Breeders Assn., 3 yrs. Buried Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville, Ky.

(Subjects: Cemeteries | Derby Winners | Horses | Kentucky Derby)

Tyler Settlement
(Marker Number: 1907)

County: Jefferson
Location: Sweeney Ln. & Taylorsville Rd., Jeffersontown

Description: By 1785, Edward Tyler patented some 1,000 acres on Chenoweth Run. Sons Moses, William, Edward III, and nephew Robert Tyler established farms on this land, each productive and self sufficient by the 1790s, forming a rural community. The three surviving homesteads retain many original structures, including log and stone houses, springhouses, barns, and a family cemetery. Over.

(Reverse) Tyler Settlement - In 1986, a 600-acre area was designated the Tyler Settlement Rural Historic District, including portions of Moses, Edward III, and Robert Tyler's farms. Moses ran one of the state's earliest licensed distilleries. A portion of his land (170 acres) is now Blackacre State Natural Preserve, one of the oldest working farms in Jefferson Co. and an environmental education center.

(Subjects: Distilleries)

Water Works Pumping Station
(Marker Number: 1689)

County: Jefferson
Location: Near entrance to water tower, off River Rd. & Zorn Ave., Louisville

Description: Louisville Water Co. incorporated in 1854. Its first pumping station, in Classical Revival style, blends beauty and utility. The classic structures were designed and built by Theodore R. Scowden and his assistant, Charles Hermany. Built 1857-60, it could pump 12 million gallons in 24 hours. Site was away from industry, well elevated, with good landing for coal boats. Over.

(Reverse) Water Tower - The 169-foot tower encloses a water standpipe. It represents a Roman column in the Doric order. The base is surrounded by Corinthian columns, nine topped by Greek classical figures and one by an American Indian. Tower damaged by a tornado in 1890. The station and its water tower were named National Landmarks in Nov. 1971. Presented by Friends of the Water Tower.

(Subjects: Louisville)

Whiskey Row
(Marker Number: 2104)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, ___

Description: Development of the Louisville wharf and the steamboat led bourbon whiskey trading houses and jobbers to locate their warehouses and offices along Louisville's Main St. From the 1840s until 1920s, over 50 whiskey firms found here. The street became known as "Whiskey Row." By 2002, only Brown-Forman Corp. was still located here. Over. Presented by Brown-Forman Corporation.

(Reverse) Transportation of Bourbon - Barrels of bourbon were shipped to Louisville's Main Street from numerous rural and Louisville-based distilleries. From here, barrels were loaded on steamboats and shipped around the world via St. Louis, Memphis, and New Orleans. With introduction and expansion of the railroad, the use of river transportation declined. Over.

(Subjects: Distilleries)

Wilderness Road
(Marker Number: 219)

County: Jefferson
Location: Okolona, KY 61, 1065

Description: Trail of thousands of pioneers through here, 1775 to 1811. Made into wagon road by Act of the Legislature 1796. Lifeline for Gen. George Rogers Clark's army at Falls of Ohio, Louisville, 1778-83. Road abandoned 1840. It followed ancient buffalo path.

(Subjects: Clark, George Rogers | Falls of the Ohio | Ohio River | Roads | Wilderness Road)

Woodlawn Race Course
(Marker Number: 1820)

County: Jefferson
Location: Perryman & Westport Roads, Louisville

Description: Opened in 1859 and drew national attention. Closed after Civil War. R. A. Alexander, noted breeder, was major figure in buying estate for National Racing Association. He contracted with Tiffany's to design Woodlawn Vase; used in 1861 and 1862. It was buried for safety during war. Vase is now winner's trophy at the Preakness Stakes, where a replica is given each year.

(Subjects: Horse racing)

(Marker Number: 532)

County: Jefferson
Location: Shively, US 31-W

Description: Home of Bennett H. Young (1843-1919). Member of famed CSA unit, Morgan's Raiders, Lt. B. H. Young led 21 soldiers in raid October 19, 1864 on St. Albans, Vermont, Civil War's northernmost action. Robbed three banks of over $200,000 and attempted to burn town. Captured in Canada, they were released. After war, he became a business and civic leader in Louisville.

Zachary Taylor Home
(Marker Number: 111)

County: Jefferson
Location: Louisville, Blankenbaker Ln., N. of US 42, at Apache St.

Description: Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784-July 9, 1850), soldier and twelfth president of the United States, lived here between 1785-1808.

(Subjects: Taylor, Zachary)

Zachary Taylor Home
(Marker Number: 1849)

County: Jefferson
Location: 5608 Apache Rd., off Blankenbaker Ln., Louisville

Description: Col. Richard Taylor of Va., veteran of French and Indian War and the Revolution, built original part of "Springfield" ca. 1790. Boyhood home of son "Old Rough and Ready" Zachary Taylor (1784-1850), veteran of 1812 and Black Hawk wars. Mex. War hero and 12th U.S. pres. (1849-50). Zachary's daughter Sarah Knox married Jefferson Davis, future CSA president. Son Richard was Confed. Gen.

(Subjects: Davis, Jefferson | Forts and Stations | Mexican War | Revolutionary War | Taylor, Zachary)

Zachary Taylor National Cemetery
(Marker Number: 1412)

County: Jefferson
Location: Entrance to cem. on Brownsboro Rd., Louisville, US 42

Description: Gen. Zachary Taylor (1784-1850), distinguished lifetime soldier and twelfth President of United States, buried here in family cemetery. Commissioned Lt. 1808. Served in War of 1812; Black Hawk War, 1832; Seminole War, 1836-43. Major Gen., 1846. Active leader in Mexican War, 1846-47. Western Army Command, 1847. Elected President, 1848. Died in office.

(Subjects: Cemeteries | Mexican War | Taylor, Zachary | War of 1812)

Zion Baptist Church
(Marker Number: 1657)

County: Jefferson
Location: 22nd & Walnut Sts., Louisville

Description: Congregation was organized by 18 blacks in Aug., 1878. First church on Center Street, 1882; present church bought in 1927. Notable pastors have been W. H. Craighead, D. E. King, A. D. Wms. King (brother of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.) and H. D. Cockerham. Zion was base for local and state civil rights activities; Ky. Christian Leadership Conference office was in adjoining building.

(Subjects: African American | Baptist Church | Civil Rights | King, Rev. Martin Luther, Jr.)

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