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intestinal - involutional

intestinal (in·tes·ti·nal) (in-tes´tĭ-nəl) [L. intestinalis]  pertaining to the intestine.

intestine (in·tes·tine) (in-tes´tin) [L. intestinus inward, internal; Gr. enteron]  intestinum.

blind i.  caecum (def. 2).

empty i.  jejunum.

iced i.  peritonitis chronica fibrosa encapsulans.

jejunoileal i.  intestinum tenue mesenteriale.

large i.  intestinum crassum.

mesenterial i.  intestinum tenue mesenteriale.

segmented i.  colon.

small i.  intestinum tenue.

straight i.  rectum.

intestinocystoplasty (in·tes·ti·no·cys·to·plas·ty) (in-tes”tĭ-no-sis´to-plas”te)  enterocystoplasty.

intestino-intestinal (in·tes·ti·no-in·tes·ti·nal) (in-tes”tĭ-no-in-tes´tĭ-nəl)  pertaining to two different portions of the intestine, as the intestino-intestinal reflex.

intestinum (in·tes·ti·num) (in”tes-ti´nəm)  pl. intesti´na [L., from intestinus inward, internal]  intestine: the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric opening of the stomach to the anus: it is a membranous tube, comprising the intestinum tenue and the intestinum crassum, whose function is to complete the processes of digestion, to provide the body (through absorption) with water, electrolytes, and nutrients, and to move along and store fecal wastes until they are expelled. Called also bowel and gut.

i. cae´cum  caecum (def. 2).

i. cras´sum  [TA]  large intestine: the distal portion of the intestine, about five feet long, extending from its junction with the small intestine to the anus; it comprises the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.

i. i´leum  ileum.

i. jeju´num  jejunum.

i. rec´tum  rectum.

i. te´nue  [TA]  small intestine: the proximal portion of the intestine, smaller in caliber than the large intestine, and about twenty feet long, extending from the pylorus to the cecum; it comprises the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Called also enteron.

i. te´nue mesenteria´le  the portion of the small intestine which has a mesentery, comprising the jejunum and ileum.

intima (in·ti·ma) (in´tĭ-mə) [L. “innermost”]  1. innermost.  2. tunica intima vasorum.

intimal (in·ti·mal) (in´tĭ-məl)  pertaining to the inner layer of the blood vessels (tunica intima vasorum).

intimitis (in·ti·mi·tis) (in”tĭ-mi´tis)  endangiitis.

intolerance (in·tol·er·ance) (in-tol´ər-əns) [in-2 + tolerance]  inability to withstand; sensitivity, as to a drug.

carbohydrate i.  inability to properly metabolize one or more carbohydrates, as in glucose intolerance, hereditary fructose intolerance, and the various types of disaccharide intolerance.

disaccharide i.  a symptom complex occurring after ingestion of normal quantities of dietary carbohydrates, characterized by abdominal symptoms including diarrhea, flatulence, borborygmus, distention, and pain; it is usually due to deficiency of one or more disaccharidases but may have other causes such as impaired absorption. See also lactose i. and α,α-trehalase, and see sucrase-isomaltase deficiency and disaccharidase deficiency, under deficiency.

drug i.  the state of reacting to the normal pharmacologic doses of a drug with the symptoms of overdosage.

exercise i.  limitation of ability to perform work or exercise at normally accepted levels; cf. exercise tests, under test.

glucose i.  inability to properly metabolize glucose, a type of carbohydrate intolerance; see also impaired glucose tolerance, under tolerance, and diabetes mellitus.

hereditary fructose i.  an autosomal recessive carbohydrate intolerance due to deficiency of fructose bisphosphate aldolase, isozyme B, with onset in infancy; it is characterized by hypoglycemia, with variable manifestations of fructosuria, fructosemia, anorexia, vomiting, failure to thrive, jaundice, splenomegaly, and an aversion to fructose-containing foods. If untreated, it may be fatal. See also essential fructosuria, under fructosuria.

lactose i.  a disaccharide intolerance specific for lactose, usually due to an inherited deficiency of lactase activity in the intestinal mucosa; see also lactase deficiency.

lactose i., congenital  1. lactose intolerance present at birth, due to deficiency of lactase activity; see lactase deficiency.  2. a severe autosomal dominant disorder with vomiting, dehydration, failure to thrive, disacchariduria (including lactosuria and aminoaciduria), and cataracts; it is probably due to abnormal permeability of the gastric mucosa.

lysine i., congenital  an autosomal recessive disorder due to a defect in the degradation of lysine, characterized by high levels of ammonia, lysine, and arginine in the blood, with vomiting, rigidity, and coma. Cf. hyperlysinemia.

lysinuric protein i.  a hereditary disorder of metabolism transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, involving a defect in dibasic amino acid transport and resulting in a lack of sufficient ornithine to support activity of ornithine transcarbamylase, an intramitochondrial urea cycle enzyme, in the liver. It is characterized by growth retardation, episodic hyperammonemia, seizures, mental retardation, hepatomegaly, muscle weakness, and osteopenia and is treated by citrulline supplementation.

orthostatic i.  an abnormal response to standing upright that results from decreased blood pressure and inadequate blood flow to the brain, characterized by a variety of symptoms including lightheadedness, palpitations, tremulousness, visual disturbances, and syncope. It occurs in both acute and chronic forms and is frequently seen as a transient condition in space travelers returning from microgravity. The etiology is unknown but may be related to abnormalities in the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function.

sucrose i., congenital  a disaccharide intolerance specific for sucrose, usually due to a congenital defect in the sucrase-isomaltase enzyme complex; see sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, under deficiency.

intorsion (in·tor·sion) (in-tor´shən) [L. in toward + torsio twisting]  inward rotation of the upper pole of the vertical meridian of each eye; called also adtorsion and conclination. Cf. extorsion.

intortor (in·tort·or) (in´tor-tər) [L. intorquēre to twist]  1. an internal rotator.  2. an extraocular muscle that produces intorsion, i.e., the superior oblique or the superior rectus muscle. Cf. extortor.

intoxication (in·tox·i·ca·tion) (in-tok”sĭ-ka´shən) [L. in intensive + Gr. toxikon poison]  1. stimulation, excitement, or stupefaction produced by a chemical substance, or as if by one.  2. substance i., particularly that in which the substance is alcohol (see alcohol i.).  3. poisoning.

alcohol i.  [DSM-IV]  substance intoxication occurring during or shortly after ingestion of alcohol and characterized by maladaptive psychological or behavioral changes combined with physiologic responses such as slurred speech, incoordination, impaired memory or attention, unsteady gait, stupor, or coma.

alcohol idiosyncratic i.  a term previously used for maladaptive behavioral change, usually belligerence, produced by ingestion of amounts of alcohol insufficient to cause intoxication in most persons. It is no longer considered to be separate from alcohol intoxication because evidence for a distinction is lacking.

bongkrek i.  see under poisoning.

pathological i.  alcohol idiosyncratic i.

roentgen i.  radiation sickness.

substance i.  [DSM-IV]  a type of substance-induced disorder comprising reversible, substance-specific, maladaptive behavioral or psychological changes directly resulting from the physiologic effects on the central nervous system of recent ingestion of or exposure to a psychoactive substance. Specific cases are named on the basis of etiology, e.g., alcohol intoxication. DSM-IV recognizes specific syndromes for these drugs: alcohol, amphetamines or related substances, caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, PCP or related substances, and sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics.

water i.  a condition resulting from undue retention of water with decrease in sodium concentration, marked by lethargy, nausea, vomiting, and mild mental aberrations; in severe cases there may be convulsions and coma.

intra- (intra-) [L. intra within]  a prefix meaning within, into, or during.

intra-abdominal (in·tra-ab·dom·i·nal) (in”trə-ab-dom´ĭ-nəl)  within the abdomen.

intra-acinous (in·tra-ac·i·nous) (in”trə-as´ĭ-nəs)  within an acinus.

intra-appendicular (in·tra-ap·pen·dic·u·lar) (in”trə-ap´ən-dik´u-lər)  within the appendix.

intra-arachnoid (in·tra-arach·noid) (in”trə-ə-rak´noid)  within or underneath the arachnoid.

intra-arterial (in·tra-ar·te·ri·al) (in”trə-ahr-tēr´e-əl)  within an artery or arteries; called also endarterial.

intra-articular (in·tra-ar·tic·u·lar) (in”trə-ahr-tik´u-lər)  within a joint.

intra-atrial (in·tra-atri·al) (in”trə-a´tre-əl)  within one or both atria of the heart.

intra-aural (in·tra-au·ral) (in”trə-aw´rəl)  within the ear; called also endaural.

intra-auricular (in·tra-au·ric·u·lar) (in”trə-aw-rik´u-lər)  within an auricle of the ear.

intrabronchial (in·tra·bron·chi·al) (in”trə-brong´ke-əl)  situated or occurring within a bronchus.

intrabuccal (in·tra·buc·cal) (in”trə-buk´əl)  within the mouth or within the cheek.

intracanalicular (in·tra·can·a·lic·u·lar) (in”trə-kan”ə-lik´u-lər)  within a canaliculus or canaliculi.

intracapsular (in·tra·cap·su·lar) (in”trə-kap´su-lər)  within a capsule.

intracardiac (in·tra·car·di·ac) (in”trə-kahr´de-ak)  within the heart.

intracarpal (in·tra·car·pal) (in”trə-kahr´pəl)  within the wrist.

intracartilaginous (in·tra·car·ti·lag·i·nous) (in”trə-kahr”tĭ-laj´ĭ-nəs)  within a cartilage; endochondral.

intracavernosal (in·tra·cav·er·no·sal) (in”trə-kav”ər-no´səl)  within the corpus cavernosum.

intracavitary (in·tra·cav·i·tary) (in”trə-kav´ĭ-tar”e)  within a cavity, as that of the cervix or of the uterus.

intracelial (in·tra·ce·li·al) (in”trə-se´le-əl)  within one of the body cavities.

intracellular (in·tra·cel·lu·lar) (in”trə-sel´u-lər)  within a cell.

intracephalic (in·tra·ce·phal·ic) (in”trə-sə-fal´ik)  within the brain.

intracerebellar (in·tra·cer·e·bel·lar) (in”trə-ser”ə-bel´ər)  situated within the cerebellum.

intracerebral (in·tra·cer·e·bral) (in”trə-ser´ə-brəl)  situated within the cerebrum.

intracerebroventricular (in·tra·cer·e·bro·ven·tric·u·lar) (in-trə-ser”əbro-ven-trik´u-lər)  within the ventricles of the brain.

intracervical (in·tra·cer·vi·cal) (in”trə-sər´vĭ-kəl)  situated within the canal of the cervix uteri.

intrachondral (in·tra·chon·dral) (in”trə-kon´drəl)  endochondral.

intrachondrial (in·tra·chon·dri·al) (in”trə-kon´dre-əl)  endochondral.

intrachordal (in·tra·chor·dal) (in”trə-kor´dəl)  within the notochord.

intracisternal (in·tra·cis·ter·nal) (in”trə-sis-tər´nəl)  within a cistern, especially the cisterna cerebellomedullaris.

intracolic (in·tra·col·ic) (in”trə-kol´ik)  within the colon.

intracorporal (in·tra·cor·po·ral) (in”trə-kor´por-əl)  intracorporeal.

intracorporeal (in·tra·cor·po·re·al) (in”trə-kor-por´e-əl)  situated or occurring within the body.

intracorpuscular (in·tra·cor·pus·cu·lar) (in”trə-kor-pus´ku-lər)  within a blood corpuscle. Called also endocorpuscular, endoglobar, endoglobular, and intraglobular.

intracostal (in·tra·cos·tal) (in”trə-kos´təl)  on the inner surface of the rib.

intracranial (in·tra·cra·ni·al) (in”trə-kra´ne-əl)  situated within the cranium.

intracrine (in·tra·crine) (in´trə-krin)  denoting a type of hormone function in which a regulatory factor acts within the cell that synthesizes it by binding to intracellular receptors.

intracrureus (in·tra·cru·re·us) (in”trə-kroo´re-əs)  the internal part of the musculus vastus intermedius.

intractable (in·trac·ta·ble) (in-trak´tə-bəl)  resistant to cure, relief, or control.

intracutaneous (in·tra·cu·ta·ne·ous) (in”trə-ku-ta´ne-əs)  within the skin; called also intradermal.

intracystic (in·tra·cys·tic) (in”trə-sis´tik)  within a cyst.

intracytoplasmic (in·tra·cy·to·plas·mic) (in”trə-si”to-plaz´mik)  within the cytoplasm of a cell.

intrad (in·trad) (in´trad) [intra- + -ad1]  inward in direction.

intradermal (in·tra·der·mal) (in”trə-dər´məl)  1. within the dermis.  2. intracutaneous.

intradialytic (in·tra·di·a·lyt·ic) (in”trə-di”ə-lit´ik)  taking place during hemodialysis.

intradiscal (in·tra·dis·cal) (in”trə-dis´kəl)  within an intervertebral disk.

intraductal (in·tra·duc·tal) (in”trə-duk´təl)  situated or occurring within the duct of a gland.

intraduodenal (in·tra·du·o·de·nal) (in”trə-doo”o-de´nəl)  within the duodenum.

intradural (in·tra·du·ral) (in”trə-doo´rəl)  within or beneath the dura.

intraepidermal (in·tra·epi·der·mal) (in”trə-ep”ĭ-dər´məl)  within the epidermis.

intraepiphyseal (in·tra·ep·i·phys·e·al) (in”trə-ep”ĭ-fiz´e-əl)  within an epiphysis.

intraepithelial (in·tra·ep·i·the·li·al) (in”trə-ep”ĭ-the´le-əl)  situated among the cells of the epithelium.

intraerythrocytic (in·tra·eryth·ro·cyt·ic) (in”trə-ə-rith”ro-sit´ik)  within an erythrocyte.

intrafascicular (in·tra·fas·cic·u·lar) (in”trə-fə-sik´u-lər)  within a fascicle.

intrafat (in·tra·fat) (in”trə-fat´)  situated in or introduced into fatty tissue, as the subcutaneous tissue.

intrafetation (in·tra·fe·ta·tion) (in”trə-fe-ta´shən)  the development of a fetus within another fetus; see endadelphos.

intrafilar (in·tra·fi·lar) (in”trə-fi´lər)  within a reticulum.

intrafissural (in·tra·fis·su·ral) (in”trə-fish´ə-rəl)  within a cerebral fissure.

intrafistular (in·tra·fis·tu·lar) (in”trə-fis´tu-lər)  within a fistula.

intrafollicular (in·tra·fol·lic·u·lar) (in”trə-fo-lik´u-lər)  within a follicle.

intrafusal (in·tra·fu·sal) (in”trə-fu´zəl) [intra- + fusus]  pertaining to the striated fibers within a muscle spindle.

intragastric (in·tra·gas·tric) (in”trə-gas´trik)  situated or occurring within the stomach.

intragemmal (in·tra·gem·mal) (in”trə-jem´əl)  within a bud, such as a taste bud.

intragenic (in·tra·gen·ic) (in”trə-jen´ik)  within a gene.

intraglandular (in·tra·glan·du·lar) (in”trə-glan´du-lər)  within a gland.

intraglobular (in·tra·glob·u·lar) (in”trə-glob´u-lər)  1. within a globe or globule.  2. intracorpuscular.

intragyral (in·tra·gy·ral) (in”trə-ji´rəl)  within a cerebral gyrus.

intrahepatic (in·tra·he·pat·ic) (in”trə-hə-pat´ik)  within the liver.

intrahyoid (in·tra·hy·oid) (in”trə-hi´oid)  within the hyoid bone.

intraictal (in·tra·ic·tal) (in”trə-ik´təl)  occurring during an attack or seizure.

intraintestinal (in·tra·in·tes·ti·nal) (in”trə-in-tes´tĭ-nəl)  within the intestine.

intrajugular (in·tra·jug·u·lar) (in”trə-jug´u-lər)  within the jugular foramen, process, or vein.

intralamellar (in·tra·la·mel·lar) (in”trə-lə-mel´ər)  within lamellae.

intralaryngeal (in·tra·la·ryn·ge·al) (in”trə-lə-rin´je-əl)  endolaryngeal.

intralesional (in·tra·le·sion·al) (in”trə-le´zhən-əl)  occurring in or introduced directly into a localized lesion.

intraleukocytic (in·tra·leu·ko·cyt·ic) (in”trə-lu”ko-sit´ik)  within a leukocyte.

intraligamentous (in·tra·lig·a·men·tous) (in”trə-lig”ə-men´təs)  within a ligament.

intralingual (in·tra·lin·gual) (in”trə-ling´gwəl)  within the tongue.

intralobar (in·tra·lo·bar) (in”trə-lo´bər)  within a lobe.

intralobular (in·tra·lob·u·lar) (in”trə-lob´u-lər)  within a lobule.

intralocular (in·tra·loc·u·lar) (in”trə-lok´u-lər)  within the loculi of a structure.

intraluminal (in·tra·lu·mi·nal) (in”trə-loo´mĭ-nəl)  within the lumen of a tube, as of a blood vessel.

intramammary (in·tra·mam·ma·ry) (in”trə-mam´ə-re)  within the breast.

intramarginal (in·tra·mar·gin·al) (in”trə-mahr´jĭ-nəl)  within a margin.

intramatrical (in·tra·mat·ri·cal) (in”trə-mat´rĭ-kəl)  within a matrix.

intramedullary (in·tra·med·ul·lary) (in”trə-med´u-lar”e)  1. within the spinal cord.  2. within the medulla oblongata.  3. within the marrow cavity of a bone.

intramembranous (in·tra·mem·bra·nous) (in”trə-mem´brə-nəs)  within a membrane.

intrameningeal (in·tra·me·nin·ge·al) (in”trə-mə-nin´je-əl)  within the meninges.

intramolecular (in·tra·mo·lec·u·lar) (in”trə-mo-lek´u-lər)  within the molecule.

intramural (in·tra·mu·ral) (in”trə-mu´rəl)  within the wall of an organ.

intramuscular (in·tra·mus·cu·lar) (in”trə-mus´ku-lər)  within the substance of a muscle.

intramyocardial (in·tra·myo·car·di·al) (in”trə-mi”o-kahr´de-əl)  within the myocardium.

intranarial (in·tra·nar·i·al) (in”trə-nar´e-əl)  within the nares.

intranasal (in·tra·na·sal) (in”trə-na´zəl)  within the nose. Called also endonasal.

intranatal (in·tra·na·tal) (in”trə-na´təl)  occurring during birth.

intraneural (in·tra·neu·ral) (in”trə-nōōr´əl)  endoneural.

intranuclear (in·tra·nu·cle·ar) (in”trə-noo´kle-ər)  within a nucleus, as a cell nucleus.

intraocular (in·tra·oc·u·lar) (in”trə-ok´u-lər)  within the eye.

intraoperative (in·tra·op·er·a·tive) (in”trə-op´ər-ə-tiv)  occurring during the course of a surgical operation.

intraoral (in·tra·oral) (in”trə-or´əl)  within the mouth.

intraorbital (in·tra·or·bi·tal) (in”trə-or´bĭ-təl)  within the orbit.

intraosseous (in·tra·os·se·ous) (in”trə-os´e-əs)  within a bone.

intraosteal (in·tra·os·te·al) (in”trə-os´te-əl)  intraosseous.

intraovarian (in·tra·ovar·i·an) (in”trə-o-var´e-ən)  within the ovary.

intraovular (in·tra·ov·u·lar) (in”trə-ov´u-lər)  within an oocyte or ovum.

intrapancreatic (in·tra·pan·cre·at·ic) (in”trə-pan”kre-at´ik)  within the pancreas.

intraparenchymatous (in·tra·par·en·chym·a·tous) (in”trə-par”ən-kim´ə-təs)  within the parenchyma of an organ.

intraparietal (in·tra·pa·ri·e·tal) (in”trə-pə-ri´ə-təl) [intra- + parietal]  1. intramural.  2. situated in the parietal region of the brain.

intrapartal (in·tra·par·tal) (in”trə-pahr´təl)  intrapartum.

intrapartum (in·tra·par·tum) (in”trə-pahr´təm)  occurring during childbirth, or during delivery.

intrapelvic (in·tra·pel·vic) (in”trə-pel´vik)  within the pelvis.

intrapericardial (in·tra·peri·car·di·al) (in”trə-per”ĭ-kahr´de-əl)  within the pericardium.

intraperineal (in·tra·per·i·ne·al) (in”trə-per”ĭ-ne´əl)  within the tissues of the perineum.

intraperitoneal (in·tra·peri·to·ne·al) (in”trə-per”ĭ-to-ne´əl)  within the peritoneal cavity.

intrapial (in·tra·pi·al) (in”trə-pe´əl)  within or beneath the pia mater.

intraplacental (in·tra·pla·cen·tal) (in”trə-plə-sen´təl)  within the placenta.

intrapleural (in·tra·pleu·ral) (in”trə-ploor´əl)  within the pleura.

intrapontine (in·tra·pon·tine) (in”trə-pon´tin) [intra- + pontine]  within the substance of the pons.

intraprostatic (in·tra·pros·tat·ic) (in”trə-pros-tat´ik)  within the prostate gland.

intraprotoplasmic (in·tra·pro·to·plas·mic) (in”trə-pro”to-plaz´mik)  within the protoplasm.

intrapsychic (in·tra·psy·chic) (in”trə-si´kik)  arising, occurring, or situated within the mind.

intrapulmonary (in·tra·pul·mo·nary) (in”trə-pool´mo-nar”e)  within a lung.

intrapyretic (in·tra·py·ret·ic) (in”trə-pi-ret´ik)  during the stage of fever.

intrarachidian (in·tra·ra·chid·i·an) (in”trə-rə-kid´e-ən)  intraspinal.

intrarectal (in·tra·rec·tal) (in”trə-rek´təl)  within the rectum.

intrarenal (in·tra·re·nal) (in”trə-re´nəl)  within the kidney.

intraretinal (in·tra·ret·i·nal) (in”trə-ret´ĭ-nəl)  within the retina.

intrascleral (in·tra·scle·ral) (in”trə-skler´əl)  within the sclera.

intrascrotal (in·tra·scro·tal) (in”trə-skro´təl)  within the scrotum.

intrasegmental (in·tra·seg·men·tal) (in”trə-seg-men´təl)  within a single segment, such as a bronchopulmonary segment or spinal segment.

intrasellar (in·tra·sel·lar) (in”trə-sel´ər)  within the sella turcica.

intraspinal (in·tra·spi·nal) (in”trə-spi´nəl)  situated or occurring within the vertebral column.

intrasplenic (in·tra·sple·nic) (in”trə-sple´nik)  within the spleen.

intrasternal (in·tra·ster·nal) (in”trə-stər´nəl)  within the sternum.

intrastitial (in·tra·sti·tial) (in”trə-stish´əl)  within the cells or fibers of a tissue.

intrastromal (in·tra·stro·mal) (in”trə-stro´məl)  within the stroma of an organ.

intrasynovial (in·tra·syno·vi·al) (in”trə-sĭ-no´ve-əl)  within the synovial cavity of a joint.

intratarsal (in·tra·tar·sal) (in”trə-tahr´səl)  within or on the inner side of the tarsus.

intratendinous (in·tra·ten·di·nous) (in”trə-ten´dĭ-nəs)  within a tendon.

intratesticular (in·tra·tes·tic·u·lar) (in”trə-tes-tik´u-lər)  within the testis.

intrathecal (in·tra·the·cal) (in”trə-the´kəl)  within a sheath; see also under injection.

intrathenar (in·tra·the·nar) (in”trə-the´nər)  situated between the thenar and hypothenar eminences.

intrathoracic (in·tra·tho·rac·ic) (in”trə-tho-ras´ik)  endothoracic.

intratonsillar (in·tra·ton·sil·lar) (in”trə-ton´sĭ-lər)  within a tonsil.

intratrabecular (in·tra·tra·bec·u·lar) (in”trə-trə-bek´u-lər)  within a trabecula.

intratracheal (in·tra·tra·che·al) (in”trə-tra´ke-əl)  within the trachea.

intratubal (in·tra·tu·bal) (in”trə-too´bəl)  situated or occurring within a tube, especially within a uterine tube.

intratubular (in·tra·tu·bu·lar) (in”trə-too´bu-lər)  within the tubules of an organ.

intratympanic (in·tra·tym·pan·ic) (in”trə-tim-pan´ik)  within the tympanic cavity.

intraureteral (in·tra·ure·ter·al) (in”trə-u-re´tər-əl)  within the ureter.

intraureteric (in·tra·ure·ter·ic) (in”trə-u”rə-ter´ik)  intraureteral.

intraurethral (in·tra·ure·thral) (in”trə-u-re´thrəl)  within the urethra; called also endourethral.

intrauterine (in·tra·uter·ine) (in”trə-u´tər-in)  within the uterus; called also endouterine.

intravaginal (in·tra·vag·i·nal) (in”trə-vaj´ĭ-nəl)  within the vagina.

intravasation (in·trav·a·sa·tion) (in-trav”ə-sa´shən)  the entrance of foreign material into a blood vessel.

intravascular (in·tra·vas·cu·lar) (in”trə-vas´ku-lər)  within a vessel.

intravenation (in·tra·ve·na·tion) (in”trə-ve-na´shən)  the entrance or injection of foreign matter into a vein.

intravenous (in·tra·ve·nous) (in”trə-ve´nəs)  within a vein or veins.

intraventricular (in·tra·ven·tric·u·lar) (in”trə-ven-trik´u-lər)  within a ventricle.

intraversion (in·tra·ver·sion) (in”trə-vər´zhən)  in orthodontics, malocclusion in which the teeth or other maxillary structures are too near the median plane. Cf. extroversion (def. 3).

intravertebral (in·tra·ver·te·bral) (in”trə-vər´tə-brəl)  intraspinal.

intravesical (in·tra·ves·i·cal) (in”trə-ves´ĭ-kəl)  within the urinary bladder; called also endovesical.

intravillous (in·tra·vil·lous) (in”trə-vil´əs)  situated within a villus.

intravital (in·tra·vi·tal) (in”trə-vi´təl)  occurring during life.

intra vitam (in·tra vi·tam) (in´trə vi´təm) [L.]  during life.

intravitelline (in·tra·vi·tel·line) (in”trə-vi-tel´in)  within the yolk.

intravitreal (in·tra·vit·re·al) (in-trə-vit´re-əl)  into or within the vitreous.

intravitreous (in·tra·vit·re·ous) (in”trə-vit´re-əs)  intravitreal.

intrinsic (in·trin·sic) (in-trin´sik) [L. intrinsecus situated on the inside]  situated entirely within or pertaining exclusively to a part.

intro- (intro-) [L. intro within]  a prefix meaning into or within.

introducer (in·tro·duc·er) (in”trə-doo´sər)  an intubator.

introfier (in·tro·fi·er) (in´tro-fi”ər)  a liquid which has the property of lowering the interfacial tension of emulsions.

introflexion (in·tro·flex·ion) (in”tro-flek´shən)  a bending inward.

introgastric (in·tro·gas·tric) (in”tro-gas´trik) [intro- + gastric]  conveyed or leading into the stomach.

introgression (in·tro·gres·sion) (in”tro-gresh´ən) [intro- + L. gressus course]  the incorporation of a gene from one complex into another as a result of hybridization.

introitus (in·troi·tus) (in-tro´ĭ-təs)  pl. intro´itus [L., from intro within + ire to go]  the entrance to a cavity or space.

i. pel´vis  apertura pelvis superior.

i. vagi´nae  ostium vaginae.

introjection (in·tro·jec·tion) (in”tro-jek´shən) [intro- + L. jacēre to throw]  an immature unconscious defense mechanism in which loved or hated external objects are absorbed into the self; anxiety is diminished by reducing the possibility of loss in the case of a loved object, or by internally controlling aggression on the part of a hated object.

intromission (in·tro·mis·sion) (in”tro-mish´ən) [intro- + L. mittere to send]  the insertion of one part or instrument into another, as of the penis into the vagina.

intron (in·tron) (in´tron)  a noncoding intervening sequence in a gene; almost all eukaryotic genes contain several introns separating the coding sequences (exons). After the 5′ cap and polyA tail are added to a primary mRNA transcript, the introns are removed and the exons spliced together by enzymes that recognize short sequences that identify exon-intron junctions, resulting in a mature mRNA that is ready for translation (protein synthesis). Called also intervening sequence.

Intron A (In·tron A) (in´tron)  trademark for a preparation of interferon alfa-2b.

Intropin (In·tro·pin) (in´tro-pin)  trademark for a preparation of dopamine hydrochloride.

introspection (in·tro·spec·tion) (in”tro-spek´shən) [intro- + L. spicere to look]  the contemplation or observation of one's own thoughts and feelings; self-analysis.

introsusception (in·tro·sus·cep·tion) (in”tro-sə-sep´shən) [intro- + L. suscipere to receive]  intussusception.

introversion (in·tro·ver·sion) (in”tro-vər´zhən) [intro- + version]  1. the turning outside in, more or less completely, of an organ, or the resulting condition.  2. the turning inward to the self of one's interest, with lack of interest in the external world.  3. intraversion.

introvert (in·tro·vert) (in´tro-vərt)  1. a person whose interest is turned inward to the self.  2. to turn one's interest inward to the self.  3. a structure that can be turned or drawn inwards.  4. to turn a part or organ inward upon itself.

intrusion (in·tru·sion) (in-troo´zhən)  in orthodontic therapy, a technique of depressing a tooth back into the occlusal plane or an effort to prevent its eruption or elongation during the correction of an excessive overbite. Called also tooth depression. Cf. extrusion (def. 3).

intubate (in·tu·bate) (in´too-bāt)  to treat by intubation.

intubation (in·tu·ba·tion) (in”too-ba´shən) [L. in into + tuba tube]  the insertion of a tube into a body canal or cavity; see also cannulation and catheterization.

endotracheal i.  insertion of an endotracheal tube; see under tube.

nasal i.  insertion of a tube through the nose, such as a nasogastric or endotracheal tube.

nasotracheal i.  insertion of a nasotracheal tube.

oral i.  insertion of a tube through the mouth.

orotracheal i.  insertion of an orotracheal tube.

intubationist (in·tu·ba·tion·ist) (in-too-ba´shən-ist)  one who performs an intubation.

intubator (in·tu·ba·tor) (in´too-ba-tər)  an instrument used in intubation.

intumesce (in·tu·mesce) (in-too-mes´)  to swell up.

intumescence (in·tu·mes·cence) (in-too-mes´əns) [L. intumescentia]  1. a swelling, normal or abnormal.  2. the process of swelling.

intumescent (in·tu·mes·cent) (in-too-mes´ənt) [L. intumescens]  swelling or becoming swollen.

intumescentia (in·tu·mes·cen·tia) (in-too-mə-sen´she-ə)  pl. intumescen´tiae [L.]   [TA] anatomic nomenclature for an enlargement or swelling.

i. cervica´lis  [TA]  cervical enlargement: the enlargement of the cervical spinal cord at the level of attachment of the nerves to the upper limbs.

i. lumba´lis  i. lumbosacralis.

i. lumbosacra´lis  [TA]  lumbosacral enlargement: the enlargement of the lumbar spinal cord at the level of attachment of the nerves to the lower limbs; called also i. lumbalis.

i. tympa´nica  [TA]  tympanic enlargement: a pseudoganglion on the tympanic branch (nerve) of the glossopharyngeal nerve; called also ganglion tympanicum [TA alternative], tympanic ganglion, tympanic ganglion of Valentin, and Valentin's pseudoganglion.

intussusception (in·tus·sus·cep·tion) (in”tə-sə-sep´shən) [L. intus within + suscipere to receive]  1. a receiving within.  2. the prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of an immediately adjoining part. There are four varieties: colic, involving segments of the large intestine; enteric, involving only the small intestine; ileocecal, in which the ileocecal valve prolapses into the cecum, drawing the ileum along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the colon.  3. in physiology, the reception into an organism of matter, such as food, and its transformation into new protoplasm.

Enteric intussusception.

Enteric intussusception.

agonic i.  postmortem i.

appendiceal i.  invagination of one part of the vermiform appendix into an adjoining part, ranging in severity from invagination of the tip into the distal appendix to prolapse of the entire appendix into the cecum.

postmortem i.  intussusception occurring at the time of death.

retrograde i.  the invagination of a distal part of the bowel into a proximal part.

intussusceptum (in·tus·sus·cep·tum) (in”tə-sə-sep´təm) [L.]  the portion of intestine that has been invaginated within another part in intussusception.

intussuscipiens (in·tus·sus·cip·i·ens) (in”tə-sə-sip´e-əns) [L.]  the portion of intestine into which another portion has invaginated in intussusception.

Inula (In·u·la) (in´u-lə) [L.]  a genus of composite-flowered plants (family Compositae), whose rhizomes contain inulin. The root has numerous uses in folk medicine.

inulase (in·u·lase) (in´u-lās)  inulinase.

inulin (in·u·lin) (in´u-lin)  an indigestible polysaccharide vegetable starch found in the rhizome of certain plants (Compositae). It is a polymer of fructofuranose, yields fructose on hydrolysis, and is used in a test for determining glomerular filtration rate. See inulin clearance, under clearance.

inulinase (in·u·lin·ase) (in´u-lin-ās)   [EC] an enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the cleavage of specific linkages between fructose residues in inulin, releasing fructose. The enzyme occurs in a variety of fungi and in higher plants.

inunction (in·unc·tion) (in-ungk´shən) [in-1 + unction]  the act of anointing or of applying an ointment with rubbing.

in utero (in utero) (in u´tər-o) [L.]  inside the uterus.

Inv (Inv) [from part of the name of the propositus]  see Km allotypes, under allotype.

in vacuo (in vac·uo) (in vak´u-o) [L.]  in a vacuum.

invaginate (in·vag·i·nate) (in-vaj´ĭ-nāt)  to infold one portion of a structure within another portion.

invagination (in·vag·i·na·tion) (in-vaj”ĭ-na´shən) [L. invaginatio, from in within + vagina sheath]  1. the state of being or the process of becoming invaginated.  2. in embryology, a process by which (a) one region of a hollow, single-walled, spherical blastula caves in to form and line a new cavity in the now cup-shaped, double-walled gastrula, or (b) an ever-deepening pit develops into a diverticulum or tube from the surface into the tissues below.  3. intussusception.

basilar i.  a developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward; see also platybasia. Called also basilar impression.

invalid (in·va·lid) (in´və-lid) [L. invalidus; in not + validus strong]  1. not well and strong.  2. a person who is disabled by illness or infirmity.

invasin (in·va·sin) (in-va´zin)  hyaluronidase.

invasion (in·va·sion) (in-va´shən) [L. invasio; in into + vadere to go]  1. the attack or onset of a disease.  2. the simple harmless entrance of bacteria into the body or their deposition in the tissues, as distinguished from infection.  3. the infiltration and active destruction of surrounding tissue, a characteristic of malignant tumors.

invasive (in·va·sive) (in-va´siv)  1. having the quality of invasiveness.  2. involving puncture or incision of the skin or insertion of an instrument or foreign material into the body; said of diagnostic techniques.

invasiveness (in·va·sive·ness) (in-va´siv-nəs)  1. the ability of a pathogenic microorganism to enter and spread throughout the tissues of the body.  2. the ability to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue; said of malignant tumors.

inventory (in·ven·to·ry) (in´vən-tor”e)  a comprehensive list of personality traits, aptitudes, and interests.

Beck Depression Inventory  a self-report questionnaire for measuring the symptoms of depression, focusing on the cognitive symptoms.

California Personality Inventory (CPI)  a self-report, true-false test designed to measure aspects of personality style; generally used in counseling situations or for less than severe psychopathology.

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI)  a self-report inventory designed to produce a profile of the personality style and structure underlying mental disorders.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  a self-report, true-false test designed to evaluate personality and particularly to assess psychopathology.

invermination (in·ver·mi·na·tion) (in-vər”mĭ-na´shən)  vermination.

Inversine (In·ver·sine) (in-vər´sēn)  trademark for a preparation of mecamylamine hydrochloride.

inversion (in·ver·sion) (in-vər´zhən) [L. inversio; in into +vertere to turn]  1. a turning inward, inside out, upside down, or other reversal of the normal relation of a part.  2. in psychiatry, a term used by Freud for homosexuality.  3. in genetics, a chromosomal aberration caused by the inverted reunion of a chromosome segment after breakage of a chromosome at two points, resulting in a change in sequence of genes or nucleotides; e.g., the sequence abcdefg may be inverted to abfedcg. See Plate 1.

Inversion and eversion of the foot.

Inversion and eversion of the foot.

carbohydrate i.  hydrolysis of disaccharides or polysaccharides to monosaccharides.

paracentric i.  inversion in which the inverted chromosome segment is on one side of the centromere, i.e., both breaks occur in one arm. See Plate 1.

pericentric i.  inversion in which the inverted chromosome segment includes the centromere. See Plate 1.

thermic i.  the state in which the body temperature is highest in the morning.

i. of uterus  a turning of the uterus inside out, whereby the fundus is forced through the cervix and protrudes into or outside of the vagina.

visceral i.  the more or less complete right and left transposition of the viscera; see situs inversus viscerum.

inversus (in·ver·sus) (in-vər´səs) [L., past participle of invertere to invert]  opposite to, or inverted from, the normal; see situs inversus viscerum.

Invertebrata (In·ver·te·bra·ta) (in-vər”tə-bra´tə)  a former division of the animal kingdom, including all forms that have no spinal column.

invertebrate (in·ver·te·brate) (in-vər´tə-brāt)  1. any animal that has no spinal column; a nonvertebrate animal.  2. having no spinal column.

invertor (in·ver·tor) (in-vər´tor)  a muscle that turns a part inward.

invest (in·vest) (in-vest´)  1. to envelop in or cover another tissue or part (as fascia).  2. to surround, envelop, or embed in an investment material.

investing (in·vest·ing) (in-vest´ing)  1. the act or process of covering or enveloping wholly or in part an object, such as a denture, tooth, wax form, or crown with a refractory investment material before curing, soldering, or casting.  2. the covering or enveloping of a tissue or part by another tissue, such as a fascia.

i. the pattern  surrounding the wax pattern with an investment material, such as a mix of a plaster, for low temperature casting, or a mix consisting of dental stone and a silica refractory for high temperature casting; the investment hardens to form a mold into which casting materials are poured.

vacuum i.  subjecting the water-investment mixture to a vacuum during the investing procedure in order to remove air bubbles from the mixture.

investment (in·vest·ment) (in-vest´mənt)  1. any tissue, such as fascia, that envelops or covers other tissues or parts.  2. a material applied as a soft paste to a pattern that hardens to form a mold for casting.

gypsum-bonded i.  an investment bonded by gypsum or one of its derivatives, used with metals or alloys that have low fusion temperatures.

phosphate-bonded i.  an investment bonded by metal phosphate and a metal oxide, used with metals or alloys that have high fusion temperatures.

silica-bonded i.  an investment bonded by silica, used with metals or alloys that have high fusion temperatures.

inveterate (in·vet·er·ate) (in-vet´ər-ət) [L. inverteratus; in intensive + vetus old]  chronic and confirmed; long established and of difficult cure.

Invirase (In·vi·rase) (in´vĭ-rās)  trademark for a preparation of saquinavir mesylate.

inviscation (in·vis·ca·tion) (in”vis-ka´shən) [L. in among + viscum slime]  the mixing of the food with the mucous secretion of the mouth in mastication.

in vitro (in vi·tro) (in ve´tro) [L.]  within a glass; observable in a test tube; in an artificial environment.

in vivo (in vi·vo) (in ve´vo) [L.]  within the living body.

involucre (in·vo·lu·cre) (in´vo-loo”kər)  an involucrum.

involucrum (in·vo·lu·crum) (in”vo-loo´krəm)  pl. involu´cra [L.; in in + volvere to wrap]  a covering or sheath, such as contains the sequestrum of a necrosed bone.

involuntary (in·vol·un·tary) (in-vol´ən-tar”e) [L. involuntarius; in against + voluntas will]  performed independently of the will; contravolitional.

involuntomotory (in·vol·un·to·mo·to·ry) (in-vol”ən-to-mo´tor-e)  pertaining to motion that is not voluntary.

involute (in·vo·lute) (in´vo-lōōt) [L. in into + volvere to roll]  1. to return to normal size after enlargement.  2. to regress; to change to an earlier or to a more primitive condition. See involution.

involution (in·vo·lu·tion) (in”vo-loo´shən) [L. involutio; in into +volvere to roll]  1. a rolling or turning inward.  2. one of the movements involved in the gastrulation of many animals.  3. a retrograde change of the entire body or in a particular organ, as the retrograde changes in the female genital organs that result in normal size after delivery.  4. the progressive degeneration occurring naturally with advancing age, resulting in a reduction in size or function of organs or tissues.

senile i.  the progressive degeneration that occurs naturally with advancing age, resulting in the shriveling of organs or tissues.

involutional (in·vo·lu·tion·al) (in”vo-loo´shən-əl)  pertaining to, due to, or occurring in involution.

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