Influenza 1918, A Venus Connection?
Venus Atmosphere Temperature and Pressure Profiles
Sunspot Activity, Venus Inferior Conjunctions, and Biological Events
1st Quarter 2001 Influenza Data Analysis (USA)
Global Developments: Spring-Summer 2001
USA Influenza Activity 2001-2002
West Nile Virus
USA Influenza Activity 2002-2003 - (Part 2 has SARS information.)
USA Influenza Activity 2003-2004 - (Part 2 has Special Note for June 2004.)
Venus Transit: Biohazard?
USA Influenza Activity 2004-2005
Calculated Dates of Venus Inferior Conjunctions
Venus Atmosphere Temperature and Pressure ProfilesShade Tree Physics
Installed 04 Feb 2001 - Latest update 05 Dec 2007.
A reviewer of this article stated that influenza viruses are designed to grow at 37 degrees C (Celsius) [98.6 degrees F (Fahrenheit)] and to replicate using mammalian cell enzymes and that a long period of host and pathogen co-evolution is required.
The following graphs are provided as a first step in checking up on whether or not a suitable temperature, pressure, and chemically friendly environment for the production or replication of viruses exists in the Venusian atmosphere.
The stated 37 degrees C (which is the average human body temperature prior to viral attack) corresponds to 310 Kelvin (K) (Celsius temp plus 273). If we enter the Venus altitude-versus-temperature graph at 310 K and go straight up (red line) to the temperature profile, and then horizontally to the left axis we find a corresponding altitude of 52.5 kilometers (33 miles).
A team of scientists in Asia published a paper in Nature magazine last year(1) saying that H5N1 viruses have been circulating in China since 2001 with a seasonal pattern, peaking from October to March when the average temperature is below 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit).
Now, as a rough cross-check, we enter the Venus altitude-versus-atmospheric
pressure graph at 1000 millibars (the Earth's average sea level atmospheric
pressure) and go up to intersect the altitude-pressure profile line, and
across to the left axis where we find the corresponding altitude of
49.5 kilometers (31 miles). This altitude is only three kilometers
(or six percent) different than we found from the temperature graph.
So, in spite of the surface temperature of Venus being on the order of 864 degrees Fahrenheit, there is a region in the Venusian atmosphere which approximates that of Earth with respect to temperature and pressure. But there may be problems.
52.5 kilometers above the Venusian surface turns out to be in the middle of the Venusian cloud blanket which is made up largely of sulfuric acid droplets. (The cloud bottoms are estimated to be 30 to 35 km above the surface and the tops are estimated to be from 60 to 75 km above the Venusian surface.) This upper altitude limit is perhaps a fuzzy estimate. The cloud tops temperature has been reported to be 260 K (-13 degrees C or 9 degrees F). According to the temperature profile above (green line) this temperature corresponds to an altitude of 58 km (36 miles) for the cloud tops. (For stratus clouds there will be thermal equilibrium between the atmosphere and the cloud tops.)
Is this acidic cloud environment good or bad for the formation of viral precursors and/or virus building processes? (Do sulfuric acid droplets in a reducing atmosphere assist or preclude the formation or preservation of amino acids and other RNA building blocks? Can sufficient solar ultraviolet energy penetrate the clouds to this depth? ) If either answer is harmful to the hypothesis then we can ask whether or not the Venusian atmosphere above the clouds, say 60 km (37 miles) and up, could be (or not be) a candidate region for the biological processes in question. Ultraviolet penetration will not be a problem above the clouds. So, what are the lowest temperature and pressure constraints for reasonable biological activity?
What about the surface of Venus?