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   The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  2000.

Appendix I

Indo-European Roots
DEFINITION:To shine (and in many derivatives, “sky, heaven, god”). Zero-grades *dyu- and *diw-.
Derivatives include Tuesday, divine, jovial, Jupiter, diary, dismal, journey, and psychedelic.
   I. Basic form *dyeu-, Jove, the name of the god of the bright sky, head of the Indo-European pantheon. 1. Jove, jovial; Sangiovese, from Latin Iovis, Jupiter, or Iov-, stem of Iuppiter, Jupiter. 2. July, from Latin Ilius, “descended from Jupiter” (name of a Roman gens), from derivative *iou-il-. 3. Vocative compound *dyeu-pter, “O father Jove” (*pter-, father; see pter-). Jupiter, from Latin Iuppiter, Ipiter, head of the Roman pantheon. 4. Dione, Zeus; dianthus, Dioscuri, from Greek Zeus (genitive Dios), Zeus.
   II. Noun *deiwos, god, formed by e-insertion to the zero-grade *diw- and suffixation of (accented) -o-. 1a. Tiu, Tuesday, from Old English Tw (genitive Twes), god of war and sky; b. Tyr, from Old Norse Tr, sky god. Both a and b from Germanic *Twaz. 2. deism, deity, Deus, joss; adieu, deific, from Latin deus, god. 3. diva, divine, from Latin dvus, divine, god. 4. Dis, Dives, from Latin dves, rich (< “fortunate, blessed, divine”). 5. Suffixed zero-grade form *diw-yo-, heavenly. Diana, from Latin Dina, moon goddess. 6. Devi; deodar, Devanagari, from Sanskrit deva, god, and deva-, divine. 7. Asmodeus, from Avestan dava-, spirit, demon.
   III. Variant *dy- (< *dye-). dial, diary, diet2, dismal, diurnal, journal, journey; adjourn, circadian, meridian, postmeridian, quotidian, sojourn, from Latin dis, day.
   IV. Variant *dei-. psychedelic, woolly adelgid, from Greek dlos (< *deyalos), clear. (Pokorny 1. dei- 183.)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by the Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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