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   The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  2000.

Appendix I

Indo-European Roots
DEFINITION:Also gen-. To give birth, beget; with derivatives referring to aspects and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups. Oldest form *en1-, becoming *gen1- in centum languages.
Derivatives include kin, king, jaunty, genius, pregnant, gingerly, and nature.
   I. Basic form *gen-. 1. Suffixed form *gen-es-. a. gender, general, generate, generation, generic, generous, genre, genus; congener, degenerate, engender, miscegenation, from Latin genus, race, kind; b. gene; allogeneic, genealogy, genocide, genotype, heterogeneous, syngeneic, from Greek genos and gene, race, family; c. –gen, –geny; epigene, from Greek suffix -gens, “-born.” 2. Suffixed form *gen()-yo-. a. genial1, genius; congenial, from Latin genius, procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality; b. engine, ingenious, from Latin ingenium, inborn character (in-, in; see en). 3. Suffixed form *gen--. indigen, indigenous, from Latin indigena, born in (a place), indigenous (indu-, within; see en). 4. Suffixed form *gen-wo-. genuine, ingenuous, from Latin ingenuus, born in (a place), native, natural, freeborn (in-, in; see en). 5. Suffixed form *gen()-men-. germ, german2, germane, germinal, germinate, from dissimilated Latin germen, shoot, bud, embryo, germ.
   II. O-grade form *gon-, reduced to *gon- in suffixed form *gon-o-. 1. gonad, gono-, –gony; archegonium, epigone, hormogonium, from Greek gonos, child, procreation, seed. 2. Harijan, from Sanskrit jana, offspring, child, person.
   III. Zero-grade form *g-. 1. Suffixed form *g-yo-. a. kin; kindred, from Old English cyn(n), race, family, kin; b. king, from Old English cyning, king, from Germanic *kuningaz, king. Both a and b from Germanic *kunjam, family. 2. Suffixed form *g-t-. a. kind2, from Old English cynd, gecynd(e), origin, birth, race, family, kind, from Germanic *kundjaz, family, race; b. kind1, from Old English gecynde, natural, native, fitting (ge-, collective prefix; see kom), from Germanic *kundiz, natural, native; c. suffixed form *g-ti-. (i) gens, genteel, gentile, gentle, gentry, jaunty; gendarme, from Latin gns (stem genti-), race, clan; (ii) genesis, –genesis, from Greek genesis, birth, beginning; d. kindergarten, Kriss Kringle, wunderkind, from Old High German kind, child, from Germanic secondary full-grade variant *kentham; e. suffixed form *g-to-. Jataka, from Sanskrit jta-, born (verbal adjective of janate, he is born). 3. Reduplicated form *gi-gn()-. genital, genitive, genitor, geniture, gent1, gingerly; congenital, primogenitor, primogeniture, progenitor, progeny, from Latin gignere (past participle genitus), to beget. 4. Reduced form *gn- in suffixed form *-gn-o-. benign, malign, from Latin benignus, good-natured, kindly (bene, well; see deu-2), and malignus, evil-natured, malevolent (male, ill; see mel-3). 5. Zero-grade form *g- becoming *gn-. pregnant1; impregnate, from Latin praegns, pregnant (prae-, before; see per1). 6. Suffixed form *g-sko- becoming *gn-sko-. naive, nascent, natal, nation, native, nature, née, Noël; adnate, agnate, cognate, connate, enate, innate, neonate, puisne, puny, renaissance, from Latin gnsc, nsc (past participle gntus, ntus), to be born. 7. Reduced form *g- in Sanskrit compound kmi-ja- (see kwmi-). (Pokorny 1. en- 373.)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by the Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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