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INSTRUCTION

for

FIELD ARTILLERY.

 

Prepared by a board of artillery officers.

WM. H. FRENCH, Bvt. Major,
Capt. First Artillery.

WILLIAM F. BARRY,
Capt. Second Artillery.

HENRY J. HUNT, Bt. Major,
Capt. Second Artillery.

 

United States War Dept.

Philadelphia, PA  J.B. Lippincott & Co.

1861

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PART I. 

ORGANIZATION, MATERIEL, AND SERVICE.

 

ARTILLERY AND ITS DUTIES

Artillery troops and their service; Uses and objects of field artillery; Materiel, pieces; Carriages; Battery of manoeuvre; Number of horses required for each carriage; Personnel; Proportion of field artillery to other arms

 

ARTICLE II.

ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT OF FIELD BATTERIES

Organization for instruction; Organization for the march; Organization for war; Composition and equipment of battery for war; Field pieces. Description; Field pieces. Principal dimensions and weight

AMMUNITION.

Gunpowder. Composition; Density; Proof; Charges; Cartridge bags

PROJECTILES.

Kinds of; Solid shot; Canisters; Shells; Charges of shells; Shrapnell or spherical case shot;

Charges of Shrapnell; Fuze. Description; Operation of; Primer; Description; Issues of ammunition to batteries; Care and preservation of ammunition; Weights of fixed ammunition; Contents and weights of packing boxes

FIELD CARRIAGES.

Number and kinds of gun carriages; Caissons; Battery wagons; Travelling forges; Limber for field carriages; Wheels; Ammunition chests; Ammunition carried in each chest; Method of packing; ammunition chests; Implements and equipments for a gun carriage; Implements and equipments for a caisson; Weights of gun carriages and caissons equipped; Equipment of the travelling forge; Equipment of the battery wagon; Supply of spare parts; Composition and preparation of paints; Quantity of paint required for a carriage; Paint for tarpaulins; Weights of forges and battery wagons equipped; 

HORSES.

Number required for a field battery; Spare horses for prairie service; For cannoneers of horse artillery; Horse equipments. Number of sets required; Artillery harness. Description and peculiarities; Harness required for each horse

ARTICLE III.-POINTING AND RANGES

Definitions; Theory of pointing; Pendulum hausse; Seat for pendulum hausse; Muzzle sight; Practical hints on pointing; Causes which disturb the true flight of projectiles; Rapidity of fire at advancing bodies; Table of ranges for field service

 

ARTICLE IV.-INTERIOR ECONOMY OF A BATTERY

Artillery horses. Description    Working power    Forage    Necessity of grain ration    Water    General rules for stable management    Grooming

 

ARTICLE V.- FIELD SERVICE

Marches     Ascents     Descents     To cross swampy ground     To pass a ditch     Crossing fords     Passage of military bridges     Passage on ice     Reversing a battery in a narrow road     Instruction for the preservation of harness     Transport of batteries by sea     Preparation of transports     To embark the horses     To embark the battery     To disembark     In action or preparing for action     Replacing killed or disabled horses     Order of encampment.

 

PART II. TACTICAL INSTRUCTION.

Basis of instruction    Composition of the company    Formation of the company    Posts of the officers, non-commissioned officers, etc    The battery    General principles    Composition of the battery of manoeuvre.    Definitions    Elementary movements, and their objects    Method of giving commands    Bugle or trumpet signals and calls

PART III. SCHOOL OF THE PIECE.

 

ARTICLE I.-METHOD OF INSTRUCTION

The cannoneer dismounted    Elementary instruction    Position of the cannoneer dismounted    

Eyes right-eyes left    Facing    Marching    To halt    To march backwards    To mark time when marching    To change step    To face when marching    Manual of the sabre    Inspection of sabre    Parade rest

 

ARTICLE II.-THE GUN DETACHMENT

Forming and telling off the detachment.    To form in one rank..    Alignments    Direct march in single file    Change of direction in file    Oblique march in file    Direct march in line    To halt the detachment    Wheelings    To move forward    To form the detachment in two ranks    To march by a flank    Marching by a flank, to form line    Oblique in line    To march to the rear    To march backwards    To open and close the ranks    Execution of the movements at double quick    The platoon    Sabre exercise    To open files     To close files

 

ARTICLE III.-MANUAL OF THE PIECE

Method of instruction    Posts of the cannoneers, piece unlimbered    Loading and firing    Loading by detail    Moving the piece by hand, piece unlimbered.    Changing posts    Equipments    Limbering    Posts of the cannoneers, piece limbered    To form the detachment    Posts of the detachment    Change of posts of detachment    To post the cannoneers at the piece limbered    Moving the piece by hand, piece limbered    Unlimbering and coming into action    Service of the gun with diminished numbers    Supply of ammunition in action

 

ARTICLE IV.-MECHANICAL MANOEUVRES

Nomenclature    The gun    The carriage    The limber    The caisson    Changing ammunition chests    Changing wheels    Dismounting pieces    Mounting pieces    Carrying pieces    Dismounting carriages    Mounting carriages    Righting carriages that have been overturned    Spiking and unspiking cannon and rendering them unserviceable

ARTICLE V.-THE CANNONEER MOUNTED

General remarks    Elementary instruction    To bridle the horse    To saddle    To lead out

Position before mounting    To mount    Exercise at a halt    Position of the cannoneer mounted    Eyes right-eyes left    To lengthen the snaffle rein    To shorten the snaffle rein    To cross the reins in one hand    To take the reins in both hands    Use of the bridle reins and legs    Effect of the reins and legs    To march    To halt    To turn to the right or left    To reverse to the right or left    To oblique    To rein back    To dismount    To file off.    To unbridle    Vaulting, the horse unsaddled    Marching    Riding-house drill    To march to the right or left hand    To halt and to move off    To trot, and to resume the walk    Changes of hand    To cross reins in marching    To turn by cannoneer in marching    Marching on the same line, to reverse by cannoneer    Marching in column, to reverse by cannoneer    To rest    To rest in marching     The spur    To mount in two ranks    To conduct the cannoneers to the riding-house    Change of direction in the length of the ridinghouse    Change of direction obliquely by cannoneer    To march in a circle    To change hand on the circle    To dismount in two ranks    Exercise with the stirrups    To pass from the head to the rear of the column.    From a halt to move at a trot    To pass from the trot to the trot out, and to resume the trot     To pass from the trot to the gallop

To passage to the right or left    The curb bridle    Position of the bridle hand    Movements of the bridle hand    Principles of the gallop    Exercise at a gallop    Manual of the sabre    Sabre exercise    To leap the ditch and the bar

ARTICLE VI.-THE DETACHMENT

Horse Artillery    Forming and telling off the detachment    To mount and dismount in two ranks    To form in one rank    Alignments    To form in two ranks    To open and to close the ranks    To rein back the detachment    To march the detachment by file    Direct march in file    Change of direction in file    To halt and to move off    Oblique in file    To break into single file    To form in double files    To form the detachment in line    Direct march in line    Wheeling    Wheel in circle in single rank     Wheel in circle in two ranks    Wheel to the right or left    Half-wheel to the right or left    Reverse to the right or left    Oblique in line    Changes of gait    The platoon

ARTICLE VII.-THE DRIVER

Nomenclature of the harness    To harness    To couple    To mount    Use of the coupling rein and whip    To march    To turn to the right and to the left    To reverse    To oblique    To rein back    To dismount    To file off    To unharness    To harness and unharness in two motions    Marching    To break into column to the front    Change of direction in column    To halt the column    To oblique in column    To form line    To advance in line    To oblique in line    To march to a flank    To reverse in marching    Changes of gait    To pass from the rear to the head of the column and the reverse  

PART IV. SCHOOL OF THE SECTION.

General Principles.

ARTICLE I.-EXERCISE OF SEVERAL DETACHMENTS

Formation of detachments and posts of officers

Alignment

To open and close the ranks

To break into column to the right or left

March in column

To halt the column

Change of direction in column

To march by a flank when in column

Oblique march in column

Being in column, to form line

To form line advancing

To advance in line

Oblique in line

To change direction in line

To march by a flank when in line

To change direction when faced by a flank

Marching by a flank to form column of detachments

To pass from the march in column to the march by flank

Marching by flank to form line

To form the line or column faced in the opposite direction

To march to the rear

Posting the detachments with their pieces

Execution of the movements at the double quick

Exercise of the section and of the company

ARTICLE II.-EXERCISE OF SEVERAL DETACHMENTS.

Horse Artillery

Formation of detachments and posts of officers

To mount and to dismount

Alignments

To open and close the ranks

To break into column

March in column

To halt the column

Change of direction in column

Oblique march in column

The column marching, to face it in the opposite direction

Being in column, to form line

To form line advancin

To advance in line

Oblique in line

To change direction in line

Marching in line, to march in the opposite direction

To march by file

Change of direction in file

To halt and to move off

Oblique in file

Changes of gait

To break into single file

To form double files

To form line

Marching by a flank, to form column of detachments

In column of detachments, to march by file

Posting the detachments with their pieces

ARTICLE III.-EXERCISE OF SEVERAL PIECES

The team

Arrangement of the teams

To break into column

To change direction in column

To halt the column

Oblique in column

To form line

To form line advancing

To advance in line

To halt

To march by a flank

Oblique in line

To reverse

Changes of gait

To rest

To file off

The piece horsed

To enter the park

Hitching the teams

To unpark

To halt the column

To wheel

To oblique

To reverse

The about

To change direction in column

The about in column

Changes of gait

To march by a flank

To rest

To resume the exercise

To rein back

To dismount whilst marching

To mount whilst marching

To park

To unhitch

To leave the park

ARTICLE IV.-THE SECTION.

Composition of the section

Column of pieces

Order in line

Order in battery

Posts of officers and non-commissioned officers.

Alignments

Posts of the cannoneers during the manoeuvres

To mount and dismount the cannoneers

To unpark

To form the section

To march and to halt

Changes of gait

To change direction

To march by a flank

The oblique

The reverse

The about

The countermarch

Passage of carriages

To break the section

To form the caissons on the flank

To replace the caissons in rear

To form the park

Formation in battery

In line, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the front

In line, to form in battery to the front, by throwing the caissons to the rear

In line, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the front

In line, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the rear

In line, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the rear

In battery, to form in line to the front

In battery, to form in line to the rear

To march by a flank

Movements with the prolonge

Firings

To fire to the rear

PART V. SCHOOL OF THE BATTERY.

ARTICLE I.-GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

Formations of the battery.

Remarks on the formations

Measures of the elements composing a battery, and of its formations

Manning the battery

ARTICLE II.-MOVEMENTS IN COLUMN

To unpark

Formations into line, and battery from column of pieces.

 To halt.

Change of gait.

To form sections.

In column of pieces, to form the caissons on the flank.

To march in column.

To halt the column.

To change the gait

To march by a flank

Oblique march

Passage of carriages in column

About in column

Countermarch in column

To change direction in column

To diminish the front of a column on the march.

In column, with the caissons on the flank, to replace them in front or rear.

To form the park.

ARTICLE III.-TO PASS FROM THE ORDER IN COLUMN TO THE ORDER IN LINE, AND THE REVERSE

To form forward into line

To form line faced to the rear

To form line to the right or left

To form line on the right or left

To break into column to the front

To break into column to the rear

To break into column to the right or left

To break into column to the front from one flank, to march towards the other

To break into column to the rear from one flank, to march towards the other

To break into column to the front when the battery is marching in line

To form line advancing.

To form double column on the centre section

To deploy the double column into line to the front

To form the double column into line to the right or left

ARTICLE IV.-MOVEMENTS IN LINE

To advance in line

To halt the battery and align it

Changes of gait

To march by a flank

Oblique march

Passage of carriages in line

About in line

Countermarch in line

To change direction in line

To close intervals in line

About, or countermarch with diminished intervals 526 310 51 To resume intervals

Passage of obstacles

ARTICLE V.-FORMATIONS IN BATTERY

In line, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the front

In line, to form in battery to the front, by throwing the caissons to the rear

In line, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the front

In line, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the rear

In line, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the rear

In battery, to form in line to the front

In battery, to form in line to the rear

In column, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the front

In column, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the front

In column, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the rear

In column, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the rear

In column, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the right or left.

In column, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the right or left

In column, with pieces in front, to form in battery on the right or left

In column, with caissons in front, to form in battery on the right or left

To deploy the double column into battery to the front or rear

To deploy the double column into battery to the right or left

To pass from the order in battery to the order in column

To march by a flank

ARTICLE VI.-FIRINGS

To fire by battery, half battery, section, and piece

To cease firing

To move and fire with the prolonge

To fire advancing

To fire retiring

Movements for firing in echelon

Being in echelon, to form line

To fire to the rear

 

ARTICLE VII.-CHANGES OF FRONT IN BATTERY

Change of front to fire to the right, left wing forward, and the reverse

Change of front to fire to the left, left wing forward, and the reverse

Change of front to fire to the left, left wing to the rear, and the reverse

Change of front to fire to the right, left wing to the rear, and the reverse.

To pass a defile in front

To  pass a defile in rear

 

PARADE FOR REVIEW AND INSPECTION.

Review of a battery.  

Review of a battery in connection with other troops

To march in review in line or column of half batteries

Officers' salute with the sabre

Inspection

BUGLE SIGNALS

 

 

Entered, according to act of Congress, 

in the year 1860, 

by J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO. 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States 

in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

 

BALTIMORE, Md., January 15, 1859.

Colonel S. COOPER,
    Adjt. Gen. U. S. A.


    SIR: The Light Artillery Board, assembled by Special Orders No. 134 of 1856, and Special Orders No. 116 of 1858, has the honor to submit a revised system of Light Artillery Tactics, and regulations recommended
for that arm.

WM. H. FRENCH, Bt. Major,
Capt. First Artillery.
WILLIAM F. BARRY,
Capt. Second Artillery.
HENRY J. HUNT, Bt. Major,
Capt. Second Artillery.

 


WAR DEPARTMENT, March 6, 1860.


        The system of instruction for Field Artillery, prepared by a Board of Light Artillery officers pursuant to orders from this Department, having been approved by the PRESIDENT, is herewith published for the information and government of the Army.
        All exercises, manoeuvres, and forms of parade not embraced in this system, are prohibited in the Light Artillery, and those herein prescribed will be strictly observed.

JOHN B. FLOYD,
        Secretary of War.

 

EXTRACT

        "AN ACT to establish an uniform mode of discipline and field exercise for the militia of the United States. "SECTION 1. That the system of discipline and field exercise, which is and shall be ordered to be observed by the regular Army of the United States, in the different corps of infantry, artillery, and riflemen, shall also be observed by the militia, in the exercise and discipline of the said corps, respectively, throughout the United States."

APPROVED, May 12, 1820. (vi)

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