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Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa

Task Group on the Forward Contamination of Europa
Space Studies Board
Commission on Physical Sciences,
Mathematics, and Applications
National Research Council

NOTICE

MEMBERSHIP

FOREWORD

PREFACE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  1. PLANETARY PROTECTION POLICIES
  • History
  • Protecting Mars
  • References
  1. EUROPA
  • Europa Exploration Strategy
  • Europa's Radiation Environment
  • References
  1. LIFE IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS
  • Extremophiles
  • Extreme Environments
  • References
  1. STERILIZATION AND CLEANING METHODS
  • Cleaning and Sterilization Standards
  • Achieving the Standards
  • Reference
  1. MICROBIAL DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION
  • References
  1. RECOMMENDED PLANETARY PROTECTION STRATEGY FOR EUROPA
  • Planetary Protection Strategy for Europa
  • Majority and Minority Viewpoints
  • Conclusions
  • References
  1. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDIXES

A. Calculating the Probability of Contamination, Pc

B. Glossary

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, 2000

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