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   The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  2000.

Appendix I

Indo-European Roots
Derivatives include sit, soot, séance, siege, obsess, subside, soil1, and chair.
   I. Basic form *sed-. 1. Suffixed form *sed-yo-. a. sit, from Old English sittan, to sit; b. sitz bath, sitzmark, from Old High German sizzen, to sit. Both a and b from Germanic *sitjan. 2. Suffixed form *sed-lo-, seat. settle, from Old English setl, seat, from Germanic *setlaz. 3. Suffixed (stative) form *sed--. séance, sedentary, sederunt, sedile, sediment, sessile, session, sewer2, siege; assess, assiduous, assize, dissident, insessorial, insidious, obsess, possess, preside, reside, subsidy, supersede, surcease, from Latin sedre, to sit. 4. Suffixed form *sed-r-. –hedron; cathedra, cathedral, chair, ephedrine, exedra, Sanhedrin, tetrahedron, from Greek hedr, seat, chair, face of a geometric solid. 5. Prefixed and suffixed form *pi-sed-yo-, to sit upon (*pi, on; see epi). piezo-; isopiestic, from Greek piezein, to press tight. 6. Basic form *sed-. a. edaphic, from Greek edaphos, ground, foundation (with Greek suffix -aphos); b. Upanishad, from Sanskrit upaniad, Upanishad, from -sad, sitting; c. tanist, from Old Irish tnaise, designated successor, from Celtic *tnihessio-, “one who is waited for,” from *to-ad-ni-sed-tio, from *to-ad-ni-sed-, to wait for (*ad-, to; see ad-). 7. Suffixed form *sed-o-, sitting. eisteddfod, from Welsh eistedd, sitting, from Celtic *eks-d-sedo- (*eks-, out, and *d-, out, from; see eghs and de-).
   II. O-grade form *sod-. 1. Perhaps suffixed form *sod-dhlo-. saddle, from Old English sadol, saddle, from Germanic *sadulaz, seat, saddle. 2. Suffixed (causative) form *sod-eyo-. a. set1, from Old English settan, to place; b. beset, from Old English besettan, to set near; c. ersatz, from Old High German irsezzan, to replace, from sezzan, to set. a–c all from Germanic *(bi-)satjan, to cause to sit, set. 3. Suffixed form *sod-yo-. soil1, from Latin solium, throne, seat.
   III. Zero-grade form *-sd- (in compounds), assimilated to *-zd-. 1. Reduplicated form *si-sd- becoming *si-zd-. a. subside, from Latin sdere, to sit down, settle; b. synizesis, from Greek hizein, to sit down, settle down. 2. Compound suffixed form *ni-zd-o-, nest, literally “(bird's place of) sitting down” (*ni-, down). a. nest, from Old English nest, from Germanic *nistaz; b. niche, nick, nide, nidus; eyas, nidicolous, nidifugous, nidify, from Latin ndus. nest. 3. Compound suffixed form *kuzdho-zd- (see (s)keu-).
   IV. Lengthened-grade form *sd-. 1. see2, from Latin sds, seat, residence. 2. Suffixed form *sd-i-, settler. cosset, possibly from Old English -sta, -ste, inhabitant(s), from Germanic *stn-, *sti-. 3. Suffixed form *sd-yo-. seat, from Old Norse sæti, seat, from Germanic *(ge)stjam, seat (*ge-, *ga-, collective prefix; see kom). 4. Suffixed form *sd--. sedate1, from Latin sdre, to settle, calm down. 5. Suffixed form *sd-es-, seat. banshee, from Old Irish síd, fairy mound.
   V. Lengthened o-grade form *sd-. soot, from Old English st, soot (< “that which settles”), from Germanic *stam, from suffixed form *sd-o-. (Pokorny sed- 884.)
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by the Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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