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The Inca



The Inca Civilization

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The Civilization

The Inca civilization started from 1200 to 1535 AD, their empire stretched from South America to the Equator to the pacific coast of Chile. The Inca Empire started with the conquest of Moche Culture in Peru. Due to their highly organized civilization, and their strong army, they manage to establish an empire. It was not until 15th century; their empires came to and end with the Spanish conquistador.

The Aztec Society

The Inca society has a very strict hierarchical structure; they have many different levels, with the Sapa as the high priest or ruler, and the army commander at the top. Every family member were councilors to the Sapa, but what is different is that even women had the authority in the society, which is not seen anywhere in other civilization. The next level would be the temple priest, architects and regional army commander. The next class consists of artist, army captains and farmers. As for the taxes, the farmers have to pay the rich with gold, and provide food for the civilization. The Inca were not only fierce conquerors but they also had a violent punishment system. If someone stole, murdered, or had sex with a Sapa wife or a Sun Virgin, they were thrown off a cliff, hands cut off or eyes cut out, or hung up to starve to death. Prisons were of no use because punishment usually consisted of death


The Inca knew that agriculture is very important; the survival of an empire depends on the availability of food, if food is scare, and the population will rebel and thus spell the end of the empire. To prevent that, they develop drainage system and canals to expand their corps from the flat ground to the highlands. Their main source of food is potatoes, tomatoes, cotton, peanuts and coca. As for meat, they eat the Llama. Llama is not only for eating, they also act as a mean of transportation. With their advance in agriculture, foods are more than enough, and thus lead to the growth of population.


The rise or fall of a civilization largely depends on the strength of their army. Their need for protection became a must. In order to defend their civilization, they build enormous fortresses on top of steep mountains that enable them to scout for enemies. One of the most famous Inca fortresses is Sacasahuman (pictured above), located in
Cuzco, the Inca Empire capital.
The 40,000 member army of the Inca was destroyed by a 180 member Spanish conquistador army, which was commanded by Francisco Pizarro. The warriors of the Inca were no match for the Spanish guns. By 1535, the Inca society was completely overthrown.


The highest point in an Inca village was reserved for religious purposes. This point was the closest to the sun, which represented their major god, Inti, the Sun God. The six major gods of the Inca represent the moon, sun, earth, thunder/lightning and the sea. Pachamama is the earth god, who is the mother of all humans. The Inca had shamans who believed in animal spirits living on earth. Heaven was depicted by the condor, the underworld by the anaconda, and the brother who resided on earth was the puma. The Sun Temple, located in Machu Picchu, Peru, was a religious calendar that marked the winter and summer solstices.

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South & Central America
 - The Inca
 - The Mayan

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