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American History Timeline
1492, 1521, 1607, 1614, 1620, 1627, 1629, 1631, 1637, 1639, 1642, 1643, 1655, 1656, 1663, 1669, 1671, 1672, 1682, 1688, 1689, 1692, 1715, 1736, 1737, 1752, 1761, 1772, 1773, 1774, 1775, 1776, 1777, 1781, 1783, 1787, 1788, 1791, 1808, 1812, 1816, 1817, 1819, 1821, 1829, 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1847, 1852, 1853, 1860, 1861, 1863, 1865, 1867, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005,

From beginning of fifteenth century at latest, Iroquois Confederation formed according to Engels. See "Iroquois Confederacy" in the Encyclopedia of North American Indians. See below 1607 - 1634 - 1675 - 1776 - 1787 - 1791 - 1832 - 1851 -

1492 Columbus's first voyage to America. In December, he visited an island, part of which the Indians called Haiti - the place of the mountains. The Spanish colonised the island and called it Hispaniola. It was the first place occupied by Europeans in the Americas. Spain took what gold it could and the Indians died out. In 1679, the French took the western part of the island and called it Saint Dominigue. Sugar, indigo and black slaves made Saint Dominigue the richest colony in the world by 1789.

1493 Pope Alexander 6th gave the Americas to Spain, on condition it converted the natives to Christianity.

22.1.1510 King Ferdinand of Spain authorised a shipment of 50 African slaves to be sent to Santo Domingo. Start of the trans-atlantic slave trade from Africa - In the preceding two decades, native Americans had been shipped to Spain as slaves.

1540: first of the Indian Wars?

North Atlantic colonies

The thirteen European colonies that combined against the British to form the United States of America at the end of the 18th century, were mostly founded by the English and Dutch in the 17th century. The southern colonies, such as Virginia, were mainly founded by orthodox members of the English church with royalist sympathies. The northern states (New England) were founded by their puritan critics. In between were New York and New Jersey, originally settled by the Dutch, and Pennsylvania, a Quaker colony from 1682.



The first permanent English colony on mainland America was founded by the Virginia Company of London and called "Jamestown, Virginia" (External link: Wikipedia article). See 1619: legislature and African slaves - 1749: Augusta Academy - 1773: Public Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds - 1774: Virginia Conventions - 1818: University - 1870: Death of Robert Edward Lee

Captain John Smith first encountered Iroquois in Chesapeake Bay


New Netherlands

The Dutch West India Company explored and began to settle an area north of Virginia in 1614. Peter Minuit and other Dutch settlers settled an island which they bought from the local Indians for 60 gilders worth of goods. He named this New Amsterdam, and the Dutch holdings in the area were collectively called New Netherlands. New Amsterdam was granted self government by the Dutch in 1652. It was captured by the English in 1664, given to the king's brother (the Duke of York), and renamed New York. This name has also been given to the state of the USA in which the city stands.


30.7.1619 Virginia established the first legislative assembly in America.

First African slaves in North America brought to Jamestown, Virginia, by a Dutch ship.


New England

In 1616, Captain John Smith had published A Description of New England, describing the land that later became the north-east states of the USA. On 6.9.1620, the Mayflower sailed from Plymouth, England, with 102 men and women from a calvinist separatist community seeking a place in the new world to practice their religion. The "Pilgrims" landed on 6.9.1620 and founded Plymouth Colony in what became Massachusetts, the first New England colony. They remained a small group. Puritans, from the Church of England, founded a colony at Massachusetts Bay in 1629/1630. They came in large numbers. Maine settlers came under the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1652. A confederacy, formed in 1643, of Connecticut, New Haven, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay was called the United Colonies of New England. It was governed by a theocracy till 1693. Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay combined to form
Massachusetts in 1691. In 1820, Maine became an independent member state of the United States.

1627 Captain Henry Powell landed English settlers on the West Indian island of Barbados. The British colony developed a sugar plantation economy using slaves brought in from Africa.

In 1628, about sixty Puritans under John Endicott migrated to Salem in what is now Massachusetts. John Winthrop later led about 1,000 Puritans to settle in Boston and other towns. They used a commercial charter to establishe their jurisdiction. Between 1629 and 1639, about 20,000 Puritans came to New England.

1611 Bible: Psalm 76 [note: A declaration of God's majesty in his church] "In Judah is God known: his name is great in Isreal. In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place is Zion". See theocracy above and below

1631 The first "General Court" of the Massachusetts Bay Colony established. Made up of the governor and freemen, it had full legal authority. The franchise was limited to regenerate church members, and the church was supported by public taxes. By 1636 the General Court gave power over the church to the magistrates and, later, control as to who preached what and where.


27.3.1634 The Werowance (chief) of the Yoacomoco Indians having agreed to sell a village to Leonard Calvert in exchange for gifts, trading guarantees and protection from their enemies, the Susquehannock and Iroquois Indians, the village became the English settlement of St Mary's City. The beginning of Maryland. See Maryland State Archives

External link: age of oldest universities and colleges in what is now the United States of America

1636 Harvard College, the first institute for higher education in a north American colony, established at Cambridge in Massachusetts -

"To advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity; dreading to leave an illiterate Ministry to the Churches." (External link: Early history of Harvard University)

1637 Boston trial and banishment of Ann Hutchinson at the climax of the Antinomian Controversy. Anti-nomian is against-law. Ann Hutchinson did not hold that the redeemed are above the law. She did hold that her own certainty of salvation was sufficient and that it was not subject to testing by the Massachusetts' Ministry. The spirit of God speaking directly to her soul was her authority and she questioned the suitability of all but two of the Ministers. Given that the Ministers decided who was entitled to vote by virtue of being truly saved and one of the elect, Ann's religious views were politically disruptive. [See interpretation: 1966]

1639 - Barbados's first parliament, the House of Assembly, held its first meeting.

English Civil War 1642 English Civil War Notice declaration (1644) of Baptists that men must be allowed to obey their own conscience and understanding, and the Quaker following of the inner light. This spirit was contrary to the New England theocracy where the church had responsibility for monitoring the beliefs and behaviour of the people. The church in New England appears to have been aware of the disruption that Quakers and Ranters had caused in England, and prepared to repel them if they arrived.
[external link about the Ranters]

1643, Connecticut, New Haven, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay formed the United Colonies of New England. John Davenport, the founder of Connecticut, is quoted as saying:

"The Theocracy, that is, God's government, is to be established as the best form of government. Here the people, who choose its civil rulers, are God's people, in covenant with him, they are members of the churches; God's laws and God's servants are enquired of for counsel"


Noteworthy events in American Psychology begins in (old) England in 1247. It reaches America in 1650 with the following entry: 11.11.1650 "Puritan leader Roger Williams made an appeal to the town council of Providence, Rhode Island, urging the council to provide for the care of a "distracted woman," named Mrs. Weston. This was one of the earliest recorded references to the public care of people with mental illness in America." see England

1652 to 1684: One Peter Esprit Radisson journeyed amongst the Iroquois. His handwritten journals passed through the hands of Samuel Pepys and others and finally arrived in the British Museum and Bodleian Libraries. Gideon Scull transcribed them and they were published in Boston by the Prince Society in 1885. (Publications of the Prince Society, 16) (Project Gutenberg Catalogue)

1655 Quakers Mary Fisher and Ann Austin traveled to Barbados and are said to have been the first Quakers in America. They arrived in Boston Bay, Massachusetts in 1656.

"The island of Barbados was during the 17th century the great port of entry to the colonies in the western world. In the last half of the century it was a veritable hive of Quakerism. Quakers wishing to reach any part of the American colony sailed most frequently for Barbados, then reshipped to their definite locality. Quakers generally spent weeks or months in Barbados propagating their doctrines there and in surrounding islands before proceeding to their final destinations." (Gordon Trueblood)

1656 Efforts by Quaker missionaries to convert the people of Massachusetts were met with punitive sanctions against them and their converts. The first Quaker missionaries (Mary Fisher and Ann Austin) were stripped and searched for marks of witchcraft and their books burnt in the market place. A law of 1656 prescribed fines or whippings. A law of 1657 increased the punishments for second and subsequent offenses to removing one or both ears and tongue boring with a hot iron. A law of 1658 said Quaker disorders were punishable by banishment "on pain of death". The first executions took place in 1659. [See interpretation: 1966]


1663 Charles 2nd granted a charter to own and exploit the lands south of Virginia and north of Florida to six men who had helped in the restoration of the monarchy. The territory was called Carolina in honor of Charles 1st ("Carolus" being the Latin form of "Charles"). The first permanent European settlements in these lands had been made about 1650 by people from Virginia. (external history link)

1663 - Barbados was made into a British crown possession.


Charles 2nd made a grant of land later named New Jersey.


Deborah Wilson, the Quaker wife of Robert Wilson, had at one time walked naked through the streets of Salem as a spiritual testimony. For this she had been "sentenced to be tied at a cart's tail with her body naked downward to her waist, and whipped". She was brought before the court in 1669 for "frequently absenting herself from the public ordinances", but the case "was dismissed, court being informed that she is distempered in her head". (Erikson, K.T. 1966 pages 122 and 132)

1671 An epistle from the Quakers to the Governor of Barbados

1672 Two Quakers, Henry and Hannah Phelps, had settled in the Albemarle region of Carolina, but there was no organised Christianity when the Quaker missionaries William Edmundson and (later in 1672) George Fox came to preach the gospel. When Edmundson revisited in 1676, Quakerism was still the only Christian faith in the area and, at this time, this was the only area of the colonial North American coast where Quakers were not persecuted. Two Quakers who arrived there from England were John and Agnes Trueblood, who arrived about 1682. Before they died, in 1692, they acquired land, wealth and a family of four children. All American Truebloods are said to have descended from one of their two sons. (Gordon Trueblood)
Piney Woods Friends Church (Meeting House) in Perquimans County, North Carolina is not far from where Edmundson and later Fox preached. Its worshippers include descendants of the first Trueblood settlers.


At the height of its power, about 1675, Iroquois Confederation conquered wide stretches of the surrounding country. Engels


New Jersey divided into two. The western part was owned by Quakers, including William Penn



In 1681, the land now called Pennsylvania (Penn's woodlands) was granted to the English Quaker, William Penn, in payment of a debt the English monarch owed his father. The first Quaker colonists arrived in 1682. The woodlands were, of course, already occupied by the "Indians", and also by Dutch colonists who had taken it from the Swedish (in 1655), before it was taken by the British (in 1664) and granted by Charles 2nd to the Duke of York. Sweden had colonised in 1643. Many historians say that Penn made fair exchanges with the Indians for their land. Others that he deceived them and "effectively" stole it. Whatever the truth, the land was settled peacefully and a "holy experiment" started.

1682 Penn laid out the street plan for Philadelphia: The City of Brotherly Love

English Bloodless Revolution 1688 English Bloodless Revolution. The works of John Locke, published after the revolution, made the case for knowledge based on reason and science, the separation of political and religious authority and a society tolerant of a variety of religious views.

England hangs its last people accused of witchcraft England hangs its last people accused of witchcraft

1692 Witch hunts in Salem, Massachusetts. 19 "witches" hanged. External chronology. The local trials were stopped by the Governor of the colony, Phips, who ordered that reliance on spectral and intangible evidence should not be allowed in trials and dissolved the local Court of Oyer and Terminer on 29.10.1692. On 25.11.1692 the General Court of the colony created the Superior Court to try the remaining witchcraft cases. There were no convictions when they came to trial in May 1693. [See interpretation: 1966]

1693: College of William and Mary, Virginia, Chartered by King William 3rd and Queen Mary 2nd (external link to history)

1715 Dr Israel How came to Andover (then called South Parish), Massachusetts. He was its first physician. When he died in 1740 he was succeeded by his son, Dr Daniel How. In the middle of the eighteenth century, Daniel How's practice was especially in treatment of the insane. [The name is also spelt Howe in some sources]. (Charles Outwin) See 1761

1718 Collegiate School, Connecticut, (established 1701 and in New Haven from 1716, changed its name to Yale College, in honour of a benefactor, Elihu Yale. (External link Yale history). Yale College established a Medical Institution in 1810, Divinity School in 1822, Law School in 1843, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences in 1847 and School of Fine Arts in 1869. In 1875 it began the first sociology course in the USA and in 1887 it became a University.


1724-1726 Trainee Philadelphia printer, Benjamin Franklin (1706-1890), working in London


Benjamin Franklin opened his own printing office in Philadelphia, becoming sole owner in 1729 and publisher of the Pennsylvania Gazette


"New York State's first publicly supported institution for dependent people was opened in New York City in 1736 and was called "The House of Correction, Workhouse and Poorhouse". It housed the poor who refused to work, the poor who were unable to work and the poor who were willing but unable to find work" (L. Jane Tracy: The Onondaga Hill Poorhouse Story)

February 1736 John and Charles Wesley arrived in America. (external link) - See Methodist Hymns


Benjamin Franklin appointed Postmaster of Philadelphia


Working-class Methodists in Philadelphia wanted to build a great preaching hall for the English evangelist, George Whitfield. It was also to be a charity school. The University of Pennsylvania claims this as its foundation. A deed of trust was formed, but funding fell through. In 1749, Benjamin Franklin named a board of trustees, with himself as president. The Academy opened in 1751 and was chartered in 1755. External link to Wikipedia article.


15.12.1745 Birth of Benjamin Rush in Byberry, Pennsylvania. Professor of Chemistry at Philadelphia in 1769, at Pennsylvania in 1791. Signatory of the Declaration of Independence. Surgeon General (then Physician General) of the "Continental Army" 1777-1778. Treasurer of US Mint 1799. Died 1813.

External links: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 -


Benjamin Franklin's first writings on experimenting with electricity. In 1748 he sold the printing office and retired from business


Augusta Academy opened in Lexington, Virginia. Became Washington and Lee University. (External link to timeline)

1751 Benjamin Franklin's Experiments and Observations on Electricity published in London. In June 1752 he is said to have tried the suggested experiment of attaching a metal key to a kite and flying it in a thunderstorm to see if it picked up an electrical charge. Issue related to his founding fire insurance and fixing lightning conductors.


Pennsylvania Hospital admitted mentally disturbed patients from 1752.


King's College, New York founded. Later Columbia University. "the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States". (external history link) - First Ph.D in 1875 - see following - 1890


Resignation of ten Quakers from the Philadelphia Assembly put the Quakers in a political minority in Philadelphia for the first time.

29.1.1756 Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia elected a Fellow of the Royal Society

1757-1762 Benjamin Franklin in London as representative of the Pennsylvania Assembly


sensory deprivation:

"In 1761, the Reverend John Wiswall (1731-1821) of Falmouth, Maine suffered what we would probably now call a "nervous breakdown". He continued out of his mind for nine months, after which he was referred to Dr Daniel Howe (born 1.5.1717, died 1.11.1797), a doctor in Andover, Massachusetts, who prescribed confinement to "a dark chamber". Cure was obtained in a few weeks." (Charles Outwin)

If you know any more about this doctor or his treatments, please communicate.. It is possible that the idea of reducing sensory input was related to the associationist theories of people like David Hartley. See also 1775

1764 Benjamin Franklin in London




Death of John Woolman (1720-1772), an American (New Jersey) Quaker whose life and writings had a profound effect (inside and outside the Quakers) in Britain, as well as America. There is an online text of his Journal at Bartleby.com John Woolman died of smallpox at York, Yorkshire, England on 7.10.1772.


British passed a Tea Act, which aroused strong opposition in the American colonies.

16.12.1773 "Boston Tea Party". Colonials tip 342 chests of tea into the sea.

Public Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds, the first in what became the United States, opened at Williamsburg, Virginia.   [External link]

1774 Benjamin Franklin in London

British closed the port of Boston in response to the tea party

Virginia Conventions began, leading to the First Continental Congress (meetings of the American colonies) which met in Philadelphia from 5.9.1774 to 14.10.1774, when it passed the Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress.


April 1775 to 1783: War between the British and their rebellious American colonies. The armed rebellion began at the Lexington and Concord Bridge, and spread. The rebel army was led by George Washington.

14.6.1775: The Provincial Congress of Massachusetts passed the following resolve:

"Whereas the committee are informed that Dr How of Andover is prepared to receive insane patients and is well skilled in such disorders, resolved that Daniel Adams, a lunatic now at Woburn, be carried to the town of Andover and committed to the care of Doctor How and the said Dr How be hereby desired to take proper care of the said lunatic at the expense of this colony."

17.6.1775 Major John Pitcairn, father of David Pitcairn, killed in the Battle of Bunker's Hill. 1,054 British troops and 441 rebel troops died in the battle, which the British won. (external link)


Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends (Quakers) disowned members who persisted in owning slaves.

January 1776 Common Sense, written by Thomas Paine, published anonymously.

12.6.1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights; written by George Mason

29.6.1776 Virginia State Constitution adopted. This became a model for all the rebel colonies as they formed themselves into states.

11.7.1776 Chiefs of the Iroquois visited and addressed the Continental Congress that was discussing independence from Britain of the colonial states. external link

4.7.1776 Declaration of Independence, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, formally adopted at the Second Continental Congress by all rebel states. In June, the Congress had adopted a resolution that:

"these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states."


The Continental Congress adopted the thirteen stars and stripes as the flag of the independent states acting in combination. "Articles of Confederation" were drafted, but did not come into operation until 1781 - when Maryland agreed to ratify them.


Articles of Confederation came into operation, providing for the common defence of the states and some pursuit of common aims.


Independence of "these United States" recognised by the Treaty of Paris

The separate states adopted distinct constitutions, allowing for more democracy than under their colonial constitutions.

click on this map for the full
map of the USA The rebel 13 are only a small part of the present USA. On this Victorian map, the original thirteen are:

New Hampshire (2)
Massachusetts (4)
Rhode Island (5)
Connecticut (6)
New York (7)
New Jersey (9)
Pensylvania (8)
Delaware (10)
Maryland (11)
North Carolina
South Carolina

click on this map for the full map of the USA


25.5.1787 to 17.9.1787: Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.

17.9.1787 The Constitution of the United States adopted by the Constitutional Convention

"The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same."

27.10.1787 First of eighty-five anonymous articles (pseudonym Publius) in New York newspapers. Collected together as a book, in 1788, these became known as The Federalist or The Federalist Papers. Their authors were Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay.

John Adams' A Defence of the Constitution of Government of the United States includes discussion of Iroquois forms of government. [See external link]

1788 New Hampshire was the 9th state to ratify the Constitution, which then became the law.

Presidency of George Washington 1789 to 1797
Washington was inaugorated as the first President of the United States on 30.4.1789


15.12.1791 First ten Amendments to the Constitution ("The Bill of Rights") adopted

Printed in London, for the author, John Long (known to be alive 1768-1791) Voyages and travels of an Indian interpreter and trader: describing the manners and customs of the North American Indians; with an account of the posts situated on the river Saint Laurence, Lake Ontario, &c.; to which is added, a vocabulary of the Chippeway language, names of furs and skins, in English and French, a list of words in the Iroquois, Mohegan, Shawanee, and Esquimeaux tongues, and a table, shewing the analogy between the Algonkin and Chippeway languages (See Durkheim on totemism)

Pacifying native Americans

The new United States of America extended its borders and fought to establish a monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force in its territory. Native americans, who were tribal rather than territorial, resisted. They were not finally defeated until 1890.

After independence, groups of euro-americans moved west. They were protected from Indian tribes by the United States army. Little Turtle led warriors of the Miami, Shawnee, and other tribes against the US army, north of the Ohio River, in 1790 and 1791. The Indians were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Shawnee chief Tecumseh tried to forge a grand alliance of tribes west of the mountains, but was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. He was killed in battle in 1812. Native americans in the south were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (present-day Alabama) in 1814. In the 1820s the USA Government developed a policy of moving native american tribes away from the east to territories west of the Mississippi River.


Spring Grove Hospital, Maryland


19th century reform movement weblinks (Resource at Jefferson School District Libraries)

Presidency of Thomas Jefferson 1801 to 1809


6.2.1804 Joseph Priestley died Northumberland, Pennsylvania, USA. He was buried in the Quakers' burial-ground.

1808 New York Lunatic Asylum, previously in the cellar of the north wing of New York Hospital, moved to its own building. Renamed Bloomingdale Asylum in 1821. Moved to White Plains in 1894. (external link: archive of old location and new location)


Benjamin Rush advised his son, who was touring England, to visit Catherine Cappe and his old acquaintance Alexander Hunter at York Asylum, in London Bethlem Hospital, some private mad-houses and especially to meet "Dr Dunston, the physician of St Luke's Hospital... eminent for his knowledge of diseases of the mind" and to tell him about his new Tranquillizer

Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind, by Benjamin Rush, Professor of medicine in the University of Pennsylvania and physician to the Pennsylvania Hospital, included details of his Tranquilliser, an 1811 picture of which is very well known:




Friend's Asylum, Philadelphia opened. Modeled on York Retreat
Friends Hospital website
The Early Years of Friends Asylum 1817-1820
Isaac Bonsall's Diaries 1817-1823

"The University of Michigan was established in 1817 by the Michigan Territorial legislature as one of the United States' first public universities on 1,920 acres (8 km�) of land ceded by the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi people "_for a college at Detroit." The school moved from Detroit to Ann Arbor in 1837, only 13 years after the latter city had been founded." (Wikipedia)


Lewis Henry Morgan born. See 1851   1868   1871   1877   1880   1881   1882   1883  

Thomas Jefferson founded what became The University of Virginia. External links: Wikipedia article - Short history by Susan Tyler Hitchcock - details of her book. "Jefferson, with his friend Joseph Cabell, managed to get the Virginia Assembly to agree to fund a state university - Virginia is considered the first of all of them". (Susan Tyler Hitchcock - email)


New York State completed the building of Auburn State Prison, started in 1816. External link: Auburn 1860

"In the 1820's New York and Pennsylvania began a movement that soon spread through the Northeast, and then over the next decades to many midwestern states. New York devised the Auburn or congregate system of penitentiary organisation, establishing it first at the Auburn state prison between 1819 and 1823, and then in 1825 at the Ossining institution similarly known as Sing-Sing" Rothman, D. 1971, p.79)

The Silent System

"the Auburn system stressed congregate activities. Inmates slept in segregated cells but moved into workshops during the day and even outside the prison walls to work in tightly disciplined gangs, eating together in a common mess hall. In order to maintain order among this large company of men, the Auburn officials made liberal use of the whip and enforced a policy of absolute silence among the convicts." (Erikson, K.T. 1966 p.200)

"Pennsylvania officials worked out the details of a rival plan, the separate system, applying it to the penitentiary at Pittsburgh in 1826 and to the prison at Philadelphia in 1829" Rothman, D. 1971, p.79)

"Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia was a product of Quaker thinking and planning. Architecturally, it was a powerful fortress of stone, gloomy and massive like a medieval castle, but inside a new idea of prison discipline was being developed: each convict was locked in a separate call and confined there for the duration of his sentence, working at useful trades in the privacy of his room and exercising by himself in an isolated courtyard. The whole arrangement bore the stamp of Quaker theology, for the stated purpose of this solitary treatment was to give the inmate a chance to come to terms with his inner self and gain a more religious outlook for the future" (Erikson, K.T. 1966 p.200)

separate system adopted in the UK separate system adopted in the UK
USA prisons tended to follow the silent model.

"In short order, the Connecticut legislature stopped using an abandoned copper mine to incarcerate offenders, and in 1827 built a new structure at Wethersfied. Massachusetts reorganised its state prison at Charleston in 1829; that same year, Maryland erected a penitentiary, and one year later New Jersey followed suit. Ohio and Michigan built penitentiaries in the 1830s, and so did Indiana, Wisconsin and Minnesota in the 1840s." Rothman, D. 1971, pages 80-81)


Indian Territory

In the 1820s, the USA government began moving what it called the "Five Civilized Tribes" of South East America (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) to lands west of the Mississippi River. The 1830 Indian Removal Act gave the President authority to designate specific lands for the Indians (native Americans). The 1834 Indian Intercourse Act called the lands Indian Territory and specified where they were: all of present-day Oklahoma North and East of the Red River, as well as Kansas and Nebraska. But, in 1854 the territory was cut down when Kansas and Nebraska territories were created. White settlers continued to invade the West and half the remaining Indian Territory (West Oklahoma) was opened to whites in 1889. In 1907 Oklahoma became a state of the USA, and Indian Territory was no more. (external link). Gill's Geography map has "Indian Territory" shown east of "Oklahoma".

First nations site has detailed history of how these issues related to the Iroquois


22.6.1822. British born, John Sherren Bartlett (1790-24.8.1863) established The Albion, or British, Colonial and Foreign Weekly Gazette in New York. He edited it until 1848. The paper continued until 1856. It specialised in providing recent news from Britain to British emigrants living in the new world.


Presidency of Andrew Jackson 1829 to 1837
(external link: Andrew Jackson)


23.10.1829 First part of Eastern State Penitentiary Pennsylvania, in Cherry Hill/Fairmount, opened. (external link to museum website timeline) - [See Separate System]. It replaced the original Walnut Street Prison - [External link to illustrated website relating both prisons to Foucault.]

1829-1833 First publication of Encyclop�dia Americana: "A popular dictionary of arts, sciences, literature, history, politics and biography, brought down to the present time; including a copious collection of original articles in American biography; on the basis of the 7th edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon (Wikipedia)

1832 Worcester Insane Asylum, the first in Massachusetts, opened.


New York State commission established 1836 to build a lunatic asylum, purchased land (Utica) in 1837. The asylum opened in 1843.

Presidency of Martin Van Buren 1837 to 1841


Ann Arbor

1838 Ohio Lunatic Asylum established at Columbus, Central Ohio.

23.9.1838 Brunel's Great Western Steamship arrived in New York on its first journey from Bristol, England. It had sailed on 8.4.1838. The return voyage left from New York on 7.5.1838 and arrived Bristol 22.5.1838. The vessel ran for nine seasons - lying up in winter. (external link)


Boston Lunatic Asylum opened at South Boston, County of Suffolk, Massachusetts, (taken over by the state in 1908)

New York City Lunatic Asylum on Blackwell's Island opened. (Architect: A.J. Davis, 1835-1839). It was designed as a copy of Hanwell. It was the largest mental hospital in the United States during its time. As New York City's pauper asylum, it was overcrowded from the start, and completely overwhelmed by the Irish famine immigration. "Foreign born" patients generally made up about 75 percent of its population. The asylum, run by the City's Almshouse Commission, was never adequately funded, and was mired in political infighting from inception. Alterations by archtect Joseph M. Dunn in 1879. The asylum was closed in 1895. Part of the 1839 building survives and is now called the Octagon. (Information mainly from Diane Richardson)

Cuban Slaver ship Amistad captured by its black cargo (2.7.1839). Arrested of New York (26.8.1839). Subsequent trials etc a focus for anti-slavery agitation. External link: The Amistad Revolt

10.9.1839 Charles Sanders Peirce born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. External link to biography


World Anti-Slavery Conference opened in London 12.6.1840 World Anti-Slavery Conference opened in London. British slaves having been freed in the 1830s, the emphasis of the conference was on the liberation of United States slaves. Six delegates from the United States were women.

14.10.1840 Maine State Hospital for the insane opened. Superintendent Cyrus Knapp. 30 patients by 31.12.1840.

Presidency of William H. Harrison 1841

Presidency of John Tyler 1841 to 1845

1841: In 1841 Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802-1887) taught a Sunday school class in the East Cambridge (Massachusetts) jail. She was disturbed that insane people were in the prison. She spent eighteen months touring Massachusetts institutions where the mentally ill were confined, and reported to the Massachusetts legislature in 1843

University of Michigan opened at Ann Arbour (external link)


American Ethnological Society begun in New York City (External link to history on its website)

11.1.1842 William James born New York. External link to a William James website and its biography.

17.1.1842 Charles Dickens arrived in Newfoundland, and from there travelled to Halifax and Boston. He left America for England on 7.6.1842 and, on 18.10.1842 published his controversial American Notes. These included accounts of his visits to prisons, asylums and other institutions. Of the State Hospital for the Insane, South Boston he wrote:

"admirably conducted on those enlightened principles of conciliation and kindness , which twenty years ago would have been worse than heretical, and which have been acted upon with such success in our own pauper Asylum at Hanwell. 'Evince a desire to show some confidence and repose some trust, even in mad people' said the resident physician as we walked along the galleries'"

Saturday 2.4.1842 edition of The Albion contained an editorial and comprehensive report, with statistics about the Hanwell Pauper Lunatic Asylum", in London. Brad Edmondson is investigating the possibility that this relates to the establishment of the New York State Asylum

1842 Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane opened

The Oregon Trail began in 1842 when, for a few years, many people left the Missouri river region in large group of horse drawn wagons heading westward, over the mountains, to Oregon, the land bordering the Pacific in the Columbia River area. They came into conflict with the British in the Hudson Bay Company, who shared this area with the United States. In 1846, this conflict was resolved by drawing a national boundary at the 49th parallel. The first wagon train arrived in the Puget Sound, the large inlet of Pacific water into what is now Washington State, in 1845. It was led by Michael Simmons and George W. Bush, a free Black. Oregon Territory (from the 42nd parallel to the 49th) was created in 1848, but divided into Oregon Territory and Washington Territory in 1853. Oregon became a state in 1859. Washington became a state in 1889

1843: Dorothea Dix's Memorial to the Massachusetts legislature , in which she argued that the 120 beds in the Worcester State Asylum were not enough for all the lunatics she found in Massachusetts poorhouses and prisons. The asylum was expanded to 320 beds.

1843 New York State Lunatic Asylum at Utica completed - external link to history on Rootsweb site, which describes it as "one of the earliest structures to incorporate progressive theories on the treatment of mental illness". The first superintendent was Amariah Brigham. An abstract of a description from the American Journal of Insanity July 1847 has been made available online by the Disability Museum.


External link: Dorothea Dix in New Jersey (archive)

Asylum doctors: asylum doctors in the UK asylum doctors in the UK

16.10.1844 A meeting in Philadelphia of the following thirteen, formed the American Association of Medical Superintendents, which later became the American Psychiatric Association:

22.10.1844 Jesus did not return to earth in his second coming as had been predicted by the followers of William Miller. The disappointment is now part of Seventh Day Adventist history. See The Ellen G. White Estate - The official Ellen G. White website (positive) and The Ellen White Research Project (critical). The article on Millerite Insanity is on the critical site.

1843 The first permanent colony in what is now British Columbia was established (in present-day Victoria) by the British in 1843

One of the slogans of the 1844 USA presidential election was "Fifty-four forty or fight", meaning the British should be made to withdraw north of the 54.40"North latitude on the Pacific coast, by force if necessary. The issue was resolved, without war, by dividing the Columbia river region between the USA and British Columbia at the 49th parallel. (map)   British Columbia website

Presidency of James K. Polk 1845 to 1849


Dix, D. L. and YA Pamphlet Collection (Library of Congress) (1845). Memorial. To the Honourable the Senate and General Assembly of the state of New Jersey. Trenton,.

Dix, D. L. (1845). Memorial soliciting a state hospital for the insane. Philadelphia, I. Ashmead printer.

1847 Illinois State Hospital for the Insane, Jacksonville, opened

On the Construction, Organisation, and General Arrangements of Hospitals for the Insane, with some remarks on Insanity and its Treatment by Thomas Kirkbride.

Dix, D. L. (1847). Memorial soliciting enlarged and improved accomodations for the insane of the state of Tennessee. Nashville, B. R. M'Kennie printer.

1848 Indiana Hospital for the Insane opened about three miles west of Indianapolis. It started with just five patients. Many people moved to Indiana in the next half-century and, by 1900, the hospital had an average of 1,800 patients. In the meantime, other Indiana hospitals for the insane had opened, and this one was renamed Central State Hospital for the Insane. From 1929 it was just Central State Hospital. It closed in 1994, but the Pathology Department building was preserved and now houses the Indiana Medical History Museum. (external link)

15.5.1848 New Jersey Lunatic Asylum at Trenton opened. The first to be built on the Kirkbride plan. (Rootsweb, which has pictures)

Presidency of Zacharey Taylor 1849 to 1850


Dix, D. L. and Alabama. General assembly. House of representatives 1849. [from old catalog] (1849). Memorial soliciting a state hospital for the insane. Montgomery, Office of the Advertiser and gazette.

Presidency of Millard Fillmore 1850 to 1853


Spring 1850: Convention of Women in Ohio.
23.10.1850 - 24.10.1850 Women's Rights Convention, Worcester, Massachusetts. Worcester was a centre of anti-slavery agitation, out of which the Women's Rights Movement in the United States developed. See
The Enfranchisement of Women


Lewis Henry Morgan, League of the Ho-dé-no-sau-nee, or Iroquois Rochester; New York: Sage & Brother: M.H. Newman & Co.; and others. Included a folding map and a "Schedule explanatory of the Indian map," arranged in three columns giving the corresponding English and Indian names of the localities, stream, etc., with their signification.

1852 Second Massachusetts Hospital for the insane opened at Taunton.

20.2.1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom's Cabin (book form) - (Wikipedia entry)

Presidency of Franklin Pierce 1853 to 1857

1853 Washington Territory was established with Isaac Stevens as its first territorial governor. The medical superintendent of a large English lunatic asylum governed as many people as Isaac Stevens in 1853, but by 1860 the territory's population had multiplied tenfold to 11,500. In 1854 the first session of the territorial legislature adapted a poor law with provision for care of insane. "Counties" were delegated this responsibility and, in 1855, King County presented a bill for $1659 for caring for Edward Moore, a "non-resident lunatic pauper". As the entire annual income of the territory was $1199, the bill was declined, and Edward Moore returned by sea to Boston, his home. (Kathleen Benoun)


Henry David Thoreau's Walden - Or Life in the Woods told the story of his period of simple living in Massachusetts in 1845. (external link to a copy). (See Skinner's Walden Two)

Birth of Albion Woodbury Small (died 1926) - External link: Chicago archives - biography

14.2.1854 Birth of George Hunt (died September 1933). Worked for Franz Boas as informant and translator, supplying artifacts and stories from 1888 (external link)


St Elizabeth's Hospital for the Insane, Washington DC, established.   (external link) - (external link) - See 1884 - 1886 - 1955

The Age of Fables by Thomas Bullfinch

Presidency of James Buchanan 1857 to 1861


Gold discovered in the Fraser Valley and thousands of people came in search of instant wealth. To help maintain law and order, the British government established the colony of British Columbia in 1858. The colony of Vancouver Island joined British Columbia in 1866.

1858 Third Massachusetts Hospital for the insane opened at Northampton. - external link to Tom Riddle's website

9.7.1858 Franz Boas born in Germany. Died 21.12.1942. Anthopologist working with native Americans. See 1885: fieldwork - 1889: Clark University - 1892: Field Museum Chicago 1893: Chicago World's Fair - 1895: New York - 1896: Columbia University - (Wikipedia - collections - Columbia)

1858 15.4.1858 Emile Durkheim born.
His last lectures (1913/1914) included a comparison of his sociology with that of pragmatists, such as Dewey.

20.10.1859: John Dewey born (died 1.6.1952) See Chicago timeline 1859-1952
1884 - 1896 - 1909 - 1916 - 1920 - 1922 - 1927 - 1930 - 1931 - 1935 -


Reverend Theophilus Packard committed his wife, Elizabeth Parsons Ware Packard to the Illinois State Asylum at Jacksonville.

6.9.1860 Jane Adams born (died 21.5.1935) See Chicago timeline 1859-1952

20.12.1860 South Carolina became first state to secede from Union

Presidency of Abraham Lincoln 1861 to 1865

8.2.1861 Confederate States adopt Provisional Constitution

1.3.1861 Iowa State Hospital for the Insane at Mount Pleasant, Iowa, finished.

12.4.1861 Civil War begins

During the Civil War, Jacob Mendez Da Costa (1833-1900) was a doctor at the Military Hospital in Philadelphia, where he made may of the observations on which he based a paper on "irritable heart" (sometimes called soldier's heart) in 1871. This disorder was brought on by extreme fear. Arthur Bowen Richards Myers (1838-1921) was the first to describe it (in 1870) in On the etiology and prevalence of diseases of the heart among soldiers, published in London by J. Churchill. The syndrome was later named Da Costa's syndrome. (External links: who named it and War Syndromes and Their Evaluation... by Kenneth C. Hyams, Stephen Wignall and Robert Roswell)


October 1862 St. John's Lunatic Asylum in Vancouver, Washington opened by the Sisters of Charity. It was the first asylum in Washington Territory. The Sisters contracted with the territory to care for patients at $8 a week, and a total of 17 patients were admitted between 1862 and 1865.


The Emancipation of USA slaves Proclamation

The Gettysburg Address

Elizabeth Packard released from Illinois State Asylum

13.8.1863 William Isaac Thomas born. See 1892 - 1904 - 1918


14.2.1864 Robert E. Park born. See 1884 - 1892 - 1898 - 1903 - 1914 - 1921 - 1925 - 1936 - died 7.2.1944 - weblinks


The 13th amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery

14.4.1865 Lincoln shot by Boothe, died next day

Presidency of Andrew Johnson 1865 to 1869

(external link: Andrew Johnson)

13.2.1865 Nebraska passed an Act for arrangments with Iowa to send insane patients to the Iowa asylum at Mount Pleasant. The arrangement continued until July 1870, when Nebraska had to move six of its incurable patients into the Pawnee county jail until the asylum at Lincoln was completed

26.5.1865 Confederate Army surrendered at Shreveport, Louisiana: End of USA Civil War.


The Laguna Honda Hospital and Rehabilitation Center, San Francisco was opened. For many years the "inmates" were expected to work in exchange for care. It then became a we'll-meet-all-your-needs place. By 2002 it had become a 1,000 plus bed long-term care government run hospital. Believed to be (now) the only large facility of its kind in the United States.


British North American Act created the Dominion of Canada

USA bought Alaska from Russia for 7.2 million dollars

Elizabeth Packard "in the winter of 1867, I came alone, and at my own expense, from Massachusetts to Illinois ... trying to induce the Legislature to ... pass ... a Bill for the Protection of Personal Liberty


Lewis Henry Morgan, The American beaver and his works. J.B. Lippincott & Co.

Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant 1869 to 1877

Birth of Henry Chandler Cowles' (1869-1939). See 1895 - 1898 - 1901 - 1913 -

12.10.1870 Death of Robert Edward Lee, Confederate General and then (from 1865) the President of Washington University, Virginia. On the work table in his office there was a copy of On the prevention and treatment of mental disorders published in 1859 by George Robinson, MD (1821-1875) the owner of Bensham Asylum, near Gateshead, in the north-east of England. [Source: Jeptha Greer] External links Washington and Lee Chapel - Washington and Lee University Timeline (archive)

26.11.1870 First patient admitted to Nebraska State Asylum at Lincoln.


Lewis Henry Morgan, Systems of consanguinity and affinity of the human family Smithsonian contributions to knowledge volume 17. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington)


Washington Territory's first Lunatic Asylum established from a closed Army post called Fort Steilacoom. Now Western State Hospital, Washington. The second state hospital was opened in 1888 The picture below shows Western State Hospital in the 1940s, at about the time that the film star Frances Farmer became a patient. Her autobiography Will there really be a morning? generated a lot of unwelcome publicity for the hospital in 1978. (Kathleen Benoun)
Washington State Hospital
Click on the image to locate Washington State in the North West of the USA


Under Elizabeth Packard's influence, Iowa passed a similar bill to Illinois. Other states followed suite.


Birth of Abraham Arden Brill (died 1948), the first major translator of the works of Sigmund Freud from German into English. The New York Psychonalytic Society was founded under his chairmanship in 1911. In 1920 he was "PH.B., M.D. Clinical assistant, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Columbia University; Assistant in Mental Diseases, Bellevue Hospital; Assistant Visiting Physician, Hospital for Nervous Diseases"

Birth of Charles Christopher Adams (1873-1955). "Arriving from Harvard at the University of Chicago in 1899, Adams studied under Charles B. Davenport, Henry C. Cowles, and Charles Otis Whitman. He worked as a curator at the University of Michigan's Natural History Museum while completing his Ph.D., awarded in 1908. From 1908 to 1914, he served as a professor in animal ecology at the University of Illinois". 1913 Animal Ecology "In December 1914, he participated in the initial organizational meeting of the Ecological Society of America"


16.9.1874 Frederic Edward Clements born, (died 26.7.1945) See 1905 - 1916 - 1917 - 1925 - [Wikipedia]. Clements argued that plant communities develop thorough stages to a climax community.

9.11.1874 Missouri State Lunatic Asylum Number 2 at St Joseph's. In 1968 George Glore, a worker at the hospital, created models to illustrate the history of psychiatric treatment in the USA. From this developed a museum now known as the Glore Psychiatric Museum. Now in its own modern building, the museum has outlived its hospital and is a major tourist attraction. Curator, Scott Clark. - Museum link - Roadside America link

Christmas 1874 The Lambs New York formed. A gentleman's club for actors. It was the twin of the London Lambs Club.

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, founded in 1874, claims to be "the world's oldest independent scientific monthly in the field of human behaviour". It started (1874) as the Chicago Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (first two years). The first years of the journal balanced neurology and psychiatry. - See History of Chicago Neurology


The first sociology course in the United States was taught by William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) at Yale College in 1875. He used Herbert Spencer's Sociology as his text. [I am not clear which book this refers to]
See external link: Darwin's Impact: Social Evolution in America, 1880-1920 (archive) and History of Economic Thought Web, which describes Sumner as a "Social Darwinist, American counterpart of the British evolutionary theorist, Herbert Spencer. Defended radical laissez- faire as being justified by laws of evolution".

14.12.1875: New England Psychological Society formed at Worcester, Massachusetts. Pliny Earle, superintendent of the Northampton Lunatic Hospital, elected president. The name was changed to the New England Society of Psychiatry on 26.3.1907. (see words)

The first Columbia PhD was awarded in 1875

1876 Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, opened. "the first university in the Western Hemisphere founded on the model of the European research institution, where research and the advancement of knowledge were integrally linked to teaching". (external link) [What did the others do? - Does this mean that John Hopkins was the first USA institution that a European would have recognised as a university? See Yale]

"Although colleges devoted to the instruction of future clergymen, other professionals, and members of the upper strata have flourished in America since the colonial period, the first full-fledged American university, Johns Hopkins, opened its doors only in 1876. Four years later Columbia College began to develop into a national university. The universities of Michigan and Pennsylvania followed soon after. In 1891 large endowments from private benefactors led to the creation of two new major universities, Stanford and the University of Chicago. Others soon followed." (Lewis Coser)

Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes 1877 to 1881


Lewis Henry Morgan, (1818 -1881) Ancient society, or, researches in the lines of human progress from savagery, through barbarism to civilization Chicago : C.H. Kerr.    

See Marx and Engels   Origin   Durkheim on totemism   Fison and Howitt

see Twomey

Richard L. Dugdale, 1877, The Jukes: A Study in Crime, Pauperism, Disease and Heredity, New York, G.P. Putnam. Webster's 1913 Dictionary included the following entry:

"Jukes, The: A pseudonym used to designate the descendants of two sisters, the Jukes sisters, whose husbands were sons of a backwoodsman of Dutch descent. They lived in the State of New York, and their history was investigated by R. L. Dugdale as an example of the inheritance of criminal and immoral tendencies, disease, and pauperism. Sixty per cent of those traced showed, degeneracy, and they are estimated to have cost society $1,308,000 in 75 years."


"Although there were many pathology and bacteriology laboratories in Europe prior to 1875, none existed in the United States. Why no laboratories were established in the United States before 1875 is difficult to understand because biologists and teachers in the universities and medical schools were familiar with the researches of Pasteur, Koch and Lister.

In 1878, William Welch established the first pathology laboratory in the United States at Bellevue Hospital in New York and shortly after T. Michell Prudden started one at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Although these laboratories were designated as pathology laboratories, bacteriologic research and teaching were part of the program." (W. L. Mallmann 1974) - (archive)

January 1878 Charles S. Peirce "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" in Popular Science Monthly 12, pages 286-302.


Bureau of Ethnology established by an Act of Congress. Later re-named Bureau of American Ethnology. (Wikipedia)

February 1879 The Anthropological Society of Washington founded, "government-sponsored anthropology centered in Washington - in the earlier days largely at the Smithsonian Institution" (External source: pdf of Records, including history - html)


American Journal of Philology founded

25.10.1880 Oregon State Legislature authorised the construction of the first state lunatic asylum. The State Insane Asylum at Salem, Oregon was opened in 1883 with 320 patients. Before that, Oregonian lunatics were cared for in a private asylum in Portland at state expense. (Rootsweb, which has pictures)

From 1880 to 1920 the number of insane patients of institutions in the USA increased from 40,942 to 232,680

Lewis Henry Morgan, A Study of the Houses of the American Aborigines; with suggestions for the exploration of the Ruins in New Mexico, Arizona, the valley of the San Juan, and in Yucatan and Central America.

Presidency of James A. Garfield (Republican) 1881
Presidency of Chester A. Arthur (Republican) 1881 to 1885


Lewis Henry Morgan, Houses and house-life of the American aborigines This was part of the original manuscript of Ancient Society It was published as volume four of Contributions to North American ethnology Department of the Interior. U. S. Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region.


The life and works of Lewis H. Morgan. An address at his funeral by Joshua Hall Macilvaine. [Rochester, N.Y.]


The first laboratory of psychology in America is established at Johns Hopkins University

Memoir of Lewis H. Morgan of Rochester, N.Y. etc. by Charles Henry Hart. Philadelphia

Robert Henry Lowie born, Vienna, 1883. Died 1957. (Wikipedia)


The superintendent of St Elizabeth's Hospital for the Insane, W.W. Godding, appointed Isaac W. Blackburn as head of the first pathology laboratory established in a lunatic asylum in the USA.

In 1884, John Dewey published "Kant and Philosophic Method" (April), was awarded his Ph.D by Johns Hopkins University (June) and was appointed instructor in philosophy at University of Michigan (July). One of his students at Michigan was Robert E. Park. [see autobiographical note] Dewey left Michigan in 1888. Robert Park worked as a journalist from 1887 to 1898 [see autobiographical note]

Presidency of Grover Cleveland (Democrat) 1885 to 1889


Roderick Duncan McKenzie Roderick Duncan McKenzie born (died 1940). See 1923 - 1925 - 1929 - 1933 -

Boas emigrated to the United States, to "assume an editorial position with the journal Science" (source) - "From 1885 to 1896, Boas conducted fieldwork under the auspices of several museums on the North Pacific Coast of North America" (source) - "In 1886, he embarked upon ... what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889 (source)

Louis Untermeyer (1885-1977) "Schools used his Modern American and British poetry books widely, and they often formed students' introduction to poetry" (Wikipedia) - "Louis Untermeyer was most noted for the anthologies of poetry which he compiled and edited. Some of these works, first published in the 1920s, continued to be used as high school and college textbooks well into the 1970s" (Biographical note, University of Delaware)


Of 1,588 paretic patients admitted to St. Elizabeth's Hospital between 1886 and 1924, 1,198 died in the hospital.

16.5.1886 Ernest Watson Burgess born. See 1921 - 1925 -


Yale College became Yale University


27.1.1888 National Geographic Society founded in Washington DC. The National Geographic Magazine started in September/October 1888. [external link to website]. The Royal Geographical Society in Great Britain was founded in 1830.

New York investigative reporter Nellie Bly disguised herself as a mental patient, then wrote Ten days in a Mad House

In Washington State there is a lake so full of salts that it is known as "Medical Lake". The lake was exploited commercially by an English immigrant, Stanley Hallett (1851- ) who owned much of the land. Hallett persuaded the legislature, of what was then Washington Territory, to construct the second State Lunatic Asylum there in 1888. It is now Eastern State Hospital (Washington) (Kathleen Benoun's timeline says it opened in 1891) external link

"The original Kirkbride building at Medical Lake is long gone, but the building that replaced it has an approximation of a Kirkbride floor plan, with male and female wings extending from a larger center wing. Originally just a mental hospital, the complex now houses mental health patients, chimpanzees, juvenile criminal offenders, and bats, as the mental hospital has downsized and different uses have been found." (Rootsweb, which has pictures)

Presidency of Benjamin Harrison (Republican) 1889 to 1893


Foundation of Hull House, Chicago: (visit the museum)

11.11.1889 Washington Territory became Washington State, the 42nd state of the USA

Boas secured his first academic appointment which was at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts.


A Womens Fund Committee was started to raise funds on condition that women were admitted to the medical school at Johns Hopkins University Between 1890 and 1907 the whole University gradually became co-educational (staff and students). It has been suggested (Broadhurst, P.L. 1967) that concern for the moral welfare of students made it particularly sensitive to sexual scandal. About 1908, James Mark Baldwin, its leading Professor of Philosophy and Psychology, was arrested in a brothel and subsequently dismissed, creating the opportunity for his junior, John B. Watson, to take his position as editor of the Psychological Review. In 1920 Watson himself was dismissed when his affair with his female colleague resulted in divorce.

"When Seth Low became Columbia's president in 1890, he vigorously promoted the university ideal for the College"

University of Chicago founded: external link to brief history. See John Dewey - 1874 - Hull House 1889 - Department of Sociology 1892 - Dewey and Mead 1894 - American Journal of Sociology 1895 -



July 1892 The American Psychological Association (APA) founded. (external link to archives) see England - The American Sociological Society was founded in 1905

Chicago University department of Sociology started. Much of Lewis Coser's American Trends chapter is about the history of this department. Coser says that for "roughly twenty years, from the first world war to the mid-1930s, the history of sociology in America can largely be written as the history of the Department of Sociology of the University of Chicago". He identifies W.I. Thomas, followed by Robert Park as the key figures.

11.10.1892: For the four hundredth anniversary of Christopher Columbus crossing the Atlantic, children throughout the United States took part in a ceremony which included reciting together "I pledge allegiance to my Flag, and to the Republic for which it stands: one Nation indivisible, With Liberty and Justice for all". After the celebrations it became a popular national custom in schools. In 1942 it became official.

Presidency of Grover Cleveland (Democrat) 1893 to 1897


1.5.1893 to 31.10.1893 "World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago" or "Chicago World's Fair".

Franz Boas constructed life group displays (now commonly called "dioramas") to bring the cultures of Native Americans to the general pubic at the Chicago World's Fair. He also "as part of his argument that racial distinctions among humans are not valid"... "exhibited skulls of various peoples to demonstrate the irrelevance of brain size". (external source)

1894 New Woman

James Mark Baldwin (Princeton University) [external link] and James McKeen Cattell (Columbia University) founded The Psychological Review which became the leading publication in American psychology.

1894/1895 Economist Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929) began to teach sociology at Ann Arbour University, Michigan. See 1909

John Merle Coulter (1851-1928) appointed to lead the newly established Department of Botany at Chicago University .


July 1895: First edition of the American Journal of Sociology published by the University of Chicago Press. It has continued bimonthly since. Journal web site. At this time, Chicago and Bordeaux were two of the main centres generating "sociology". See Andrea Nagy. Durkheim's journal

Ecology: "When Henry Cowles arrived at the University of Chicago for graduate studies in 1895, Eugenius Warming's Plantesamfund had just been published. [Cowles' tutor] John Coulter introduced the Danish scientist's theories to his students in classroom lectures, and Henry Cowles was so fascinated that he learned Danish so he could read Warming's entire text in its original language" (external source)


Beginning of Springfield, Maryland, on the cottage plan. See external link and another Maryland weblink - Maryland weblink (or try one of these) - . In England, the London County Council's Asylums Committee had appointed a working party to study asylum design in Scotland, continental Europe, Canada and the USA. The group reported in 1902, favouring the design of the Maryland State Asylum "where autonomous 200 bed ward blocks were positioned to look inwards on to large rectangular gardens. The units were connected by walkways, covered only overhead". [See colony or villa system]

John Dewey: Evolution and Ethics. In 1896, John Dewey and his wife, Alice Chipman Dewey, founded the Chicago Laboratory School (external link)

External link: Photograph of "The Chicago Philosophy Club 1896", shows, amongst others, George Herbert Mead and John Dewey

Louis Viereck (1851-1921) and his family emigrated to the United States in 1896 The son of Berlin actress, Edwina Viereck, and possibly the illegitimate son of Wilhelm 1 of Prussia, he became a friend of Karl Marx. His wedding, in 1881, was attended by Frederick Engels. His son (George) Sylvester Viereck was born in Munich on 31.12.1884.

"In 1896, Boas moved to New York and was appointed Assistant Curator of Ethnology and Somatology at the American Museum of Natural History, and Lecturer at Columbia University. Three years later, Boas became the first Professor of Anthropology at Columbia." (source) - "Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia..." Columbia)

Presidency of William McKinley (Republican) 1897 to 1901


28.8.1897 Louis Wirth born in Germany. (Died 10.5.1952) - external link - See 1925 -


In a lecture on "Philosophical Conceptions and Practical Results", William James talked about a new philosophy of pragmatism which he said had been developed by Charles Sanders Peirce

Robert Park studied Psychology and Philosophy for an MA at Harvard 1898-1899. William James was one of his tutors. autobiographical note

Henry Chandler Cowles' (1869-1939) PhD Thesis: The Ecological Relations of the Vegetation on the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan (Chicago University) - See ecological succession - (external source) - (external source). The idea of a natural climax to the succesion of vegetation was developed by Frederic Clements


In 1899 Robert Park travelled to Germany where he studied at the University of Berlin with Georg Simmel. He spent a semester studying at the University of Strasbourg, followed by a few years spent at the University of Heidelberg studying philosophy and psychology. He took his Ph.D at Heidelberg and returned to the United States in 1903 - autobiographical note


Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (Republican) 1901 to 1909


The Physiographic Ecology of Chicago and Vicinity; A Study of the Origin, Development, and Classification of Plant Societies by Henry Chandler Cowles - [See ecology]


Talcott Parsons born in Colorado Springs, Mid-West USA.

American Anthropological Association founded (External link to brief history on its website)


Robert Park returns to Harvard - autobiographical note


Eugenics Record Office established by biologist Charles Davenport at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island (New York).

Professor W.I. Thomas (University of Chicago) made written criticism of Patrick Geddes' theoretical approach to the sociology of the city.

"From the standpoint of its applicability to new countries like America, Professor Geddes' programme is inadequate because of its failure to recognise that a city under these conditions is formed by a rapid and contemporaneous movement of population, and not by the lapse of time. p. 136 The first permanent white settler came to Chicago precisely one hundred years ago, and the city has a population at present of about two and a quarter millions. It is here not a question of slow historic development but of the rapid drifting towards a certain point, of a population from all quarters of the globe, and the ethnological standpoint therefore becomes of more importance than the historical."


"Together with the Institut International de Sociologie, and the Sociological Society of London, the American Sociological Society bears witness that a few men and women, in full possession of their senses, are convinced that something is lacking in methods of interpreting human experience, and that the most effective means of supplying the lack must be sought without rather than within the older sciences of society."

Frederic Edward Clements Research Methods in Ecology, which became a standard textbook for ecologists. Clements was Professor of botany at the University of Nebraska from 1905 to 1907. Arthur Tansley's textbook was published in 1923

Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking: Popular Lectures on Philosophy by William James was published in London and New York in June 1907, but consisted of lectures delivered in November and December 1906, and again in January 1907. Contents, The present dilemma in philosophy - What pragmatism means - Some metaphysical problems pragmatically considered - The one and the many - Pragmatism and common sense - Pragmatism's conception of truth - Pragmatism and humanism. The lectures were reprinted twice in July and again in October 1907


Indiana passed the first USA sterilisation law

Oregon State Institution for the Feeble-Minded founded for feeble-minded, idiotic, and epileptic people. (Became Fairview Hospital and Training Centre in 1933 and Fairview Training Centre in 1979. The State Board of Eugenics was created in 1917. This examined "institutionalised individuals who could produce offspring inheriting inferior or antisocial traits" and made orders directing the superintendent of the institution to perform sterilisation. It became the State Board of Social Protection in 1967 (with restrictions on its powers) and was transferred to the Health Division in 1971. It was not abolished until 1983.

Frederic Edward Clements was chair of the Department of Botany at the University of Minnesota from 1907 to 1917


Clifford Beers published his autobiography A Mind that Found Itself, which inspired the founding of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene - eventually known as the National Mental Health Association

Henry Ford's Model T automobile. External link - See assembly line --- Click on the picture to see where I stole it from. Do not miss the video

Presidency of William H. Taft (Republican) 1909 to 1913


National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People founded by W. E. B. DuBois

California passed sterilisation law. (External link to Jonathan Gottshall's 1995 article The Cutting Edge: Sterilization and Eugenics in California, 1909- 1945)

John Dewey How We Think - External link to History of Education

Charles Horton Cooley. Social Organization: A study of the larger mind

September 1909 Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung lectured on psychoanalysis at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts. The lectures were given in German, but, the following year, they were printed in English as The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis.

Smith Ely Jelliffe (1866-1945) started the Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph Series in 1909. The list of mongraphs in 1920 was: 1. Outlines of Psychiatry (7th Edition.) by Dr. William A. White. 2. Studies in Paranoia by Drs. N. Gierlich and M. Friedman. 3. The Psychology of Dementia Praecox by Dr. C.G. Jung. 4. Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psychoneuroses (3d Edition.) by Professor Sigmund Freud. 5. The Wassermann Serum Diagnosis in Psychiatry by Dr Felix Plaut. 6. Epidemic Poliomyelitis. New York, 1907. 7. Three Contributions to Sexual Theory (3rd Edition) by Professor Sigmund Freud. 8. Mental Mechanisms by Dr William A. White. 9. Studies in Psychiatry New York Psychiatrical Society. 10. Handbook of Mental Examination Methods by Shepherd Ivory Franz. 11. The Theory of Schizophrenic Negativism by Professor E. Bleuler. 12. Cerebellar Functions by Dr André-Thomas. 13. History of Prison Psychoses by Drs P. Nitsche and K. Wilmanns. 14. General Paresis by Professor E. Kraepelin. 15. Dreams and Myths by Dr Karl Abraham 16. Poliomyelitis by Dr I. Wickmann. 17. Freud's Theories of the Neuroses by Dr E. Hitschmann. 18. The Myth of the Birth of the Hero by Dr Otto Rank. 19. The Theory of Psychoanalysis by Dr. C.G. Jung. 20. Vagotonia (3rd Edition) by Drs Eppinger and Hess. 21. Wishfulfillment and Symbolism in Fairy Tales by Dr Ricklin. 22. The Dream Problem by Dr. A.E. Maeder. 23. The Significance of Psychoanalysis for the Mental Sciences By Drs O. Rank and D.H. Sachs. 24. Organ Inferiority and its Psychical Compensation by Dr Alfred Adler. 25. The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement by Professor S. Freud. 26. Technique of Psychoanalysis by Dr Smith Ely Jelliffe. 27. Vegetative Neurology by Dr H. Higier. 28. The Autonomic Functions and the Personality by Dr Edward J. Kemp. 29. A Study of the Mental Life of the Child by Dr H. Von Hug-Hellmuth. 30. Internal Secretions and the Nervous System by Dr M. Laignel Lavastine. 31. Sleep Walking and Moon Walking by Dr J. Sadger.


USA Congress Chapter Chapter 395 - "An Act to further regulate interstate commerce and foreign commerce by prohibiting the transportation therein for immoral purposes of women and girls, and for other purposes". Otherwise known as "The White Slave Traffic Act" or the "Mann Act". External link to full text - Wikipedia - See, below, 1918

First edition of Abnormal Psychology by Isador H. Coriat published New York: Moffat, Yard, 1910. Published in London by William Rider in 1911. 329 pages. [Dictionary abnormal]


Heredity and eugenics : a course of lectures summarizing recent advances in knowledge in variation, heredity, and evolution and its relation to plant, animal and human improvement and welfare by William Ernest Castle, John Merle Coulter, Charles Benedict Davenport, Edward Murray East, William Lawrence Tower Given at the University of Chicago during the summer of 1911. Published 1912 by The University of Chicago Press,

Franz Boas The Mind of Primitive Man

1912 see United Kingdom
Walter Elmore Fernald, (1859-1924), superintendent to about 1906 of Massachusetts School for the Feeble-Minded: article on "The burden of feeble-minded" in the Journal of Psycho-Asthenics

"The feebleminded are a parasitic, predatory class never capable of self-support or managing their own affairs. The great majority ultimately become public charges in some form. They cause unutterable sorrow at home and are a menace to the community. Feebleminded women are invariably immoral... Every feebleminded person, especially the high-grade imbecile, is a potential criminal needing only the proper environment and opportunity for development and expression of his criminal tendencies." [Quotation taken from Segal 1967: p.43 - Hopefully correctly matched with original source]

1912 or 1913: The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness by Henry Herbert Goddard, Director of the Research Laboratory of the Training School at Vineland, New Jersey, for Feeble-minded Girls and Boys. (External link to copy on Christopher Green's site)

Presidency of Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) 1913 to 1921


John B. Watson of Johns Hopkins University published Psychology as a Behaviorist Views it calling for mentalistic concepts of consciousness to be excluded from psychology in favour of external observations of an organism's responses to controlled stimuli.

"Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and content of behavior. I feel that behaviorism is the only consistent and logical functionalism." (Watson, J.B. 1913)

Guide to the Study of Animal Ecology by Charles Christopher Adams published New York: Macmillan. 183 pages and plates. [See Burgess 1925]

July 1913 to September 1913 International Phytogeographic Excursion in America led by Henry C. Cowles. Arthur George Tansley was a member of the expedition. [ External source]

Phytogeographic: dealing with the geographical distribution of plants. See ecology.


The Woman Rebel a periodical edited in New York by Margaret Sanger, had a heading The Birth Control League, which may have been the earliest use of this term for contraception. [See External link to an article by Miriam Reed which explains why Margaret Sanger was opposed to compulsory sterilisation]

New term in United States vocabulary traced back to 1914: assembly line: Engineering: "labour costs may be... reduced... by the use of sliding assembly lines" (20th century words). See 1926

February 1914 Opening of the Saskatchewan Hospital, North Battleford, (Canada). Saskatchewan's first mental hospital. The second was opened in 1921. (external link)

Robert Park was at the University of Chicago from 1914 to his retirement in 1933. He was lecturer in sociology until 1923 and then a professor.


Arthur Estabrook The Jukes in 1915, Washington, Carnegie Institute

John Dewey Democracy and Education - External link to review at History of Education

Frederic Edward Clements Plant Succession - See McKenzie 1925


United States ended its neutrality and entered the First World War on the side of France, Italy, the United Kingdom, Russia etc. The USA had been providing supplies for the anti-German/Austrian forces which caused Germany to attack USA ships with U-Boats, eventually provoking the USA entry in the war.

Frederic Edward Clements was a researcher at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Tucson from 1917 to 1925


October 1918 Height of the flue epidemic in USA. Abated November. Worldwide the influenza epidemic killed up to 40 million people. Encephalitis lethargica followed it.

The arrest of William Thomas under the 1910 Act prohibiting taking women across state borders for immoral purposes had an adverse effect on his academic standing, even though he was acquitted. (See Wikipedia)


18th amendment to the United States constitution prohibited intoxicating liquors (Repealed by the 21st amendment in 1933)

The Little Town, especially in its rural relationships by H. Paul Douglass (1871-1953) The Macmillan Company, New York. (External link to copy) - See McKenzie 1925

Louis Untermeyer editor: Modern American Poetry; An Introduction New York, Harcourt, Bruce and Howe, 1919. xviii introductory and 170 main pages. - Copy at Bartleby


History of Education website stresses the international stature of John Dewey during the 1920s

26.8.1920 Women gain a vote under the 19th amendment to the United States constitution

Talcott Parsons went to Amherst College, Massachusetts with an interest in biology and medicine. However, he became interested in economics and, like Max Weber, sought to study this in its full social context. From 1924, he studied in Europe. In 1926 he returned to Amherst College to teach economics

John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner of Johns Hopkins University published Conditioned Emotional Reactions in which they reported their pioneer behaviour modification experiments making baby Albert B terrified of a tame rat, other animals, and cuddly toys by banging a steel bar behind him. Mary Ickes Watson discovered her husband was sexually involved with Rosalie (who he later married) and divorced him. The divorce ended Watson's academic career and he subsequently wrote his psychology in a more popular style. "The immense popularity of behaviourism among the general public in America in the 1920s and 1930s may in part be attributable to the appeal of Watson's popular writings" (Broadhurst, P.L. 1967)

Louis Untermeyer editor: Modern British Poetry New York, Harcourt, Bruce and Howe, 1919. xxv introductory and 234 main pages. Contains biographical sketches of authors. "This collection is obviously a companion volume to Modern American Poetry ... Modern British poetry covers the same period (from about 1870 to 1920), follows the same chronological scheme, but it is more amplified and goes into far greater detail than its predecessor." (Introduction, quoted Library of Congress catalogue) - Copy at Bartleby - A combined volume was brought out in 1922 - The title of the second to fifth editions was "Modern British Poetry: A Critical Anthology, edited by Louis Untermeyer". From 1950 the words "A Critical Anthology" were dropped. The second revised edition was in 1925, the third in 1930, the fourth in 1936, the fifth in 1942.

Presidency of Warren G. Harding (Republican) 1921 to 1923


Introduction to the Science of Sociology, by Robert Ezra Park and Ernest W. Burgess - Howard Odum says that "Park and Burgess" became the "best known pair of American sociologists in the textbook world". It became the "Bible of Sociology" for Chicago graduates - See dictionary ecology

Warder Clyde Allee became assistant professor of zoology at the University of Chicago in 1921. From 1925 to 1927 he was dean in the colleges and from 1928 to 1950: professor of zoology. Keith Benson (2002) links his name to that of Robert Park (above), arguing that, under Allee

"the Chicago school of ecology... began to emphasize studies of community structure ... adopting a sociological spin... sociologist, Thomas [Robert] Park, brought to ecology his own bias for studying the role of community structure. The influence of Park was noticeable and immediate, especially in Allee's early animal aggregation work, published in 1927 and 1931 (Allee, 1927, Allee, 1931). Missing was the traditional emphasis on physical factors, now replaced by the interactions of the organisms making up the community. Then Thorsten Gislen published his influential work in what he called "marine sociology", noting the plant-animal communities characteristic of marine community structure (Gislen, 1930, 1931). Gislen first characterized the nature of the physical environment he was investigating, then provided the ��associations�� that inhabited that specific environment."

This picture is without a dust cover. Another bookseller describes a copy as "pale gray paper covered boards, dull green cloth backstrap, with decorative green and blind-stamping design to front cover, in a dull gray paper dustwrapper printed in green". The price asked for that copy was $425 (£218..23)

June 1921? Charlotte Mew's Saturday Market published by Macmillan in the United States. Click on the cover to go to a bookseller's web page that says: "First edition. Sara Teasdale's copy with her signature, dated June 1921, on the front flyleaf. She signs using her married name, Sara Teasdale Filsinger. Teasdale married Ernst B. Filsinger in 1914, and moved with him to New York in 1916. They divorced in 1929. Tragically, both Teasdale and English poet, Charlotte Mew, committed suicide. Mew, a Bloomsbury native with a family history of mental illness, went into a severe depression following the death of her sister. She took her life in 1928 by drinking disinfectant. After suffering from a severe case of pneumonia which left her an invalid, Teasdale overdosed on barbiturates in 1933"

Restricted to just 250 sets of imported sheets of the UK (Poetry Bookshop) edition - Consequently now expensive

Introductory blurb:
Saturday Market
by Charlotte Mew

In Saturday Market there's eggs a plenty
And dead alive ducks with their legs tied down,
Grey old gaffers and boys of twenty -
Girls and the women of the town -
Pitchers and sugar-sticks, ribbons and laces,
Posies and whips and dicky-bird's seed,
Silver pieces and smiling faces,
In Saturday Market they've all they need.

But there is more than this in Saturday Market; there is tragedy, just as in the great market of the world. The poems of this young Englishwoman are Saturday market poems: there are farmers, there are forest roads, quiet country houses and country children, and through the beauty and dancing rhyme of their simple stories runs one and another tragedy which cuts through with a hint of drama.

23.7.1921 Louis Untermeyer's review of Saturday Market in The New York Evening Post. The article was expanded to become an introductory essay to Charlotte Mew's poems in the 1925 edition of Modern British Poetry [Falkenberg 2005 p.36]

December 1921 Opening of the Saskatchewan Hospital, North Battleford, (Weyburn). Saskatchewan's second mental hospital. The first was opened in 1914.


John Dewey: Human Nature and Conduct. See also (external link) 1922: Walter Lippmann and John Dewey debate the role of citizens in democracy

Two anthologies with poems by Charlotte Mew

Louis Untermeyer editor: Modern American and British Poetry Published New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company [copyright 1922] xxv introductory, 371 pages. - See Charlotte Mew - See 1923. There was a revised and enlarged edition in 1928 (496 pages) In 1944 a "Modern American and British poetry ... by Louis Untermeyer" was brought out as two volumes (American and British) for the American Armed Forces. It was a "combined edition of the sixth revision of Modern American poetry and fifth revision of Modern British poetry"

The Bookman Anthology of Verse 1922, edited by John Chipman Farrar (1896-  ), New York, George H. Doran company. The preface is dated September 1922. The Library of Congress Catalogue says there is a series, copyright 1922 onwards, finishing 1927. "1922-1927 Bound volumes: Inventory in progress"

Presidency of Calvin Coolidge (Republican) 1923 to 1929


(George) Sylvester Viereck interviewed Sigmund Freud. He also interviewed Adolph Hitler "a widely read. thoughtful and self-made man" who, "if he lived, would make history"

The neighborhood : a study of local life in the city of Columbus, Ohio by Roderick Duncan McKenzie published by the University of Chicago Press. [Published also as his Ph.D. thesis by the University of Chicago in 1921 "Reprinted from the American Journal of Sociology, volume 27, September, 1921; November, 1921; January, 1922; March, 1922; and May, 1922."

Lynn Thorndike, (1882-1965) A History of Magic and Experimental Science Volumes 1 and 2, The first thirteen centuries of our era [See Park, R.E. 1925/7

Louis Untermeyer editor: Modern American and British Poetry. With suggestions for study by Olive Ely Hart Published New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company [copyright 1923] xxv introductory pages, 403 main pages, Bibliography: p.399.


Review of Nervous and Mental Diseases mental health history

Institution Statistics According to Official Figures

On January 1, 1923, patients in public institutions of the United States numbered: insane hospitals, 290,457; psychopathic wards of general hospitals, 1,842; institutions for feeble minded, 46,722; institutions for epileptics, 9,153. In addition there were confined in federal penitentiaries, 2,010; in state prisons, reformatories, etc., 19,518; in county and city jails, workhouses, etc., 147,489; in institutions for juvenile delinquents, 29,385.

Rather disconcerting figures have been assembled by H. M. Pollock, statistician to the New York State Hospital Commission. From 1880 to 1920 the number of insane patients of institutions in the whole country has increased from 40,942 to 232,680 and the ratio of patients in institutions to 100,000 of populations from 81.6 to 220.1. This, of course, does not mean a proportionate increase in insanity as a much larger percentage of insane patients now is confined in institutions...

One important principle is that the rate of mental disease is greater among inferior stocks than among superior stocks. This is difficult to demonstrate by census statistics which take no account of the quality of family stock. The general birth rate in late years has markedly declined and it is generally believed that the decline has been greatest among superior stocks. If this trend continues, the people of the future will become more and more susceptible to mental disease...

The rates of dementia praecox and manic-depressive psychosis are both increasing, and if nothing is discovered to curb these diseases, while new discoveries continue to be made in the realm of bodily disease, then mental disease will supersede physical disease as the paramount social problem in the not distant future.


An Act prohibiting the teaching of the Evolution Theory in all the Universities, Normals and all other public schools of Tennessee, which are supported in whole or in part by the public school funds of the State, and to provide penalties for the violations thereof. (external link)

The City by Robert E. Park, Ernest W. Burgess, Roderick D. McKenzie and Louis Wirth. published by University of Chicago Press.

Frederic Edward Clements was a researcher at the Coastal Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California from 1925

Louis Untermeyer editor: Modern American Poetry; A Critical Anthology Third Revised Edition. New York, Harcourt, Bruce and Howe, 1925. xxix introductory and 621 main pages. "A selected bibliography": p. 603.

Louis Untermeyer editor: Modern British Poetry; A Critical Anthology Revised and Enlarged Edition. New York, Harcourt, Bruce and Howe, 1925. xx introductory and 388 main pages. "A companion volume to Modern American Poetry" (Preface).


Encyclopedia Britannica article on "mass production" over the name of Henry Ford (although he did not write it). The term began to supersede "Fordism" as the popular term for the process using assembly lines. (external link). The term regained currency through the writings of the Italian marxist Gramsci


January 1927: Paul Robeson's singing tour of Kansas and Ohio

Eugenic legislation upheld as constitutional by USA Supreme Court in 1927.

It was about 1927 that Burrhus Skinner (1904-1990) read Pavlov and Watson. (external link). He went to Harvard to study psychology in autumn 1928 and, whilst there, invented Skinner's Box.

John Dewey The Public and its Problems


Contemporary Sociological Theories by Pitirim Sorokin published.

"'Capitalism' in Recent German Literature: Sombert and Weber" by Talcott Parsons published in The Journal of Political Economy in December 1928 and January 1929

Presidency of Herbert Hoover (Republican) 1929 to 1933


October 1929 Wall Street Crash. Bank and stockmarket crashes precede the Great Depression in the USA and economic recession world wide.

President Hoover instituted a Research Commission on Urban Problems. One of the participants was Roderick McKenzie - (source: Italian Wikipedia


First volume Carl Murchison (editor)'s A History of Psychology in Autobiography New York: Russell and Russell, 1930

Parsons' translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

5.5.1930 to 10.5.1930: First International Congress on Mental Hygiene, Washington, D.C.. [See Lord. J.R. American Psychiatry]

External link Dewey criticises the practices of progressive educators

Torsten Gislen, 1930. Epibiosis of the Gullman fjord. 1. A Study in Marine Sociology


James Truslow Adams in The Epic of America coined the term "the American Dream" for

""that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement"

Death of George Herbert Mead - John Dewey's obituary. This is most of what Dewey said at Mead's funeral in Chicago on 30.4.1931

Sociology department established at Harvard University under Pitirim Sorokin. Talcott Parsons became an instructor at Harvard. Robert Merton was a postgraduate student and teaching assistant from 1933 to 1936 and then a tutor and instructor from 1936 to 1939.

The Harvard "Pareto Circle" by Barbara S. Heyl (Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences, 4 (No. 4): 316-334, 1968) (archive)

Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933 to 1945



The Metropolitan Community by Roderick McKenzie published


Antionio Gramsci's notes on America and Fordism - But Americans could not read them until long after the second world war

May 1934: (George) Sylvester Viereck's speech to 20,000 "Friends of the New Germany", at Madison Square Gardens", urging them to support National Socialism "without embracing anti-Semitism"


American Sociological Society established its own journal: The American Sociological Review

External link: Dewey advocates cooperative intelligence and a socialized economy in Liberalism and Social Action


Franz Neumann, legal adviser to the German SDP, was arrested in April 1933, escaped in May and then worked at the London School of Economics. In 1936 he came to the United States and joined the Institute of Social Research, then affiliated with Colombia University. Herbert Marcuse published Reason and Revolution - Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory in 1941. Neumann published Behemoth in 1942. After the war, Neumann joined the faculty of Columbia University (Department of Government). He died in a car accident in Switzerland on 2.9.1954

Birth of role theory? Ralph Linton's The Study of Man includes chapter eight "Status and Role" which Erving Goffman traces role theory back to.

Robert E. Park's "Human ecology" published in the American Journal of Sociology. See dictionary

Louis Untermeyer editor: Modern British Poetry; A Critical Anthology Fourth Revised Edition. New York, Harcourt, Bruce and Howe, 1925. xxii introductory and 549 main pages. "A companion volume to ... Modern American Poetry" (Preface).


Talcott Parsons The Structure of Social Action. Unlike Sorokin's Contemporary Sociological Theories, this was entirely about European theorists.


Euthanasia Society of America founded.

Skinner's first book: The Behavior of Organisms

Robert Merton's "Social Structure and Anomie", American Sociological Review 3 pages 672-682. See Margaret Evan's article


Robert Merton taught at Tulane University in New Orleans from 1939 to 1941.

April 1941 Peter Viereck's article "But I'm a conservative" in The Atlantic Monthly argued for a "new conservatism" to counter the "storm of authoritarianism" in Europe and moral relativism and materialism in the USA. He claimed communism and nazism were utopian and would sanction the murder of oppositions (as in anti-semitism) and that liberalism shared a naive belief in progress and humanity's essential goodness.


Robert Merton appointed to Columbia University. (Appointed professor 1947)

Peter Viereck Metapolitics: from the Romantics to Hitler. This argued that Nazism grew out of the Romantic German nationalist movements of the nineteenth century, rather than the authoritarian Prussian tradition.

The search for a way to produce penicillin in quantities that could be used for medicine moved from Oxford, England, to Peoria, Illinois in the United States. The search was on for moulds. A local woman, Mary Hunt, brought in a mouldy cantaloupe from a fruit market. This doubled the yield. By 1943 penicillin was being used succesfully on war wounds.

Sunday 7.12.1941 Pearl Harbour. Japan and the USA enter the war .


Talcott Parsons took over from Pitirim Sorokin as head of the Department of Sociology at Harvard University. He established an interdisciplinary Department of Social relations (1946)

Robert Merton was associate director of Columbia University's Bureau of Applied Social Research from 1942 to 1971. The director was Paul Lazarsfeld.

22.6.1942 The Pledge of Allegiance became official: "I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands: one Nation indivisible, With Liberty and Justice for all". However, in 1943. the United States Supreme Court ruled that school children could not be forced to recite the Pledge as part of their daily routine.


Music based christian evangelism to "youth" started in the United States - where the war was abroad - and was reflected in Britain when the bombs had stopped. In the United States, live radio was used as part of mass gatherings.


Joe McCarthy elected senator.

April 1945 Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E. Moore, "Some Principles of Social Stratification", American Sociological Review volume 10 pages 242-249. ""Social inequality is...an unconsciously evolved device by which societies ensure that the most important positions are conscientiously filled by the most qualified persons"

Presidency of Harry S. Truman 1945 to 1953


Benjamin Spock's The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care . This edition had 58 printings and was the best selling new title issued in the USA since best-seller lists began in 1895

USA National Mental Health Act passed

17.1.1946 The first transorbital lobotomy. See (external link) sound portraits which includes interviews with patients. This website was drawn to my attention by John Conneely in New Zealand.


Movie Snake Pit with Olivia de Havilland premiered. Film had such impact that 26 states passed new legislation regarding state mental hospitals. (Kathleen Benoun)

Skinner's behaviourist fanastay utopia Walden 2 (See Thoreau's Walden)


Newfoundland ceased being a British Colonial Protectorate

structural-functional analysis: Robert King Merton's Social Theory and Social Structure. Towards the codification of theory and research. Sought a functional analysis in sociology ...the description of the participants (and on-lookers) is in structural terms, that is, in terms of locating these people in their inter- connected social statuses.


Senator Joe McCarthy re-elected by a huge majority, "having exploited the general uneasiness felt after the treason trials of Nunn May, Fuchs and Alger Hiss by accusing the State Department of harbouring 205 prominent Communists." (Chambers Biographical Dictionary)

United States revoked Paul Robeson's passport. He was unable to leave the United States for eight years.


American Sociology: the story of sociology in the United States through 1950 by Howard W. Odum (1884-1954) published in New York and London.

structural-functional analysis: In The Social System, Talcott Parsons wrote "the systematisation of theory in the present state of knowledge must be in structural-functional terms". See Structural Functionalism

Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) The Origins of Totalitarianism This was published in the United Kingdom with the title The Burden of Our Time


Rupert Stocker and his family emigrated from Peckham to become Administrator of the Western Memorial Hospital in Corner Brook, Newfoundland. (External link to history. In 1956 he went to Fredericton, New Brunswick to be the Administrator of the successively enlarging Victoria Public Hospital until his retirement in 1976. [Victoria Public Hospital was the only hospital in Fredericton. In the 1970s it was succeded by the Doctor Everett Chalmers Hospital] - (see north-east of map)

20.3.1952 Billy Graham spoke in London about the three perils facing America: The peril from within - The peril from communism and the peril of God's judgement

Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953 to 1961


January 1953: Senator Joe McCarthy became chair of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations where he arraigned a large number of citizens and officials "often with full television publicity". (Chambers Biographical Dictionary)

March 1953 Conference held at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Its Proceedings were published by Harvard University Press in 1954 under the title Totalitarianism, edited with an introduction by Carl J. Friedrich.


Senator Joe McCarthy was formally condemned for financial irregularities by the Senate (now controlled by Democrats). When he attacked Eisenhower he lost most of his remaining public support.

Skinner's article The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching laid the foundations for programmed learning.

The 1942 Pledge of Allegiance was amended in 1954 to include the words "under God;". Legislation to add the motto "In God We Trust" to all coins and currency was passed in 1955; and the national motto "E Pluribus Unum" [out of many, one] was changed to "In God We Trust" in 1956.


Erving Goffman (1922-1982) developed his approach to symbolic interactionism in field studies in the Shetland Islands (1949-1951), leading to The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959). From 1955 to 1956, he did one year's field research in St Elizabeth's Hospital, Washington, DC, leading to Asylums. Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates (1961).

May 1955 Foundation of the British Columbia Association for Retarded Children. See their timeline


Robert Alan Dahl's A Preface to Democratic Theory. A founding document of recent pluralist theory, a commentary on and development of, the Federalist Papers.

Carl J. Friedrich and Zbigniew K. Brzezinski Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy


Paul Robeson's transatlantic broadcast from New York to coal miners in Wales

The Open Marxism of Antonio Gramsci by Carl Marzani, New York : Cameron Associates - See Social Science Timeline

structural-functional analysis: The second edition of Robert King Merton's Social Theory and Social Structure..


1960? (or 1959) Ken Kesey participating in LSD experiments at Menlo Park Veterans Hospital, and working nights on the wards. This is said to be the background to his novel One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest (1962). Goffman's collection of essays Asylums was published in 1961, although parts had been published in 1957

8.10.1960 First Presidential TV debate in USA: John F.Kennedy versus Richard Nixon.

During the campaign Dr Benjamin Spock appeared on television with Jacqueline Kennedy, who said "Dr Spock is for my husband, and my husband is for Dr Spock!"

The end of ideology: on the exhaustion of political ideas in the fifties by Daniel Bell

First edition of Seymour Martin Lipset's Political Man. The Social Bases of Politics

Presidency of John F. Kennedy 1961 to 1963


17.1.1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower introduced the "military-industrial complex" in his farewell speech - Wikipedia. Terms based on this include the Prison- Industrial Complex - Surveillance-Industrial Coplex - Organic-Industrial Complex - Baby-Industrial Complex - Academic-Industrial Complex - Celebrity-Industrial Complex - Agro-Industrial Complex - Lobbying-Industrial Complex.... (bored? if not, use a search-engine!)

Thomas Szasz, The Myth of Mental Illness


14.10.1962 Soviet nuclear missiles photographed on Cuba 24.10.1962 USA blockade of Cuba 28.10.1962 missiles removed from Cuba

Ken Kesey, One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest: a novel by Ken Kesey. New York: Viking Press


20.6.1963 Telephone "hotline" set up between leaders of the USSR and USA

28.8.1963 Martin Luther King "I Have A Dream" speech, Washington

26.6.1963 President Kennedy visited Berlin

25.7.1963 Nuclear test ban treaty

Federal Community Mental Health Center Construction Act signed by President Kennedy three weeks before his assassination.

22.11.1963 Assassination of John F. Kennedy

Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson 1963 to 1969

1964 Librarian Clara Cooley published manuscript History of Western State Hospital, 1871-1950 (Kathleen Benoun)

A poll of American sociologists showed that 80% (of about 3,400) thought "functional analysis and theory" still retain great value for contemporary sociology. (Gouldner, A. 1970 p.168). The poll was conducted by Timothy Sprehe and Alvin Gouldner.

Aaron V. Cicourel, 1964 Method and Measurement in Sociology. New York: Free Press. Cicourel, A.V. (1964). Jan Nespor (external link) says that in "Theory and method in field research" in this book "Cicourel argues for qualitative methods through a knowledgable critique of survey and quantatively oriented research approaches". He describes it as "an influential book by a key figure in the ethnomethodology movement".


USA Medicare Act passed to provide financial support for citizens of 65 and older otherwise unable to meet their medical needs.

Kai T. Erikson (Yale University) published Wayward Puritans. A Study in the Sociology of Deviance He used Emile Durkheim's concept that crime can solidify a society to analyse three "crime waves" in the 17th century puritan theocracy of New England. Erikson's "crime waves" might be considered deviance rather than crime in the normal sense. They are the Antinomian theological disputes, the invasion and persecution of Quakers and the outbreak of witch hunting in Salem. Other sociologists have called them moral panics.

1966: Second edition (first 1958) A Textbook of Psychology by Donald Olding Hebb. Professor of Psychology, McGill University.


External link: The Summer of Love (1967) and Woodstock (1969)


Martin Luther King murdered in Memphis

Caucuses formed within the American Sociological Association in 1968 and 1969 included the Caucus of Black Sociologists, Radical Caucus and Caucus of Women Sociologists (Rhodes, L.J. 1981, pages 60-61)

Maria Anne Hirschmann's I Changed Gods published in California. (A "Destiny Book") External link: "Maria Anne Hirschmann, or "Hansi," was orphaned as a baby in Czechoslovakia during World War II. Brainwashed to be a Nazi youth leader, she was imprisoned in a communist labor camp before escaping into West Germany. There she became a Christian and immigrated with her family to the United States where she learned to love freedom." In 1973 (USA) and 1974 (London) she published Hansi; the girl who loved the swastika which formed the basis for a comic of the same name in 1976. The comic includes the line "It's alright to love what God has blessed" (See Billy Graham 1952)

download the whole story

1968 Joseph Licklieder and Robert taylor "The Computer as a Communication Device" Science and Technology 76, pages 21-23. See Wikipedia on Licklieder


Presidency of Richard M. Nixon 1969 to 1974

March 1969 Date on an essay by Carol Hanisch called "The Personal is Political" in the Redstockings collection Feminist Revolution The essay defends consciousness-raising against the charge that it is "therapy." Hanisch states

"One of the first things we discover in these groups is that personal problems are political problems. There are no personal solutions at this time."


Alvin Gouldner's The Coming Crisis of Western Sociolgy. Unlike either Sorokin in 1928, or Parsons in 1937, Gouldner's focus is on American sociology. In particular, criticism of Parsons dominates the book.


David Rothman's The Discovery of the Asylum. Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic Little, Brown and Company. Boston - Toronto

N. N. Kittrie's The Right to be Different

Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, edited and translated by Q. Hoare and G. Nowell-Smith, was published in London and New York in 1971. See above on Fordism. But by this time, the economy was preparing to become a "post-industrial" or "post-fordist", more flexible economy.


touchy-feely Tuscaloosa News (Alabama) "A considerable amount of time is spent in encounter groups, gestalt training, psychodrama or 'T groups'... On almost every campus where this approach has been tried it has caused an uproar. Faculty critics deride it as 'touchy- feely' education, with strong currents of anti-intellectualism" (20th Century Words)

First editions of Madness Network News were published in 1972 or 1973. Volume 2 no.1 is dated 1973 and Volume 2 no.2 is dated February 1974.

Benjamin Spock addressed the National Women's Political Caucus. Gloria Steinmem told him: "I hope you realise you have been a major oppressor of women in the same category as Sigmund Freud".

Citizen advocacy for the handicapped, impaired, and disadvantaged: an overview Washington. 59 pages, illustrated. First use I have traced of the term citizen advocacy


"Interpersonal Dynamics in a Simulated Prison", report of an experiment with humans at Stamford University, California, by Craig Haney, Curtis Banks and Philip Zimbardo, International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 1973, pp 69-97

and, on a more positive note:

"I went into Central Park and I saw 20,000 New Yorkers matched one to one with 20,000 mentally handicapped people" (Nigel Evans The Times 12.6.198, which says "The public response, or sympathy and indignation left an indelible impression".)

Retirement of Talcott Parsons from Harvard University

The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism by Daniel Bell

17.10.1973 The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries decided no longer to export oil to countries that supported Israel in the six-day war. The beginning of a period of economic recession in the United States and most of the world when economies ceased to grow from year in the way they had since the second-world war. Wikipedia. David Harvey (1989) argues that the post-war years to 1973 had been governed by "Fordist" and "Keynesian" economics which were too rigid to cope with this crisis and were replaced by a more complex, supple, flexible form of capitalism.

Presidency of Gerald R. Ford 1974 to 1977


October 1974: First People First convention held at Otter Crest, Oregon, USA. Organised by supported mentally handicapped people who had been discharged from Fairview Hospital and Training Centre and others who were living there. The name was voted on at a planning session. The proposer said:

"We are tired of being seen first as handicapped or retarded or disabled. We want to be seen as people first". Williams and Shoultz 1982 page 54)


The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism by Daniel Bell

Film: One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest (External link: Review)


"The Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill: A Critical View", article by Andrew Scull in Politics and Society 6 (Summer 1976)

Presidency of James R. Carter 1977 to 1981


First edition of Andrew Scull's Decarceration. Community Treatment and the Deviant - A Radical View. Prentice Hall. New Jersey.


Technical Assistance for Self-Advocacy a federally funded project based at the University of Kansas ran from 1978 to 1981. This is the earliest use of the term "self advocacy" I have traced (so far). The earliest book with it in its title is Williams and Shoultz 1982 (which is the source of my information), listed in UK library catalogues, but not listed in the Library of Congress Catalogue (online). The only three American titles with the term in the Library of Congress catalogue are 1993 Self advocacy for adults with learning difficulties: contexts and debates by Jeannie Sutcliffe and Ken Simon. about 1994 The self-advocacy movement by people with developmental disabilities: a demographic study and directory of self-advocacy groups in the United States by Nancy Anne Longhurst. about 1997 Self-advocacy for students who are deaf or hard of hearing by Kristina M. English.

On Our Own. Patient-Controlled Alternatives to the Mental Health System by Judi Chamberlin


Andrew Scull's Museums of Madness. The Social Organisation of Insanity in Nineteenth-Century England (Allen Lane: UK)

1980 O'Brien and Lovett (1992) argue that four "initial efforts" led to person centred planning: 1) a series of 1979 workshops led by Karen Green-McGowan and Mary Kovaks for the Canadian National Institute on Mental Retardation on 24-hour planning for people with severe disabilities. 2) Dr Elizabeth (Beth) Mount in Georgia (USA) training colleagues in Personal Futures Planning, 3) Jack Yates' Program Design Sessions for people moving out of Dever State School, Southeastern Massachusetts. 4) Marcie Brost, Terri Johnson and co-workers "planning with people from three county service boards as a way to define the capacities Wisconsin's system would need to develop in order to deliver individualized services". [No - I do not know what they mean] This was all happening by 1980. Another source says: 1980: Jack Yates developed the Individual Service Design - 1987: Beth Mount developed Personal Futures Planning - 1989: Marsha Forest and Evelyn Lusthaus developed MAPS and Circles - 1992: Michael Smull and Susan Burke Harrison develop Essential Lifestyle Planning - 1995: Jack Pearpoint, John O'Brien and Marsha Forest developed PATH.

1.6.1980 Cable News Network launched. Birth of 24/7 news (USA) - Wikipedia link

Presidency of Ronald W. Reagan 1981 to 1989


Second edition of Andrew Scull's Decarceration. Community Treatment and the Deviant - A Radical View.


James Clifford and George E. Marcus (editors). Writing culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California. External link: an unsympathetic critique.

George E. Marcus and Michael M. J. Fischer Anthropology as cultural critique: An experimental moment in the human sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Charles L. Briggs Learning how to ask: A sociolinguistic appraisal of the role of the interview in social science research. Cambridge University Press. Publisher: "interviewing techniques depend upon fundamental misapprehensions about the nature of the interview as a communicative event as well as the nature of the data that it produces". External link: cv pdf

Presidency of George H. W. Bush 1989 to 1993

1989: Washington State Centenary celebrations. At Western State Hospital, a Pictorial History of Western State Hospital was published by the hospital's Historic Committee and a psychiatric museum established for the year long celebration. This included a timeline created by Sidney H. Acuff, the hospital's Rehabilitation Services Director. (Kathleen Benoun)


Judith Butler Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity: Wikipedia links: Judith Butler - Gender Trouble. Note section "Bodily Inscriptions, Performative Subversions". Wikipedia link: Performativity

29.6.1992 to 30.6.1992 Person Centred Planning: Pennsylvania conference of "people experienced in ... person centered planning and those interested in learning more about it. Finding A Way Toward Everyday Lives - The Contribution of Person Centered Planning, by John O'Brien & Herbert Lovett, Pennsylvania Office of Mental Retardation Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, followed this.

"The term, person centered planning, refers to a family of approaches to organizing and guiding community change in alliance with people with disabilities and their families and friends." Listed: Individual Service Design - Personal Future Planning - Essential Lifestyle Planning - Lifestyle Planning - Maps

Presidency of William J. Clinton 1993 to 2002

1993: Howard Rheingold The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier, Reading Massachusetts, Addison Wesley. External link to Howard Rheingold's homepage

Shelley Lawrence photograph August 1993 Last patients left Northampton State Hospital, Massachusetts.

Click on the Shelley Lawrence photograph to read the article that Maureen Tayor wrote in the Valley Advocate in 1999


Sherry Turkle Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet, New York, Simon and Schuster. Wikipedia Sherry Turkle


Concordia University in Montreal was host to a conference on Sex at the Edge. Panel discussions included "Marketing Porn" and comments include "In some ways, Queer Studies have become central to the higher learning experience"

Presidency of Bush (junior) 2001 -

11.9.2001 "9.11" Terrorist attack on symbolic buildings in the United States. See Wikipedia

2001 or early 2002 Congress allocated $4 million to the U.S. Department of Justice to set up a pilot mental health courts program


At the 1,000 bed Laguna Honda Hospital and Rehabilitation Center in San Francisco, work is being re-introduced in a new light, seeking help people recognize and realize their highest level of vocational potential, which will vary greatly. Some people will remain life-long residents, others are recuperating from major illnesses. Others are in rehabilitation following an illness or accident. Many had been homeless. Many have no family involvement. Many have substance abuse issues. Many have never worked. The programme seeks to instil the idea in people that they have something to offer, to identify what that is and to create opportunities for people to succeed. Vivian Imperiale, the Vocational Rehabilitation Coordinator, would welcome email exchanges (Vivian.Imperiale@sfdph.org) from people providing vocational rehabilitation services to diverse populations in or out of a hospital setting.

The Study of Vertical Zonation on Rocky Intertidal Shores-A Historical Perspective by Keith R. Benson

May 2004: The Importance of Being Famous: Behind the Scenes of the Celebrity-Industrial Complex by Maureen Orth. "What I think we have constructed in this country is a celebrity industrial complex, which means 24/7 cable, a wired world on the Internet, so much more time to fill. It's so much easier to do it with celebrity than investigate news" (Publisher's weblink - CBS "story" 4.5.2004).

January 2005 Mad Mary Lamb: Lunacy and Murder in Literary London by Susan Tyler Hitchcock published in the United States. Written by a Virginian, this is a biographical companion to the writings of an English madhouse patient who, having murdered her mother, was released to the community and became story teller and poet to generations of children throughout the world.

Study links outside this site
Picture introduction to this site
Andrew Roberts' web Study Guide
Top of Page Take a Break - Read a Poem
Click coloured words to go where you want

Andrew Roberts likes to hear from users:
To contact him, please use the
Communication Form

Kathleen Benoun works at the Patients Library of the Western State Hospital at Fort Steilacoom, Washington State. She is a member of a group planning a hospital museum. In May 2003 she completed a Timeline of Highlights in the History of Western State Hospital that sets it in its general psychiatric history. She has allowed me to draw on this. The museum is now (Spring 2004) open, and Western State Hospital Historical Society has its own website

Jeptha Greer is researching the history of Robert E. Lee

Gilbert Honigfeld is a New Jersey writer whose (as yet unpublished) manuscript of the mental health history of Europe and the USA skilfully blends fact and fiction in an imaginary transatlantic correspondence. The idea for this web page developed out of Andrew Roberts' attempts to relate Gilbert's manuscript to its historical base.

Gerald Murphy (The Cleveland Free-Net) put online an American timeline that I have used heavily. There is a copy at this link.

Charles Outwin is a member of the Maine Historical Society, Portland, Maine and a Ph.D. candidate in American history at the University of Maine, Orono. His dissertation-in-progress is The Merchant City: a history of Falmouth in Casco Bay, Maine, 1760 - 1775.

Diane E. Richardson is special collections librarian Oskar Diethelm Library, Institute for the History of Psychiatry at Cornell University's Medical School. She is currently preparing an online catalogue of the collection.

Andrew Roberts lives in Hackney, London, England, where he collects information for this timeline from people who write to him!

Warren Street's chronological work on the history of American Psychology has a web presence at Today in the History of Psychology and the chronology of added events

Gordon Trueblood is researching the history of the Truebloods. He was born near where John and Agnes Trueblood settled in North Carolina, but now lives in Canada.

Dates In the United Kingdom 12.1.2005 is 12th January 2005
In the United States 12.1.2005 is 1st December 2005 (I think)
All of this website uses the United Kingdom format
Sorry Americans - I am less likely to make mistakes this way. I also use
United Kingdom spelling.

© Andrew Roberts and the other authors 7.3.2000-

My referencing suggestion for this page is a bibliography entry:

Roberts, Andrew 7.3.2000 - American History Timeline <http://www.mdx.ac.uk/www/study/America.htm> Middlesex University

and intext references to

(Roberts, A. 7.3.2000 date).

For example: "(Roberts, A. 7.3.2000 1776)"

See ABC Referencing for general advice.


Barbados: 1627, 1639, 1655, 1663, 1671

British Columbia

Chicago: 1859 - 1874 - 1876 - 1877 - 1889 -
1890 university -
1892 sociology - 1894 -
1895 journal - 1896 -

Colleges and universities: Harvard, Yale, Pennsylvania, Washington and Lee, Columbia, Virginia, Ann Arbour, Johns Hopkins, Chicago,


Dorothea Dix: 1841, 1843,

Dutch West India Company

Federalist Papers


Israel and Daniel How or Howe 1715, 1761, 1775

Laguna Honda: 1866, 2002

Indiana Hospital for the Insane and Medical Museum

Indian Territory


Dorothea Dix Isreal/Daniel How
Hospitals for the insane:
1832: Worcester
1839: Boston
1852: Taunton
1858: Northampton (closed 1993)


Peter Minuit

Missouri Asylum Number 2 and the Glore Psychiatric Museum

New Amsterdam

New England

New Haven

New Netherlands

New York
House of Correction, Workhouse and Poorhouse 1736 Lunatic Asylum 1808   Auburn State Prison 1819   City Lunatic Asylum 1839   State Lunatic Asylum at Utica 1843

Oregon Trail

Elizabeth Packard: 1860, 1863, 1867, 1872

Talcott Parsons

William Penn



Plymouth Colony



Quaker settlers: Carolina - New Jersey - Pennsylvania,


Separate system (Philadelphia)

Slavery Slavery and social science - 1492 - triangular run 22.1.1510 - 1607 - 1619 - 1627 - 1791 - 1793 - 1794 - 1802 - 1833 - 2.7.1839 - 1840 - 1863 -

Sociology (USA) - 1875 - 1892 - 1894 - 1928 - 1931 - 1942 - 1949 - 1964 - 1966 - 1970

sociology and pragmatism

Silent system (New York)

John Smith



John Woolman

thirteen colonies

Washington State asylums: Eastern State, Western State.

January 2005:
Mad Mary Lamb on Susan Tyler Hitchcock's web site
Mad Mary Lamb: Lunacy and Murder in Literary London by Susan Tyler Hitchcock

American Dreams at "Blommes Links"