World History, Culture, and Geography: The Modern World
Students in grade ten study major turning points that shaped
the modern world, from the late eighteenth century through the
present, including the cause and course of the two world wars.
They trace the rise of democratic ideas and develop an understanding
of the historical roots of current world issues, especially as
they pertain to international relations. They extrapolate from
the American experience that democratic ideals are often achieved
at a high price, remain vulnerable, and are not practiced everywhere
in the world. Students develop an understanding of current world
issues and relate them to their historical, geographic, political,
economic, and cultural contexts. Students consider multiple accounts
of events in order to understand international relations from
a variety of perspectives.
10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient
Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to
the development of Western political thought.
- Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian
and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of
- Trace the development of the Western political ideas of the
rule of law and illegitimacy of tyranny, using selections from
Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics.
- Consider the influence of the U.S. Constitution on political
systems in the contemporary world.
10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of
England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and
their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations
for self-government and individual liberty.
- Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects
on the democratic revolutions in England, the United States,
France, and Latin America (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu,
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simón Bolívar, Thomas Jefferson,
- List the principles of the Magna Carta, the English Bill
of Rights (1689), the American Declaration of Independence (1776),
the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
(1789), and the U.S. Bill of Rights (1791).
- Understand the unique character of the American Revolution,
its spread to other parts of the world, and its continuing significance
to other nations.
- Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France
to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism
to the Napoleonic empire.
- Discuss how nationalism spread across Europe with Napoleon
but was repressed for a generation under the Congress of Vienna
and Concert of Europe until the Revolutions of 1848.
10.3 Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution
in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States.
- Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize.
- Examine how scientific and technological changes and new
forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and
cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James
Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison).
- Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration,
and growth of cities associated with the Industrial Revolution.
- Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise
of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and
manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement.
- Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship,
labor, and capital in an industrial economy.
- Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic
pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social
Democracy, Socialism, and Communism.
- Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature
(e.g., the poetry of William Blake and William Wordsworth),
social criticism (e.g., the novels of Charles Dickens), and
the move away from Classicism in Europe.
10.4 Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of
New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries:
Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines.
- Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link
to imperialism and colonial-ism (e.g., the role played by national
security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the
search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and the missionary
impulse; material issues such as land, resources, and technology).
- Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations
as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands,
Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States.
- Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers
and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses
by the people under colonial rule.
- Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions
of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen
in China, and the roles of ideology and religion.
10.5 Students analyze the causes and course of the First World
- Analyze the arguments for entering into war presented by
leaders from all sides of the Great War and the role of political
and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, domestic
discontent and disorder, and propaganda and nationalism in mobilizing
the civilian population in support of "total war."
- Examine the principal theaters of battle, major turning points,
and the importance of geographic factors in military decisions
and outcomes (e.g., topography, waterways, distance, climate).
- Explain how the Russian Revolution and the entry of the United
States affected the course and outcome of the war.
- Understand the nature of the war and its human costs (military
and civilian) on all sides of the conflict, including how colonial
peoples contributed to the war effort.
- Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the
Ottoman government's actions against Armenian citizens.
10.6 Students analyze the effects of the First World War.
- Analyze the aims and negotiating roles of world leaders,
the terms and influence of the Treaty of Versailles and Woodrow
Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the causes and effects of the
United States's rejection of the League of Nations on world
- Describe the effects of the war and resulting peace treaties
on population movement, the international economy, and shifts
in the geographic and political borders of Europe and the Middle
- Understand the widespread disillusionment with prewar institutions,
authorities, and values that resulted in a void that was later
filled by totalitarians.
- Discuss the influence of World War I on literature, art,
and intellectual life in the West (e.g., Pablo Picasso, the
"lost generation" of Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway).
10.7 Students analyze the rise of totalitarian governments after
World War I.
- Understand the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution,
including Lenin's use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain
control (e.g., the Gulag).
- Trace Stalin's rise to power in the Soviet Union and the
connection between economic policies, political policies, the
absence of a free press, and systematic violations of human
rights (e.g., the Terror Famine in Ukraine).
- Analyze the rise, aggression, and human costs of totalitarian
regimes (Fascist and Communist) in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet
Union, noting especially their common and dissimilar traits.
10.8 Students analyze the causes and consequences of World War
- Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire
in the 1930s, including the 1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities
in China, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.
- Understand the role of appeasement, nonintervention (isolationism),
and the domestic distractions in Europe and the United States
prior to the outbreak of World War II.
- Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on a map and
discuss the major turning points of the war, the principal theaters
of conflict, key strategic decisions, and the resulting war
conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on the
importance of geographic factors.
- Describe the political, diplomatic, and military leaders
during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt,
Emperor Hirohito, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin,
Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower).
- Analyze the Nazi policy of pursuing racial purity, especially
against the European Jews; its transformation into the Final
Solution; and the Holocaust that resulted in the murder of six
million Jewish civilians.
- Discuss the human costs of the war, with particular attention
to the civilian and military losses in Russia, Germany, Britain,
the United States, China, and Japan.
10.9 Students analyze the international developments
in the post-World World War II world.
- Compare the economic and military power shifts caused by
the war, including the Yalta Pact, the development of nuclear
weapons, Soviet control over Eastern European nations, and the
economic recoveries of Germany and Japan.
- Analyze the causes of the Cold War, with the free world on
one side and Soviet client states on the other, including competition
for influence in such places as Egypt, the Congo, Vietnam, and
- Understand the importance of the Truman Doctrine and the
Marshall Plan, which established the pattern for America's postwar
policy of supplying economic and military aid to prevent the
spread of Communism and the resulting economic and political
competition in arenas such as Southeast Asia (i.e., the Korean
War, Vietnam War), Cuba, and Africa.
- Analyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung,
and the subsequent political and economic upheavals in China
(e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and
the Tiananmen Square uprising).
- Describe the uprisings in Poland (1952), Hungary (1956),
and Czechoslovakia (1968) and those countries' resurgence in
the 1970s and 1980s as people in Soviet satellites sought freedom
from Soviet control.
- Understand how the forces of nationalism developed in the
Middle East, how the Holocaust affected world opinion regarding
the need for a Jewish state, and the significance and effects
of the location and establishment of Israel on world affairs.
- Analyze the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union,
including the weakness of the command economy, burdens of military
commitments, and growing resistance to Soviet rule by dissidents
in satellite states and the non-Russian Soviet republics.
- Discuss the establishment and work of the United Nations
and the purposes and functions of the Warsaw Pact, SEATO, NATO,
and the Organization of American States.
10.10 Students analyze instances of nation-building in the contemporary
world in at least two of the following regions or countries: the
Middle East, Africa, Mexico and other parts of Latin America,
- Understand the challenges in the regions, including their
geopolitical, cultural, military, and economic significance
and the international relationships in which they are involved.
- Describe the recent history of the regions, including political
divisions and systems, key leaders, religious issues, natural
features, resources, and population patterns.
- Discuss the important trends in the regions today and whether
they appear to serve the cause of individual freedom and democracy.
10.11 Students analyze the integration of countries into the
world economy and the information, technological, and communications
revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, computers).