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Geography and population
Turkey, with a total area of 779 45 km², lies between Europe and Asia
and is surrounded by the Black Sea, Bulgaria and Greece in the north, the Aegean Sea in
the west, the Mediterranean Sea, Syria and Iraq in the south, Iran in the east and Armenia
and Georgia in the north-east.
About 28 million ha, or 36% of the total area, are classified as
cultivable. In 1991, the total cultivated area was estimated at 20.5 million ha, of which
17.5 million ha consisted of annual crops and 3.0 million ha consisted of permanent crops,
mainly vineyards, fruit trees and olives.
The total population is about 61.9 million (1995), of which 31% is
rural, with an annual demographic growth estimated at 2%. Agriculture employed 44.5% of
the total labour force in 1994 and accounted for nearly 16% of GDP in 1993. In 1992,
agriculture provided 14.9% of the total export revenue.
Climate and water resources
Turkey has a subtropical, semi-arid climate with extremes in
temperatures. In the east, summers are hot and dry, winters are cold, rainy and snowy
Along the coastal area, a Mediterranean climate is dominant with long, hot, dry summers
and short, mild, rainy winters. Rainfall shows great differences from one region to
another. Average annual rainfall is 643 mm, ranging from 250 mm in the southeast to over 3
000 mm in the north-east Black Sea area. About 70% of the rain falls in the winter and
spring seasons. Average runoff is about 37%.
Surface water resources
The most important hydrological basins in Turkey are presented in the
Major hydrological basins in Turkey
|Names of the basins
||Total number of
|Tigris, Euphrates *
||Iraq/Syria/lran (Persian Gulf)
|Orontes, Ceyhan, Seyhan, Eastern
Mediterranean, Antalya, Western Mediterranean
|Greater Menderes, Smaller
Menderes, Gediz, North Aegean, Meric
||Sea of Marmara
|Sakarya, Western Black sea,
Kizilirmak, Yesiiirmak, Eastern Black Sea, Coruh
||Black Sea (Coruh first to Georgia
with 6.30 km³/year)
|Burdur Lakes Area, Akarcay, Konya
Closed Basin, Van Lake
* Euphrates: figures of average runoff vary between 26.29 and 31.61
km³/year. The latter figure was used in this Table.
Tigris : Figures of average runoff vary between 18.00 and 21.33
km³/year. The latter figure was used in this Table.
Of the total surface runoff of the country, estimated at 192.8
km³/year, almost one-fourth comes from the Euphrates (Firat) and the Tigris (Dicle)
rivers, that both have their sources in the eastern part of the country. Turkey
contributes about 90% of the total annual flow of the Euphrates, while the remaining part
originates in Syria and nothing is added further downstream in Iraq. Turkey contributes
38% directly to the main Tigris river and another 11 % to its tributaries, that join the
main stream of the Tigris further downstream in Iraq. In general, the streams vary greatly
in their flow from season to season and year to year. For example, the Euphrates' annual
flow at the border with Syria ranged from 15.3 km³ in 1961 to 42.7 km in 1963.
Average annual surface runoff entering Turkey from other countries is
estimated at about 1.8 km³ (the Orontes, the Tunca). Another 5.8 km³/year comes from
Bulgaria through the Meric river which forms the border between Turkey and Greece. Average
annual surface runoff leaving the country is estimated at 60.4 km³, while almost 8 km³
flows in the interior basins.
A figure of 12.2 km³/year for groundwater is given for the year 1994.
It probably represents identified development potential, and a figure of 20.0 km³/year
for yearly groundwater recharge is probably a more realistic estimate. Groundwater flows
to other countries are not known. However, the sources of the Khabour river, situated in
Syria, with a runoff of 1.2 km³/year, have their origin in groundwater coming from
By the end of 1991, the construction of 164 large dams, mostly rockfill
or earthfill dams, and 765 small dams had been completed and put into service for water
supply, irrigation, hydropower and flood control. Total dam capacity is about 206 km³. In
addition, in 1992, 78 l(Firat) river in the arge dams and 172 small dams were under
construction. The Ataturk Dam on the Euphrates south-eastern part of the country, with a
total storage capacity of 48.5 km, is one of the 10 largest dams in the world. In the
beginning of 1990, the filling of the reservoir behind the dam started and was completed
in 1992. The surface area of the reservoir is about 817 km²,
It is estimated that 95 km³ of the total surface runoff of 192.8
km³/year could be technically developed for economic use. In 1992, total annual water
withdrawal was 31.6 km³, of which agricultural use accounted for 72.5% (16.4% is withdrawn for domestic use and 11.1% for industrial use). About
24% of total water withdrawal, or 7.6 km³, was estimated to be groundwater, of which 3.7
km³ for agricultural purposes. Almost 98% of the urban and 85% of the rural populations
have access to safe drinking water. The treatment of domestic wastewater is estimated at
International rivers and agreements
The total length of the boundary between Turkey and its surrounding
countries is 2 753 km, of which 615 km is formed by rivers: 238 km with Bulgaria and
Greece, 76 km with Syria, 58 km with Iraq and Iran, 243 km with Armenia and Georgia. In
1927, Turkey and the USSR signed a 'Treaty on the Beneficial Uses of Boundary Waters', in
which they agreed to share water on a fiftyfifty basis. A Joint Boundary Water Commission
was established (although without legal identity) to control the use of the frontier
water. In 1973 the two governments signed an additional 'Treaty on the Joint Construction
of the Arpacay or Ahuryan Storage Dam'. In a similar vein, Turkey and Greece after the
Treaty of Lausanne (1923) signed several protocols regarding the control and management of
the Meric river which forms the border between Greece and Turkey.
The protocol concerning the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers dates back
to 1946 when Turkey and Iraq agreed that the rivers' control and management depended to a
large extent on the regulations of flow in Turkish source areas. Turkey, at that time,
agreed to begin monitoring the two rivers and to share related data with Iraq. In 1980
Turkey and Iraq further specified the nature of the earlier protocol by establishing a
Joint Technical Committee on Regional Waters. After a bilateral agreement in 1982, Syria
joined the committee. Turkey has unilaterally guaranteed to allow 15.75 km³/year (500
m³/s) of water across the border to Syria, but no formal agreement has been obtained so
far on the sharing of the Euphrates water.
Irrigation and drainage development
Out of the cultivable area of 28 million ha, almost 26 million ha are
classified as suitable for irrigation. Considering the water resources this area is
reduced to 12.5 million ha. When moreover economic considerations are brought in, the
official estimated irrigation potential of Turkey is 8.5 million ha, of which 93% would be
from surface water resources and 7% from groundwater.
Irrigation development in Turkey is carried out by the public sector,
represented by DSI (State Hydraulic Works) and GDRS (General Directorate of Rural
Services), and by the private sector (farmers and groups of farmers). As at January 1994,
the total water managed area was estimated at almost 4.2 million ha, or 49 % of the
irrigation potential, of which 115 164 ha was equipped wetland. Over 3.1
million ha have so far been developed by the public sector, compared with less than 0.5
million ha in 1965. The total water managed area can be classified in four
categories as shown in the Table below.
Irrigation management (1994)
|Water managed area (ha)
||As % of total
|1 342 651
|1 300 520
||GDRS/Other agencies *
|1 080 000
||Private (groups of) farmers
|4 185 910
* Other agencies: irrigation cooperatives, heads of villages,
municipalities, some state organizations
On public schemes, the national average of the irrigation ratio (the
part of the equipped area actually irrigated) varies between 64 and 72% with wide regional
and annual fluctuations (28-82% and 34-76% respectively).
Of the total area developed by the public sector for full and partial
control irrigation 20% is irrigated from groundwater, while for the area developed by the
farmers the figure is only 7%.
Almost 94% of the total area is irrigated using surface irrigation
methods (furrow, basin, border, wild flooding). The remaining part is under sprinkler
irrigation (mainly hand-move) and some micro-irrigation, mainly in the Aegean and
Mediterranean regions. The conventional (hand-move) sprinkler irrigation is
common all over Turkey among the farmers and an estimated 200 000 ha are irrigated using
this method. On DSI schemes, 63 849 ha are irrigated by sprinklers, mainly for sugar beet,
cereals, beans, alfalfa, cotton, sunflowers, water melons and vegetables. Micro-irrigation
is practised on 386 ha of DSI schemes, mainly for citrusfruits, vineyards, vegetables,
strawberries and watermelons.
During the last three decades GDRS has carried out a lot of on-farm
water development works, for example the reclamation of saline and alkaline soils on 803
000 ha and open drains on 3 143 000 ha. In 1992, about 223 000 ha were estimated to be
power drained. The flood protected area amounted to almost 800 000 ha in 1994. It was
estimated in 1992, that of the total area operated by DSI, about 41 000 ha was salinized
The cost of irrigation development varies between $US 1 750/ha for small
schemes ( < 1 000 ha) and $US 3 000/ha for large schemes ( > 1 000 ha, with 70%
being > 10 000 ha). The average cost of operation and maintenance varies
between $US 50/ha for small schemes and $US 70/ha for large schemes (excluding dams). The
cost of drainage development (the average for sub-surface and open drains) was estimated
at $US 274/ha in 1994. Water rates are charged on a cropped area basis, with different
rates for each crop. During 1990-92 the average water charges for large schemes were
estimated at $US 35/ha.
Data for major crops and their production are not available for the
whole country. In 1991 60% of the total area equipped and operated by DSI (over 1.34
million ha), or 810 000 ha, was cropped.
The average yield for irrigated cereals (wheat and barley) was 4.1 t/ha
as against 2.1 t/ha for rainfed crops. For irrigated pulses (chick peas and lentils) the
average yield was 2.5 t/ha, for cotton 2.9, for sunflowers 2.3, for maize 7.9, for sugar
beet 55.2 and for tobacco 1.1 t/ha.
There are two governmental organizations involved in major irrigation
and drainage development:
- The State Hydraulic Works (DSI) was established in 1954 as a legal entity
and brought under the aegis of the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement and is
responsible for the planning, design, construction and operation of water resources
development for various purposes like irrigation, flood control, swamp reclamation,
hydropower development, navigation and water supply to cities with over 100 000
- The General Directorate of Rural Services (GDRS) was established in 1984
by incorporating the soil conservation and irrigation organization, the rural settlement
organization and the rural roads, water and electricity organization into one
organization. It is responsible for the development of small-scale irrigation schemes and
small reservoirs, rural roads and water supply to rural areas. It is also responsible for
land consolidation and the on-farm development of all irrigation projects, including the
projects developed by DSI. It was formerly under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Affairs, but now falls under the Prime Minister's Office.
Trends in water resources management
In several areas, problems are emerging as urban activities encroach
onto agricultural lands. There is an increasing interest in using the land as a vehicle
for the treatment and disposal of the wastewater from agri-business and urban activities.
In particular there is current concern about the use of polluted water resources to
irrigate agricultural lands, especially in western Turkey, which has been experiencing
water shortages on a regular basis in recent years.
A regional agricultural development project, the South East Anatolian
Project (GAP), is planned for the lower Euphrates river and the Tigris river basin within
the boundaries of Turkey. The project involves the integrated development of irrigated
agriculture and agroindustry, and supporting services, including communications, health
and education. It includes 13 major projects of which 7 are in the Euphrates basin and 6
in the Tigris basin. After full development it will include 22 darns, 19 hydroelectric
power plants and the irrigation of almost 1.7 million hectares. The water obtained from
the Ataturk dam on the Euphrates is carried to the Harran Plain by the Sanli Urfa tunnel
system, which is the largest tunnel system in the world in view of its length and flow
rate. The waters of the river pass through banners which are 26.4 km in length and 7.62 m
in diameter with an estimated flow of about 328 m³/s, which is one-third of the total
flow of the Euphrates.
However, the downstream riparian states, Syria and Iraq, do not agree
with water abstraction for irrigation. Especially as far as the Euphrates river is
concerned, problems regarding sharing water might arise between these countries. Turkey
has unilaterally guaranteed to allow 15.75 km³/year of water from the Euphrates river
across the border to Syria, but no formal agreement has been obtained so far. Although
fewer water problems exist on the Tigris river, mainly because more than 50% of the water
originates downstream of Turkey (as against less than 10% of the Euphrates water), here
also the use of the water resources has to be carefully planned.
According to the different scenarios established, full irrigation
development by the countries in the Euphrates-Tigris river basin would lead to water
shortages and solutions will have to be found at basin level through regional cooperation.
Main sources of information
Adem llbeyi and Bulent Sonmez. 1995. Water management and irrigation
practices in Turkey. Country paper presented at the TCDC Regional Workshop on improved
water management technologies for sustainable agriculture in arid climates, Cairo, 25-29
DSI (State Hydraulic Works). 1992. Dams and hydroelectric power plants
E. Esat Kiratlioglu. 1995. Land and water resources management in
Turkey. Article published in MEDIT No 1/95.
FAO, IAP-WASAD. 1993. National Action Programme for the Republic of
Kulga, Dincer and Cakmak, Cuma. 1994. The role of DSI in water and
sustainable agricultural development. IAP/WASAD/NAP/Gvt.
Nedeco/Dapta/Su-Yapi/Temelsu. 1991. Irrigation master plan. DSI.
Osman Tekinel, Riza Kanber, Bulent Ozekic. 1992. Water resources
planning and development in Turkey. In Proceedings of the situation of agriculture in
Mediterranean countries, organized by CIHEAM/CCE-DGI. Adana, 3-9 September 1992.
State Institute of Statistics (SIS). 1995. Statistical Yearbook 1994 of
Suleyman Kodal and Erkan Benli. 1993. Research and development on
irrigation and drainage technologies in Turkey. In Proceedings of the Technical
Consultation on integrated rural water management, Rome, 15-19 March 1993.
World Bank. 1993. Irrigation management and investment review. Report