Some steam locomotives of the former Czechoslovakian Railway (CSD)

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Last update: Oct 2006


Czechia and Slovakia

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Czech National Museum Prague Iron Monument Club, Plzen. Phone 00420 604 704906. Fax 00420 19 7216185. Iron Monument Club (Czech and German) mail
Mostly driving with 475.111.
Society Posazavsky Pacifik, maintaining steam locomotive 434 0170,

Calender for steam trains in Czechia
Some mainline steam dates
A railway club with some oldtimers
Zeleznicni muzeum Luzna. Phone 00420 313 537700
Web link
A czech site with many further links in czech language Radek Panchartek, contact person for special trains with 498.022 from Praha:


Slovak special steam trains etc. ALBATROS klub Bratislava, maintaining 498.104, contact Roman Petho, web:, e-mail: List of preserved Slovakian steam locomotives, working or being repaired: ALBATROS KLUB, the society for maintaining 498.104,
pri RD Bratislawa hlavne, Tupeho ulica 4, 81305 Bratislawa, Mail
Some mainline steam dates Model railway magazine (in Slovakia) About museum engine 477.013: Special trains with Slovakian steam engines organized by Austrain Railways

The czech steam locomotives constructed after WW II were famous for their beautiful design and their efficiency. The artist Vilém Kreibich made the drawings of the external design before the locomotives were constructed. After WW.II and until the communists took over government in 1948, Czech locomotive factories cooperated with André Chapelon of France for the design of their new engines. Most of the new designs were therefore outfitted with Kylchap blast pipes and double chimneys. All the boilers were welded, had combustion chambers, arch tubes and/or thermosiphons, multivalve throttles and most of the larger locomotives were equipped with mechanical stoker.

On this page are a few photos, made in 1971 and 1974 (under constant danger of arrest as railway photography was forbidden).

At that time, very much of Czechoslovakia was still served by steam locomotives, even if many main lines were electrified. The 498.1 express locomotives between Plzen and Praha made am impressive performance in 1971, but had actually disappeared in 1974. Still, most of the steam engines were brightly colored and clean. And they had a powerful appearance.

After the end of regular steam service on the CSD in 1981 some locomotives of the CSD fleet were also preserved or put in working order again. NTM (National Technical Museum in Praha) let its live locomotives out on hire to the CSD sheds or preservation societies. Twenty six live steam locomotives of the former CSD fleet were available for the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the railways on the Czechoslovak territory. About 40 steam locomotives are preserved in working order in Czechia and Slovakia.

Some more information about Vilém Kreibich:
He was born in 1884, as a son of an engine driver. He studied at the Prague Academy of Art. His first design work were the Gölsdorf Atlantic express locomotives for the line between Prague and Vienna, the most powerful European Atlantics at their time. He started to work as an industrial designer for Skoda works in World War I and worked with them for 40 years. Since 1928 he also cooperated with Vlastimil Mares, later the Chief of the design depoartment of the Czechoslovakian railways. The first work he did for the railways was the new color scheme for the express locomotives constructed in the beginning of the 1930s. In the late 1930s Kreibich participated in the development of a unified appearance of the new locomotive generation developed then.

After World War II Kreibich painted the new locomotives, and the designers at the factories followed his design, for the outside appearance of the locomotives.

A book about his influence is to be published by Prof. Karel Zeithammer, one of the directors of the National Technical Musem in Prague.

The czech numbering system for steam locomotives

A class number had three digits:
First digit is number of driving axles.
Second number is maximum speed minus 30 in km/h, divided by 10 (A max speed of 100 km/h thus gives digit seven)
Third number is the axle load in tons minus ten (An axle load of 15 tons thus gives number 5).

Some mainline steam dates

May 4 to 7, 2007: Photo trains near Vrutky, Slovakia with 475,196, 556.036, 464.101 or 477.013.  Vrutky - Zvolen - Prievidza - Brezno - Margecany. Info from Henry Riedel <>

Jun 15 to June 17, 2007: 498.022 plus one more steam locomotive (475 or 477.043) are  driving Praha-Bratislawa-Praha. Info from Radek <>

In September 2007 there is planned another trip with 498.022. There are two
possibilities of destination. The first one is the Gotthardbahn in Switzerland (7 days long and the price will be around 12 000.- Kc or 445
Euro) or second one is Zvolen in the Slovakia, where is the International Grand Prix of small steam engines (5 days long and the price will be around
5 000.- Kc or 185 Euro). Info from Radek <>

Passenger train locomotive class 387.0 (2'C1'h3)

This is a construction from 1923, but is included as it was the first museum engine at the CSD. This engine was the first in Europe to have a Vanadium steel cast frame. The rods are also produced of special steel (Chromium, nickel) to keep the weight light. Some of these engines were later equipped with Kylchap blast pipes.

In October 1970 overhauled locomotive No. 387.043, property of the National Technical Museum (NTM) in Prague left the CSD Maintenance Works at Ceske Velenice. The repair of this locomotive was the result of personal initiative of some people who tried to assert the idea of live historical vehicles on CSD rails. They gathered inspiration from their own conviction and from experience taken from abroad. The situation in Czechoslovakia after suppressing of the "Prague Spring" 1968 wasn't politically favorable for such activities, on top of it the CSD tried to withdraw as soon as possible all steam locomotives. For hauling of some "nostalgic" trains (mostly for anniversaries of some railway lines) steam locomotives of the working fleet of CSD sheds or of industrial railways were used. Immediately after its repair in 1970, 387.043 served  in the production of a documentary film, but then it was put to a standstill for nearly five years.

Slovakian preserved engines of this class: 387.017, Kuty, owner MDC, (Slovakian Museum of Transportation), factory number 760/1932 Skoda,
387.019, Bratislava, factory number 762/1932 Skoda.

Passenger train tank locomotive 464.2(2'D2'h3T)

This kind of engine was a prototype to replace the older (prewar) type 464.0-1. It was the last new construction of a steam locomotive in Czechoslovakia, and constructed in 1955.

From the journal Zeleznice, No 4/96:

Class 464.2, the last steam locomotive type in former Czechoslovakia, was delivered in 1956. Two prototypes of 4-8-4 tank engine were built by Skoda Locomotive Works, based on the tried class 464.0 locomotives from the thirties. The most modern construction elements were used, but the series was canceled. The two locomotives operated successively in the Praha-Smichov, Jihlava, Brno and Olomouc depots. From Brno they hauled local trains to Ceska Trebova, Havlickuv Brod and Prerov. The last depot was Olomouc, with trains on mountaineous lines. They were withdrawn from service in 1974 and 1975. Both locomotives shared in the hauling of N. S. Chruschev special train to the Vienna meeting with J. F. Kennedy on June 2, 1961. No. 464.202 was given to the National Technical Museum on 13.6. 1974 and was overhauled to be operational for line duty in 1994.

The machinery was taken over from locomotive type 464.1, but the boiler was a totally new construction. The boiler has 18 Bar pressure, combustion chamber, multivalve throttle. The axle load is 15 tons on the driving axles. This should have led to the locomotive numbering as class 465, but they kept it 464. All axles and rods have roller bearings. Its power was 1250 kW.

464.202 is preserved workable in Olomouc and does some special train runs every year.

The passenger train locomotive class 475.1 (2'D1'h2) "Slechticna"

This engine was constructed for medium heavy passenger service in hilly areas with a maximum speed of 100 km/h. Skoda built the first engine in 1947. This engine was the first one to get the new type of boiler most steam engines constructed after WW II were equipped with: A long combustion chamber, thermosiphon, two additional water pipes through the firebox, Kylchap double blast pipes, Friedman exhaust steam injector, mechanical stoker, rocking grate and air operated cutoff adjustment. The boiler middle is at 3300 millimeter above the rails. The engine uses Trofimoff- valves. There is a stoker in the tender type 932.3. Part of these engines got roller bearings in all axles and rods. The 475.1 had a fast acceleration with its small wheels, and could pull a lot, due to its four axles and 60 tons adhesive weight.
The last 25 engines built by Skoda in 1951 were delivered to North Korea as war aid. In North Korea they had their original Czech numbers 475.1148 - 1172.

Delivery to the CSD: 475,101-106 in 1947, 107 - 161 in 1948, 162 - 182 in 1949, 183 - 199 and 1100 - 1142 in 1950, 1143 - 1147 in 1959. All were built by Skoda.

The pictures are from Plzen. The locomotives ran many of the local passenger trains along the surroundings of Plzen.

Preserved engines: 475.101 (Brno), 111 ( Iron Monument Club Plzen , serviceable, 179 (Decin), servcieable, 1142 (Prerov, serviceable UNTIL MARCH 29, 2003) , 475.196 (Vrutky, Slovakia),  in service again since 15 July 1992, 475.1130(Vrutky, Slovakia, parts engine for 475,196).

In 1971, photography was difficult: Just after these pictures, the author was arrested, but luckily the film was not found by the police and thus not confiscated.
In 1971, these engines pulled most of the local trains around Cheb, Plzen, Chomutov, Decin, Liberec, Hradec Kralove. In 1974, I saw them only between Liberec and Hradec Kralove, as well as on local trains out of Hradec Kralove. In 1974, however, my films were confiscated.

A few measures:

Driving wheel diameter 1750 mm
Steam pressure 16 Bar
Cylinder dimensions 570 mm diamater, 680 mm stroke until no. 070, then 530 mm
Grate area 4.34 square meters
Fire box heating surface 24,2 sq. meters
Total water side heating area 201.8 sq. meters
Superheater area 63 sq. meters
Weight in working order 100-102,6 t
Adhesive weight 60,6 - 66,4 t
Tractive effort max. 160 kN
Max. speed 100 km/h (50 km/h backwards)
Tender water capacity 32 tons
Tender coal capacity 9 or 11,2 tons (differing data)
Tender weight in working order 69 tons
Total wheelbase locomotive with tender 20720 mm
Overall length locomotive with tender 24800 mm
Working weight locomotive with tender 168.6 tons
Power output (unknown at which speed etc.) 1480 kW

The engine has, in principle, the same boiler as class 556. However, class 556 has 18 Bar, not 16 Bar, maximum pressure.

Click here for a drawing .

Click here for a more detailed drawing of 475.1142.

Pictures are here:

The experimental locomotive class 476 (2'D1'h3v)

Four such engines were built by Skoda, factory number 1905 - 1907 in 1949, the last one built in 1950 was given to Josef Stalin as a gift, but probably never used thereafter. The constructions by André Chapelon of France were influencing this engine. It was a three cylinder compound engine, with the high pressure cylinder in the middle and two low pressure cylinders outside. The low pressure cylinders could be fed with fresh steam for starting the engine. They worked with 90 degrees phase difference. All cylinders powered the second axle. The cut-off was adjusted using a pressurized air driven machinery. Axle load on the driving axles could be adjusted to 16 or 18 tons alternatively. The boiler was like the 475.1, but the driving wheels were smaller, 1624 mm. However, boiler pressure was 20 Bar, which resulted in heavier materials and a greater axle load than the class 475.1. Cylinder power output was up to 2900 HP. Steam consumption was down to 6.7 to 7.0 kg per HP*hour.
Test runs showed that these engines had 12 to 25% better fuel economy than the 498.0 engines. However, the engines had problems in the actual daily working. One was that engine crews did not handle them well. Maintenance was also much more expensive than ideal. The other problem was that they performed best on lines that required long stretches of full steam working, not so much the case with Czechoslovakian lines, which have a lot of steep changing up and downgrades.
These engines shared the working between Praha and Kosice on heavy express trains with engines class 498.0. However, they were also quite unreliable.

Thus, in 1965, these engines were rebuilt into two cylinder single expansion engines, like the class 475.1. Their outside cylinders were preserved, with 580 mm diameter and 660 mm stroke, some more than the 475.1 class engines. Boiler pressure was reduced to 17 bar. Still, they had a rated output of 1626 kW. Adhesive weight was increased to 72 tons (18 tons axle load on the driving axles). They were used at Prerov thereafter. The first locomotive to be withdrawn was number 002 after derailing at 88 km/h with the express train "Chopin" on 27.2.1968. The other two were withdrawn in 1971.

Drawing of type 476.

The passenger tank engine class 477 (2'D2'h3T)

CKD constructed this engine in 1951. It was first classified as 476.1, but after addition of extra water tanks, adding weight, became 477.0. 477.001 - 038 were built in 1951, the first engine was delivered as 476.101 on 18 Oct 1951, 039 - 060 were built in 1955. The last one was delivered on 17. August 1955.These engines were built for fast service and big trains. They had a mechanical stoker for firing, and three cylinders. In addition, they had all the other modern equipment standard for postwar Czech engines, stoker, a thermosiphon, two arch tubes, fire chamber, double Kylchap exhaust. The boiler center was at 3250 mm altitude, like in other modern engines. They had a casing above the boiler all along the engine, like the German 01.5 express engine later. Some, like the ones on my pictures, had water tanks along the whole side, some had only small water tanks. Some of them were painted dark or even light blue. The frame was as class 475.0 (a 1935 Skoda construction). Their thermal efficiency reached 11%. Service included all kinds of passenger trains, from heavy expresses on main lines in the same service as classes 475.1 and 498, to local trains.

 In 1971, I saw them running double deck local passenger trains from Praha Smichov. In 1974 these engines were still running nearly all passenger trains around Ceska Lipa. 60 engines were built. Originally they had no water reservoir along the boiler. This was added from engine number 39, but later some of the older engines were rebuilt with additional water tanks.

At the end of 1971 all 60 were still in service at depots Zvolen, Nove Zamky, Leopoldov, Breclav, Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc, Ceska Lipa, Nymburk, Kralupy nad Vltavu and Praha Vrsovice. In 1973, 7 engines were withdrawn, in 1974 another 11. In 1974, at least Ceska Lipa and Nymburk still had engines working. Engine 477.035 was withdrawn in Ceska Lipa on 26.9.1977, probably as the last one there. In 1978 only 8 engines were still existing. The last one was withdrawn in 1981.

477.043 is preserved, in earlier years owned by heat station Praha-Malesice, it was overhauled to be in working order for museum trains in 1980. 477.013 is preserved workable in Slovakia at depot Poprad, owned by Center for Technical documentation (MDC). One more engine, number 060, is owned by the National Technical Museum in Praha and not working.

A few measures:
Driving wheel diameter 1624 mm
Steam pressure 16 Bar
Grate area 4.3 square meters
Fire box heating surface 17,9 sq. meters
Total water side heating area 206,9 sq. meters
Superheater area 59,6 sq. meters
Weight in working order 128,5 - 132,5 t
Cylinders 3 * 450 * 680 mm
Adhesive weight 68,7 - 70,2 t
Max. speed 100 km/h 
Water capacity 15 tons
Coal capacity 7 tons
Total wheelbase locomotive with tender 14000 mm
Overall length locomotive 17300 mm
Max output  1590 kW 

The first picture is taken at Ceska Lipa.

Here 477 054 at Praha Smichov on June 1971. At this time these engines still ran the local passenger trains with double deck sets. Three years later everything was diesel and electric here. But such engines still ran a lot of local trains out of Ceska Lipa in 1974. Pictures will be added to this web site in a while. What I did not know then was that the area around Ceska Lipa had a lot of Soviet military institutions. Strangely, the police in Ceska Lipa was especially friendly and cooperative about my photographing.

More pictures here:

The express train locomotive class 498.0 (2'D1'h3)

The pre-war Pacific engines class 387.0 and 399.0 were successfully used in hauling of express trains on level lines, but for heavy trains in hilly areas their performance was not satisfactory. The Czechoslovak Railway Authority therefore placed with both Czech locomotive works (Skoda, CKD) an order for the three cylinder express locomotives with four coupled axles in 1932. Evaluation of both prototype versions (4-8-2 Skoda No. 486.001 and an alternative 2-8-4 CKD class 486.1 ) was in favor of the Skoda version. (The trial of these engines was in the Tatra mountains out of depot Spisska Nova Ves in Slovakia. Nine pieces of this 486.0 class were manufactured by both factories before 1938.
Slovakian preserved engines of class 486: 486.007, Vrutky, owner MDC, built 815/1936 Skoda, in working order (Zelen_ Anton - "green Anton"), 486.008, Vrutky, owner MDC, 826/1938 Skoda (parts engine for 486.007)

As a result of the need for postwar extension and restoration of the express train locomotive fleet the pre-war class 486.0 was chosen for further delivery. 40 pieces of class 486.0 locomotives numbers. 10 to 49 were ordered from Skoda locomotive works on October 6, 1945. The series was classified as Skoda 31Lo5 type with factory numbers 1706 to 1745. Many construction changes were introduced compared to the last pre-war engines (Nos. 486.008 and 009). Many of them concerned the material used - the use of more valuable materials was not possible in the post-war conditions, except for exceptional cases. The boiler was practically a new design, the cylinders were changed (the diameter was reduced from 550 to 500 mm), the whole design was reviewed. Also new tenders of class 935.0 were delivered for the new locomotives. The final design work was completed in the spring 1946. At that time the axle load was increased from 16 to 17,5 t, the maximum speed from 110 to 120 km/h. Due to these facts the locomotives were classified as class 498. Many parts are identical with the (not much later built) locomotives class 475.1. The boiler is nearly totally welded and its middle is at 3250 mm over the rails.

The first work test of the completed locomotive, marked already as No. 498.001, was carried out on December 5, 1946. No. 498.002 was taken over by CSD as the first one on January 25, 1947. The first series (21 pieces) were manufactured by Skoda Works as 29Tr1 type with Nos. 894 till 914, for the rest an order was placed with CKD Prague Works, branch at Slany (Nos. 584 till 603). Total number of engines built: 40.
Some deficiencies found to exist in operation, led to various improvements. Among the most important were the mechanical stoker, the Kylchap type double exhaust nozzle (after cooperation with Chapelon from France), the Hulson type shaking grate. This improved their power from 1830 horsepower maximum to 2200 HP. All engines were reconstructed from 1951. 498.024 got type Witte smoke screens. Number 23 and 35 to 40 got larger smoke screens like type 475.1. During their final main overhaul in 1964 to 1965, a thermosiphon was installed in some engines.
The locomotive got the nickname "Albatros". Each engine rode between 1,8 and 2,3 million kilometers (except 498.019 and 024 which were withdrawn from circulation following accidents in 1952 and 1957).

The design of the new locomotives was a real surprise for both railway staff and passengers. The colors used (blue, red and white) symbolized the Czechoslovak flag. This color design can also be found on the No. 498.022 museum locomotive, which is in workable condition and used to haul special trains. It is stationed in Praha Liben.

Their first assignment were heavy express trains between Praha and Ceska Trebova. They were tested between Chocen and Pardubice with up to 136 km/h speed. Then, they were distributed to Praha Stred, Prerov and Bratislawa. Upon electrification of major lines, they came to Zilina (Slowakian mountains) and Bohumin. During the 1950s, these engines hauled most heavy express trains out of Bratislava. From the late 40s until electrification, they hauled trains between Praha and Kosice, part of them being stationed to haul trains between Zilina and Spisska Nova Ves, in the difficult Slovakian mountain region. 498.030 - 033 were at Bratislava in 1963, hauling trains towards northeast, together with engines class 498.1.From the late fifties (other sources sday 1961), they were also stationed at Plzen to haul trains on the lines Cheb-Plzen-Praha and from 1964 in Tabor and Ceske Budejovice to haul trains between Ceske Budejovice and Praha (For example number 040 in 1968). From 1965 they were also in Decin, hauling expresses between Praha and Decin (for example engines 032 and 034 in 1968).

At Plzen, these engines were also responsible for the express trains towards Praha until September 1968. Because of problems with train heating using diesel, locomotives 498.002, 011 and 016 ran again from November 1968 to January 1969. The engines also pulled the international express trains from Plzen to Furth im Wald (Germany) until 1972.

The first engine to be withdrawn was 498.019, after a head on crash in 1952 with 555.112. The next one was 498.024, equipped with Witte smoke screens, after a head on crash at Chozen with 414.412, in 1957. The remaining 38 engines had to cover a 28 days plan. From 1963, they only had 24 days. In 1969, the plan in Bratislawa went down to zero, the locomotives class 498.1 covering the remaining services. But 498.010 was still in steam on Jan 8, 1970. The last depot they went to was Leopoldov in Slovakia. On 31 December 1969, still 27 engines were rostered. Their last services were between Decin and Praha, where they during 1971 were replaced by diesels class T478.3, and the last four engines quit in Plzen in 1972. Decin had serviceable machines until 1974, however no plan.

Administratively they were withdrawn in 1976.

498.001 and 022 survived last. 498.014 from depot Plzen was stationary boiler from 1973 to 1976 and then went to the National Technical museum in Praha. 498.022 is preserved serviceable and stationed in Praha Liben. Its running days can be found here.

A few measures:
Driving wheel diameter 1830 mm
Steam pressure 16 Bar
Grate area 4.7 square meters
Fire box heating surface 21,1 sq. meters (after rebuilding in 1964)
Total water side heating area 259,6 sq. meters
Superheater area 73.8 sq. meters
Weight in working order 106,1 t
Cylinders 3 * 500 * 680 mm
Adhesive weight 72.4 t
Max. speed 120 km/h 
Tender water capacity 35 tons
Tender coal capacity 14,4 tons
Tender weight in working order 67 - 68 tons
Total wheelbase locomotive with tender 21200 mm
Overall length locomotive with tender 25030 mm
Working weight locomotive with tender 175 tons
Power output rated 1626 kW

Kuty Sept 2006

The express locomotive class 498.1 (2'D1'h3) "Albatros"

Skoda in Plzen constructed these engines in 1954. The mechanical gear was taken over from the 498.0. The boiler is a totally new design. 3 engines were built by Skoda in 1954 (factory numbers 3052-3054), 12 in 1955 (factory numbers 3055-3066). They got numbers 498.101 - 115. Delivery was from 31.10.1954 to 1.7. 1955.
They were intended for heavy passenger services. They have a double chimney, a long combustion chamber, one thermosiphon, two arch tubes, Kylchap exhaust pipes, an exhaust steam injector, they are stoker fired, have a five axle tender (type 935.2, as class 556), and have 3 cylinders with 500 mm diameter, Trofimoff type valves. All axle and the main connecting and coupling rod bearings are roller bearings. This not only reduced the rolling resistance, but also helped to save oil and keep the engine clean. The reversing gear is operated by a compressed air servo motor, as with other czech post war engines. They used special steel for all the moving parts to keep the weight down. The throttle is regulating the overheated steam, not saturated steam as in traditional engines. The Hulson type grate can be rocked by compressed air to clean it. These engines were both powerfull and reliable. Maximum power was rated at 1900 kW, and trial runs established hat it could haul trains 10% faster than class 498.0. The best total thermal efficiency is 11% at a power of 1900 kW.

On trial runs between Praha and Ceska Trebova the engines achieved a speed of 135 km/h, on the section Chocen-Pardubice. The maximum service speed was then determined to be 120 km/h. 498.106 achieved a speed of 162 km/h on 27.8.1964, with a measurement train. This is the highest achieved speed with such small wheels as 1830 mm.

They ran trains of 600 tons weight at 116 km/h at level, and still at 30 km/h on 14 per thousand ramps.

At first, all 15 engines went to depot Praha Stred, taking over the services run by class 498.0. In the second half of 1955, 7 engines were relocated to Zilina in Slovakia to work the difficult mountain section Zilina - Spisska Nova Ves. (Praha - Kosice). Photos exist of 498.101 in Nove Zamky (Slovakia) in 1958. In 1958, three engines from Zilina and three from Praha went to Prerov: Numbers 102, 104, 105, 110, 113, 115. At end of 1958 the remaining 4 engines in Zilina went to Bratislawa. Thus, 1959 saw 5 in Praha, 6 in Prerov and 4 in Bratislawa.

In 1960, all engines went to Bratislawa. 1960 to 69, they hauled international express trains (Germany-Balkan) from Ceska Trebova to the Hungarian border. Some were based at Leopoldov near Bratislava and had heavy passenger trains up north and east from there. From 1970 they hauled such trains from Havlickuv Brod.

In 1970, 7 engines were sent to Plzen, number 101, 102, 103, 105, 108, 112, 115. There, they hauled the express trains between Plzen and Praha. They probably replaced type 498.0 there. 101 and 115 were then painted black, as opposed to dark blue originally. 103 was dark blue and had no star on the front door, 108 was light blue and probably the star engine of the depot. The author also observed either 102 or 105 or 112 with "depo Plzen" written on its front. The last service here was train R1102 on 3. June 1973, after which the line was electrified.

In June 1971, these engines, based at Plzen depot, were still running all express trains between Plzen and Praha. They were very well kept, mostly looking like new. The special thing for a railway friend was their very sharp exhaust sound, and their fast acceleration. 498.108 was light blue, with a red star on the front door, the "star" engine of Plzen depot. It ran the international express trains between Plzen and Praha. These engines took over the international express trains (Praha - Furth i Wald) from Russian M62 Diesel engines in May 1971, and ran them until 15 July 1971.

Down below are a few photos. The leftmost three pictures below are of 498.108, standing at Praha, Plzen and on its way west of Praha. The rightmost picture is 498.103 just west of Praha, accelerating its express train.

Other depots during the 1960s include Brno and Nove Zamky. Not much more is known about where they did their work. The last engine in express service left Brno on 17 May 1968 on R58 "Balt Orient", number 498.115. Probably one of their last services were local passenger trains between Brno and Prerov, together with locomotives class 475.1. They were replaced by diesels class T478.3.

The 8 remaining locomotives in Slovakia in 1970, in Bratislawa and Nove Zamky together, had a five day working plan until summer 1972, after which time they became reserves. On 31.12.1972 Nove Zamky had numbers 104, 109, 110, 111, and Bratislawa had numbers 106, 107, 113, 114. But number 109 was already nonservicable, as the first engine. Numbers 102, 112, and 107 were the next ones to quit service in 1973. The last regular service of this class was in 1976. The five engines 102, 103, 105, 112, 115 were withdrawn for scrap in 1976. 7 engines still existed in 1978. and 101 and 108 were the last ones at CSD until 1980, however not working.

498.104 was repaired by enthusiasts in 1991 to 1994. It is a serviceable museum engine in Bratislava, owned by the Transportation Museum in Bratislawa (MDC) since 1985. It is maintained by Klub Albatros, a group of volunteers. Its boiler certificate expired in 2004, and as yet it is not known if a boiler revision can be financed. A new bottom ring for the firebox is necessary, but otherwise its technical state is good. Engine 498.104 is painted dark blue, with the original red star at the smokebox door. It is still at depot Bratislava hlavne, Slovakia.

Since 1978, 498.106 is museum engine in Brno (Czechia), repaired after withdrawal from service during the years 1978 to 1980 in the workshop at Ceske Velenice. It is owned by the Czech Technical Museum in Praha since 1978. But in 2003, it had its last trip on March 29, due to boiler certificate expiry.

498.112 quit service early, but is stored at the museum at Luzna na Rakovice.  

A few measures:
Driving wheel diameter 1830 mm
Steam pressure 16 Bar
Cylinders: Diameter, stroke 3, 500*680 mm
Grate area 4.85 square meters, stoker fired
Fire box heating surface 26.3 sq. meters
Total water side heating area 228.4 sq. meters
Superheater area 73.8 sq. meters
Weight in working order 113,5 t 
Adhesive weight 74.4 t
Max. speed 120 km/h (164 km/h was reached in trial runs)
Tender water capacity 35 tons
Tender coal capacity 15 tons
Tender weight in working order 80.8 tons
Total wheelbase locomotive with tender 21739 mm
Overall length locomotive with tender 25569 mm
Working weight locomotive with tender 194.3 tons
Rated power output 1900 kW

Here a few pictures of 498.103 in Praha hl.n. starting with an express train to Plzen in June 1971.

More pictures of this class:

The freight engine class 556.0 (1'Eh2)

This engine was first delivered on 7 Feb 1952 from Skoda. This engine was the largest and most powerful freight engine of the CSD. It is stoker fired and has 2 cylinders. The five axle tender is the same as for class 498.1. (The boiler is identical with the class 475.1 boiler, but mounted with 3100 mm center altitude). This engine was manufactured in large numbers, 510 pieces, and could be seen in heavy freight service all over the CSD network. They had more power than the German class 44, but only 80 tons adhesive weight, max output about 2200 HP. These machines even came into Austria at Summerau, and into Germany at Marktredwitz, there also with passenger trains. The first 80 engines had large smoke deflectors, of the German "Wagner" type, the newer ones small smoke deflectors. The chimney is of the Kylchap double type. The stoker was fitted in the tender. Otherwise, these engines were fitted with the same modern features as the other postwar steam engines. They worked virtually everywhere. Records include pulling trains of 4000 tons weight, developing 2200 horsepower  (1620 kW) at 23 km/h steady speed with a 1000 tons freight in a grade, and the abslolute record was pulling 8272 tons from Kojetina to Ostava on 20.12.1958. Trains of 4000 tons weight were quite often assigned only one engine. However, in their daily life, they pulled virtually everything, from heavy freights to local passenger trains. Engines 323, 326, 329 and 336 had brakes type Riggenbach fitted. 556.050 was rebuilt to burn coal powder in 1957 and got the number 556.101. It was first used in Usti nad Labem, then at Nove Zamky, Slovakia where it was withdrawn on 5.12.1977. Most engines lived quite long, until the mid seventies.

All engines were built by Skoda. Locomotives 001 to 158 in 1952 (some of them with large smoke deflectors), 159 to 260 in 1953, 261 to368 in 1955, 369 to 404 in 1956, 405 to 510 in 1957-58, the last engine, number 0491, delivered on 12. May 1958 as the last steam engine built for CSD.

In 1971, 17 engines were loaned to MAV in Hungary.

556.0506 (built in 1957) is preserved serviceable at Ceske Budejovice and runs a few trips every year. 556.0210 is preserved (not serviceable) by Iron Monument Club in Plzen. 556,0298 is preserved at Praha and 556.0510 is preserved by National Technical Museum in Praha since 1.11.1981. 556 036 was the last steam locomotive to do service in Slovakia. It is preserved serviceable in depot Vrutky. It belongs to the first series of 556 class engines delivered to CSD, and has large smoke deflectors. 556.0235 was for a long time after 1980 a stationary boiler at Zvolen Works in Slovakia. 556.039 is in Slovakia, depot Plesivec. 556,0458 is also in Slovakia.

More Slovakian museum engines: 556.0207 Leopoldov?, 556.0235, Filakovo depot, 556.0274, Lucenec, depot.

A few measures:
Driving wheel diameter 1400 mm
Steam pressure 18 Bar
Grate area 4.3 square meters
Fire box heating surface 24,2 sq. meters
Total water side heating area 201 sq. meters
Superheater area 63,3 sq. meters
Weight in working order 99 t
Cylinder dimension 2 * 550 * 660 mm
Adhesive weight 84.2 t
Max. speed 80 km/h 
Tender water capacity 35 tons
Tender coal capacity 15 tons
Tender weight in working order 80.8 tons
Total wheelbase locomotive with tender 19920 mm
Overall length locomotive with tender 23720 mm
Working weight locomotive with tender 180t
Rated power output 1640 kW

Here 556.0464 in Plzen, under the large bridge crossing the station area. At that time, this was a military secret and photography strictly forbidden.

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Other engines

In the long run, this section may contain information about other Czech and Slovak steam locomotives. It is a yet unstructured.

The ubiquitous German war engine class 52 has also been in service in Czechoslovakia as class 555. Most of them were rebuilt to oil firing in the 1960s, and reninmbered to 555.3000ff. 555.3008 , an oil fired former German type 52 engine which CSD got from the Soviet Union, is being fixed up again in Sloviakia, with oil firing. This allows the locomotive to be used without sending a fire fighting train after it, as the rules of the Slovakian railway require for coal fired engines. Another engine of this class in Slovakia is available, non working.

 A tank engine class 524.1 is preserved (not serviceable) at Chomutov.

A list of remaining steam engines in the two countries is soon to be added (or linked to)