Overview
Power Position
Telecom Facilities
Basic Statistics of Punjab

Agriculture & Allied Sector

Human Resource & Employment

Transport

Health Care

Annual Plan
Maps

Poverty Alleviation

Finance , Banking & Credit

Public Distribution System

 

Agriculture & Allied Sector

- Agriculture 
- Animal Husbandry
- Dairy development 

Agriculture

     Agriculture is the key to the overall development of the State economy which contributed as much as 24.5 (Q) percent to Gross State Domestic Product at constant prices (1993-94) during 2004-05. As per 2001 census around 39.0 percent of the working population of the State is employed in this Sector.

     Scope of increase in area under agriculture has reached at a saturation level as 98.8 percent of cultivable land in the State is already under plough. The agriculture production can only be increased to some extent through enhanced cropping intensity, change in cropping pattern, improvement in seeds of high yielding varieties, cultivation practices and with the availability of better post harvest technology etc. State Govt. is trying to re-orient agriculture through diversification policy and other measures.

- Area Under Crops
- Agricultural Production
- Yield Rates of Principal Crops
-
High Yielding Varieties
-
Fruits and Vegetables
-
Irrigation
-
Consumption of Fertilizers
- Contribution to Central Pool
-
Marketing and storage facilities
- Livestock and Poultry
- Crop Diversification

Area Under  Crops

 
   During the year 1970-71, there was 40.53 lakh hectares area under cultivation, which increased to 42.00 lakh hectares in 2004-05, showing an increase of 3.6 percent. Cropping intensity, which reveals percentage of gross cropped area to net area sown, has been enhanced from 140 in 1970-71 to 189 in 2004-05. The present agriculture cropping pattern in the State is dominated by the wheat- paddy rotation causing degradation in soil fertility and fall in the underground water table. It is also creating serious market clearance problems. Wheat and paddy cover major portion of the gross cropped area. During 2004-05, area under these crops increased to 77 percent over the area under these two crops which was only 47 percent in 1970-71. Area under wheat has increased from 34.44 lakh hectares in 2003-04 to 34.81 lakh hectares in 2004-05 showing an increase of 1.1 percent. The area under wheat is expected to decline to 34.30 lakh hectares during 2005-06 (P).  Similarly the area under paddy during this period has increased from 26.14 (P) lakh hectares to26.47 (P) lakh hectares showing an increase of 1.3 percent.  The area under paddy is expected to be 26.42 lakh hectares in 2005-06 (P).

Agricultural Production

  
   The total foodgrains production in Punjab has increased significantly over the last few decades, especially in the post Green Revolution period. In 1970-71, production of foodgrains was 73.05 lakh metric tons, which increased to 256.62 lakh metric tons in 2004-05(P) registering more than three fold increase .At the beginning of the decade (1990-91) production of foodgrains   was 192.18 lakh metric tons which increased to 256.62 lakh metric tons in 2004-05 (P).Wheat and rice played a major role in pushing up agricultural production. The production of rice, which was 65.06 lakh metric tons in 1990-91, increased to 104.37 lakh metric tons in 2004-05 (P) showing an increase of 60 percent. Similarly, the production of wheat which was 121.59 lakh metric tons in 1990-91 rose to 146.95 lakh metric tons during 2004-05 (P) registering an increase of 21 percent.

    The production of sugarcane (in terms of Gur) decreased from 6.62 lakh metric tons in 2003-04 to 5.17 lakh metric tons in 2004-05 (P) showing a decrease of 21.9  Percent. During 1990-91, production of sugarcane was 6.01 lakh metric tons. The production of oil seeds has shown a decreasing trend from 1.03 lakh metric tons in 2003-04 to1.00 lakh metric tons in 2004-05 (P). The decrease in the production of oil seeds is mainly due to the decrease in yield of oil seeds. The other foodgrain crops in the State are maize, bajra, barley, gram and pulses. The share of these crops in total foodgrains is 2.1 percent in 2004-05. The production of cotton (cleaned) increased from 14.78lakh bales in 2003-04(P) to 20.88 lakh bales in 2004-05(P) showing an increase of 41 percent. The increase in production is mainly due to increase in area and yield of this crop.

     The Index of Agricultural Production (all commodities) rose from 269.55 in 1990-91 to 358.55 during 2004-05 (P) showing an increase of 33.0 percent However the index of Agricultural production increased from 334.13 in 2003-04 to 358.55 in 2004-05 showing  an increase of 7.31 percent.

     The production of foodgrains is likely to be achieved 253.36 lakh metric tons in 2005-06 (P) as against 256.62 lakh metric tons production in the previous year. In the light of State Govt.’s emphasis on shift in cropping pattern from wheat paddy domination to other crops, the production of rice is 104.37 lakh metric tons in 2004-05 (P) and expected to be 101.93 lakh metric tons in 2005-06 (P). The production of pulses is likely to increase from 0.27 lakh metric tons in 2004-05 (P) and expected to be 0.34 lakh metric tons in 2005-06 (P). Similarly, the production of sugarcane (Gur) is  5.17 lakh metric tons in 2004-05 and expected to be 5.29 lakh metric tons in 2005-06 (P)

Yield Rates of Principal Crops

     
Yield rates in Kgs per hectare of various crops during 2004-05(P) were as follows: wheat 4221, rice 3943, maize 2738, gram 869, sugarcane (Gur) 6012, cotton American 716, cotton desi 540, rape seed and mustard 1032, groundnut 842 and sunflower 1826.

High Yielding Varieties

     During the year 2004-05, 100 percent area of wheat, 100 percent area of rice, 94 percent area of maize and 100 percent area of   bajra were under high yielding varieties.

Fruits and Vegetables

   
  During the year 2004-05, 0.47 lakh hectares area was under fruits. Kinnow, orange, malta, lemon, guava, pear, mango and grapes are the main fruits grown in Punjab. Total production under these fruits is reported to be 6.80 lakh metric tons for the year 2004-05

     The total area under all vegetable crops increased from 1.11 lakh hectares in 2003-04 to 1.13 lakh hectares in 2004-05 showing an increase of 1.8 percent. Potato with an area of 0.68 lakh hectares in 2004-05 is the major vegetable crop of the state. The integration of fruits and vegetables production with their processing will not only add value to the crops of farmers but will also open up big employment opportunities in the State.


Irrigation

     The State is being served by the excellent net work of irrigation facilities.  Canals and tubewells are the main sources of irrigation in the State. 96.1 percent of the net area sown and 97.0 percent of gross area sown was irrigated in 2004-05. Irrigation intensity * during this period was 191.But the State is facing a problem of water level.

Consumption of Fertilizers

       
Fertilizers, the most important component of new technology, play a very important role in enhancing the agricultural production in the State. Since the introduction of high yielding varieties, the consumption of chemical fertilizers has been increasing steadily. Total consumption of NPK in Punjab was 12.20 lakh nutrient tonnes in 1990-91 which rose to 15.53 lakh nutrient tonnes in 2004-05. Consumption of chemical fertilizers (NPK) per hectare of gross cropped area was 163 Kgs. in 1990-91, which rose to 196 Kgs. per hectare in 2004-05. The use of bio-fertilizer is being made popular among the farmers with the efforts of State Govt.

            *Gross irrigated area

             Net irrigated area


Contribution to Central Pool

     Punjab leads the other States in terms of contribution of wheat and rice to Central Pool. It contributed  55.0 percent of wheat and 37.2 percent of rice to Central Pool in 2004-05 (P).The  total contribution of wheat and rice  to the  Central Pool has increased from 115.6 lakh tonnes in 1990-91 to 183.5 lakh tonnes during 2004-05 (P) consisting of  92.4 lakh tonnes of wheat and 91.1 lakh  tonnes of rice.

Marketing and storage facilities

     Marketing   and storage facilities are crucial components of post harvest technology. As on 31st March, 2005 there were 144 regulated markets and 519 sub yards in Punjab. The average number of villages and area served per market was 86 and 350 (sq. kms.) in 2004-05. The total storage capacity for foodgrains decreased from 273.66 lakh tonnes in 2003-04 to 223.84 lakh tonnes in 2004-05 which comprises of 147.13 lakh tonnes of covered and 76.71 lakh tonnes of open capacity.

Livestock and Poultry
 
      Livestock also play an important role in the economy of the state which contributed 11.77 percent to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) at constant (1993-94) prices in 2004-05(Q). The per capita availability of milk in the State was 901 grams per day in 2004-05. There are 57 milk plants and chilling centers in running condition in the State. The production of poultry eggs was 3680 million in 2004-05

Crop Diversification

      
Punjab state has been the first state in the country to initiate contract farming at government level. The main objective of this Programme has been to prepare farmers to cultivate quality and marketable produce based on demand supply chain. Farmers are required to sign contract to produce identified crops viz Hyola(Hybrid Rapeseeds Mustard),Sunflower, Durum Wheat, Malting Barley, Moong ,Basmati(Pure,Hybrid, Evolved etc),Maize had a pre determined price, which is not lower than the MSP of GOI are purchased by Punjab Agro on behalf of Pvt. Buyers/Exporters and GOI.

    PAFC took up the implementation first in Rabi 2002 wherein an area of 22312 acres was brought under the crops of Hyola, Sunflower, Malting Barley & Maize. During Kharif-2003 an area of 1.27 lac acres and in Rabi-2003 an area of 0.60 lac acres was brought under the identified Rabi crops and Kharif crops of Moong, Basmati, Maize, Guar & Castor. The area under the Programme has been going up and during the year 2004-05 an area of 2.49 lac acres was brought under various crops promoted under the Contract Farming Programme.During the season Kharif 2005 more than 1 lac acres have been brought under various identified crops and in Rabi 2005 it is proposed to target an area of more than 2 lac acres.             

      During the year 2004-05 PAFC had made necessary arrangements for procurement of Hyola at MSP i.e. Rs 1700 per qtls. and it has procured 22230 qtls.of Hyola worth Rs 378 lacs from the contracted farmers. Commercial purchase of sunflower was made at Rs.1500/- per quintal, which was higher than MSP of Rs.1340/- per quintal, from the contracted farmers and 55370 qtl. of sunflower seed was purchased worth Rs. 8 crores. Barley crop was purchased from its contracted farmers not only at contracted price of Rs. 540/- per qtl.(MSP) but also at higher price of Rs. 560-580 per qtl. and 1560 MT worth Rs.93.60 lacs was procured. Durum Wheat was procured from contracted farmers at the contracted price of Rs.660/- per qtl.(Rs.640 as MSP+Rs.20 per qtl. as bonus) and 3130 qtls of Durum Wheat was procured. 

      The mechanization of crops identified was also taken up simultaneously. It was important in view of the labour costs incurred by the farmers and shortage of labour during the periods of sowing and harvest. The machines were got developed/manufactured to provide support to the farmers in terms of reduced seed rate through machines, reduction in cost of harvesting operations and improved quality in post harvest handling for better price realization.

     The success of the Programme could be only possible with supply of quality seeds of identified crops. The crops were identified based on the requirement of the state in terms of low water consumption and improving soil health. The quality seed of crop viz Hyola were tied up with Advanta India Ltd.(proprietary seed), Hybrid Maize varieties with reputed seed companies, Basmati, Hybrid Basmati, evolved Basmati Malting Barley(proprietary seed of UB Ltd.)and from PAU, HAU & Seed Development Corporations of India and other States.

     To achieve proper yields through adoption of the agronomic practices by the farmers properly as also to ensure trace-ability, the involvement of private sector was felt essential. Accordingly the companies namely MSSL, Escorts Ltd., TCL, & DCM were roped in to provide the extension service to the farmers and also as buyback agents of the buyers/ processors interested in purchase of the crop for their requirement. The exporters/processors were also roped in to ensure buy back of contracted produce. Motivational camps to enthuse farmers by providing information on seed agronomic practices, assured buyback arrangements and the crop economics so that they could decide on the crop which they want to take up for cultivation.


Animal Husbandry

     Due to the limited scope of further addition to the net area sown in the state, diversification of state agriculture through allied activities comprising animal husbandry, commercial dairying, fisheries has acquired added significance in the reduction of income disparities between rural and urban  population . Livestock keeping alongwith marketing  services , manufacture of livestock products, inputs and  other subsidiary and supporting  industries offer a great scope for gainful employment to the expanding  labour force, small and marginal farmers and agricultural labour and thus helps to raise the standard of living of rural population especially of weaker sections  of  the society. Thus , livestock enterprises like dairy and poultry farming and rearing of  meat producing animals are also  being contemplated as an important  constituent of diversification of agriculture in Punjab . The growing pressure of human population on limited land resume has resulted in fragmentation in the size of holdings. Besides, the green revolution initiated in Punjab State during the late sixties has reached a saturation point with only marginal increase in the agricultural production being achieved during the last few years. Livestock production by the rural poor could supplement income and provide a large scope of self- employment  in rural areas.

     The whole subject of animal husbandry revolves around the following  major programs:- 

- Animal Health
- Animal Production
-
Fodder Production

 Animal Health

     To provide health cover to the animal wealth of the state there are 1362  Vety. hospitals and 1478  Vety. dispensaries. Each of these institutions serves an average  3416 livestock units.  10 polyclinics have already started functioning in the state and two polyclinics  at Moga and Amritsar  would be made functional by the end of the 10th Five Year Plan. To improve the quality of veterinary services, animal husbandry extension services will be strengthened during 2003-04. The cold chain would be strengthened to maintain the   quality of  vaccines. Integrated services , which would include vety. services would also be provided at focal points in the state. For the proper disposal of  carcasses and in order to avoid air  accidents with bird hits, a carcass utilisation centre is being set up at Raja Sansi (Amritsar). Besides a modern slaughter house to provide hygienic meat to the consumers, would  be completed at Amritsar during 2003-04. 

 Animal Production
   
      The total  livestock population in Punjab as on 31.3.2002 was 98.57 lakh (as per latest census). There were 37.52 lakhs breedable buffaloes  out of total 61.71 lakhs buffaloes  and about 12.98 lak breedable cattle out of total 26.42 lakhs cattle in the state. The per capita availability of milk in Punjab is 887 gms. as  against the  National  per capita  average of 21 gms . The breeding support has been provided through the establishment of bull mother farms of jersey, HF and Sahiwal breeds of cattle. Four semen bank –cum-bull stations located at Patiala, Nabha, Ropar and Kapurthala have been providing frozen semen which is distributed to the  various vety. institutions in the state for artificial insemination  (A.I) of breedable cows and buffaloes. A.I facility would be extended to all the vety. institutions during 2003-04. 


Fodder Production

     Balanced feeding is essential to fully exploit the genetic potential of our animals. Adequate fodder production assures significant help and feeding of animals. There is little scope for increasing the area under fodder, which is 10% at present. The effort, therefore, has been made to increase per acre yield of fodder. With this end in view breeder seed/ foundation seed is further multiplied with the help of  registered growers and distributed to the livestock owners for increasing there fodder production. Uromin licks are prepared to supplement the nutritional requirement of the livestock to keep them in good health. An outlay of  Rs.5260.56 lakh has been provided in the 10th plan an amount of Rs. 383.93 lakhs has been provided  for Annual Plan 2003-04 against the anticipated expenditure of Rs. 310.82 lakhs during 2002-03. An amount of Rs.3745.44 lakhs  has been incurred during the  9th plan against the approved outlay of Rs.7067.90 lakhs. 

Dairy development

     Milk is the perfect feed for human beings but compared to other developed countries, India is lagging far behind in availability of milk for human consumption. However, Punjab's average per capita milk consumption, which is 887 gms. against the national average  of 214 gms., is comparatively better than that of other states. The Dairy Development program launched in the state aims at meeting the nutritional requirements of the growing population in the state as well as in the country. The Program can also be viewed as an effective instrument of social change through supplementing the income and providing employment to the small and marginal farmers and land-less agricultural labourers of the state by supplying the surplus milk to the urban people at a price which is remunerative for the milk  producers  and reasonable for the consumers. Commercial Dairy farming on scientific lines provides the educated unemployed some avenues of gainful self employment. Development of dairy industry on self sustaining and self-supporting basis can go a long way in checking the migration of people from rural to urban areas.

     Punjab has a suitable climate and good agriculture base for milk production. Besides, there is a net work of 86 chilling centers for milk collection and for transferring the milk in bulk to the milk plants. At present there are 43 milk  plants, 11 under the control of MILKFED and 32 in the private sector, in Punjab.

     An allocation of Rs. 2756.56 lakh has been provided  for the 10th plan under this sub-head. Rs.413.60 lakhs has been incurred against the approved outlay of Rs.3105.00 lakh during the 9th plan (1997-2002).  An amount of Rs. 300.00 lakhs has been provided  for Annual Plan 2003-04 against the anticipated expenditure  of 300.00 lakhs during 2002-03