Los Angeles

County History


An Illustrated History of Southern California - The Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago - 1890




        It is impossible at present to state the exact population of Los Angeles, city or county. This can be known only when the official census of 1890 shall be completed. Various recent estimates of the city's population, based on directories and school statistics, range from 70,000 to 90,000, the correct figure probably coming midway between these.* According to the census of 1880 the population then was only 12,000. During the ensuing three years, the influx was steady, but by no means rapid. Early in 1884, began a tolerably lively increase, and from that period down to the present (summer of 1889), the growth has been very rapid. In five years Los Angeles advanced from a comparatively obscure county-seat to the proud position of the second city on the Pacific coast. Indeed, it is the fourth American city west of the Missouri river. The following statement from the Federal census of 1880 to the present shows the phenomenal growth of Los Angeles for this period: 1880, 11,311; 1884, 28,285; 1885, 32,528; 1886, 45,000; 1887, 65,000. Increase of 1887 over 1880, over 474 1-2 per cent. These figures give only the resident population, without including the thousands of visitors who yearly come here for health or pleasure. The city has an area of nearly thirty-six square miles, and hence has capacity for containing a population of at least 100,000. Within the year 1888 a vast deal of building was done, including many commodious and elegant business blocks, which would be creditable to any city in the United States.

(* Since the above was put in type, it has been semi-officially announced that the Federal census of 1890 gives the city about 50,000 population.)

        While Los Angeles does not pose as a manufacturing city, it contains nearly 600 manufacturing establishments, with a prospect of a large increase in the number during the ensuing year. Among the manufacturing industries now in operation are nine iron foundries, with several hundred employes; three flour and feed mills, turning out about 500 barrels of flour daily; a dozen planing mills, employing from twenty to sixty men each; several brick kilns, turning out an aggregate of 250,000 brick daily; several factories for the manufacture of iron irrigating pipes, employing several hundred men; several carriage and wagon factories; cigar factories employing 150 men; six soap factories, with about fifty employés; six granite works employing a large number of stone cutters; one extensive pottery; one establishment for the manufacture of terra cotta and pressed ornamental brick, there being only two other such manufactories west of the Rocky mountains. There is an ice factory and a cracker factory; there are two establishments for the production of soda and mineral waters; there are two broom factories; an establishment for pulling wool from sheepskins by steam; a hair factory, where hair and moss are prepared for mattress makers and upholsterers; several mattress, factories; several very large furniture factories; also two breweries, that consume annually 300 bales of hops and 20,000 sacks of barley; several wineries and brandy stills; one woolen mill; canneries and fruit crystallizing works; eight candy factories, one very extensive; one wholesale ice-cream factory; two vinegar and pickle works; several cooper shops; several tinware manufacturing establishments; factories for making boxes for packing oranges and other fruits; shirt factories; coffee and spice mills; a bone dust factory; jewelry works; electric works; straw works; lithographic works; hat factories; tanneries; fruit-drying establishments and a pork-packing cold-storage company, with a capital of $300,000. The car and locomotive repair shops of the Southern Pacific Company are located at Los Angeles; and there are also car shops, where are made the cars for street railways. Los Angeles is the center of wholesale trade for Southern California, and also Arizona. The completion of the Los Angeles & Utah Railway would open up a great additional extent of tributary territory. Manufacturing has already been largely stimulated by the cheapening of fuel; and when the petroleum pipe lines now in course of construction are completed, a large increase in this line of business is sure to ensue. It should be mentioned as a fact pertaining to the wholesale trade that the total receipts at the custom house at the port of Los Angeles (San Pedro) for the fiscal year ending July 1, 1888, were $139,330.79. The retail trade of the city is also very large, and it is steadily increasing. The business of raising and peddling vegetables is largely pursued by Chinese in the vicinity of the city. Within the city limits there are hundreds of this race engaged in the laundry business, the laundries running every day in the year, save on certain periodical festival days, occurring at long intervals. Their butchers deal principally in pork, which is the Chinaman's chief meat. The merchants deal in Chinese specialties, and also do a private banking business. The restaurants of the Chinese are little patronized by whites. The opium joint is a typical Chinese institution.

        Los Angeles is now one of the most perfectly paved cities in the United States. Within the last three years most of the business streets and many, nearly all the fine residence streets, have been paved with asphaltum rock, elastic, smooth, and durable. The sidewalks are of artificial stone, beautifully and substantially laid.

        The new court house, to cost over $1,000,000, is in process of construction. The new city hall building, lately completed, is an imposing and artistic structure.

        The amount of business done by Wells, Fargo & Company's express affords some indication of the growth and activity of Los Angeles. The books of the company show a steady increase from 1885 to and including 1888. During 1888 the company employed, in the city, forty-four men; used eleven wagons in the daily delivery; and handled 6,833,011 pounds of freight.

        The city and the surrounding towns in the county are well provided with telegraph and telephone lines. The Telephone Exchange of Los Angeles was organized in 1882, with seven subscribers, and the patronage has steadily increased until there are now 1,050 telephones in use in the city, and some 200 more in the smaller towns of the county, every one of which is connected with the city by telephone. The Western Union Telegraph Company reports a great extension of its wires, and claims that the telegraphic facilities at Los Angeles are superior to those of any other city of its size in the United States.

        On December 31, 1882, the city was lighted for the first time with that crowning glory of modern inventions, the electric light. The enterprise had met with great opposition, not only from the gas companies, but from many people who predicted all manner of detriments and dangers to result from its use. But finally all opposition was overcome, and on New Year's eve the radiance from seven masts bathed the city in the electric glory. Los Angeles is now lighted wholly by this system, the lights being of that sort known as Brush lights, being placed on masts situated at such distances apart as may be determined by the city council, ranging from 2,500 feet to over a mile apart. The city has two circuits, which contain thirty-one miles of wire. On these mast circuits are fifteen masts 150 feet high, each with lamps comprising 9,000 candle power. The other masts, with these, aggregate 216,000 candle power, in the city's municipally paid lighting. There are three other circuits for private lamps. The first runs till midnight, for hotels, saloons, restaurants, etc. Two others, known as "merchant " circuits, run till 9 o'clock on week days, except Saturdays, when they are continued until 10:30 P. M. On these three circuits there are at present 175 lamps of 2,000 candle power each. The city pays $19,000 per annum for its lighting, and the store lights costs $3.50 and $5 per week. Previous to the use of the present system, but a small portion was lighted by gas, in the official area of 36 square miles in the city. To cover about five-eighths of a mile square cost $9,000 per annum, as against the present cost of a little more than $20,000 for the illumination of nearly twenty square miles.

        The headquarters of the city police are at the city hall; but there is a branch station, and also a small jail, in East Los Angeles. The force consists of seventy-four members, as follows: chief; captain of detectives; four detectives; captain of police; secretary of police; two police sergeants; ten mounted officers; fifty foot officers; two drivers of patrol wagon; a matron, and a police surgeon.

        Prior to February 1, 1886, the fire department was composed of volunteers; since that date, it has been under pay. During 1888 about $70,000 was expended in the purchase of four new engines, hose and carts, and in the erection of new buildings. In 1886 there were required but two engines, one hook and ladder company, five hose carts, 3,200 feet of hose, and a force of thirty-two men. Each of the present engine houses is provided with a telephone, and also a fire alarm gong of the Richmond Fire Alarm System.

        The Public Library Association of Los Angeles was organized in December, 1872, and the library was transferred to the city in April, 1878. It is supported by a levy not to exceed five cents on each $100 of all real and personal property in the city, and by quarterly dues of $1 from each subscribing member. The reading rooms supply twenty-seven daily papers; thirty-two weeklies; twenty-two monthlies; three quarterlies; there were 5,748 volumes in the library on June 1, 1888; during the year 913 were added; the book loan for the year was 17,071. The library and free reading room are open from 9 A. M. to 9:30 P. M. daily, except Sundays, and from 1 P. M. to 6 P. M. on Sundays.

        The city is only tolerably well provided with public parks at present. It has the little old "Plaza" on North Main street, opposite the old Roman Catholic church of Our Lady of the Angels; and the Sixth Street Park, which is a small but attractive enclosure, set with semi­tropical trees, plants, and flowers. Diagonally across from this park is the building occupied as military headquarters for the Department of Arizona, surrounding which are extensive and beautiful grounds open to the public. Elysian Park is a large body of very hilly land, as yet wholly unimproved. East Los Angeles Park also is a park as yet only in prospect. In the western part of the city; near Eleventh street, is Westlake Park, of thirty-five acres, and on Boyle Heights in the Brooklyn tract, is another small space, called Prospect Park.

        Los Angeles is by no means behind the age in the matter of cemeteries, of which there are five in the city. The Roman Catholic cemetery is beautifully located on Buena Vista street, on an elevation overlooking the old "Spanish-town," —now becoming modernized very rapidly. The City Cemetery is on Castelar street, on the hill. The Hebrew burying ground is on Reservoir street, in the northeastern part of the city. All these three are old graveyards, and, as they are near the central part of the city, they will probably be closed ere long. Chief among the new places of sepulture is the Evergreen Cemetery, on Aliso avenue. The Rosedale is on West Washington street. At this pantheon is the first crematory in the United States west of the Rocky mountains. It was built by the Los Angeles Crematory Society, under the supervision of an expert who came hither fur that purpose. The first incineration, which took place in June, 1887, was of the body of the wife of Dr. O. B. Bird, a prominent physician of the city. Although the body had been regularly interred a few months previous, the cremation was a complete success, and this initiatory working of the new system here attracted much attention. H. Sinsabaugh, a prominent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, is president of the Cremation Society, and Dr. William Le Moyne Wills, Professor of Anatomy in the Medical College of the University of Southern California, is secretary. Dr. Wills, who is a prominent surgeon, inherits his enthusiasm for cremation, his grandfather, Dr. F. Julius Le Moyne, having constructed at his own expense the first cremation furnace in the United States.



        One of the first concerns of the founders of Los Angeles city was of course to dig an irrigating ditch. A temporary dam called the " Toma," was made of sand and willow poles across the river just north of what is now the Buena Vista street bridge, and the water was taken from the river. Though it was frequently washed out by freshets, it was as often renewed, and thus kept up for many years. In 1781 the city dug a main irrigating ditch, which has ever since been known as the Zanja Madre, and lies along the eastern side of the Sonoratown Bluff. Laterals were extended from this.

        Thenceforward, until a modern period, various contracts were let for irrigating ditches and water supply, some of which were fulfilled, some partially carried out and some not executed at all. We have not space here to enumerate the particulars. As is usual in municipal matters, especially in a mongrel population, much of these works was unless or nearly so. At present, however, Los Angeles is well supplied by good mountain water, both for irrigating purposes and domestic use.



        In 1838 the first primary school was established in Los Angeles. The teacher was Ensign Guadalupe Medina. After a term lasting five and a half months, Medina was called to the army. The attendance averaged 103 pupils, whose progress and proficiency in their studies was gratifying. The city had appropriated $500 for expenses, and had purchased the necessary furniture at San Gabriel. Shortly after this, Don Ygnacio Coronel, aided by his wife and daughter, Josefa, opened here a school which was very successful. The first proposition for the establishment of a college came from Rev. Antonio Jimenez, May 18, 1850, in his application for a grant of town land for that purpose. About the same time Rev. Dr. Wicks, Presbyterian, seconded by John G. Nichols, opened the pioneer English school. In January, 1853, there were four schools, two of them teaching English. The oldest school-houses were built one on Bath, and the other on Spring street, under the supervision of Trustees J. G. Nichols and John O. Wheeler. At San Gabriel, J. F. Burns and Cesar C. Twitchell were teachers in 1856; Dr. John S. Griffin was elected superintendent of common schools, with Francis Mellus, Agustin Olvera, and William A. Wallace as school commissioners. William McKee and Mrs. Thomas Foster taught for some time. Mrs. Hoyt had a school in 1857, and two years later her daughter, Miss Mary E. Hoyt, taught, as did Miss Anna McArthur.    The first organization of a high school was made in 1873, Professor A. G. Brown being the first principal, and the next, Dr. W. T. Lucky, then city superintendent of schools. The first class was graduated in 1875, consisting of five young women and two young men. Throughout the history of the school, boys and girls have shared the same classes, and the first prizes for scholarship have been won indifferently by the two sexes. The number of graduates has gradually increased for from one year to another, but with fluctuations, the largest number, twenty-six, having been reached by the class of 1885. From 1873 until 1882 the high school occupied a part of the wooden building that formerly stood on the site of the new county court-house. Then, on account of pressure in the lower grades, it was moved to rooms in the State Normal building, where it remained for three years, until, the normal school having grown so as to require the whole building, the high school moved to rooms in the Sixth street building, where it now is. The city superintendent of schools continued to act as principal of the high school until 1881, Dr. Lucky being succeeded in 1876 by C. H. Kimball, and that gentleman, in 1880, by Mrs. C. B. Stones. The following year L. D. Smith was made principal, and then superintendent. F. H Clark was elected principal in 1884. The course of study of this school in 1884 was arranged to provide the requisite preparation for any of the departments of the University of California, to which institution many of the graduates here have gone. It is the aim of the school to maintain a course of instruction everywhere practical, and adapted both to those who become students at college and those who at once enter business or home life.

        The Normal School at Los Angeles was established as a branch of the mammoth school at San José, by the Legislature of 1881. The sum of $50,000 was appropriated for a building, and the trustees, instructed to select a site, in the next year chose the "Bellevue Terrace Orange Grove," of live and a half acres, on the corner of Charity and Fifth streets. The building was finished for occupancy, and the school opened August 29, 1882, with sixty-one pupils and three teachers. The principal teacher was C. J. Flatt; preceptress, Emma L. Hawks; assistant, J. W. Redway. Charles H. Allen, also principal at San Jose, was principal. The number of pupils increased to 126 during the school year of 1882–'83. In 1883 a separate principal was appointed for this school, the trustees selecting Ira More, who had taught for some years in the main school at San Jose, having formerly been principal of the Minnesota State Normal School. The attendance is increasing each year, it being now more than 300. The first class, numbering twenty-two, was graduated in 1884, since when two classes a year have gone out, the whole number of graduates now being 240, nearly all of whom are actively engaged in teaching, and making a good record. A school of 150 pupils, comprising the first five grades of the public schools, is attached to the normal as a practice school for the senior classes, where the young teacher is trained in exactly the work he is required to do in the public schools, for which he thus goes out thoroughly fitted. A later appropriation of $10,000 by the Legislature put this building in excellent condition for its work. The ground has been graded; retaining walls were put in; trees, shrubbery and hedges planted, and much done to make the school an attractive feature of the city.

        St. Vincent's College is a chartered institution, conducted by the priests of St. Vincent's parish. The course of studies is commercial, scientific and classical, comprising all the branches usually taught in colleges. The modern languages, French, Spanish and German, receive special attention. The college buildings are commodious and well equipped. There are good accommodations for boarding pupils in the institution.

        The Cathedral School is a parochial school for both sexes, organized in 1880. It is conducted by the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, in a fine new building. A boarding-school for young ladies is connected with this institution, whose average attendance is about 300.

        Ellis College in the western part of the city, being surrounded by well-kept grounds, with a fine view of mountain and valley scenery. The course of study comprises thorough training in the various English branches, ancient and modern languages, music, painting and oratory. The preparatory department is graded to cover a period of five years. The art department is a strong feature.

        The University of Southern California, a very successful and important institution of learning, was established in 1879, owing to the energy and offices of Revs. A. M. Hough and M. M. Bovard, and Dr. J. P. Widney, Hon. E. F. Spence, Hon. R. M. Widney and G. D. Compton. The corner-stone of the building was laid on October 4 of that year, by Bishops Simpson and Wiley. This institution has received many valuable donations of land and money, including lands worth $20,000, from Mrs. Sarah E. Tansey; a deed of trust for lands worth about $200,000, from Chaffee Brothers, of Ontario; lands worth $300,000 and a building, from Hon. C. Maclay; property worth $100,000, from the owners of the Escondido rancho; some $200,000 worth of city property at San Diego; from Judge Widney, property worth about $400,000; $40,000 worth of land from Rev. A. C. Hazard, of Downey City; $70,000 worth of property from Hon. E. F. Spence, and diverse other considerable donations. Educational work was first begun in October, 1885, in the original building; a new one, completed in 1886, cost some $37,000, mostly donated. This is 100 feet square, with a total floor area of nearly one acre. The total valuation of University property is nearly $1,000,000. The educational course consists, first, in an academic course in each of the several colleges, designed to furnish education to the masses. The college course is intended to fit students for the pursuit of the ordinary pr­fessions and the higher departments of business and general educational work. The post-graduate course will be under the supervision of a faculty comprising the president of the University and the deans of each college. Thus students desiring to make a specialty of any department of science will be enabled to continue their studies under as many different instructors and in as many different institutions as they may deem advisable, in order to perfect them in that specialty, returning to the University to pass their final examination and apply for their diploma. The Chaffee College of Agriculture of the University is located at Ontario; the College of Medicine is in Los Angeles city; the Maclay College of Theology is at San Fernando; the Freeman College of Applied Sciences is in course of erection at Inglewood; the Spence Observatory is to be erected on Wilson's Peak. There are also branch establishments at Tulare City and Escondido. Rev. M. M. Bovard is the present president.

        The Los Angeles College is a non-sectarian, Christian school, for the higher education of girls and young women. It was opened September 2, 1885, under the management of its president, D. W. Hanna. It has a daily attendance of over 200 pupils, with eighteen teachers.

        Two courses of study are here followed; the literary course may be completed in four years. There are further special courses.

        The Los Angeles Baptist University was opened in the fall of 1887. Its building is a handsome structure, which cost $25,000. Its total enrollment has been 225, and the attendance in 1889 has been 107. The grounds are finely improved, and the institution has $100,000 worth of property, and out of debt. The curriculum is full and comprehensive, comprising classical and scientific courses, besides musical and art branches. The president is Rev. J. H. Reider.

        The Occidental University is in Boyle Heights, it being a boarding and day school for both boys and girls. Rev. S. H. Weller is the president.



Principal of the State Normal School at Los Angeles, was born in Parsonsfield, York County, Maine, May 20, 1829. He is of early New England stock, his great-grandfather, John More, who lost his life fighting the Indians in the war of 1756, being one of the early settlers of Scarboro, Maine. His grandfather, also, John More, was the first settler of Parsonsfield, and served in the Revolutionary army about Boston from before Bunker Hill until the British were driven out; and afterward served in New York. The young lad Ira was early inured to hard work in the flinty New England fields, a training which afterward did him excellent service; for both father and mother died before he was twelve, and the property left him being soon squandered by incompetent management on the part of those having it in charge, he found himself truly in a "parlous state, shepherd." However, with a courage born of blissful ignorance, not knowing the certain dangers and the hard struggle of life, nor the laws of "natural selection" and "survival of the fittest," he faced the situation as well as he could, and took up the work which his hands

found to do.

        He went to Massachusetts in the early spring of 1847, and graduated at the State Normal School at Bridgewater, at Christmas, 1849; afterward taught in the same school, and in Hingham, Milton and Newburyport; graduated in the scientific department of Yale College in 1855; was elected first assistant of the Chicago High School in 1856, and helped to organize that institution, taking special charge of the city Normal School which was placed in connection with it. Mindful of his duty to his native place, he returned to his early home for a wife, marrying Lucy C. Drew, April 16, 1857. They are still walking the long path together. In 1857 Mr. More was elected to the mathematical department of the State Normal University at Bloomington, Illinois. In the summer of 1861 he enlisted in the Thirty-third Regiment Illinois Infantry; saw three years of hard service, the siege and capture of Vicksburg being one of the campaigns. Resigned as Captain of Company G, in the summer of 1864, broken in health by the malaria of the Western Louisiana bayous; removing to Minnesota in the spring of 1865, he was Professor of Mathematics in the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis, in 1867–'69. In the latter year he was elected principal of the Minnesota State Normal School at St. Cloud. Migrated to California in 1875; was principal of the San Diego public schools, 1875–'76; taught in the State Normal School at San José, 1876–'83, since which time he has been principal of the State Normal School at Los Angeles.

        Few men still in the work have so long a public-school record. Of the thirty nine years since he began teaching, thirty have been devoted to the school-room; and of these, twenty-five years have been given to normal-school work. A frank, outspoken manner, and a fearlessness in putting down factious opposition, have sometimes made him enemies, who have, however, usually become friends on knowing him better. He is growing old in the comfortable belief that the world is growing better, and that the position and treatment a man receives in this life, are on the average, as good as he deserves.



        The Roman Catholic Church has in Los Angeles four edifices, with a fifth in process of construction. The Church of Our Lady of the Angels, at the Plaza on Main street, was built in 1821–'25, for the special use of the Spanish soldiers. In 1841 the building was greatly improved, and in 1862 it was frescoed and ornamented, and the grounds were laid out and planted. By 1870 the membership of this parish had so increased that the Cathedral was erected from it. The seating capacity is about 600. The parish is presided over by Rev. Peter Verdaguer, assisted by Revs. P. Groghan and J. Denier.

        The Cathedral of Saint Vibiana was built in 1871–'76, being opened for public service on April 9, Palm Sunday, of the latter year; the formal dedication, conducted by Archbishop Alemany, took place on the 30th of that month. This church is 80 x 160 feet, with a seating capacity of 3,000. The style of architecture is similar to that of Puerto de San Miguel, at Barcelona, Spain. The decorations are fine. The erection of this edifice is due mainly to the energies of Dr. Amat, Bishop Mora, and Father Verdaguer. The parish is now a very large one; its rector is the Very Rev. J. Adam, assisted by Revs. M. Liebarne, P. Garvin and A. J. Allen.     Right Rev. Francis Mora is the Bishop of the diocese.

        The Church of St. Vincent de Paul was established in 1887, under the administration of Father A. J. Meyer, the present rector. The building is 46 x 110 feet, and the tower is 120 feet high. More than a hundred families worship here.

        St. Joseph's Church, German, was erected in 1889. It is 32 x 70 feet, and is two stories in height, being ultimately designed for a school building, on the completion of a new church near by. About 300 families worship at this temple, services having been inaugurated last January. Rev. Joseph Florian Bartsch is the pastor.

        The Church of the Sacred Heart, East Los Angeles, is not yet completed. This parish was organized about the middle of 1888, by Rev. P. Harnett, whose flock comprises about 180 families.



Bishop of the Diocese of Monterey and Los Angeles, was born in the city of Vich, in Catalonia, a province of Spain, November 25, 1827, and was thus by birth a fellow-countryman of many of the most energetic missionaries in California, Texas and Florida. It was therefore natural that a taste for foreign missions should early have been awakened in him. Although at the early age of three years he lost his parents, he was cared for by devoted servants of the church, and in early youth devoted himself to the service of God in the sanctuary and to the studies of Latin, philosophy and theology in the Episcopal Seminary of Vich, in Spain.

        In 1854 Bishop Amat went to Spain in order to obtain assistants in ministerial work here. In response to his appeal at Vich, young Francis offered his services, and, without waiting to receive priestly orders, accompanied the Bishop across the Atlantic. After remaining in the State of Missouri for a time to familiarize himself with the English language, he came on to California in 1855, and March 19, 1856, at Santa Barbara, he was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Amat and placed in charge of the Monterey parish. Subsequently he was rector of the parishes at San Juan Bautista, Pajaro Vale and San Luis Obispo.

        In 1862 the parish of Los Angeles was deprived of its Vicar General by the death of Father Blas Raho, and the next year Father Mora was chosen by Bishop Amat to be the rector of the pro-cathedral of Los Angeles, and July 25, 1866, Vicar-General of the diocese. Afterward, when the Bishop required the services of a coadjutor, he selected Rev. Mora for the see of Mosynopolis, May 20, 1873.

        On the 12th of May, 1878, Dr. Amat died, and Bishop Mora at once succeeded him, as he had been appointed coadjutor with the right of succession. He has followed the steps of his illustrious predecessor, and under his fostering care young Levites have been educated in different colleges of Europe or in the seminaries of the United States, and brought here to work in Christ's vineyard. At his invitation the Sisters of St. Joseph opened an academy at San Diego, and last year a parochial school in St. Vincent's parish in this city. He invited also last year the Dominican Sisters, who opened a convent at Anaheim. Under his energetic zeal new parishes have been formed here in Los Angeles and throughout the whole diocese. He is a man that never spares himself, but he is at the service of those who call upon him from morning till night.

        Some years ago, as he was going to administer confirmation to the Indians, he met with a painful accident that put his life in great danger, and he felt the effects of it for two years afterward. His voyage to Europe in 1886 enabled him to recover his forces, so that nowadays he is in full vigor.

        On May 4, 1859, Rev. William E. Boardman formed an organization under the name of " First Protestant Society," with a constitution declaring that its members "unite for the purpose of supporting Protestant worship here;" the signers were Isaac S. K. Ogler, William McKee, A. J. King, C. Sims, Charles S. Adams, William S. Morrow, D. McLaren, Thomas Foster, William H. Shore and N. A. Potter. In 1864 this society built the church located on the corner of Temple and New High streets, and shortly after they reorganized under the title of the Saint Athanasius Episcopal Church, to which association the edifice was transferred.

        Early in 1857, there being no Episcopalian clergyman in the vicinity of Los Angeles, the Right Rev. William Ingraham Kip, Bishop of California, authorized and licensed Dr. Matthew Carter to act as " Lay reader " for the district. The first services were held in the rooms of the Mechanics' Institute, Sunday evening, July 19, 1857, Dr. Carter reading the services, and Rev. Dr. Smith, at that time president of Princeton College, New Jersey, preaching the sermon. The church, organized August 23, 1857, under the name of St. Luke's, for some years held services in a rented building.

        Worship was continued in the old building until Christmas day, 1883, when services were begun in the new church on Olive street, the old church having been sold to the county, which still uses it for offices. In 1884 the name of the society was changed to "St. Paul's Church;" it now comprises about 500 communicants. The pastors of this church have been: Elias Birdsall, J. J. Talbot, H. H. Messenger, C. F. Loop, J. B. Gray, William H. Hill; and since 1880, Elias Birdsall. In East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, Episcopal Churches have been established as offshoots of St. Paul's; and at least three missions have been under its supervision.     There are the Ellis avenue and Alpine branches of the St. Paul's Sunday-school and the St. Barnabas mission at Vernondale.

        The first Methodist sermon in Los Angeles was preached by Rev. J. W. Brier, June, 1850, at the residence of John G. Nichols, an adobe where the court-house now stands. Mr. Brier had come to California in 1849, by the Salt Lake route. At Death valley, on the desert, he had to put his wife and two children on an ox, and he traveled on foot, thus entering Los Angeles. In 1853 Rev. Adam Bland was sent by the California Conference to this, the "Southern California Mission." At this time, Mr. Bland and J. W. Potts constituted the entire membership. In those early days the meetings were held in the court-house. The church edifice of this society, when erected on Fort street, cost $18,000, but afterward $14,000 was spent on improvements. On account of the rise in real estate, the property, in October, 1888, was valued at $75,000. The membership has varied greatly on account of spasmodic impulses of immigration and the formation of separate churches, but the number at present is about 1,400. The Methodist Episcopal denomination has also various other congregations in Los Angeles: Grace Church, with some 200 members, and a local habitation valued at some $25,000; the Main Street Church, organized as a theater in 1885, now owning property worth some $2,000; the University Church, which is more especially for the accommodation of the teachers and students of that institution; Vincent Church, with a seating capacity of about 800, was organized May, 1889; Bellevue Avenue Church, organized in 1887, which now has property valued at $6,500 and some 180 members; the Central Avenue Church, organized in 1888, whose edifice is not yet finished; the Asbury Church in East Los Angeles, which has about 260 members; Boyle Heights Church, whose membership since four years past, has increased from eighteen to 150; the German Church, which, when organized in 1876, had nine members, now has 130, with property worth $6,000; the Los Angeles German Methodist Episcopal Mission, with three "appointments;" the Swedish Church, organized in 1887 with thirteen members, now comprising forty-seven, and being in such a flourishing condition as to contemplate the speedy erection of a church building. Such are the institutions which have grown out of the first assemblage of those of this faith in Los Angeles. As early as 1871—'72, ministers of the Methodist Church South, began to preach in Los Angeles and vicinity. At first the meetings were held in private houses and in the old county court-house, and later, in a rented hall on Main street. In 1873 this sect effected a permanent organization, Rev. A. M. Campbell being the first pastor. In 1875 the first church building of this society, the original "Trinity " Church, was erected on Spring street, between First and Second streets. This old church was sold later, and in 1885 was built the present handsome edifice, costing $50,000, while the organ cost $4,000. In the same year the Bellevue Avenue Church was organized from this congregation, and since then three other new churches have been organized from the congregation and under the auspices of Trinity, two of these having been beautiful and commodious houses of worship. The Pasadena congregation worships in a rented hall. Some 325 souls remain as the congregation of the main old society of Trinity, and this number is steadily increasing.

        The German Evangelical Association was organized in 1884; it now contains about seventy-five members, and has a church building, erected in 1885, with a fine parsonage.

        An African Methodist Episcopal Church formerly existed in Los Angeles. The colored people of this denomination first held services at the house of Robert Owen (" Uncle Bob") in 1854. In 1869 a church was organized and a building erected. The first members of this congregation were Mrs. Winnie Owen ("Aunt Winnie "), Mrs. B. Mason and Miss Alice Coleman. The Wesley Chapel (colored) was organized August 24, 1888, with twenty three members and eighteen probationers; now there are fifty-six members and seventeen probationers. Services are held in a hall on Los Angeles street; Rev. F. H. Tubbs (white) has been the pastor of this body from its beginning.

        In November, 1854, the first Presbyterian service was held by Rev. James Woods, in a little carpenter shop on Main street, where the Pico House now stands. The first permanent organization of the First Presbyterian Church was in March, 1855. In the old adobe building on Spring street, Mr. Woods held regular services for one year; when organized there were just twelve members. Mr. H. D. Barrows furnished music with his flute, and there was singing. This church assisted in the erection of the old St. Athanasius Church on Temple and New High streets, and held services therein for some years, when they were refunded the money contributed for its erection, and the building became the exclusive property of the Episcopalian congregation. In 1888 this church had some 800 members, of whom about 100 went to form Immanuel Church soon after; but new members are constantly joining. The house of worship is a fine, large edifice on the corner of Fort and Second streets.

        The First United Presbyterian Church was organized April 26, 1883, with fifteen members; now it has about seventy. The house and parsonage are worth about $800.

        The Boyle Heights Presbyterian Church was organized May 3, 1885, with eighteen members; it now has 130, and the church edifice, built in that year, cost $3,500, exclusive of the donated lots.

        The Second Presbyterian Church in East Los Angeles, was organized some six years since, and it now has some 150 members. It has a building 45 x50 feet.

Bethany Presbyterian Church has increased from thirty-one to seventy-eight members since its organization, December 28, 1887. It has a building with a seating capacity of 250 in the main room, and fifty in the infant-class room.

        In April, 1865, when Los Angeles was visited by Rev. J. H. Warren, D. D., from the American Home Missionary Society, there was not in the city a Protestant minister, Sunday-school, nor house of worship. There had been here ministers of all denominations, except Congregationalists, but they had all gone away. At the instance of this society, Rev. Alexander Parker began services of the Congregational Church in Los Angeles on July 7, 1866, preaching in the court-house. In May, 1867, a lot was bought, and on July 27, 1867, a church was organized with six members. The building, dedicated in the same year, was erected on New High street. Several church buildings were successively built and sold by this society, until the erection of the present fine edifice, which cost some $72,000, and whose seating capacity is near 1,500.

        The Second or Park Congregational Church was organized June, 1884, as a mission Sunday-school, the church proper coming into existence the following October. The first organized congregation was in a tent. In 1886 a building, costing $700, was erected. In 1888 the present building, which is only a wing of the church to be constructed in the future, was occupied. The cost of the main building is to be $10,000.

        The Third Congregational Church was organized in 1884, after a series of meetings held in the neighborhood for several months. The membership has increased from sixteen to thirty. The building, whose seating capacity is 350, was erected in 1883, at a cost of $3,500, on the corner of Railroad and North Main streets.

        The East Los Angeles Congregational Church was organized March 20. 1887, with thirty-two members, the list having grown now to some 200. The church edifice cost some $10,000; it was dedicated March 11, 1888. Added to it, at a cost of $2,100, is a gymnasium and reading room, in which is the headquarters

of the "Phillips Club," an association of young men which is named for the pastor. This is said to be the most flourishing church in that beautiful suburb. The society has no debt, moreover.

        The Vernon Congregational Church, south of the city, with a membership of about eighty has a building which cost some $4,000. This society was first started as a Sunday-school.

        The West End Congregational is a small society in the west of the city.

        The Baptist denomination was represented in Los Angeles County as early as 1853, the first services being held at El Monte by Rev. Freeman. In Los Angeles, the first services of this church were held in a small building on Spring street. The First Baptist Church was established in 1874, under the ministration of Rev. Hobbs, eleven members. There are now 320, besides a goodly number which has gone to form the Parker Chapel. The First Church owns a handsome building which cost $25.000.

        The Central Baptist Church was established in 1885 with eighteen members. It now has 340, and an edifice which seats 800 to 900.

        In 1886 was established a Sunday-school at Parker Chapel, the which rapidly grew into congregation, so that in January, 1889, a church was organized then having fifty members, and now being much stronger. The church building, 40 x 70 feet, was built in 1887 as a mission chapel.

        The East Los Angeles Baptist Church was organized in 1885, and the next year it built a church which will seat 450. There are now 120 members in this society,

        The Swedish Baptist Church was organized May 13, 1887, with thirty members, now increased to seventy-three. The congregation worships in the First Baptist church.

        Trinity Church, First German Lutheran, was established in 1882, the congregation having increased from eight families to 240 souls, with 180 communicants. Pending the erection of a handsome new church, the German school-house is used for service.

        A Second Baptist Church (colored) exists in the southern part of East Los Angeles.

        The First English Lutheran Church was organized as a mission in 1887, being supported by the Woman's Board of the General Synod. It is now half self-sustaining, and will soon be entirely so. The membership has grown from twenty-three to 125. The cost of the lot and building was $26,000.

        There is a Swedish Lutheran Church in Los Angeles.

        Religious services of the Christian denomination (Disciples of Christ) were first held in Los Angeles in October, 1874, and continued at intervals until February, 1875. when a church organized with twenty-seven members. The roll has now grown to between 500 and 600, including two missions. The house of worship is on Temple street.

        The first meetings of Unitarians in Los Angeles were held at the residence of T. E. Severance, in March. 1877. The organization of the church was perfected in May of the same year. Services after this were first held in the Opera House and in Armory Hall. In June, 1889, was occupied the new church edifice, on Seventh street, costing between $25,000 and $30,000 being mostly a donation from Dr. Eli Fay. D. D.. Ph.D.. the minister of this congregation since 1885.

        The German Evangelical Friedenskirche was organized in the summer of 1887. About fifty families now belong to this congregation. The church building is a neat frame structure, erected in 1887.

        The Seventh-Day Adventist Church has about eighty members in Los Angeles, and it has also churches at Pasadena, Norwalk and Santa Ana.

        The Reorganized Church of Latter-Day Saints was organized in Los Angeles in the autumn of 1882, with about a dozen members; it now has some eighty. Worship is held in a hall rented by the society.

        Congregation B'nai B'rith was organized in 1882, under the pastorate of A. W. Edelman, who continued as Rabbi up to 1886, when the " reformed service " was introduced. The synagogue was built in 1873, being dedicated on August 8 of that year. It is a fine brick structure, but the trustees have in contemplation the erection of a handsomer building, on ground already secured for that purpose. The congregation has a very large membership, and it is constantly growing. The Sunday-school also has a large attendance. Connected with the congregation is a benevolent society managed by the ladies, as well as one by gentlemen; also a society of ladies who assist largely in furnishing and beautifying the synagogue.

        Los Angeles contains forty-four church organizations, of twelve different denominations, besides a few representatives of other faiths, as Spiritualism, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, Parseeism Confucianism, etc., and also an organization auxiliary to the National Secular Union.



was born in Greene County, New York, June 4, 1830. He lived in his native State till 1864. He received his education at the New York Conference Seminary in Schoharie County. He joined the New York Annual Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, in 1851. In 1864 Mr. Hough went to Montana Territory as Superintendent of Missions, remaining there four years, and established the Methodist Episcopal Church it that Territory. In 1868, on account of the failing health of his wife, he came with his family to California, driving his own team from Montana to Los Angeles, where he arrived November 22 of that year. He stopped at the Lafayette Hotel, now the St. Elmo. Amongst others, he remembers meeting then, Mr. J. B. DuBois, who was about starting the Republican newspaper; Dr. J. J. Talbot, rector of the Episcopal Church, etc., etc.

        The Sunday after his arrival the brick church of the Methodists on Fort street (now Broadway between Third and Fourth), was dedicated. He says the streets in that part of town were scarcely defined at that time, and he took a path that led diagonally from about the corner of First street to the church, which still stands beside the larger church built since by the Methodists, and now occupied by them. He thinks there were 4,000 or 5,000 people in this city then Rev. Adam Bland was presiding elder, and Rev. Mr. Hendon was pastor of the local church. Dr. Thomas, of the " Methodist Book Concern " on this coast, conducted the dedicatory exercises of the day. Dr. Thomas was afterward killed with General Canby by the Modoc Indians. In June, 1869, the health of the pastor, Rev. Copland, failing, Mr. Hough took charge of the church, and remained in charge two and a half years.

        Going to San Francisco, he served two years as pastor of the Central Methodist Episcopal Church of that city, during which time their present beautiful and commodious church edifice was built. He then went to Sacramento and occupied the pulpit as pastor of the Sixth street church of that city for two years, until the California Annual Conference was divided in 1875, when he became a presiding elder in the Southern California Conference. In this capacity he served four years. In 1880 he represented his conference in the General Conference, which met at Cincinnati. About five years ago, on account of impaired health and also the delicate health of his wife, Mr. Hough retired from the regular itinerant ministry to the superanuated relation, but the demand of his brethren made upon him for pulpit services still exceeds his ability to supply.

        Mr. Hough has been closely identified with the establishment of the University of Southern California and with the denominational school interests of this section from the first. After he retired from the regular work of the ministry he engaged in business in Los Angeles and showed such a knowledge of affairs, coupled with tact and business ability, that he has accumulated a competency and is recognized as one of the solid conservative business men of the city.

        In 1854 Mr. Hough married Miss Anna Gould, a native of New York and sister of Jay Gould. They have no children. Mr. Hough is a man of great intellectual force; of independent and clear-cut views, and yet of kindly, gentle manners, broad charity, pure life and conversation; and as a sequence of the possession of these cardinal qualities he exerts a wide influence for good in the community in which he has so long resided.



        The list of secret societies in Los Angeles is as follows, the Masonic order having the largest number of lodges:

        Masonic.—Coeur de Lion Commandery, No. 9, K. T.; Los Angeles Council, No. 11, R. & S. M.; Signet Chapter, No. 57, R. A. M.; Los Angeles Lodge, No. 42, F. & A. M.; Pentalpha Lodge, No. 202, F. & A. M.; Southern California Lodge, No. 278, F. & A. M.; Sunset Lodge, No. 281, F. & A. M.; Acacia Chapter, No. 21, 0. E. S.; King Solomon Lodge of Perfection, No. 4, A. & A. S. Rite; Robert Bruce Chapter, Rose Croix, No. 6, A. & A. S. Rite; Hughes de Payens Council Knights Kadosh, No. 3, A. & A. S. Rite. The Masonic Board of Relief dispenses large sums of money in charity. The membership is very large, and an assessment is levied on each member for the relief of distressed brethren and their families.

        Odd Fellows.—Golden Rule Lodge, No. 160;Los Angeles Lodge, No. 35; Good Will Lodge, No. 323; East Side Lodge, No. 325; Orange Grove Encampment, No. 31; Canton Orion, No. 12, Patriarchs Militant; Arbor Vitae Rebekah Degree Lodge, No. 83; Eureka Rebekah Degree Lodge; South Star Degree Lodge.

        Knights of Pythias.—Olive Lodge, No. 26; Tri-color, No. 96; La Fraternite, No. 79; Gauntlet, No. 129; Samson, No. 148; Magnolia Division, No. 21. U. R; Los Angeles Division, No. 25, U. R.; Castle Guard Division, No. 12, U. R.

        A. O. U. W.—Los Angeles Lodge, No. 55; Southern California Lodge, No. 191; East Los Angeles Lodge, No. 230; Fellowship Lodge, No. 294; Select Knights, California Legion, No. 1; Los Angeles Legion, No. 6; Pacific Legion, No. 16; Germania Lodge, No. 260; St. Elmo Lodge.

        Independent Order of Red Men.—Massasoit Tribe, No. 59.

        American Legion of Honor. — Good Will Council, No. 629; Safety Council, No. 664.

        G. A. R.--Frank Bartlett Post, No. 6; Stanton Post, No. 55; Gelcich Post, No. 106; John A. Logan Post, No. 139.

        Sons of Veterans.—Nathaniel Lyon Camp, No. 1; John C. Fremont Camp, No. 14.

        O. U. A. M.—Los Angeles Council; Israel Putnam Degree Council; Daughters of Liberty; Martha Washington Council.

        Knights of Honor.—Los Angeles Lodge, No. 2,925.

        Native Sons of the Golden West.—Los Angeles Parlor, No. 45; Ramona Parlor, No. 109.

        Native Daughters of the Golden West.—La Esperanza, No. 24.

        Independent Order of B'nai B'rith.—Semi­Tropical Council, No. 341; Orange, No. 224. Ancient Order of Hibernians.

        United Friends of the Pacific.—Orange Council, No. 26.

        Order of Chosen Friends.—Guardian Council, No. 90.

        Order of the Golden Cross.

        The Historical Society of Southern California, with headquarters in Los Angeles, has been in existence some six years. The original promoter of this society is Noah Levering, Esq , who in 1883 canvassed among his friends and obtained a list of persons who agreed to become members. At the first meeting there were present only Judge N. Levering, Colonel J. J. Warner, John B. Niles, General John Mansfield, and H. N. Rust, of Pasadena. The constitution of this society declares its objects to be: "The collection and preservation of all material which can have any bearing on the history of the Pacific coast in general and Southern California in particular; the discussion of historical, literary or scientific subjects, and the reading of papers thereon; and the trial of such scientific experiments as shall be determined by the society."

        The Illinois Association was organized in October, 1885, being originally composed of former residents of Illinois. After a time its entertainments became so popular that the doors were thrown open to other parties. The organization was incorporated in the spring of 1889. The membership now numbers several hundred. The weekly entertainments comprise musical and literary exercises.

        There is also a flourishing Iowa Association.

        The Young Men's Christian Association has long been doing a practical work among the young men of the city, and its membership and influence have steadily increased. It now has over 400 members, including many prominent business men of the community. During the past year a new building was erected by this society, which is a credit to the organization and an ornament to the city.

        The Woman's Christian Temperance Union was first organized, as to its Southern California representation, in the spring of 1883, by Miss Frances E. Willard. Five others came into existence that same year, and the six were represented at a convention held in 1884 for county organization. These charter unions were at Los Angeles, Pasadena, Orange, Tustin, Pomona and Westminster. In five years the number of unions in the county has increased to thirty-six, with an aggregate membership of nearly 1,000. Moreover, there are sixteen children's organizations, numbering over 1,500 juvenile members. In the county there are at least 1,700 boys under fifteen years of age who are pledged against the use of tobacco in any form. Eight of these unions report no saloon in their community. The organization is well officered, and its executive administration is excellent.

        The Flower Festival Society is a unique organization. In the month of April, every year, it holds a festival of a week's duration, at which the display and the decorations are entirely of the flowers grown in Los Angeles County. The exhibits are large and handsome, and these festivals are very popular. The lady managers realize large sums of money, which are devoted to the maintenance of the Woman's Home and the Woman's Exchange. For the former they have built a large, handsome building, containing accommodations for seventy, where working girls and women can have a respectable home at a moderate price.

        Among other institutions of a charitable character in Los Angeles are: The Young Women's Christian Temperance Union; the Associated Charities of Los Angeles, for the prevention of pauperism, the promotion of thrift and the relief of the worthy poor; Los Angeles Orphans' Home; Ladies' Benevolent Society; Unione e Frattelanza Garibaldina; Order of Good Templars; Sons of Temperance; Ladies' Aid Society; Ladies' Missionary Society; Arion Band of Little Missionaries; the Los Angeles County Hospital; Los Angeles Infirmary (conducted by the Sisters of Charity); St. Paul's Hospital; Southern Pacific Railroad Hospital; Santa Fé Railroad Hospital; French Hospital; and two Orphans' Homes, one non-sectarian, the other Roman Catholic. There is also a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

        The Grand Division Brotherhood of Railway Conductors was organized in Los Angeles, November 13, 1888, with 104 charter members, consisting of railway conductors on the various lines centering in Los Angeles; but its geographical scope is the whole of North America. Already auxiliary associations are organized in some twenty other important railroad centers of the United States, and the total membership is already 2,700. The first grand annual convention was held on September 16, 1889, in Los Angeles. None are eligible to membership but conductors who have served as such for three years. The chief mission of this fraternity is the use of all honorable means in its power to prevent the hiring by railway companies of men for brakemen who lack the qualifications necessary to make respectable, competent and intelligent conductors.

        The Rifleros de Los Angeles, Pantaleon Zavaleta, Captain, were established March, 1873; the Los Angeles Guard, September 8, 1874, Captain James Bartlett. The Eagle Corps was organized June 9, 1881. Its first officers were: W. H. H. Russell, Captain; Hamlet R. Brown, First Lieutenant; E. G. Barclay, Second Lieutenant. In the spring of 1883 the discipline of this company grew lax; some of the members regarded the enlistment as boys' play, others were guilty of non-attendance, ineligibility and drunkenness. For these causes thirty-three members were court-martialed and dishonorably discharged from the service; notwithstanding which the company grew large enough to be divided, and accordingly in 1884 a second company was organized. The first became Company A; the second, Company C; the San Diego City Guards were made Company B, and the whole was organized into the Seventh Battalion, N. G. C.  The following were the officers: W. H. H. Russell, Major commanding; A. M. Green, Captain and Adjutant; Cyrus Willard, First Lieutenant and Quartermaster; C. N. Wilson, First Lieutenant and Commissary; J. D. Gilchrist, First Lieutenant and Inspector of Rifle Practice; T. M. Plotts, First Lieutenant and Ordnance Officer; Dr. J. Hannon, Major and Surgeon; Rev. P. W. Dorsey, Captain and Chaplain. The National Guard of California consists of 4,417 officers and men, all told. There are fifty companies, of which Southern California has seven. Two years since the State appropriated $70,000 for the maintenance of the Guard, and $46,000 more for uniforming the men. The United States appropriates about $60,000 annually for the arming of the National Guard of the different States, and of this California receives about $12,000 for the purchase of arms. Los Angeles is the headquarters of the First Brigade, N. G. C., consisting at present of seven companies, each of which receives an annual allowance of about $1,750, or for the present force, $12,250 per annum. This money goes direct to the several companies, and is disbursed for rent of armory and other expenses. The First Brigade consists of one Brigadier-General, with fourteen staff officers; one Colonel, with thirteen staff officers; one Lieutenant-Colonel, one Major, twenty-one company officers, and 430 men. Brigadier-General E. P. Johnson is in command.


Transcribed by Kathy Sedler.

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