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Philip St. George Cooke

Cooke's Cavalry Tactics (1862)

CAVALRY TACTICS,

OR

 

REGULATIONS

FOR THE

  Instruction, Formations, and Movements

OF

 THE CAVALRY

OF THE  

ARMY AND VOLUNTEERS OF THE UNITED STATES.

 

PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT,

 

 

AND AUTHORIZED AND ADOPTED BY  THE SECRETARY OF WAR.

 

By PHILIP ST. GEO. COOKE,  BRIG. GEN. U. S. ARMY.

 

 

VOL. I.

 

PhILADELPHIA:

J. B. LIPPINCOTT & Co.

1862.


CAVALRY TACTICS.

 

VOLUME I

 

SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER OF THE PLATOON, AND OF THE SQUADRON.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TITLE FIRST.

 

BASIS OF INSTRUCTION.

 

ARTICLE I.Formation of a regiment of ten squadrons in line 

                  Posts of the officers and non-commissioned officers or the field and staff of a regiment in line. 

Posts of the officers and non-commissioned officers of a squadron in line.

Assembly or a regiment, mounted      

Assembly of a regiment, dismounted  

Dress parade and guard mounting     

The standard  

Salute with the standard and sabre

The order of battle

 

ARTICLE II.—Formation of a regiment in column

Order in column by twos or fours

Order in column of platoons

Order in close column

Order in double column

Compliments by cavalry under review

Form and course of inspection

 

ARTICLE  III.—Duties of instructors

 

ARTICLE  IV.—Division, order, and progression of instruction

 

ARTICLE   V.—Gradation of instruction

Recruits    Corporals    Sergeants  Officers  

 

ARTICLE VIInstruction to mount without saddle, and to saddle 
Manner of vaulting  

                Manner of rolling the cloak
                Manner of saddling

 

ARTICLE VIIOf training horses which have already been ridden

Preparatory lesson. To make a horse tractable and steady at mounting

To bend or supple the horse’s neck

 How to make a horse obey the pressure of the leg

Circling on the haunches
Reining back
The horses paces, walk, trot, and canter  
Demi-pirouette  
Manner of accustoming the horses to leap  

To accustom horses to firing and military noises

Practice of paces for maneuver

ARTICLE EIGHTH. DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

ARTICLE NINTH.  SIGNALS


SCHOOL OF THE SQUADRON, MOUNTED


School or the trooper, dismounted

Position of trooper, dismounted
            Eyes right—eyes left
            Right face, left face, about face, right—oblique. face, left—oblique face
            Common step
            To change feet
            To march by a flank
            To face to the right or left when marching 

            Oblique face to the right or left when marching
            Quick step 
            Double quick step
            Sabre exercise 
            General observations and directions 
            Manual of the pistol
            Inspection of arms              
            Target practice

            Platoon, squadron, and regiment dismounted

 

 

 

TITLE THIRD.

 

INSTRUCTION ON HORSEBACK.

 

1st LESSON  School of the trooper, mounted 

 Position of the trooper, before mounting

To mount

To dismount

Position of the trooper mounted

The use of the reins                 

The use of the legs

The effect of the reins and legs combined

To march

To halt

To turn to the right and to the left

To turn about to the right and to the left

To make a third of a lure to the right and to the left

To rein back, and to cease reining back

To file off

2d LESSONTo march to the right hand, and to march to the left hand            

To turn to the right and to the left in marching
To halt, and to step off
To pass from the walk to the trot, and from the trot to the walk
Changes of hand
To turn to the right and to the left by trooper in marching
To turn about to the right and to the left by trooper in marching on the same line
The same movements in marching in column


3d LESSON
Of the spur

To march to the right hand or to the left hand
To pass from the walk to the trot, and from the trot to the walk                  
Change of direction in the breadth of the riding house
Change of direction obliquely by trooper
To march in a circle


4th LESSON—To turn to the right or to the left by trooper in marching

To turn about to the right, or to the left, the
 troopers marching on the same line, (or abreast)
The same, the troopers marching in column
To pass successively from the bead to the rear of the column
Being halted, to commence the move at a trot
Marching at a trot, to halt            
To pass from the trot to the trot-out, and from the trot-out to the trot
To pass from the trot to the gallop
To passage to the right or to the left, the head to the wall
To passage to the right or to the left, being in column

5th LESSON--To take the snaffle in the right hand

To drop the snaffle
The principal movements of the bridle hand
To gather the horse
To march
To halt
To turn to the right in marching
To turn to the left in marching
To turn about to the right and to the left in marching
To make an oblique turn to the right and to the left in marching
To rein back, and to cease reining heck
Exercise of the 4th lesson with the curb bridle
To passage to the right and to the left

6th LESSON.—Principles of the gallop

Exercise et the gallop upon right lines
Exercise at the gallop on the circle

 


7th LESSON.—Exercise of the 6th lesson with the sabre only

Manual of arms at a halt
To fire the pistol
To load the pistol
Inspection of arms
Sabre exercise at a halt


8th LESSON.—Manual of arms in marching

 Sabre exercise at all gaits
Leaping
To leap the ditch
To leap the fence
Individual charge
Circling on the forehand and haunches and demi­pirouette
Target practice
Record and reports of target firing

SCHOOL 0F THE PLATOON, MOUNTED

ARTICLE 1.—General principles of alignment

Successive alignment of files in the platoon
Alignment of the platoon
To break the platoon by file, by twos, and by fours
Direct march in column by file, by twos, and by fours
Change of direction
To halt, and to commence the march, in column
Individual oblique march
The platoon marching in column by file, by twos, or by fours, to form line face to the front, to the left, and to the right
Manual of arms 

ARTICLE II.—To form twos and fours at the same gait

To break by twos and by file at the same gait
To form twos and fours in doubling the gait
To break by twos and by file in doubling the gait
Sabre exercise           

ARTICLE III.—Direct march of the platoon in line Countermarch

Wheelings
To wheel on a fixed pivot
To wheel on a movable pivot
Individual oblique march
The platoon marching in line to break it by twos or by fours at the same gait
The platoon marching in column by twos or by fours, to form it at the same gait
The platoon marching in line, to break it by fours or by twos, in doubling the gait
The platoon marching in column by twos or by fours, to form it in doubling the gait
Movements by fours, the platoon being in column or line


ARTICLE IV. Running at the heads and pistol practice

To leap the ditch and the fence
To charge by platoon
Rallying
Skirmishing
Prepare to fight on foot       

 
SCHOOL OF THE SQUADRON, MOUNTED


ARTICLE I.--Successive alignment of platoons in the squadron

Alignment of the squadron
The squadron being In line, to form a column of fours
To break the squadron to the right or left to march to the front
To break by fours from the right to march to the left
Direct march in column of fours
Change of direction
Individual oblique march
The squadron marching in column of fours to march to the rear
To break by fours to the right, column half left, (right or half right)
The squadron marching in column by fours, by twos, and by file, to form line faced to the front, to the left, to the right, or to the rear  
To regulate the rapidity of gaits   
Sabre exercises    


ARTICLE II—The squadron being in line, to form it in open column

To march in open column
Changes of direction by successive wheels
Individual oblique march
Change of gait in open column
To break by fours, by twos, and by file, to form twos, fours, and platoons at the same gait
The same movements in doubling the gait
The squadron marching in open column to marchto the rear.
To halt the column
The squadron marching in open column to form line faced to the left, to the right, to the front, and to the rear
To break by platoons to the front
To break by platoons to the rear from the right, to march to the left
Movement by fours, the squadron being in open column

ARTICLE III—Direct march of the squadron in line

Countermarch
Wheelings
To wheel on a fixed pivot
To wheel on a movable pivot
Individual oblique march
Oblique march by platoons
The squadron being in line, to cause it to gain ground to the rear, and to face it again to the front, by fours
The squadron marching in line to march it to the rear by wheeling the platoons about
The squadron marching is line, to break it to the front, by platoons, and to reform it
The same movement in doubling the gait Passage of obstacles

ARTICLE IV—The Charge Rallying

Skirmishing
To fight on foot

 

 

 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, by

 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.

in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the United States for

the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

 

  

                               War Department,

 

November 1, 1861.

 

THE system of Tactics and Regulations for the Cavalry of the United States, by Colonel PHILIP ST. Geo. Cooke, 2d Cavalry, having been approved by the President, is now published fur the government of said service.

Accordingly, instruction in the same will be given after the method pointed out therein; and all additions to or departures from the exercise and maneuvres laid down in the system are positively forbidden.

SIMON CAMERON,

Secretary of War.


 

INTRODUCTION.

 

To the Adjutant General U. S. Army:

I report that, in obedience to orders, I have pre­pared regulations for the instruction. formations, and movements of the cavalry of the army and volun­teers of the United States.

In undertaking this important work I wanted to give much consideration to a growing military im­pression in favor of an important change to a single rank formation.

Whilst the conservatism or prejudices of European establishments have slowly yielded, in the infantry arm, to the extent of reducing its formation from six to two ranks, the one great step from two to one rank in cavalry has not yet been made; but it was tested very successfully in the war in Portugal in 1833—’34 in a British legion. I found that it greatly simplified all cavalry movements; a great recommendation,— but especially in view of our national policy; it would go far toward lessening the difficulties, by many considered insuperable, of the efficient instruction of volunteer cavalry in a period of actual war.

Prejudices of my own against the change were overcome.

Adopting, then, the single rank formation, my work of revision became one of construction; and I have freely chosen what I judged to be the best points in the systems of France, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and England. I have added to all. The work will be found to amplify the old range of movements, whilst its simplicity renders it less vol­uminous.

In the decisive action of cavalry the rear rank, under another name, will be screened from much of the enemy’s fire; will be reserved from the confusion which even success throws into the front rank; but that rank defeated, it not only escapes being in­volved, but is close at hand to profit by the impres­sion which may have been made on the enemy.

My confidence in a single rank system is further strengthened by its recommendation in the able work of Captain Geo. B. McClellan, and by which I have been much assisted.

Respectfully,

P.ST. GEO. COOKE,

Colonel 2d Dragoons.

WASHINGTON, January 11, 1860.

 

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