Unique design, value for money, well-balanced driving characteristics
and outstanding space utilization are the key strengths of the
new Daewoo Kalos. But these are not the only reasons why the prospects
of success for the compact Korean are good: The car is being launched
into an expanding west European market segment. The small-car
or "B" segment grew from 1999 to 2001 alone by around
11 percent or 420,000 units. In 2001, some 4.3 million Europeans
decided to buy a vehicle of this class, and with nearly 27 percent
of the overall market, this is one of the biggest segments of
all. The current half-yearly figures also indicate continuing
Successful start on the domestic South Korean market
The reasons for this positive development are, according to market
research, firstly the generation change among large-volume models
and secondly the debut of a number of attractive new models that
have no direct predecessors. In Fall 2002, this latter group will
be extended by another highly promising candidate in the form
of the Kalos. In its South Korean domestic market, it has already
found many friends, with some 3,000 having been sold every month
since May. That is a truly outstanding result in a market that,
with just under 1.2 million new car registrations a year (2000),
is comparable in size to the Spanish market. And although the
South Koreans generally prefer notchback models, the attractive
hatchback has already captured half the sales of the Kalos notchback.
The Kalos is made in Bupyong, situated between Seoul and the port
Different target groups in northern and southern Europe
Smaller vehicles also play an important role in Daewoo's model
mix in South Korea: In the first few months of 2002, the smart
mini Matiz and the indirect predecessor of the Kalos, the Lanos,
together accounted for 49 percent of Daewoo's sales on its domestic
market. The two model ranges were even more successful in Europe,
where they achieved a formidable quota of 79 percent in the same
B-segment vehicles are bought very differently in Europe. Whereas
in the north they tend to be driven more by women as the second
in a two-car family, in the southern countries they are more often
bought by young families. These differences are also reflected
in the number of units sold: The biggest market in 2001 was Italy
with around 914,000 new registrations in this vehicle category,
followed by France (750,000), UK (675,000) and Germany (521,500).
Daewoo's marketing specialists expect the same sort of pattern
among the individual countries to be reflected in the sales of
the Kalos. The new model - on which Daewoo gives a warranty of
three years - is due to be launched in western Europe in September
2002 and will initially be available with the high-traction 1.4-liter
61 kW/83 hp gasoline engine in combination with a five-speed manual
gearbox. The new five-door car will be available in two versions,
the SE and SX, with a number of optional extras ranging from a
glass roof and air-conditioning to a high-quality audio unit with
Interview with Erhard L. (Hardy) Spranger, designated European
Chairman of GM Daewoo Auto & Technology Company
"Good Value for Money will Appeal to Smart Shoppers"
The launch of the Kalos almost coincides with the start of the
GM Daewoo Auto & Technology Company. We talked to its designated
European Executive in Charge, Erhard L. (Hardy) Spranger.
Question: Does the Kalos fit in with the future plans of the
Spranger: With its appealing, unmistakable exterior, the Kalos
is the ideal ambassador for a brand about to embark on a new career.
Its smaller brother, the Daewoo Matiz, with its smart and appealing
contours also designed by Italdesign, already provided a refreshing
alternative to the optical monotony of this vehicle class. Indeed,
striking design will continue to be one of Daewoo's key traits.
It will help us in our expansion strategy insofar as our cars
always tend to be eye-catchers out on the road and people see
them as a model family.
Question: What other core characteristics does the brand have?
Spranger: With our excellent value for money, we appeal to a
target group I would describe as "smart shoppers". These
people are not willing to pay premium surcharges without getting
tangible value in return. They don't necessarily have to keep
to a tight budget, but they are nevertheless looking for a comparatively
inexpensive, mature, safe and reliable product with high benefit
and a style and design that put it apart from the rest.
Question: The motives for General Motors to become involved in
the Korean manufacturer were to serve this section of the buying
public with a reliable brand and, in addition, to gain a foothold
on the important Asian market. Looking at it from the other side,
how will Daewoo benefit from the involvement of the American motor
Spranger: The potential is enormous. We are currently in the process
of working out the various possibilities. Making use of synergies
in marketing, especially in eastern Europe, and working together
in the technical sector with other European companies and partners
of General Motors are just two aspects. The fact that, thanks
to this involvement, Daewoo has a future again also has an enormous
motivating effect on the employees. In many talks I have had with
my Korean and European Daewoo colleagues, I have experienced a
very committed and dedicated attitude indeed, something I would
call "passion for the brand".
Question: You have already worked in Japan and Singapore for
Opel and General Motors. This must have been valuable experience
for you when it came to mediating between western and Asian management
cultures in your present position?
Spranger: Such experience is naturally helpful in day-to-day
business. But the differences in the way negotiations are handled
are no longer as enormous as people generally assume them to be.
Being an export-oriented company, Daewoo has been open to the
world for some time now. And the European design of our models
is being very well received on the domestic Korean market and
is an important identification feature there. This makes it easier
for us when we argue that the demands of the European markets
have to be given very special consideration in the development
of new models.
Erhard L. Spranger was born in Austria on November 11, 1942 and
studied Philosophy and Law at the Universities of Vienna and Geneva.
In 1963, he began his professional career at General Motors (GM)
as a sales promotion specialist. Spranger became familiar with
the Asian car markets and the Far Eastern mentality when he was
Director of Opel's sales operation in Tokyo, Japan, and Executive
Director Sales and Marketing at General Motors in Singapore. Since
May 2002, he has been head of the transition team establishing
the GM Daewoo Auto & Technology Company Europe in Zurich/Switzerland.
"Hardy" Spranger is married and has two grown-up children.
He is a passionate driver and in his spare time collects books
on Austrian history and occasionally plays tennis.
Design and aerodynamics -- Kalos Combines Harmonious
Proportions and Mediterranean Flair
· Modern European body lines stem from Italdesign
· Unusual lamps upgrade the front and rear
· Circular elements are a recurring feature in the interior
With its saucy, sporty style, the new Daewoo Kalos has injected
new verve and Mediterranean flair into the small-car category.
The striking design originated in the styling studios of Italdesign
in Turin. Daewoo is thus continuing its successful cooperation
with the famous team of Giorgetto Giugiaro that gave the modern
mini Matiz (1998) its unmistakable, southern Europe-inspired contours.
Giugiaro and the members of the Korean design center have continued
developing the finer details of the compact car from the first
public appearance of the Kalos as a concept vehicle at the Paris
Motor Show in fall 2000, through the prototype study at the Geneva
Motor Show in March 2002, to the final production model. The end
result is a picture of perfect harmony.
Stunning profile: Deep side groove and wide wheel arches
Extremely short overhangs (at the front, 81 cm, at the rear 49
cm), combined with the high roof line, the lower window edge rising
slightly to the rear, and the steeply angled back gives the Kalos
well-balanced harmonious proportions with excellent space utilization.
The wide, muscular wheel arches and the deep groove in the lower
area of the doors, which makes a dynamic downward kink in front
of the rear wheels, are other notable design features.
The additional, third small side window not only opens up new
perspectives for the rear passengers, it also optically loosens
up the rear section, making it look light and airy. In addition,
the extra piece of glass stretches the body slightly and creates
the impression of an even larger interior. This is reinforced
by the black glass borders which, viewed from the side, make you
think it is one continuous window area. The large rear window
also adds to the bright, friendly atmosphere inside, and the comparatively
large glass surface makes the rear part of the car look lighter.
This combination of high functionality and attractive design is
typical of the Daewoo Kalos.
The two rugged bumpers, like the side sills, are sprayed in the
same color as the bodywork. Body-colored exterior mirrors are
available as an option.. If desired, the sporty appearance can
be further enhanced with attractively designed light alloy wheels
and a roof spoiler at the back. Stylish metallic finishes are
available for the Kalos SX.
Striking front features: Headlamps in a clear-glass look
The novel lighting technology of the Kalos is another eye-catching
feature. The front headlamps are designed in a clear-glass look,
with the horizontal indicator lamps placed like eyelids under
the same cover. Another striking trait of the front of the car
is the way the bumper and the chrome grille blend harmoniously
into the engine hood.
The rear lights have an unusual hexagonal form and are geometrically
clearly divided into the brake and tail lamps (red) and the indicators
and reverse light (white). The number plate is positioned in the
tailgate between the two lamps and, with its rectangular form,
creates an attractive contrast with the obliquely designed rear
Aerodynamic qualities: Favorable drag coefficient of 0.35
Daewoo's newcomer has a low drag coefficient of 0.35. In combination
with the fairly large frontal area for this vehicle category of
2.16 m² - due to the height of the vehicle and the resultant
large amount of headroom inside - the resultant air resistance
is equivalent to 0.74 m². Many minor modifications were made
in the wind tunnel to optimize the flow pattern on the outer skin
of the car, and the use of an inclined roof antenna instead of
a rod antenna, for example, contributes - as do the flat door
handles - to the good aerodynamic properties.
Friendly atmosphere: Circular forms and fresh fabric designs
in the interior
The Kalos also presents a modern and attractive appearance inside.
In the SX version, the anthracite-colored center console is set
off effectively from the friendly light grey of the dashboard,
and the instrument binnacle and the steering wheel have both also
been designed in this dark, stylish tone. Two ventilator rosettes
on the top of the center console are another striking style element.
Their circular form is repeated in the side air vents, the cockpit
displays and the door openers.
The interior designers have stuck to this circular pattern in
the fabric liners on the four doors. Carbon fiber-like ornamentations
in the edgings around the power-window switches, for example,
accentuate the elegant appearance in the SX version. The basic
SE model, too, looks very stylish in its fresh, easy-care fabric
Interview with Giorgetto Giugiaro, founder and Chairman of
"We Wanted to Tread New Paths in Terms of Design"
Not only the sleek exterior lines of the Kalos bodywork but also
the car's interior were designed by the Italian company, Italdesign.
We talked to the founder of Italdesign, Giorgetto Giugiaro, about
the company's cooperation with the Daewoo Design Center and about
the youngest model to come from the Korean manufacturer.
Question: You have been working with Daewoo for seven years now.
What do you feel for the name? How do you see it?
Giugiaro: In my view, Daewoo is an ambitious marque about to
leap into a new future. It has an attractive model range and the
courage to reestablish itself on the European market.
Question: Compared with other vehicles in its sector, the Kalos
is a very striking car. Why this emphasis on individual design?
Giugiaro: When we designed it, we set out to produce an alternative
to conventional lines and tread new paths in terms of design.
We had already successfully pursued this concept in the Matiz,
which was also designed by us and is quite exceptional for this
class of vehicle. It was therefore perfectly natural that we should
want to go for an unmistakable design again. In any case, the
Daewoo specs also called for individuality in terms of design.
Question: What is it in particular that gives the Kalos its Mediterranean
Giugiaro: It is not the individual details but its overall appearance,
its clear-cut contours. The Kalos has simple but powerful lines
and, due to the short overhangs, boasts particularly harmonious
proportions. It just has that 'certain something'.
Question: Which design features of the car's exterior are you
particularly proud of?
Giugiaro: The form of the body is unique because the car is relatively
short but at the same time much higher than is normal for its
class. Due to these proportions, the Kalos looks particularly
impressive. One of the typical design features is the third side
window, which makes the car look lighter, airier and longer. The
front headlamps with the indicators underneath are also an unusual
Question: And what about the design highlights inside?
Giugiaro: We make frequent use of circular elements, for example
in the inside door openers, the layout of the door liners and
the instrument covers. In this respect, we have carried on the
design language we incorporated in the Matiz.
Giorgetto Giugiaro was born on August 7, 1938 in Garessio/Italy.
Dante Giacosa, the legendary chief engineer at Fiat, discovered
his gift for auto design in 1955 and gave him a job. After spending
periods at Nuccio Bertone (1959 - 1965) and Ghia (1965 - 1967),
Giugiaro set up the company Italdesign in February 1968. Giugiaro
and his team have to date designed more than 100 production cars,
of which a total of 40 million units have so far been made. The
contact with Daewoo came about in February 1994. The Lanos, launched
in Europe in 1997, was the first Daewoo model to be designed by
the famous Italian styling experts, but the enormous creative
potential of the cooperation was demonstrated two years earlier
in 1995 when the sporty Bucrane concept car was shown at the Geneva
Motor Show: the coupe with removable wing doors was designed by
Italdesign, with the engineering based on Daewoo components.
Giorgetto Giugiaro is married and has two children, Fabrizio
and Laura. They have both inherited their father's talents: he
works as a styling director at Italdesign, while Laura is the
Managing Director of Giugiaro-Design, a branch of the company
specializing in industrial design.
Interior and equipment
Compact Kalos: Spacious and Smartly Furnished
· Outstanding amount of space and plenty of headroom for
· Flexible trunk space with capacity of up to 735 liters
· Plenty of stowage room and stacks of features for day-to-day
Although the design team's brief for the Kalos of achieving compactness
in terms of the exterior dimensions but plenty of space in the
passenger compartment would seem to be contradictory, the new
Daewoo, with its unusual vehicle format and efficient use of space,
has shown that this is indeed possible. It has four doors as standard
and a large tailgate that allow easy access to the car's interior
and trunk. A large number of well thought-out details, ranging
from Isofix child seat anchorages to the practical holder for
toll tickets in the instrument panel, are just two of the things
that make life that little bit easier in day-to-day use. The range
of standard features in both model versions is extensive. In addition,
there are a number of attractive optional extras like the electrically
operated glass roof, air-conditioning and a 5-disc CD changer.
Inside: More than average head and legroom
With its exterior length of just 3.88 meters and small turning
circle diameter of 9.78 meters, it is easy to guide the Kalos
into the tightest parking space. Yet because of its unusual, almost
van-like height (1,495 millimeters) and one of the longest wheelbases
in its class (2,480 millimeters), there is still plenty of space
inside the five-seater. The headroom of 955 millimeters is unmatched
in this segment. This is also true of the legroom in the rear,
where it boasts a best-of-class figure of 900 millimeters.
Apart from the above-average amount of space, the seats are well
padded around the thigh area so that the occupants can travel
long distances in comfort. The angle of the steering wheel can
be adjusted (standard feature), and together with the height-adjustable
seat, drivers of different height and build will all find an ergonomic
driving position behind the steering wheel. The seat is raised
slightly at the front to give the driver a better view of the
traffic. The outside mirrors - optionally heated - can be adjusted
Safe seats: Three-point seat belts, simple Isofix fitting
for child seats
All five seats in the Kalos are fitted with three-point seat
belts - a feature that cannot necessarily be taken for granted
in this vehicle class. Attaching a child seat on the rear bench
is, thanks to the outstandingly simple Isofix system, nothing
short of child's play. There are small zip fasteners placed at
the back of the bench on the outside rear seats which open up
to reveal the anchorages for the Isofix seat.
Useful shelves and trays: Nifty ideas for parking tickets
Bigger children and adults will gain great pleasure from the
practical picnic tray that can be flipped open from the rear of
the passenger seat in the SX version. This makes it easier to
take a small snack during the journey, or perhaps keep a book
ready to hand. There are hooks on the front headrests, on which
small shopping bags can be safely attached. Basically, there is
no shortage of shelves and trays: The ticket holder on the very
left of the dashboard is another of Daewoo's practical ideas,
as it is very handy indeed for putting toll tickets, parking tickets
or credit cards in without having to stop and search for somewhere
to put them.
Drink cans and cups are well looked after in the retractable
cup holders in the center console or in the recess at the end
of the center tunnel. More stowage space is available in the large
compartments in the front doors, the glove box, the open tray
below the radio and pockets in the back of the front seats.
Variable trunk space: Up to 735 liters capacity
It is not just odds and ends that can be accommodated in the
compact Kalos; thanks to its outstanding variability, it can also
accommodate bulky goods like a piece of furniture or sports equipment.
The rear-seat backrest can be split in the ratio of 60/40 and
folded back (standard). If more room is needed, the whole bench
can be easily lifted up and attached behind the front seats to
the passenger headrest by means of a special belt. The load space
is then a mighty 735 liters (VDA standard). With all the seats
and the parcel shelf in place, the luggage compartment has a capacity
of 175 liters. With a maximum payload of 495 kg, the compact Korean's
carrying qualities really come into their own.
The actual loading and unloading operation is made easier by
the high-opening tailgate, and a grip on the inside makes it easier
to close without getting your fingers dirty. The illuminated trunk
is completely carpeted. The inflatable spare tire is accommodated
under the trunk cover, and the Daewoo designers have taken care
to make the recess big enough to accommodate the original wheel
in the event of a puncture.
Plenty of features: Power windows standard at front
The Kalos SE and SX are the two models to be launched by Daewoo
in Western Europe. The entry-level SE comes with a wide variety
of creature comforts and practical details as standard, including
the angle-adjustable steering wheel, power steering, power windows
at the front, tinted windscreen, windscreen wiper at the back
and RDS cassette radio with four speakers.
Safety features like the driver and passenger airbags, three-point
seat belts throughout and the Isofix children's seat attachment
are also standard. The Kalos 1.4 SX has, in addition, fog lamps
at the front, electric windows in the rear, central locking, height-adjustable
driver seat, dipping rear view mirror and the nifty picnic table
on the back of the passenger seat.
Anyone wishing to up the already high safety standard even further
can order the Kalos SE with four-channel ABS and side airbags.
These options are not restricted to the SX, but are available
for both versions. The same also applies to the air-conditioner
and passenger compartment air filter, light alloy wheels, roof
spoiler at the back, electrically operated glass roof, remote
central locking with theft protection and 5-disc CD changer with
Body and safety, powertrain and chassis -- Kalos Offers
High Safety Level with Good Driving Characteristics
· Crash-optimized body structure and sophisticated restraint
· Wide-ranging measures for noise and vibration damping
· Optional: even more effective deceleration with four
channel ABS brake unit
With the launch of the Kalos, Daewoo is not only entering a new
era in its company history, it is also moving into a new phase
from the technical point of view, because this compact hatchback
boasts a number of features that have so far been the preserve
of a higher vehicle category. They include wide-ranging acoustic
and vibration-damping measures and an exemplary range of equipment
that includes three-point safety belts for all five seats. The
modern 1.4-liter gasoline engine, with which the Kalos will be
starting out on its European career, makes for relaxed driving
due to its good tractive power. The engine's temperament harmonizes
perfectly with the agile, comfortable drive characteristics of
the chassis - a chassis that has been specially adapted to European
Safety: Stable body with modern protective features
A head-on collision is the most common type of accident of all,
which is why the Daewoo engineers paid a great deal of attention
to the front structure of the Kalos. A stable, welded steel auxiliary
frame serves as an additional load dissipater at the front and
diverts the impact energy directly to the floor assembly. This
made it possible, in combination with the very rigid passenger
cell and special deformation zones, to significantly improve the
impact safety despite the short front section.
For effective protection in the event of a side-on crash, special
steel tubes have been integrated in all four doors to provide
a stable barrier and prevent anything penetrating the interior.
The reinforced connection between the floor assembly and the B-pillars
also diminishes the consequences of such an accident. It goes
without saying that the rear section of the Korean newcomer has
been crash-optimized, too.
A driver airbag with a gas volume of 60 liters, as well as a 120-liter
passenger airbag are standard. The comprehensive safety equipment
for both model versions can be optionally extended by side airbags
at the front, each with 21 liters. All the seats are fitted with
three-point safety belts, with the one in the middle at the back
featuring an elaborate construction: the roll-up device is positioned
on the left on the C-pillar, from where the belt passes through
a plastic guide on top of the rear-seat backrest to two belt buckles
at pelvis level on the right and left. The safety package is rounded
off by the head restraints and the Isofix child seat fixtures.
Cultivated powertrain: Superb traction, low noise
With its high-traction 1.4-liter four-cylinder gasoline engine
and standard five-speed gearbox, the Daewoo Kalos is certainly
not lacking in temperament. The unit is a member of the so-called
E-Tec engine family and has a capacity of exactly 1,399 cm³.
The 61 kW/83 hp powertrain takes the front-wheel drive Kalos to
a top speed of 170 km/h, taking 13.3 sec to cover the standard
sprint from 0 to 100 km/h. The new Korean weighs in at approx.
1,000 kg, and with so much power in reserve it stays completely
relaxed even on longer journeys.
In addition to this harmonious development of power - the maximum
torque of 123 Nm is available at just 3,000 rpm - the Daewoo development
team was particularly keen to attain good noise and vibration
The Kalos unit complies with the Euro 3 emissions standard. In
the MVEG cycle, it consumes 6.5 liters of super grade fuel over
100 kilometers in out-of-town conditions, and has an overall average
of 7.5 liters. In combination with the 45-liter tank, this gives
the car a considerable range of 600 kilometers.
Reliable partner: True-to-line chassis and effective brakes
The modern wheel suspension of the new Kalos - at the front,
individually on McPherson struts, at the rear, on a torsion beam
axle - and the sophisticated chassis geometry with its comparably
long wheelbase and wide track, make for an optimum combination
of driving safety and comfort. The Daewoo engineers designed the
chassis specifically for European conditions on the prooving ground
of MIRA (Motor Industry Research Association) in the UK, and long-term
testing throughout Europe confirmed that the selected setup was
On the front axle, ventilated disc brakes with a diameter of
236 millimeters slow down the Kalos effectively and without any
fading effect. At the rear, 200-millimeter drum brakes are used.
A four-channel ABS system with electronic brake power distribution
is available as an optional extra for both variants, and this
enhances the active safety still further. The Kalos SE is fitted
with 155/80 R 13 tires, while the SX version has 175/70 R 13 as
standard. 185/60 R 14 tires are an option.
The transmission for the rack-and-pinion steering is mounted
on the front auxiliary frame, which improves steering precision.
In addition, the Kalos comes with a hydraulic servo unit as standard.
The power-assisted steering system is speed-dependent and thus
offers the driver both comfort and maximum steering accuracy.
At low speed, when parking for example, the steering force is
very low, making the car easy to maneuver. As the speed increases,
the influence of the power steering declines, enabling very accurate
steering when driving out on the road.
Interview with Chang-Sun Yoo, Chief Daewoo Engineer
"Very High Comfort Thanks to Efficient Noise Damping"
Some 300 engineers and technicians were involved in the development
of the new Daewoo Kalos. The Bupyong research and development
center is situated to the west of the South Korean capital of
Seoul. We talked to Chief Engineer, Chang-Sun Yoo, about the aims
and objectives in designing the new model, and also asked him
about the stringent testing and the particular specs for the European
Question: What was the main focus in developing the Daewoo Kalos?
Yoo: One of the main aims was to set a new standard in this vehicle
class in the so-called NVH range (Noise, Vibration and Harshness),
in other words to achieve a very high level of comfort through
optimum noise and vibration damping. Even before the prototype
stage we therefore optimized the engine suspension and intake
system and laid down a comprehensive package of damping and insulating
Question: Are there any technical qualities of which you are particularly
Yoo: Among other things, the driving characteristics and the
excellent handling. In the chassis area, we have made significant
progress here with the modified front cross member and the torsion
beam axle. Another strength of the Kalos is its packaging - despite
its compact exterior dimensions, it offers a very spacious passenger
compartment. And, as I have already mentioned, we are proud of
the reduced engine and wind noise and the improved sound quality.
Question: What role did the particular requirements of the European
markets play in the development of the Kalos?
Yoo: The striking contours of the Kalos are of European origin
and stem from Italdesign. According to our market research, this
goes down particularly well with customers in Europe. With features
like side airbags, three-point safety belts on all seats, air-conditioning,
heated exterior mirrors and split rear seat back, we have also
complied with many of the specific wishes put forward by this
group of buyers. Finally, the Kalos had to prove itself on test
sites throughout Europe and overseas where it had to cope with
a wide variety of climatic conditions and driving cycles.
Question: Can you give us some details of the testing procedures?
Yoo: In total, the 119 prototypes subjected to long-term testing
covered nearly 2.2 million kilometers. The fine tuning of the
chassis for the European versions was done in the UK. The vehicles
underwent further testing outside South Korea on test sites in
Arjeplog/Sweden, Granada/Spain, Idiada/Spain, Kapuskasing/Canada
and Peking/China. We also ran, of course, a thorough program of
safety and crash tests. In these realistic accident simulations,
we crashed 31 prototypes and 39 pilot production cars for the
benefit of our customers!
Chang-Sun Yoo was born on September 15, 1954, in Ilsan, Province
Kyungki-Do, South Korea. After completing his studies in Precision
Mechanical Engineering at Hanyang University in Seoul, he joined
Daewoo Motor Company in 1979. Since 1996, he has been chief engineer
of various vehicle lines and in this function responsible for
the development of the new Kalos. C.S. Yoo is married and has
two sons. His hobbies include fishing and stamp collecting.
Company and sales -- New Era has Begun for Carmaker Daewoo